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An Independent Study Guide to
First published in 1978 and now thoroughly revised, Reading Greek is a best-selling oneyear introductory course in ancient Greek for students of any age. It combines the best of modern and traditional language-learning techniques and is used in schools, summer schools and universities across the world. This Independent Study Guide is intended to help students who are learning Greek on their own or with only limited access to a teacher. It contains notes on the texts that appear in the Text and Vocabulary volume, translations of all the texts, answers to the exercises in the Grammar and Exercises volume and crossreferences to the relevant fifth-century background in The World of Athens. There are instructions on how to use the course and the Study Guide. The book will also be useful to students in schools, universities and summer schools who have to learn Greek rapidly.
THE JOINT ASSOCIATION OF CLASSICAL TEACHERS’ GREEK COURSE
An Independent Study Guide to
New York.cambridge. Madrid. First published in print format 2008 ISBN-13 978-0-511-39356-3 ISBN-13 978-0-521-69850-4 eBook (EBL) paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication. no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.org Information on this title: www. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements. São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building. and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is. . New York www.cambridge. Cambridge CB2 8RU. Melbourne. UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press.org/9780521698504 © The Joint Association of Classical Teachers’ Greek Course 1995.CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge. Singapore. accurate or appropriate. or will remain. 2008 This publication is in copyright. Cape Town.
state and individuals Section Seventeen: Private justice: trouble down at the farm Section Eighteen: How Zeus gave justice to men Section Nineteen: The story of Adrastos Section Twenty: Odysseus and Nausikaa page vi vii ix xi 1 3 20 30 42 57 71 84 101 113 137 149 158 180 200 208 211 225 239 246 255 v .Contents Authors’ note Author’s note on the revised edition Preface Abbreviations used in the text Grammatical Introduction Section One: The insurance scam Section Two: The glorious past Section Three: Athens and Sparta Section Four: Lawlessness in Athenian life Section Five: ‘Socrates corrupts the young’ Section Six Section Seven: Socrates and intellectual inquiry Section Eight: Aristophanes’ Birds Section Nine: Aristophanes’ Wasps Section Ten: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata Section Eleven: Aristophanes’ Akharnians Section Twelve: Neaira as slave Section Thirteen: Neaira as married woman Section Fourteen: Guarding a woman’s purity Section Fifteen: Alkestis in Euripides’ play Section Sixteen: Ofﬁcial justice: ships.
In particular they would like to thank Professor Malcolm Willcock who has saved them from innumerable errors by his meticulous proof-reading of the trial stages. The authors would like to express their gratitude for the helpful comments they have received from those who have used the Independent Study Guide in its trial stages. They are also very grateful to him and to Professor Eric Handley for reading the page-proofs and to the copy-editor Susan Moore for all her skilled assistance. It is intended primarily for those who are learning Greek on their own. However we hope that it may also prove useful to pupils in schools. and from those fellow teachers who have read it with a critical eye. or with only limited access to a teacher.Authors’ note This study guide has been written by members of the JACT Greek Committee for use by those who are using the JACT course Reading Greek published by the Cambridge University Press. universities and summer schools who have to learn Greek rapidly and intensively. Jeannie Cohen Carol Handley James Morwood James Neville vi .
in spite of the fact that much of the grammatical material in them is also explained in the new Grammar and Exercises volume of Reading Greek. I am extremely grateful to Anthony Bowen for his meticulous proof-reading and numerous suggested improvements. which gives the reader very much more information about the grammar and syntax of Greek and has added a great many more exercises to help consolidate learning and understanding. The notes to help with the passages in Reading Greek Text are largely unchanged.Author’s note on the revised edition A new edition of Reading Greek has been prepared. Carol Handley vii . It was felt that different learners ﬁnd different forms of explanations helpful. This revised edition of the Independent Study Guide contains answers to all the new exercises and all references are to the new edition of Reading Greek. and so it is hoped that some duplication may prove to be an advantage rather than an irritant.
4. They are designed to help you with the reading and to amplify the explanation of the grammar in GE. Then you do the exercises for the section to make sure that you have understood the grammar. You may also like to have The World of Athens (second edition 2008). RGT and GE. as it is an important check on your grasp of the section. 2. You read the passage in RGT with the aid of the running vocabulary for the section. Then you learn the grammar and the lists of ‘vocabulary to be learnt’ in GE. so that you get immediate practice in a new feature of language. and will also allow you to check whether you have got everything right. and a key to the exercises in GE. translations of the text. It is not essential to do all the exercises on morphology and syntax. 3. but they will help you to practise the language and to make sure that you understand the grammar. The Independent Study Guide (ISG) contains notes on translating the text of RGT.Preface How to use this course You have three books: Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary (RGT) Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises (GE) Independent Study Guide to Reading Greek (ISG) In addition there is a CD Speaking Greek which illustrates pronunciation. The notes will give you some general advice at the start of a new section and some additional help as you read the text. The ﬁrst two books. Then you look at the explanations of the grammar in GE. they will refer you to relevant pages and paragraphs in GE and in RGT. You may want to do each section of the exercises as you study the grammar in GE. However. were designed to be used together so that 1. Since the ix . you should always do the ﬁnal ‘Test Exercise’ in each section. The translations of the text and the exercises will help you if you get stuck. which gives you background information about Athenian history and life. and records readings from passages in RGT.
ISG assumes that you will be using the ﬁrst procedure. You will be surprised at how much more you remember if you do this. It is always a good idea to re-read the text of a section after you have ﬁnished it.x Preface translations are there to help you to understand the Greek. and then ﬁnd out how they work. . Some people prefer to look at the explanations of the grammar in a new section before they embark on reading the text. or whether you like to look at a new pattern of grammar and then see how it is used in the text. In the ﬁrst section. but it will work just as well if you prefer the second. they are literal rather than elegant in style. It will also help you to absorb more of the very varied vocabulary which is used in Reading Greek to provide a greater range of interest and a wider experience of the language from an early stage. It is a matter of personal choice whether you prefer to look out for new forms in reading.
Abbreviations used in the text ISG RGT GE WA = The Independent Study Guide = Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary = Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises = The World of Athens References with no preﬁx are to the text of this ISG. giving chapter and paragraph numbers. xi .
More recently it has been fashionable to keep to a spelling that is closer to the original Greek. as well as a description of the basic terms used to describe the grammar (GE pp. For centuries it was common practice in English usage to turn all Greek spellings into their Latin equivalents. ‘The sounds of Greek’. have become so much part of our English heritage that they look strange and unfamiliar in their ‘Greek’ form. Exercise 2 The words in their Greek form (without accents) are: drama panthēr δραμα πανθηρ comma cōlon κομμα κωλον 1 . Editors therefore have to make a decision whether to be consistently ‘Latin’ or consistently ‘Greek’. this is not straightforward. Reading and writing Look at the alphabet and the pronunciation guide in GE pages 1–3. 3.Grammatical Introduction In the Introduction to Grammar and Exercises you will ﬁnd the Greek alphabet and a guide to pronunciation (GE pp. 1–3). 4–7 #1–7). but ‘Akhilleus’ comes as a shock. E. but the difﬁculty with this practice is that some words and names. The latter course has been followed in this book. or whether to keep the familiar words in their ‘Latin’ form while treating the less familiar words in a ‘Greek’ way. Exercise 1 Try the exercise on the alphabet on GE p.g. In their English form the words will be: Byzantium (Busdantion) Dicaeopolis or Dikaiopolis Euboea or Euboia Zenothemis or Sdenothemis Hegestratus or Hegestratos Parthenon Chios (Khios) acropolis (akropolis) emporium (emporion) As you see. we all recognise ‘Achilles’. in particular. at the same time. If you have the Speaking Greek CD it is very helpful to listen to the ﬁrst section.
ἡ γυνὴ is the subject. ὁ Ζηνόθεμις is the subject. However. τὸν Ἡγέστρατον is the object. #340–406) and in Part C Language Surveys (GE pp. #408–454). . 6–7. You will have to train yourself consciously to notice the endings. #7) 1.2 Grammatical introduction crocus geranium hippopotamus ibis asbestos charactēr scēnē Periclēs Sophoclēs Euripidēs *Hippocratēs κροκος γερανιον ἱπποποταμος ἰβις ἀσβεστος χαρακτηρ σκηνη Περικλης Σοφοκλης Εὐριπιδης Ἱπποκρατης Sōcratēs Zeus Artemis *Hēraclēs asthma dyspepsia cinēma orchēstra mēlon iris Σωκρατης Ζευς Ἀρτεμις Ἡρακλης ἀσθμα δυσπεψια κινημα ὀρχηστρα μηλον ἰρις Case: Subject and object (pp. 3. ὁ Ἡγέστρατος is the subject. 2. Hegestratos as subject will be Hegestratos as object will be Zenothemis as subject will be ὁ Ἡγέστρατος τὸν Ἡγέστρατον ὁ Ζηνόθεμις When you have studied the Grammatical introduction you will be aware that in reading Greek it is necessary to learn not only to interpret the new script. τοὺς ναύτας is the object. or you will ﬁnd that you are making avoidable mistakes in understanding Greek. 369–463. but also to look closely at the endings of words. You will ﬁnd more information about the Greek language in Part B of GE in the Reference Grammar (GE pp. This is something which we do not need to do in English. and you should certainly not try to absorb it all at this stage. 465–495. τὸν Ζηνόθεμιν is the object. most of this will be of future interest.
Replay the ﬁrst paragraph (lines 1–7). And in Euboea. This is because in Greek (as in Latin) case-endings. Grammar 1. Translation for 1A (ll. the ship sails to Athens and the Piraeus. with the aid of the running vocabulary on p.g. In Chios. Greek. does not always have the same word order as English. read the English introduction at the beginning of Section 1A. 8–12.g. Then try working out the translation of that ﬁrst paragraph. 6). 1–7) The ship is in Byzantium. It should help you to get used to the script and the sound of the language.Section One: The insurance scam Section 1A–G 1A Speaking Greek CD First. And in Byzantium. If you think you would prefer to ﬁnd out about the grammar and how it works before you start reading. If you are uncertain. You will ﬁnd that several complete phrases are listed (e. determine the functions of words in the sentence – the subject and object. #8–11. Then the ship sails to Euboea. Hegestratos goes into the ship. 5. Now listen to the whole of Section 1A as read on the Speaking Greek CD. This procedure is recommended for the whole of Section 1. The ship sails to Chios. ἐν Βυζαντίῳ) and that all the nouns appear with their articles (e. as you see. then Sdenothemis goes into the ship. then look at GE pp. pausing at the end of every sentence and repeating the Greek aloud. not word order. Dikaiopolis gets on board. ὁ κυβερνήτης).) 3 . 4–7. and ﬁnally the captain and the sailors go into the ship. and the Grammar for Section 1A–B #8–11. the rhapsode boards. please see the Grammatical introduction GE 1–7 pp. Finally. (If these terms are not familiar to you. check with the translation suggested below. You will ﬁnd the answers to the exercises in this volume after our grammar and notes on 1A and 1B (p. NB.
τὸν Πειραιᾶ). Notice that Greek often includes a τε and καί to form a closely linked pair. but τό in the above table. The preposition ἐν (‘in’) is followed by the dative (ἐν Χίῳ. 5. to omit the ‘both’. and it may seem more natural. ἐν Eὐβοίᾳ). listen to Section 1B on the CD. before trying to translate it. They can be tabulated as follows: Plural ἡ τήν τό τό οἱ (τούς) αἱ τάς (τά) (τά) Singular Nominative ὁ Accusative τόν (You may be puzzled by the change in accent. Translation for 1A (ll. An acute accent on the last syllable usually changes to a grave when it is followed by another word. then the (ν) is added. she. Suddenly. 8–14) (continued) 3. it means (literally) ‘both … and’. Then both Dikaiopolis and the captain look towards the land. Grammar 1. It is a printing convention to change this grave back to an acute when the word is printed in isolation with no word following it. or is the last word in a clause. when translating. . Notice again the ﬂexibility of Greek word order: you will ﬁnd that it is essential to concentrate upon word-endings and not word order to determine the structure. If the -ουσι or -ῶσι ending is followed by a word beginning with a vowel. So the ship sails.) Note also the change in verb-ending between βαίνει (line 2) and εἰσβαίνουσιν (line 3): βαίνει is 3rd person singular (‘he. 1B Using the same method as that recommended for Section 1A. 4. though in English this often seems strained. βαίνουσι(ν) is 3rd person plural (‘they go’). What does Sdenothemis see? Sdenothemis sees the acropolis and the Parthenon. and Sdenothemis looks towards the land. Notice the various different forms of the deﬁnite article. 13). 2. using the same method. Now move on to the second paragraph of 1A.4 Section 1B 2. 3. Then read it to yourself. Note slight variation in the verb-ending -ῶσι(ν) in ὁρῶσι(ν) (lines 11. Dikaiopolis and the captain hear a noise. The preposition πρός (‘towards’) in line 6 is followed by the accusative case (τὰς Ἀθήνας. So you will see τὸ πλοῖον in the text. it goes’). What do Dikaiopolis and the captain see? Dikaiopolis and the captain see the acropolis and the Parthenon.
No. how beautiful is the dockyard. Dikaiopolis. The other endings. Thus ὁ ψόϕος = ‘the noise’. and [how] beautiful the Piraeus. 19–20. For I see the acropolis. Sdenothemis. 14. #12): the regular the variant -ω -ῶ -εις -ᾷς -ει -ᾷ -oμεν -ῶμεν -ετε -ᾶτε -ουσι(ν) -ῶσι(ν) Learn the regular ones ﬁrst. by Zeus. οὐ is used with statements. but ψόϕος = ‘a noise’. Now I too can see the acropolis. 15 μὴ ϕρόντιζε ‘Don’t worry!’ μὴ is the negative used with imperatives. Here the other person-endings of the present tense are introduced. Cf. C A P T A I N You are right. Yes. (Lit. captain. are set out fully in GE pp. . SDΕN. The ship is at Byzantium.Section 1B 5 Notice that in Greek a semicolon is used as a question mark.) Listen! A noise. captain. CAPT. Thus. which are logical variants. ‘also’ or ‘even’. ‘He doesn’t worry’ would be οὐ ϕροντίζει. So you and I hear the noise. SDEN. 12 There is no indeﬁnite article (‘a’. Often here it is used in phrases like ‘I too’. Can you also see the acropolis? DIKAIOPOLIS Where is the acropolis? For I cannot see the acropolis. 9) The rhapsode goes. Sdenothemis? SDEN. I too hear the noise again. or ‘you too’. only the absence of the deﬁnite article. DIK. ‘Can you too see the Acropolis?’ καί means ‘also’ and σύ emphasises you. #23–25 and are explained in 1E–F. EXERCISES Translate the following sentences: (p. Note the pattern of endings (GE p. Ο Zeus! How beautiful is the Parthenon. Note that καί can mean ‘and’. Page 6 3 ἆρα καὶ σὺ τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ὁρᾷς. You are right. Sdenothemis. and look. For again I hear the noise. You speak the truth. Do you hear? What is the noise? Do you also hear the noise. Don’t worry. Yes. SDEN. Do you also see the dockyard? CAPT. ‘an’) in Greek. SDENOTHEMIS Grammar Verbs. Do you not see the Parthenon? DIK. I hear nothing. But come over here and look. Ο Zeus. Come over here and look. Hey! A noise. Translation for 1B Come over here. For I see the dockyard and the Piraeus. and [how] beautiful [is] the acropolis. line 11 ὁρῶ καὶ ἐγώ. The sailors see the land and the rhapsode. clearly.
10.. 5. 8. genitive. acc. accusative.. Unless you are planning to learn to use all accents. plural EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1A–B 1A–B: 1 the city the king the old men the triremes of [the] democracy for [the] Homer of the atoms by the skills 1. skeleton masc. nom. ὁ καλὸς κυβερνήτης τὸ καλὸν πλοῖον τοῦ καλοῦ ἔργου τὰς καλὰς Ἀθήνας τοῖς καλοῖς ἀνθρώποις 6. plural feminine. accusative. 1C Now you will have more practice with the different persons of the verb. sponges neut. masters fem. sing. plural feminine. sing. nom. 8. nominative.. tragedy ADJECTIVES 1A–B: 2 1. sing. pl. 2. dative. singular masculine. heads fem. dat. gen. democracy neut. 4. gen. pl. singular m. 10. Go on reading and listening to the CD. singular masculine. gasping masc. 9. pl. τὴν καλὴν ἀκρόπολιν τὸν καλὸν Παρθενῶνα ταῖς καλαῖς βοαῖς τῷ καλῷ πλοίῳ τῇ καλῇ ἀκροπόλει Note that the accent on καλός has changed from acute in the table to grave καλὸς in the exercise. nerve. stage fem. breathing. 3. f. acc. acc. 9. . plural feminine.6 Section 1C Practice (p. sing. gen. 3. pl. singular masculine. 7. accusative. #42). dat. dative. sinew masc. nom. 7. 5. eyes 6. or n. genitive. This is because an acute accent on the last syllable of a word changes to grave when it is followed by another word (unless that word is an enclitic GE p. sing. fem. neut. you need not remember this. nom/acc. sing. 2. 30. 10) feminine. 4.
’ For we hear the noise clearly. διὰ τί. 3 Similarly notice that τὸν ‘Hγέστρατον is brought forward for emphasis. Hegestratos is making the noise below. For I see – Grammar In this section you met the remaining person-endings: 2nd person plural: βαίνετε (14) and imperative plural: ϕροντίζετε (1). so it is brought forward to the beginning of the phrase. The same sufﬁx -θεν as in πόθεν appears in κάτωθεν ‘from below’. #24).rather than an -α-. how beautiful are the merchant ships. SDEN. Hegestratos? What [is] the noise? . The only way we can express this emphasis in English is to say something like ‘It is Hegestratos whom …’ 8 τί with an accent means ‘what?’. Dikaiopolis – Where are you going? Where are you going? Why don’t you stay. literally ‘on account of what?’. Translation for 1C SDENOTHEMIS CAPTAIN SDEN. over here. CΑΡΤ. friends? Don’t worry. Don’t worry. Listen. Do you also see the markets? AND DIKAIOPOLIS We also see them.Section 1D 7 Notice the words for ‘where from’ πόθεν and ‘where to’ πoῖ. Dikaiopolis. Page 10 1 καταβαίνει μὲν …. friends. and don’t say ‘How beautiful are the markets. friends. and down go both Dikaiopolis and the sailors. So what? Ο Poseidon. CΑΡΤ. καταβαίνουσι δὲ … Notice the word order. I do not hear [it]. CAPTAIN Hey. Why don’t we go down? Come on. And below. For I see the markets and the merchant ships. But where is the noise [coming] from? From below. The verb is particularly important here. You should have no difﬁculty in recognising the person from the ending (GE p. 20. For the noise [is] from below. Sdenothemis. 1D In this section you will meet another contracted verb. one with an -ε. you! What are you doing? But what are you doing. it is Hegestratos that the captain and the sailors see. how beautiful are the markets. But come over here and look. but τι without an accent (see line 13) means ‘something’. means ‘why?’ Translation for 1D So down goes the captain. DIK. But look over here.
not me.) .8 Exercises for section 1C–D I am not doing anything. 3.)are going down you (pl. CAPT. For Hegestratos has an axe in his right hand. 8. What have you in your right hand. 2. e. 4. and I’m throwing myself out of the ship. Ο Zeus! For Hegestratos is not telling the truth. 7.) are going/ go! (pl. HE.). 2. CAPT. don’t look! (pl. you (s.) are ﬂeeing 6. go! (s. φεύγει διώκουσι(ν) βλέπεις μένομεν οὐκ ἀκούει IMPERATIVES 1C–D: 3 1. nor do I hear any noise. 9.) don’t hear we are looking they remain he/she does not ﬂee you (s.) are running away 10. you (pl. The fellow is sinking the ship. For Hegestratos has something in his right hand. 10.) are not looking 8. 5.)/ you (pl. don’t wait! (s. 4.g. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1C–D VERBS IN -ω 1C–D: 1 1. ἀκούουσι(ν) βλέπει διώκετε βαίνω οὐ μένουσι(ν) 6. DIKAIOPOLIS Come over here and look. 9. Dikaiopolis? Hegestratos is sinking the ship? But why don’t you catch the man. What are you saying. Help.: τί πoιεῖς σύ. he/she/it remains 1C–D: 2 1. I have nothing. they go 7. DIK. sailors.) go down! (pl. friend. over here.) are pursuing 6. captain. οὐδὲν ἔχω ἔγωγε. 5. 3. Don’t worry.) don’t go in! (pl.) Sailors. 5. help and pursue [him]. captain. 3. sailors? Over here. he/she hears 9. Ο dear.) look! (s.)/ you (pl. 4. 7.) listen! (s. 2. you (s. HEGESTRATOS Grammar Notice again the way in which the pronouns can be used to emphasise the person in the verb-ending. I’m off. Hegestratos? HE. 10. 8. Hegestratos. CΑΡΤ.) ﬂee!(pl. pursue! (pl.
-αω and -οω. I’m dying – DIKAIOPOLIS Do you see those men. and don’t wait around. Sdenothemis towards the sailors. and the captain unties the lifeboat. I am. For the sailors are coming up and are in pursuit. Hegestratos? Look. Hegestratos? I can’t see the lifeboat. Help. GE pp. sailors. I’m running away. For the men throw themselves into the sea and look for the lifeboat. SDENOTHEMIS HEGESTRATOS The main new point of grammar here is the conjugation of ‘contract’ verbs. Oh dear! Where is the lifeboat? Where is it. But what are you doing. 1F Translation for 1F Hegestratos and Sdenothemis do not wait around but run away. and chase Hegestratos. and throw yourself out of the ship. but run away yourself as well. Come along. Sdenothemis. For the lifeboat is clearly drifting away from the ship. . #23–25 sets this out and shows how the stem vowel contracts with the endings. and the sailors help. verbs ending in -εω. HE. Hegestratos. 19–21. For the men are bad. For the lifeboat is in the sea. Hegestratos looks towards Sdenothemis. the sailors are chasing me. Sdenothemis – oh dear! SDEN. Throw yourself into the sea. The important words are often brought forward to the beginning of the sentence or phrase. For the men are coming up here now. The sailors clearly see their ﬂight from the ship. save yourself. Notice the word order in this passage. Oh dear! For now I see the sailors clearly. SDENOTHEMIS HEGESTRATOS SDΕN. Where are you running away to? I’m escaping into the sea.Section 1F 9 1E Page 12 1 ὁ μὲν ‘Hγέστρατος … oἱ δὲ ναῦται … The particles μέν and δέ are frequently used to make a contrast. help! ΗΕ.You will ﬁnd it easy to recognise the persons from the pattern of the endings. We are dying. captain? The men are dying. Translation for 1E Hegestratos ﬂees from below. and they are dying badly. Dikaiopolis. The lifeboat drifts away from the ship. Sdenothemis remains above. They can never be the ﬁrst word in a phrase. C A P T A I N Don’t worry about it. Don’t wait.
) show he/she helps 1E–F: 2 1. 5. 4. 4.) he/she is doing/making he/she sees don’t show! (pl. 7. 2. 9. 8. stay (s. 7. 8. 10. 4. 7. 8. 5. 3. μὴ μένετε δίωκε δηλοῦτε μὴ ἄκουε βοήθει 6. 9. 9. ἀσθενεῖ ἐλευθεροῦμεν ἐξαπατᾷ νοσῶ τιμᾶτε CONTRACT IMPERATIVES 1E–F: 4 1.) are doing/making don’t show! he/she is showing 1E–F: 5 1. 2. ὁρῶσι(ν) ποιεῖ ποιεῖτε δηλῶ βοηθοῦσι(ν) 6. 3.) go. 4. τιμῶ γαμεῖς οἰκοῦσι(ν) σιγῶμεν ἀσεβεῖτε 6. 10. 9. 5. ποιεῖ ποιοῦσι(ν) δηλοῖς ὁρῶμεν ποιεῖ 1E–F: 3 1.) you (pl. 3. 10. 2. 2. 2.10 Exercises for section 1E–F EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1E–F CONTRACT VERBS 1E–F: 1 1. 3. 3. 4. 7. see! do/make! (s. 10. 9. 7. 8.) see he/she sees they see we are doing/making they show 6. you (s.) 6. you (s. 5. 10.) show you (s.) make/do you (pl. 8. Go! you (s. ποιεῖ μὴ ποίει ὁρᾷ ὅρα μὴ βαῖνε . 5.) help you (s.
We are now dying badly: for our ship is clearly sinking into the sea. 5 ἡ ἡμετέρα σωτηρία Notice that Greek normally uses only the deﬁnite article where we in English would often use the possessive adjective. When English speaks of a class of people it does not use the article. 3 περι-σκοπῶ Compound verb. and are we safe as well? Why don’t I go down below and look around carefully? For I [am] the captain: so it [is] my job. ἄνθρωπον 2. Ο Poseidon. So our safety [is] assured.’ 16 σῶον μέν … σῶοι δέ … Note the contrast pointed by μέν and δέ. Greek will say ‘the father’ or ‘the safety’ if it is clear from the context that it means ‘his father’ or ‘our safety’. ἔργον . Translation for 1G But is our ship safe. 9 τοὺς ἀνθρώπους Another of the differences in the way Greek uses the article. ἔργῳ 6. Thus the Greeks would say ‘The men are lazy’. and you always save people from the sea. ἀνθρώπῳ. Dikaiopolis.Exercises for section 1G 11 1G Page 16 2 σῶοι δὲ καὶ ἡμεῖς Notice that the verb ‘to be’ is often left out in Greek if the meaning is clear. and our safety [depends] on me. Be quiet.) CAPT. And moreover the harbour is near by. ἀνθρώποις. ἔργῳ 8. ἔργοις 5. Our ship is safe and we also are safe. It means ‘to look (σκοπῶ) round’ (περι). The possessive is normally only used to stress ownership. ἀνθρώπους 7. καί Here means ‘also’. (The captain goes down and looks round. or if the context is ambiguous. ἄνθρωποι 4. For we always make sacriﬁces to you. So we are not in danger.) DIKAIOPOLIS Now. our lifeboat is clearly drifting away and our safety [is] not assured. CAPTAIN EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1G THE DECLENSIONS 1G: 1 1. ἀνθρώπων. You will meet this repeatedly in this section. ἀνθρώπῳ. But Dikaiopolis remains above. ‘The women are clever. but Greek will use the article in this situation. save us [bring us safely] into the harbour. We say ‘Men are lazy’ or ‘Women are clever’. (The captain comes up. ἔργων 3.
τῶν κακῶν ἀνθρώπων 4. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου 4. if you have mastered all elements of the language .12 Revision exercises 1G: 2 1. πρὸς τὸν λέμβον 6. 4. from the ships towards the markets into the ship in the lifeboats towards the men 1G: 6 1. τὴν καλὴν γῆν 2. however. ἀνθρώπων gen. 10. 5. in the markets into the ships in the work from the men from the market 6. τοῖς κακοῖς ἀνθρώποις 1. s. τῶν καλῶν ἐμπορίων 8. εἰς τὸ πλοῖον 7. τὰ καλὰ ἔργα 6. τοῖς ἡμετέροις ἔργοις 3. 9. ἐστι(ν) 2. εἰς τὸν λέμβον 3. 5. ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου 2. The Test Exercises. 3. They have been carefully designed so that. ἐν τοῖς πλοίοις REVISION EXERCISES 5. διώκουσι(ν) 3. 7. ἄνθρωπον acc. τῷ ἡμετέρῳ πλοίῳ 7. grammar and vocabulary. 2. τοὺς ἡμετέρους ἀνθρώπους 1G: 4 5. ἀνθρώποις dat. 8. ἀνθρώπους acc. ἐστι(ν) 1. ὁρᾷ 5. PREPOSITIONS 1G: 5 4. The exercises on Word shape and Syntax are designed to help you absorb and retain particular features of the language. 1. 3. s. εἰς τὰ ἐμπόρια As you are advised in GE. ποιεῖ MORE ADJECTIVES 1G: 3 4. pl. How many of the exercises you do will depend upon your own choice and interest. pl. if you feel you have grasped these aspects. πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους 8. you should do the revision exercises only after completing work on text. 2. pl. ἀνθρώπου gen. you should regard as essential. the more competent you will become. The more you do. then you can omit these exercises or do them quickly.
maritime. τῶν ἀνθρώπων 4. ἀποχωρεῖς or go away! (pl. 33–35 A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING I go I chase sea helmsman sailor I see I ﬂee B – WORD SHAPE I go out I chase out belonging to the sea. βαίνετε I see pl. τὸ νεώριον. ἀποχώρει 3. ὁρᾷς or see! (pl. morphology and syntax). ὁρῶσι(ν) help! (s. nautical I steer nautical. τῷ καλῷ ἐμπορίῳ d. τὰ πλοῖα. τὸν καλὸν ἄνθρωπον Notes on English into Greek Don’t worry about word order yet. φροντίζεις they go down s. But go on noticing how it works in Greek.) go pl. τὰ καλὰ νεώρια c.Revision exercises for section 1A–G 13 required so far (vocabulary.) see s. οἱ ἄνθρωποι.) are worrying s. τοῖς ψόφοις. worry (pl. you (s. the error or omission should alert you to the area needing further consolidation. or if you make a mistake in your translation.) are going away s.) s. .) s. ποιοῦσι(ν) he/she sees pl. to do with sailing I see/look into I run away. φρόντιζε or you (pl. ὁ καλὸς ἄνθρωπος b. a. βλέπομεν he/she makes.) s. run from 1. ἀναβαίνω you (pl. does pl. τοῖς καλοῖς ἀνθρώποις e.) pl. βοηθεῖτε 2. τῷ λέμβῳ. If you ﬁnd you do have to look up a word or an ending. καταβαίνει we come up s. you will be able to do the Test Exercises without any looking up at all. ὅρα you (pl. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1A–G Note the advice on tackling these exercises in GE pp.
τοὺς ἄνδρας in 5. but help and chase the man. It would be ὁ ανὴρ in 3. The men escape into the sea. ὁ Ἡγέστρατος οὐχ ὁρᾷ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/τοὺς ἄνδρας Can you not see the Acropolis? ἆρα ὁρᾷς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/τοὺς ἄνδρας καὶ σύ. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. 1. and in the sea they die. The sailors don’t see Hegestratos. But Hegestratos remains below and is sinking the ship. Don’t wait around.14 Revision exercises for section 1A–G If you used ἀνήρ ἀνδρ. τοὺς ἀνθρώπους. The captain and Dikaiopolis are up above. τὸν Ἡγέστρατον. Dikaiopolis saves the men. For he has an axe in his right hand. Hegestratos ﬂees from below. διώκετε τὸν ἄνθρωπον/τὸν ἄνδρα. 2. You have not yet learned the pattern for this noun. μὴ (ἀπο)ϕεύγετε. you may have got it wrong. ὁ Ζηνόθεμις 3. ὁ ἄνθρωπος 4. ἔλθετε καὶ βοηθεῖτε. The sailors come up from below. sailors. Come over here and look. C – SYNTAX Hegestratos sees the acropolis. They look towards the land and see both the dockyards and the Parthenon. CAPTAIN DIKAIOPOLIS CΑΡΤ. Sdenothemis goes into the ship. Who is making the noise? Do you see. Then they go down. The men see the sailors clearly and throw themselves into the sea. . 3. The helmsman casts off the life-boats. The sailors pursue Sdenothemis. The men don’t see the life-boats. Don’t worry. Dikaiopolis? Yes. For Hegestratos is making the noise. For the fellow has an axe. while Sdenothemis remains above. But suddenly they hear the noise.for ‘man’ in 3 and 5. ὁ ἄνθρωπος/ὁ ανὴρ (ἀπο)φεύγει πρὸς τὸ πλοῖον. The men are coming up. oἱ ϕίλοι οὐ μένουσιν. 2. ὁ λέμβος 5. E – TEST EXERCISE 1 A–G The ship departs from Euboea and sails towards the Piraeus. 4. Sdenothemis is looking towards the land. although it has occurred in the Text. I see. 5.
my friend. RHAPSODE ‘We are sailing on the wine-dark sea. So the captain says that they are sailing into the harbour. For the sailor does not clearly know where they are: for it is night. itinerant reciter of Homer. 9 οἶδα Yet another new form. more poetically. though note that μῶρος is an adjective. 13 οἴνοπα πόντον A lovely phrase and frequent in Homer. also explained by its pronoun σύ. You are right.’ SAIL. 36. but pronoun σύ should help. 21 ἐν νηὶ θοῇ. 18 τί τὸ … Literally. #44. εἶ Another new person of the verb. What’s the fellow saying? DIKAIOPOLIS It’s clear that the fellow is quoting Homer. Note also the English explanation in introduction. 8 ἐσμεν New here. and κοίλῃ ἐνὶ νηί Two more common Homeric phrases. ‘What’s that …?’ 19 μῶρος English ‘moron’ suggests the answer. παίζει πρός It means ‘makes fun of’. Where are we. ‘What (is) the …?’. See GE p. captain? Do you know? For I do not clearly know. 1–2 ναύτης δέ τις This is the indeﬁnite τις. We are sailing towards the harbour. A rhapsode is a professional. again reinforced by the inclusion of the pronoun. Thus this might be translated ‘Homerise’. 17 ἐν νηὶ μελαίνῃ This is another common Homeric phrase. rather like a medieval troubadour. i.e. The rhapsode is always quoting Homer. would mean ‘Who?’ or ‘What sailor?’ 3 λέγει ὅτι Remember ὅτι carefully: it is extremely common. and I do not know where we are. but the ἡμεῖς indicates which person of the verb this is. because of the night. The -ιζω ending in Greek verbs is like our ‘-ize/-ise’ ending.’ SAILOR . #44. There is on the ship a rhapsode. 4 ῥαψῳδός τις ‘a rhapsode’. οἶσθα Also new.Section 1H 15 1H Page 18 1 λιμένα Check the English introduction above. coming ﬁrst. τίς with an accent. but a problem for translators. See GE p. 36. sailor. νηί is irregular dative of ναῦς (line 28) meaning ‘ship’. For I see nothing. ‘We are sailing in a black ship. and extensively used in this and subsequent sections. He’s a rhapsode. A sailor asks the captain where they are. C A P T A I N I know clearly. then see if you can identify the person. 5 ὁμηρίζει Transliterate ﬁrst. which follows the word it agrees with. Translation for 1H So the captain steers the ship towards the harbour. Dikaiopolis makes fun of the rhapsode like Socrates with his students. RHAP. as ‘wine-dark’. Literally it means ‘wine-faced’ but it is usually rendered. without an accent.
sailors? Come here and listen. But I am not stupid: I know many things.g. ‘in a hollow ship. ‘nautical’ and ‘strategic’ should help to establish the meaning of three. by Zeus. What are you saying. the business of the soldier. 7–12 The various -ικος adjectives here correspond to many -ic/ical adjectives in English: e. παιδ. but are joking at us. ‘In a swift ship’ we are sailing. Translation for 1I–J RHAPSODE DIKAIOPOLIS RHAP. and matters nautical. δήπου is often heavily sarcastic in its meaning. strategic – So you also know matters of strategy? . but is joking at us. στρατηγός was so called because he was an army (στρατός) leader (ἄγω – ‘I lead’). rhapsode? What’s that ‘in a black ship’? For our ship isn’t black. It is clear that you are stupid. ‘asymmetrical’).is often a negative one in Greek (cf. Here the effect is ludicrous. For the fellow does not know anything accurately. 1I Page 20 1 εἰμί A new form. so the whole Greek word means ‘uneducated’. tactical. hence στρατιωτικά refers to soldiering.16 DIK. rhapsode. This form of argument reﬂects some forms of Socratic and Platonic dialectic where an attempt is made to use words in as deﬁned a way as numbers. i. 1J Page 21 1 μία Feminine form of εἷς. For you do not know whether our ship is ‘black’ or ‘swift’ or ‘hollow’. Section 1J RHAP. a soldier. person indicated by pronoun. ‘polemics’.is the root of the English word ‘p(a) edagogue’. 11 δήπου Like ‘of course’ in English. 6 διότι ‘because’. Be quiet. Note the thrust of the rhapsode’s argument: he knew much about Homer – Homer knew much about everything – therefore he (the rhapsode) knew much about everything. It is clear that our rhapsode is stupid. and don’t know anything.e.’ Do you hear. No. γιγνώσκω A new word (Latin cognosco). I am not uneducated about Homer. meaning ‘one’ (here = ‘one and the same’). English ‘amoral’. although the original idea resulted in a new and valuable tool of reasoning. I know much because Homer knows much. DIK. 5 ἄριστος An aristocracy is rule by the ‘best’ people. For Homer knows matters of war. DIK. 2 ἀπαίδευτος The preﬁx α. How do you know many things? It is clear that you are uneducated. Similarly a στρατιώτης was a member of the army.
DIK. For Socrates always jokes in this way at his students. So good rhapsodes are at the same time also good generals? Yes. rhapsode? Yes. Are then the skill of a rhapsode and the skill of a general one [and the same]? One [and the same] skill. RHAP. 8. 36. DIK. of course. Dikaiopolis. the plural forms of οἶδα have not. DIK. #44): it is essential to know both thoroughly – and although most of εἰμί has appeared in the Text. For Homer is experienced in matters of strategy. 9. sailors? Is the rhapsode a fool or not? By Zeus. οἶδα 2. rhapsode. Yes. SAILOR 17 RHAP. you (s.Exercises for section 1H–J RHAP. RHAP. 7. It’s my job. Dikaiopolis. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1H–J IRREGULAR VERBS 1H–J: 1 1.) are you (pl. And you are the best rhapsode of the Greeks? Certainly. in fact. 4. the rhapsode is indeed a fool. Grammar Note carefully the conjugation of both irregular verbs εἰμί and οἶδα (GE p. he/she/it is we know you (pl. but he does not know precisely whether the ship is ‘black’ or ‘swift’ or ‘hollow’. What? Are you then experienced in matters of strategy. ἴσασι(ν) 6. the best general of the Greeks? Of course. 5. meet them in Test Exercise 1H–J. οἶδε(ν) . DIK. 10. 3. The Greeks are always children. DIK. Dikaiopolis. εἶ 3. You will. RHAP. So the best general of the Greeks is a fool. Dikaiopolis. What do you say. εἰσί(ν) 4. Nevertheless it is sensible to learn them now and it is worth learning them very carefully. Are you then. It is clear.) know we are 6.) are you (s. and I also am experienced [in them]. Dikaiopolis. ἐστί(ν) 5. DIK. DIK. The fellow is. the best general of the Greeks. Of course. RHAP. RHAP. that you are Socratising and joking with me. 2.) know they are I am they know 1H–J: 2 1.
ἐστέ 1.) both exist and do not exist (are and are not).) are he/she knows you (s. ἐστί(ν) 1H–J: 3 9. 2.18 Revision exercises for section 1H–J 7. 5. The rhapsode is a Greek. ἐσμέν 8. b.) know about both seafaring and generalship. ἔστι καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν. c. We both know and see much. 4. a. You know much (many things). The rhapsode is a fool. 5. come clear I am a Greek person I wait a general I go round I go (or come) round I make clear. 2.) I am we know εἶ γιγνώσκουσι(ν) ἴστε εἰσί(ν) οἶδε(ν) παίζετε ἐσμέν οἶδα C – SYNTAX 1. Do they know about both soldiering and generalship? 1H–J: 4 1. οὐκ οἶδε τὰ στρατηγικά. πολλὰ ἴσασιν. οἶδα καὶ οὐκ οἶδα τά τε ναυτικὰ καὶ τὰ στρατηγικά. d. You (pl. 3. The Greek is a rhapsode. οἶδε(ν) 10. 3. Rhapsodes (as a class of people*) are the best generals. ἐσμέν τε καὶ ἴσμεν. 4. you (pl. I go away I go. reveal I am in Greek (adjective) I wait around I command (an army) B – WORD SHAPE 1. . You (s.) know he/she is they know play! (s. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1H–J A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1.
Revision exercises for section 1H–J 19 e. nor do you know anything accurately. rhapsode? Of course. f. I also know the skills of a general. however. On matters of strategy. but foolish. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. You are not skilled. E – TEST EXERCISE 1H–J So the ship sails towards the Piraeus. you are not expert. It is clear that the man knows much about Homer. For you are the best rhapsode of the Greeks and expert in Homer. DIKAIOPOLIS RHAPSODE DIΚ. Note: μῶρος δὲ μέν and μῶρος μὲν δέ are not permitted. Dikaiopolis teases the rhapsode. 4. not a general. The captain says that the ship is near the harbour. δῆλόν ἐστιν ὅτι ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς πολλὰ γιγνώσκει. So they ask the captain where it is. It is clear that Dikaiopolis is teasing the rhapsode. Do you not know that the man is always joking? ἆρ᾽ οὐκ οἶδεν ὅτι ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς ἀκριβῶς λέγει. DIΚ. Suddenly the rhapsode recites Homer. to denote a class of people. The captain is a rhapsode/A rhapsode is captain. but I know that you are a fool. 3. RHAP. ὁ ἄριστος στρατηγός ἐστι ῥαψῳδός. What do you mean? (Lit. rhapsode. 5. (σὺ) οὐκ ἔμπειρος εἶ περὶ τὸ ἔργον. *This is where Greek uses the def. Do you not know that the good rhapsode is at the same time also a good general? No. 2. but the sailors do not know where the ship is. Do you know the business of a rhapsode. The rhapsode is a captain. μέν and δέ are never used side by side. πολλὰ δὲ γιγνώσκω. and English does not. ἀλλὰ μῶρος μὲν οὔκ εἰμι. . I am expert in many things. Rhapsodes are the best generals. What are you saying?) For you are a rhapsode. Likewise οὐ δέ εἰμι is not on: μέν and δέ do not follow negatives. art.
#24) to -αω and -εω ones. Then try translating the paragraph. 30. the verb can mean either ‘come’ or ‘go’. 20 . You will also meet some more noun types (GE pp. try reading through the whole of the ﬁrst page (aloud. μέν warns you that there will be a contrast in the following clause or sentence marked by δέ. but you will be able to recognise what case they are in from the article used with them. #52–54). The active voice describes what the subject does to the object. You will add -οω verbs (GE p. which person of the verb must it be? What should it mean? Sense demands a verb of motion – in fact. The middle describes what the subject does for (or to) himself. 43–46. The verbs you will meet in this section occur only in the middle and do not have an active voice. 2A After reading the English introduction.Section Two: The glorious past In this section you will practise a third variant of the contracted verbs that you met in Section 1. if circumstances permit!). ἔρχεται New ending. ἀλλήλους – leave blank for a moment. You will also meet a new pattern of verb in what is called the middle voice (GE pp. and is very common. #55–58) which you will eventually have to learn. 46–48. using the running vocabulary and the following notes for guidance if you need them. 44–45. as in ὁ δὲ Δικαιόπολις. #28–29). #43. 20.) διαλέγονται Note the person ending. or does for his own advantage. 22–23. 3 ἡδέως Part of speech? (English ‘hedonism’ may guide you to the meaning of this word. These are all in the active voice. 2 πρὸς ἀλλήλους πρὸς should be known. Page 22 1 ἡ μὲν ναῦς The article shows this is nominative. βραδέως The ending in -ως shows that this is an adverb (see GE pp. You may want to make a chart of the present indicative middle and to add the new endings as you meet them. See GE p. It is easy to recognise which person the ending indicates. or you may just prefer to keep referring to GE pp. #52–53. English ‘dialogue’ may help. then back to ἀλλήλους = ‘each other’. for meaning. and it often does not have an object.
10 ῥητορικά Cf. You therefore know much about rhetoric also (for Homer [is] rhetorical. so the meaning is: ‘the around-Salamis sea-battle’. it can also mean something like ‘settle down’ or ‘calm down’. See GE p. 21 κάλλιστον ποίει τὸν λόγoν The word order shows that this means ‘make the/ your story very beautiful’. therefore = ‘our’. rhapsode. 11 ἄγε δή GE gives ‘come!’ for ἄγε. Page 23 12 ἐρχόμεθα The verb has occurred earlier in the sense ‘come’. δι. 20 οὐδὲν ἴσμεν ἀκριβῶς ἡμεῖς oἱ ναῦται Notice the word order. 23 ἡσυχάζετε Imperative. and why doesn’t he tell what happened in the Persian Wars and how the Greeks and Persians fought and what deeds they dared and how many fell?’ The rhapsode gladly relates the sea-battle. ἡμεῖς indicates the person. ‘what happens’. Dikaiopolis and the sailors and the captain and the rhapsode are talking happily to each other. GE gives ‘keep quiet’. but notice that here it is not used like δεῦρο ἐλθέ. τὴν περὶ Σαλαμῖνα ναυμαχίαν This is a phrase within a phrase as is shown by the linking device connecting τήν with ναυμαχίαν. Notice διὰ τί οὐ followed by a question mark. ‘rhetoric’. but note that as well as meaning ‘be silent’. 5 τί γίγνεται The context should help. derived from ἡμεῖς (‘we’). ‘go’. νικῶσιν Here the verb is encountered for the ﬁrst time. 15 ἡμετέραν Possessive adjective. 9–11 The ﬁrst three lines are mostly recapitulation of words/phrases occurring earlier. Μηδικοῖς being neuter plural. Translation for 2A The ship goes slowly towards the Piraeus. the Greeks used ‘Medes’ and ‘Persians’ almost interchangeably. 49. come . CAPTAIN You. #62. hence ‘go through’ as in ‘relate’. ‘Why doesn’t … ?’ You will see the same pattern in ‘διὰ τί οὐ λέγει….’ 4 διέρχεται Both elements have been met – the ἔρχεται = ‘come’/’go’. ἐν τοῖς Μηδικοῖς (literally) ‘in the Medic (things)’. [is he] not?). rather than ‘make the very beautiful story’. 6 τίνα ἔργα τολμῶσι The context should help you towards the general sense of ‘what deeds they did’. Come along then. See also the noun νίκην. The ship is already going past Salamis and the captain says: ‘Why does the rhapsode not relate the sea-battle at Salamis. τόλμαν See note earlier (line 6). μάχη means ‘battle’ and ναῦς ‘ship’. ‘recount’. τολμῶσι = ‘dare’ (τολμάω and its noun τόλμα are much used later in this section).Section 2A 21 4–5 διὰ τί ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς οὐ διέρχεται…. but more like English ‘Come on!’ – a spur to action and not necessarily an instruction to move. hence ναυμαχία ‘sea-battle’.= ‘through’. the phrase means ‘in the Persian Wars’. know much about Homer.
this. ‘quandary’. so they may present a few problems. ἄειδε Imperative. ϕοβοῦνται Another new verb: what are phobias? πολλή ‘much’. an army. A common enough occurrence – it’s surprising we have no verb for this. ‘the ships. But speak. 7 κίνδυνος You have not yet been asked to learn this word. etc. 9 εὔχονται ‘they pray’. 4 στρατιά στρατηγός has been learnt (Section 1J). goddess of memory.). 8 θυσίας Also above. ‘few’. because the quarrel of Agamemnon and Achilles led to near-disaster for the Greeks. Θεά ‘Goddess’. although nouns like ‘perplexity’. 16. An oligarchy is rule by a few. οὐλομένην ‘accursed’: in the Iliad. 49. announces at the very outset a central theme of the poem – the wrath of Achilles.22 Section 2B over here and tell us the events at Salamis. For you. line 16: ‘We are safe. give the idea. RHAPSODE Of course. the god-like king’: in the original it is Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος ‘of Achilles. viz. 3 ἀποροῦσι A verb for which there is no direct English equivalent: it means ‘be in a state of not knowing what to do’. So we gladly listen. Keep quiet then. the ones of the Athenians’. The Persians do not defeat us nor do they enslave us. therefore we are not ἐν κινδύνῳ. Tell us then the Persian Wars and the sea-battle at Salamis and our daring and victory. to help the poet in telling his story. son of Peleus’. and make your story very ﬁne. μῆνιν ‘wrath’ (acc. my friend. ὀλίγοι ‘small’. rhapsode. know clearly the events at Salamis. the invocation of the Muse. For there is the island of Salamis. SAILORS Yes. though it is in the Total Vocabulary. 5–6 αἱ νῆες αἱ τῶν Ἀθηναίων Notice the repeated αἱ which adds a description. This is not in the vocabulary for 2B. in the Iliad. ‘helplessness’. line 9. and we are going slowly past Salamis towards Athens. because the invasion of Xerxes threatened the freedom of the Greeks. Ξέρξου θείου βασιλῆος ‘of Xerxes. and the sailors know nothing. We sailors know nothing accurately. here. 1G. See GE p. #61. στρατιά was what the στρατηγός led. ‘sing’. but it occurred on p. 2B Page 24 1 These lines are adapted from the opening lines of the Iliad. sailors. . the very last book. ‘many’. Tell us what happened in the Persian Wars and how the Greeks and foreigners fought and how many fell. and listen. ‘large’. which dominates throughout and is ﬁnally resolved only in Book 24.’ ἀπορία The noun form of ἀπορέω (see above in line 3). I always make my stories very ﬁne.
16 τὴν Ἑλλάδα Note the word order (the subject is after the verb). here with the adverbial sufﬁx -άκις or -κις it means ‘many times’. they go quickly into their ships and ﬁght for their freedom. ‘often’.element should be familiar. τὸ πλῆθος This is a neuter noun (of a type you have not yet met). Herodotus describes the Persian Wars in terms that often sound surprisingly familiar. 1G. 14 ἱκετεῖαι ‘supplications’. goddess. and the accusative τόλμαν (ρ. how many are the shouts.e. For the Persian army [is] large. how great the perplexities. ὑπέρ = ‘for’. 4 οὐκ οἶσθα οὐδέν Notice the reinforcing negative. This is a common idiom in Greek: ‘freedom is a good thing’.’ So the foreigners slowly approach the city. while the Athenians are at a loss and are afraid. And in the sea-battle. So thus the salvation of the Greeks becomes secure. Great [is] the daring of the Greeks and their generals.Section 2C 23 10 ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας A crucial phrase for a crucial concept to the Greeks. The Athenians free Greece and save their country through their daring. ‘you don’t know anything’. so the accusative is the same as the nominative. but few the ships of the Athenians. the struggle of the free peoples of the West against the totalitarian regime of the East. and the Athenians few. Finally the Persians arrive and the Greeks ﬁght. Notice also that it is accusative singular and feminine. whereas ἐλευθερία is feminine. 23. great their perplexity and great also their fear. 12 τόλμα Not yet learnt. 19 βεβαία … ἡ … σωτηρία Cf. but ‘Greece’. line 15). ‘on behalf of’. although the verb τολμάω has occurred (2A. Here the sense is ‘violence’. τῆς ἐλευθερίας = ‘freedom’. line 6). 11 πολλάκις The πολ. how many the supplications to the gods! Finally the Athenians defeat the Persian ﬂeet and the Persians fall and they do not enslave the Athenians. Many [are] the Persian ships. For freedom [is] a good thing. For courage and daring always defeat aggression and superior numbers. line 18. Translation for 2B ‘Sing. ἀγαθόν ‘good’ – but neuter gender. and this is the object. whereas English does not. . the destructive wrath of Xerxes the god-like king. So the Athenians sacriﬁce their sacriﬁces to the gods and pray much. i. Great then [is] the danger of the Athenians. so that it is not ‘the Greeks’. says nothing worth-while. Note that Greek uses the article with ἐλευθερία because it is a general idea. 18 ὕβριν Difﬁcult because not exactly like the English usage of ‘hubris’. talks rubbish. 13 ὅσαι This means ‘How much/many …’ as used in exclamations. ‘aggression’. 2C Page 26 1 οὐδὲν λέγει Literally ‘says nothing’.
But how do you know whether I am telling the truth or falsehoods? CΑΡT. But at dawn a shout arises (occurs) and when the trumpet echoes from the rocks. 25 This is taken from Aeschylus. ‘there’. The sailors settle down. ‘watches’. friend. your wives! Now [is] the struggle for everything!’ 2D Page 28 2 θεᾶται What one does in a θέατρον.24 Section 2D 15 ὧδε Means ‘like this’. The captain says that the rhapsode is speaking rubbish. For they now clearly hear the shout: ‘O Children of the Greeks. For you perhaps tell us a ﬁne story. We are looking for the truth. Matthew 16. οὕτως means ‘like this’. Here it is used idiomatically to mean ‘this way and that’. When night comes. Be quiet then. Page 27 20 ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα ἔνθα literally means ‘then’. completely unadapted. 23 ἐκ … πετρῶν What is the meaning of the English name ‘Peter’? Cf. ‘petroleum’ ( =‘rock-oil’). as in English ‘antagonist’. sailors. and note also ‘petrol’. My grandfather is a Salamis-ﬁghter and he often tells me the events at Salamis truly. Translation for 2C The rhapsode is silent. RHAPSODE What are you saying? In what way am I not making my story very ﬁne? CΑΡT. my grandfather [tells] the facts. The Persian ﬂeet arrives. here combined in the sense of ‘retreat’. like you. when it refers to what has gone before. friend. 21 ἅμα ἕῳ Perhaps needs some explanation: ἅμα is an adverb meaning ‘at the same time as’. So you do not make your story very ﬁne. fear develops (occurs) at the same time in the foreigners. ‘where’ according to context. Listen. ‘when’. but not falsely. ἀνά ‘up’. the ﬁne deeds of the Greeks.18. For my grandfather tells the events at Salamis as follows. and hear again. CAPTAIN You are talking rubbish. Then the captain also relates the events at Salamis. while we Greeks keep quiet. the Persian ships sail slowly this way and that. RΗAP. Persae 353–5. and you are telling us falsehoods. Consider. . free your children. 22 σάλπιγξ ἠχεῖ Illustrated on RGT p. go! Free your country. The phrase thus means ‘at dawn’. ἴτε An irregular imperative (corresponds with Latin ite) meaning ‘come!/go!’ ἀγών ‘struggle’. ἕῳ is dative of a very irregular noun meaning ‘dawn’. when it refers to what is going to follow. and you don’t know anything. viz. and stays near Salamis. ‘back water’. 26. 3 ἀναχωροῦσιν Both elements have been met: χωρεῖ ‘go’.
cosmetic = ‘ordered state of the dress/face’. . And the Persians do not enslave the Athenians. 9 κόσμῳ ‘order’ – with interesting derivations: cosmos = ‘ordered state of the universe’. similarly. Suddenly there appears the phantom of a woman. ‘metamorphosis’. ‘misogynist’. while the foreigners are ﬁghting in disarray and out of rank since they are not bold like us. ‘nous’ has been adopted as a word for intelligence. When the Athenians pursue the Persians.in compounds = ‘same’. 12 oἱ μὲν … oἱ δέ … It means ‘Of the Persians. and others capture their ships and their sailors.Section 2D 25 4 ϕαίνεται … ϕάσμα ϕάσμα = ‘apparition’. occurring in English ‘dinosaur’. of organisms into named groups (ὄνομα = ‘a name’). τῶν ‘Ελλήνων. and others remain and fall. a ‘terrible lizard’ (σαῦρος). and I back water. But the phantom says: ‘Friends. some pursue the Persians. Now we are ﬁghting in good order and in rank. which has the same root as the verb νοέω.in compounds often has the sense of ‘against’. or ‘agree’. so here ‘sail against’/ ‘attack’. In modern Greek ἐν τάξει means ‘in order’. some ﬂee. ‘OΚ’. actually itself the Greek word for ‘mind’. Xerxes also ﬂees and no longer watches the sea-battle. So here it is ‘be like-minded’. e. 7–9 ἐπιπλέω ἐπι. α. So the Greeks become free through their courage. And the other Greeks retreat. τοῦ πολέμου causal genitives. ἀκόσμως … ἀτάκτως Opposites of the previous two words.’ And I quickly sail to the attack and am no longer afraid.g. Translation for 2D CAPTAIN So the enemy ships approach quickly for a sea-battle (Xerxes the king is watching the sea-battle with pleasure). ὁμο. and the rest of the Greeks also sail swiftly to the attack and move against the Persians. English ‘phenomenon’ which is derived from ϕαίνομαι ‘I appear’. κοσμέω also means ‘I decorate’. Metabolism is the change of food into energy. Finally of the Persians.being the regular Greek negative preﬁx. likewise ἐπέρχονται (line 1). Cf. 23 ὁμονοοῦσιν The elements of the word may help. δεινόν ‘terrible’. Clearly here the clause after ἀλλά is going to mean something contrasted with the clause before it. why are you still retreating? Do not be afraid of the Persians but go to the rescue and be bold. 25 ϕεῦ Exclamation of despair or disgust. And of the Greeks. In this way the gods punish the aggression of the Persians and save the city. 10 τάξιν ‘arrangement’ – taxonomy is the classiﬁcation. μισοῦσιν Again English compounds may help – as well as the context. other ‘meta-’ compounds in English have a sense of ‘change’. I am afraid of the phantom. very terrible. and a few English compounds beginning ‘mis-’ may help towards the meaning e. or arrangement.g. ‘misanthrope’. some … others …’ 22 μεταβολή Means ‘change’.
13. 19–21 #23–25.or -η. don’t ﬁght! 6. but hate each other because of the war. 3. it is enough to remember the endings for the feminine of the deﬁnite article and the fact that nouns of the ﬁrst declension may have either -α. 12. Feminine nouns: if you are doing English–Greek exercises. 10. it is important to notice the differences between the different types of feminine noun. we are enslaving 7. ἐρχόμεθα φοβοῦνται δουλοῦται θεᾶται οὐ γίγνονται ἔρχῃ . Now we know clearly and accurately about the Persian Wars.)are going and ﬁghting he/she/it is afraid he/she is enslaving he/she is watching you (s. 10. But the change in events is now great: for at that time the Greeks were friends with each other. 2. 12. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2A–D MIDDLE VERBS 2A–D: 1 he/she/it becomes/ happens/occurs 2. (See GE pp. while all the plurals are the same. go (s. Much more important are the middle verbs in GE pp. go (pl. 11. μὴ θεᾶσθε ἔρχονται οὐ φοβεῖται γίγνεσθε δουλοῦσθε φοβοῦμαι 7.26 Exercises for section 2A–D DIKAIOPOLIS You speak well. 8. 5. they are ﬁghting 5. they enslave 4. 9.predominates throughout. captain. 14. and now there is hatred. 4. 51. alas for the war! Grammar Contracted verbs in -όω: there should be little difﬁculty in recognising the person of these verbs from the endings you already know. to be learnt before attempting the exercises. 8. Perhaps the most important thing to notice is how -ο. Now they no longer agree. Notice also the masculine nouns (1d #58) which are slightly different in some cases of the singular and the same as the feminines in the plural. 9.) 2A–D: 2 1.in the singular endings. 46–47.) are afraid I am not watching he/she/it shows 1. #55–57.) and ﬁght or you (pl. alas for the Greeks. Note also the extra vocabulary on p. 6.) For recognition of the case of the noun. Alas. 11. Then there was agreement among the Greeks. we are not going 3.
Exercises for section 2A–D 27 NOUNS. ἀποριῶν. τὸν νεανίαν 1. 3. 4. 4. τὰς βοάς 2. 2. 5. νεανίᾳ 2A–D: 4 1. 1d 2A–D: 3 1. ἀπορία. 4. 9. οἱ ναῦται 6. νεανιῶν ταῖς βοαῖς. because of the war against the barbarians alongside the ship away from the friends because of the sailors alongside the Athenians 7. τὸν ναύτην. θαλάτταις ἡ βοή. ἀπορίαν. beside the man 12. against the enemy 8. 3. from the armies 11. θάλαττα τοὺς ναύτας. 6. διὰ τὰς βοάς ἐκ τῶν πλοίων παρὰ τοὺς φίλους ἐπὶ τὴν στρατιάν διὰ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν 6. τὴν τόλμαν 8. θάλατταν τῷ ναύτῃ. 8. 1b. 5. 9. 5. 7. 3. 8. νεανίαν τῶν βοῶν. ἐν τοῖς βαρβάροις ἐν τῇ ναυμαχίᾳ ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ εἰς τὴν γῆν ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ among the barbarians/foreigners in the sea-battle in the deed/task into the land in the Piraeus . παρὰ τὰς θεάς διὰ τὰς ὁμολογίας ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους διὰ τὴν νίκην 2A–D: 7 1. 3. τῶν ἀποριῶν PREPOSITIONS 2A–D: 5 5. 2. because of the sea-battle 9. 6. νεανίας αἱ βοαί. 5. 2. because of the perplexity 10. ἡ τόλμα 4. τῷ ναύτῃ 3. 2. 4. 10. TYPES 1a. ἀπορίαι. ἀπορίαις. τῇ βοῇ 7. ναυτῶν. 1c. νεανίαις ὁ ναύτης. θαλαττῶν. θάλατται τοῖς ναύταις. 7. away from the Athenians 2A–D: 6 1. alongside. νεανίας τὴν βοήν. 10.
I campaign.) enslave. δουλοῦ you (pl. a friend I fear falsely B – WORD SHAPE the truth accuracy woman I shout experience. τὴν στρατιάν. τὴν τόλμαν. lacking courage. unﬁghtable stupidity. unconquerable the maker/creator/poet the warrior/ﬁghter. wickedness the warrior. I make war silence the army.) ﬁght or ﬁght! (pl. τοῖς κυβερνήταις.) watch or watch! (pl. carry out a task I am pleased. ἡ ἀπορία. ἡ καλλίστη βοή. 3. τὴν πολεμίαν βοήν. τὴν νίκην. the battle.) fear ϕοβεῖσθε they watch θεᾶται You (pl. go through διέρχομαι he/she ﬁghts μάχονται you (s. τῇ ἐμῇ ἀπορίᾳ. τῶν ναυτῶν. expert work. ὁ ναύτης.28 Revision exercises for section 2 REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2 A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING true accurately man a shout experienced. expertise I work. μάχου 2. τὰς βοάς.) θεᾷ or θεῶ he approaches προσέρχονται they fear ϕοβεῖται I fear φοβούμεθα they happen γίγνεται you attack ἐπέρχεσθε you (pl. I lack courage I love. task pleasantly bad I ﬁght stupid ship/I ﬁght victory/I win I make/do/create war I am silent army I dare dear. .) μάχῃ. ταῖς καλαῖς νίκαις 1. folly I ﬁght a sea-battle unconquered. αἱ νῖκαι. enslave! (pl. τῷ ναύτῃ.) δουλοῖ. αἱ ἐμαὶ βοαί. friendship/love fear I tell lies we relate. the soldier the daring man. pleasure evil.
the Athenians quickly embark on their ships and sail towards Salamis. Finally the Persian ﬂeet arrives. but are daring and attack the foreigners. We know that the Greek army is approaching. ἡ βοὴ ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι βοή d. Then the Athenians ﬁght. E – TEST EXERCISE 2 So when the Persian army and ﬂeet are approaching. ὁ κυβερνήτης ἡδέως διέρχεται τὴν ἡμετέραν ναυμαχίαν. when night comes. and the Persian generals are afraid. Don’t retreat. ἡ στρατιὰ ἡ τῶν βαρβάρων ἡ τῶν βαρβάρων στρατιά c. ἀλλὰ μάχεσθε καὶ ἐλεύθεροι γίγνεσθε. oἱ δὲ τῶν Ἀθηναίων πολέμιοι πίπτουσιν. The best rhapsode always makes his stories very beautiful. τέλος οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι νικῶσιν. the Persians advance swiftly to battle. So they ﬁght in good order and defeat the foreigners. and. Finally they are no longer afraid. οἱ ναῦται oἱ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ oἱ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ ναῦται e. ὦ ναῦται.Revision exercises for section 2 29 C – SYNTAX 1. So in this way the Greeks become free through their courage. And when the day comes. but ﬁght! μὴ ϕοβεῖσθε. Then both the Athenians and the rest of the Greeks keep quiet. ἴστε ὅτι oἱ τῶν Περσῶν στρατηγοὶ ἀναχωροῦσιν. 5. friends. 3. their ships sail slowly up and down. 4. So the foreigners ﬂee. . τὸ πλοῖον τὸ τῶν πολεμίων τὸ τῶν πολεμίων πλοῖον The deeds of the Persians The army of the barbarians The shout in the harbour The sailors in the ship The ship of the enemy D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. but the Greeks are at a loss and are afraid. The ship goes towards the sea-battle. 2. and Xerxes also ﬂees. oἱ ναῦται πρὸς τὸν ῥαψῳδὸν διαλέγονται. τὰ ἔργα τὰ τῶν Περσῶν τὰ τῶν Περσῶν ἔργα b. a.
) in grid. Note that 3rd declension nouns have a number of different forms in the nominative. Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative various -α -ος -ι m. Notice that the indeﬁnite τις. but attention now focuses on the ending of λιμένα. + acc. both ending in -α (for neuter nouns in the nominative and accusative always have the same ending). 10–11 Note the way that Greek echoes the interrogative πόθεν by its indirect form ὁπόθεν in reply to the question. 15 σῷζε ἡμᾶς εἰς τὸν λιμένα Note the difference in usage in Greek and English. It is important to learn the stem to which the other case-endings are attached (as in Latin). Page 30 1 πρὸς τὸν λιμένα The phrase should be familiar. A simpliﬁed form of the patterns can be summarised as follows: s. There are a number of variants which will be introduced gradually. -ες -ας -ων -σι(ν) neut.Section Three: Athens and Sparta 3A In this section you will meet the 3rd declension nouns formally. Enter neuter plural (nom. See GE pp. gives us ‘pyromaniac’. as above. as above. its gender and its stem and any peculiarities as you meet it. 3 ἡ λαμπάς The article indicates that this is nominative singular. 2 λαμπάδα τινά Another accusative singular. ‘Save us into the harbour’. ‘ﬁre’. Literally. pl. which regularly follows its noun. τόν indicates masculine accusative singular: the ending itself is -α. -α -α -ων -σι(ν) This covers most of the forms you are likely to encounter in this section. + f. 13 τὰ πυρά The article indicates neuter plural. 54–56. pl. 30 . which may be entered in a grid for 3rd declension endings. It is not difﬁcult to recognise the case if you are working from Greek into English. but if you want to feel really conﬁdent and to cope with English into Greek. ‘pyrotechnics’ etc. is also 3rd declension. πῦρ. #66–68. you should learn each new noun. but ‘Bring us safely into the harbour’ sounds better.
and the ship is already turning into the harbour. DIK. 60–61. neuter plural subjects have a singular verb (GE p. ending and may be entered on the grid. hurry. I know that well. 23 σαϕῶς δηλοῖ The subject is τὰ πυρά (n. Don’t be afraid. What are you saying? Where is the light [coming] from? Where from? Look! (The captain also looks towards the island. Come over here and look. 64. 30. You will see that in the latter case the article is also used: ‘this the din’. οὗτος can be used by itself as a pronoun to mean ‘this man’. δηλοῖ is here a verb. 61. SAIL.) Ο Zeus! It is not a light you are seeing. We are in danger. ἐκεῖνος ‘that’ (GE p.) Look.’ This is an idiom. CAPTAIN DIKAIOPOLIS CAPT. ‘They show clearly that …’ νῆες ναῦς is highly irregular (GE p. Translation for 3A Thus then the ship goes slowly towards the harbour. (Looks towards Salamis. captain. What are you saying? Do you say ﬁre signals? Ο Zeus! Come along. DIK. No clause follows the ὅτι. hurry and get us safe into the harbour. captain: I see a light on the island. 20. But I am saving you. although the -ες ending is also the regular nom. #69. SAILOR CAPT. DIK. τὰ πυρά is neuter plural (as above in line 13) b. Dikaiopolis. 3rd person singular (GE p.Section 3B 31 τίς not interrogative. So the captain asks where the light is from. But why are we hurrying? Is there some danger for us? [Yes]. subj. CAPT. or you may prefer to look at GE pp. Dikaiopolis sees a light on Salamis. 21 τὰ πυρὰ δηλοῖ Notice that a. #74 gives full forms).) 20–21 εὖ οἶδα ὅτι ‘I know that well. by Zeus. . When he sees the light. #25). We are hurrying because the ﬁre signals show some danger. #69) is used in the same way. pl. #42b. We are now approaching the harbour. What do the ﬁre signals show? They show clearly that enemy ships are coming against us. or it can be used as a demonstrative adjective with a noun (οὗτος ὁ θόρυβος) to mean ‘this din’. SAIL. I am hurrying. 3B New in this section is the word οὗτος ‘this’: so you may wish to have an empty grid ready to ﬁll in its forms as they occur. he immediately hurries towards the harbour. but ﬁre signals. #35) c. pl. 26. followed by singular verb) from the line before. but indeﬁnite! The accent comes from enclitic ἐστιν (GE p.
where are you running to? PROT. much confusion occurs in the harbour. and neuter nom. Protarchos and Polos. I am running home for my weapons. 8 μέγας ‘big’ (as in English ‘mega-’ compounds) has slight irregularities. great the shouting in the harbour. to secure the oar to the thole-pin (a pin fixed in the port-hole) and/or the rower’s wrist. ‘the shout. and many shouts. the latter is a ‘cushion’ (usually tallowed underneath) to assist the rower in sliding backwards and forwards whilst rowing. and look over there. and acc. But why don’t you come with me? POLOS . his neighbour. 3 ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς There is just a small number of 2nd declension nouns which are feminine.) Tell me. 23 παῖς This means ‘child’ or ‘boy’ but is frequently used with the meaning of ‘slave’ i. this is a very common type of phrase. 49. Here the article is followed by a prepositional phrase instead of a noun. neighbour. someone with no authority. #73. note the use of the article as well. And then I am going quickly to my ship. 63. Page 33 20 τροπωτῆρα … ὑπηρέσιον There is no point in trying to guess these! The former is an ‘oar-loop’. This is the meaning given in the running vocabulary for 3B and is the meaning throughout this section. PROTARCHOS (Runs homeward. For this danger is terrible and great. POL. 1–2 πολύς … πολλαί Both are parts of πολύς ‘many’ (as in English ‘poly-’ compounds). ‘homewards’.is the norm except in masc. like πολύς. the one in the harbour’. see the men.not πολλ.32 Section 3B Page 32 1 oἱ ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ See GE p. For it is night. 63. ταῦτα τὰ πυρά Neuter plural of οὗτος. 15 Notice how ποῖ ‘where to’ is answered by οἴκαδε ‘to my home’.as in the rest of the cases.e. #73. and acc. (Runs out of his house.) Come over here. and this is one of them. 14. and many men appear in the streets and watch the ﬁre signals. singular. Each member of the trireme’s crew kept his own. neighbour? Do you know? For great is the confusion. Translation for 3B When the people in the Piraeus see these ﬁre signals. See GE p. and neuter nom. Tell me. singular the stem is πολ. neighbour. The stem μεγαλ. Notice that in the masc. Do you not see those ﬁre signals? Look: it is clear that Salamis is in danger. #63. ‘The [people] in the Piraeus’. what is this shouting? What is this confusion. The full pattern is given in GE p. and nowhere [is there] order. 8–9 ἡ βοὴ ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι Notice the repeated article.
τῶν παίδων 3. 8. τῷ ἀνδρί 3A–B: 3 5. So Polos brings out his oar-loop and cushion. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3A–B THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS 3A–B: 1 1. men. Then the men go towards the harbour. λιμένα. τὸν ἄνδρα. τῇ λαμπάδι 1. ταῖς νυξί(ν) 8. 5. νύκτες. σωτήρ 3A–B: 2 1. 7. 5. πατρίδας ἡ λαμπάς. and Protarchos’ slave brings out his weapons and his torch. but you cannot see me. We are ﬁghting. 3.) freedom is in my hands/ is in my power/ is my responsibility. νύκτα. Don’t chase us. νύκτας. 9. The wicked men defeat you (pl.). λιμένες. Our safety is in your (pl. πατρίδα ὁ ἀνήρ. 7. παῖδας. παῖδες. 8. We are dying. γείτων. I [can] see you (s. 8. παῖδα. γείτονας. 4. λιμένας. but you (pl. 3. τῆς πατρίδος 2. παῖς. πατρίδες τὴν λαμπάδα.) (hands). For it is clear that we are going to a sea-battle. Your (pl. πατρίς τοὺς ἄνδρας.) or which of us is afraid of the men? 5. Which of you (pl. but you (s. 33 Indeed I am coming with you. 4. εἰς τοὺς λιμένας ἐπὶ τὸν γείτονα διὰ τὴν νύκτα ἐπὶ τοὺς παῖδας διὰ τὴν πατρίδα PERSONAL PRONOUNS 3A–B: 4 1. PROT.) are keeping quiet/doing nothing.) do nothing. but not us. POL. 6. But wait. σωτῆρα οἱ ἄνδρες. 2. γείτονες. 3. τοῦ σωτῆρος 4. λιμήν. γείτονα. not in ours.Exercises for section 3A–B POL. 6. 2. but watch us. σωτῆρας αἱ λαμπάδες. 10. . νύξ. 2. παρὰ τὸν λιμένα εἰς τὴν πατρίδα ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας πρὸς τοὺς γείτονας διὰ τὸν παῖδα 6. 4. τῶν γειτόνων 7. But where are you running to? I’m [going] home for my oar-loop and cushion. σωτῆρες τὰς λαμπάδας. τοῖς λιμέσι(ν) 6.). friend. 7.
d. b. ἐν ἡμῖν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3A–B A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. from there / thence without experience the spectacle. d. 3. c. I educate. πρὸς σέ 5. 2. τὸν ἔμπειρον ἄνδρα τὴν κακὴν νύκτα τὸν σῶον παῖδα τὴν καλὴν πατρίδα ὁ ἀγαθὸς γείτων ἡ καλλίστη λαμπάς ὁ πολέμιος λιμήν ἡ ἐλευθέρα πατρίς τοῦ ἐμπείρου ἀνδρός τῆς κακῆς νυκτός τοῦ σώου παιδός τῆς καλῆς πατρίδος τῷ ἐμπείρῳ ἀνδρί τῇ καλλίστῃ λαμπάδι τῷ πολεμίῳ λιμένι τῇ ἐλευθέρᾳ πατρίδι . the theatre I create a disturbance I am in danger of. brave farmer. ἀπὸ ὑμῶν 6. c. ἐμὲ σέ 8. without danger the student belonging to the house or family. a. obvious B – WORD SHAPE 1. I farm I do not know there. b.34 Revision exercises for section 3A–B 3A–B: 5 1. a. a. d. c. c. b. a man earth/work I know to there experienced I watch a din. b. ὑμεῖς ἡμεῖς 3. a. domestic hoplite (heavy-armed soldier) education. ἡμῶν 7. d. the spectator. uneducated apparent. ἐν ἐμοί 4. commotion the danger I learn house weapons a child I appear manly. ἡμᾶς 2.
. ‘democracy’. 21 τίνες οἱ λόγοι. Supply εἰσί. ‘aristocracy’. 24 κρατοῦσι κράτος is the Greek for ‘power’. 10–11 μὴ ποίει τοῦτο μηδὲ ϕοβοῦ … Notice that the negatives οὐ and οὐδέ are used in negative statements. which will be followed by μηδέ. 17 οὐδεμία Feminine of οὐδείς (GE p. #86). οὐδὲ λαμβάνει οὐδένα … Notice that additional compound negatives simply strengthen the negative sense (GE p. but with difﬁculty and with much practice …’ 34–35 ϕησί τις ὑμῶν A typical rhetorical trick.Section 3C 35 C – SYNTAX the expert man the bad night the saved child the beautiful fatherland the good neighbour the most beautiful light/lamp the enemy harbour the free fatherland 3C Page 34 4 δεινὸς ὁ ἐν Σαλαμῖνι κίνδυνος Supply ἐστί.e. 75. ‘says one of you’. 26 Notice the contrast between ἐμπειρίαν τινά and οὐδεμίαν … ἐμπειρίαν. τριηρ. hence ‘captain of a trireme’ or ‘trierarch’. ‘bureaucracy’ etc. 41 τριηράρχων The -αρχ. 32–33 Notice the order of the words and the ideas. #86). 7–8 πτώσσει … ὥσπερ Ἀχαιὸς ὑϕ’ Ἕκτορι The sailor is ‘Homerising’. 75. whereas μή. i.e. hence ‘farmer’ (note Virgil’s Georgics (farming matters) if that helps ﬁx the meaning).element means ‘ruler’. 17–18 οὐκ ἀϕικνεῖται Λακεδαιμόνιος οὐδείς. ‘expertise at sea’. is used in negative commands or prohibitions. ‘otherwise there’s no way [they can learn]’. 2 ἄλλως δὲ οὐδαμῶς ‘otherwise nowise’ i. Page 36 28 καὶ δὴ καί Often used at the end of a string of points as a ﬁnal ‘clincher’: ‘and what’s more’. the imagined interjection. 29 γεωργοί Compounded from γῆ ‘land’ and ἔργον ‘work’. ταύτην Refers back to τέχνη.‘of a trireme’. 30 τὸ … ναυτικόν ‘the nautical thing’. ‘not easily. from which we get our ‘-cracy’ words.
how much confusion. Look. nor taking anybody. but with difﬁculty and with much practice. οἴκοθεν ‘from home’. RHAPSODE What are you saying? Are the Spartans arriving? I am afraid of the Spartans. SAILOR Look. πολύς is delayed to the end to make it more emphatic. how many warships. since they are farmers and not seafarers. and no other way. It can mean ‘somewhere’. Nautical [expertise] is a skill: and this “skill” men learn through practice. And moreover. those sailors are swarming into the harbour. SAIL. SAIL. DIK. this rhapsode ‘is cowering’ in the ship ‘like an Achaean at Hector’s mercy’. For you know well that not easily. Tell me. but it often makes the statement vague and tentative.36 Section 3D Translation for 3C Meanwhile Dikaiopolis and the sailors are still talking to each other. Listen then to what Pericles says in the ecclesia (assembly) about the war and about nautical matters: ‘Do not be afraid. one of you says. nor killing anybody. Don’t do this. “But the Spartans”. and don’t be afraid of these Spartans. rhapsode. do you learn this skill. 3 κελευστής Derived from κελεύω. And now see the harbour! How many torches [there are]. rhapsode: but where is the man? For I cannot see that man. For those men have supremacy on land. ‘The one who orders’. “do they not practise?” I reply “No.” ’ DIK. while they have no experience in nautical matters. are preventing them. what are you doing? What fear takes hold of you? For you are the best general of the Greeks. . as they do other skills.) This is the indeﬁnite form of ποῦ ‘where’. and it is clear that not one of the Spartans is arriving. since we have supremacy at sea. For those men take sailors and kill them. DIKAIOPOLIS 3D Page 36 2 θόρυβος γίγνεται πολύς Notice the word order. But no ship is arriving. we [have supremacy] at sea. I am. but we. But we too have some experience on land. the Spartans do not easily learn nautical matters. I know that well. Great is the number both of ships and of trierarchs. how many men! Look! Like ants. What are the words? Tell me: for I do not remember. and οἴκαδε ‘to home’. Look. like ‘I suppose’ in English. So don’t be afraid. που (Without an accent. Page 37 6 οἴκοι ‘at home’. my friend. of the Spartans. He’s afraid of the Spartans. Athenians. translated in English above as ‘boatswain’ because he was the one who gave orders to the rowers. we are already near the harbour. Do you not remember the words of Pericles? RHAP. Cf. Ο Zeus! Terrible is the danger in Salamis and great.
οὕτως γε ‘[He] certainly [is] thus’. Do you not see those ﬁre signals? TRI. So Polos runs quickly towards the trierarch. why are you still waiting? Why don’t you call your master? For I am looking for him. and look for the trierarch and tell him about this danger in Salamis. Of course. from which Polos came – a normal method of identiﬁcation. I’m coming quickly. Finally he arrives at the door. What are you saying? Impossible? Go to hell! Don’t joke with me. γε emphasises οὕτως. from the deme Kydathenaion. So hurry. What are you saying? Are you joking with me? (He sees the ﬁre signals on the island. Translation for 3D When Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode arrive on land. where is our trierarch? Clearly at home. trierarch: Salamis is in danger.Section 3D 37 14 παῖ ‘Boy’ is being used in the sense of ‘slave’. i. do something’. BOATSWAIN POLOS . Page 38 29 Κυδαθηναιεύς A member of the deme (roughly ward/parish in Attica) Kydathenaion. Why don’t I knock on this door? Trierarch! Trierarch! I’m calling you! TRIERARCH Go to hell! But who’s knocking at the door? What’s this business? Who’s calling me? Who’s shouting? POL. 19–20 ἢ οὐχ οὕτως. boatswain. Alas! Terrible is the danger of the Athenians. there is much confusion going on. But don’t sleep. Near the ship is a boatswain. ‘throw [yourself] to the crows’ – a colloquial Greek expression meaning ‘go to hell’. Tell me. The answer to questions is often given in the form of a positive statement: ‘Is he there?’ is more often answered by ‘He is there’ than by ‘Yes’. He’s asleep. POL. BOY But it’s impossible. POL. 21 ϕέρε. ὦ παῖ ϕέρε is like ἄγε and means ‘come on. and that man is asleep at home. Come along then. Polos. POL. presumably. The men keep quiet and watch the spectacle. BOA. is the trierarch inside? Or isn’t he? BOY He is. and this man is shouting. ‘or isn’t he?’ Greek will often add the alternative – and note the form of reply. 25 βάλλε εἰς κόρακας Literally. boy. Come and look over there. Boy! Boy! What are you doing? Is the boy asleep? Boy! Boy! BOY Who is it? Who is shouting? Why are you calling me? Who are you looking for? POL. Polos. Tell me. POL. ‘or not thus?’ (literally). But I’m sleeping soundly – POL. The master is sleeping soundly. boatswain.) Alas! Wait.e. Polos. is calling you – me! TRI.
in. and θυσίας θύομεν. in. 9. ἐκεῖνοι οἱ λιμένες 2. TRIERARCH TRI. 10. out. In. σπονδὴν σπένδω. Translation for 3E Finally the sailors and the boatswain embark on the ships. and the trierarch also embarks. out’. 16 κατακέλευε Compound indicates giving time to rowers – ‘Now call the time. 3. 7. cf. 5. It would be the normal practice to pour a libation and to say a prayer at the start of a voyage.38 Section 3E 3E Page 39 6 ὠὸπ ὄπ Not meaningful words – just a sort of ‘in. (He prays his prayers. that 3C–E: 1 1. out. Call the time. ἐκεῖνος . ἐκείνας τὰς λαμπάδας those harbours those lamps/lights . Quickly now. out. in. the boat sails away. this. In. BOATSWAIN BOA. out. men. 7–8 τὰς εὐχὰς εὔχομαι Greek likes these repetitive phrases. boatswain. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3C–E ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS: οὗτος .) Now call the time again. 4. Well done. out. (He pours the libation. And when he gives the order. Give the order.) Ο Lord Poseidon – for you are the best saviour of sailors and we often sacriﬁce our sacriﬁces to you for our safety – get us safely back to our country. out … Well done! Now I pour a libation to the gods and pray prayers. TRI. 8. BOA. 6. τοῦτον τὸν λιμένα αὗται αἱ λαμπάδες οὗτος ὁ γείτων τούτους τοὺς παῖδας ταύτην τὴν πατρίδα τούτους τοὺς ἄνδρας τοῦτο τὸ ἔργον αὗται αἱ νύκτες οὗτοι οἱ σωτῆρες ταῦτα τὰ ὅπλα this harbour these torches/lights this neighbour these children this country these men this deed/task these nights these saviours these weapons 3C–E: 2 1. in. 2. out. boatswain. Our ship is sailing away. In. boatswain.
2. πολλοῦ καὶ μεγάλου λιμένος 2. ἐκείνης τῆς πατρίδος ταύταις. 2. 5. πολλῶν καὶ μεγάλων λόγων . 4. 9. μέγα ἔργον 5. 6. τούτου. μεγάλοι γείτονες 4. μεγάλη λαμπάς 3. 7. πολλῆς καὶ μεγάλης λαμπάδος 4. 5. 8. 3. GREAT: πολύς . ἐκείνῃ τῇ λαμπάδι τούτων. μέγας 3C–E: 4 1. μέγας ἄνηρ 3C–E: 6 a big harbour a great light big neighbours a great deed large countries a big man 1. πολλῷ καὶ μεγάλῳ ἀνθρώπῳ 3. ἐκείνου τοῦ γείτονος ταύτῃ. 6. 4. ἐκείνοις τοῖς ἀνδράσι ταύτης. μέγαν λιμένα 2. 5. 8. 4. ἐκείνων τῶν παίδων τούτῳ. πολλοὺς λιμένας πολλαὶ λαμπάδες πολλοὶ γείτονες πολὺς πόλεμος πολλὰ ὅπλα πολλὰς νύκτας πολλὴ ἀπορία many harbours many lights/lamps many neighbours much war many weapons many nights much perplexity 3C–E: 5 1. ἐκείναις ταῖς νυξίν τούτων. μεγάλας πατρίδας 6. ἐκείνῳ τῷ λιμένι τούτοις. 3. 10.Exercises for section 3C–E 39 3. 7. 7. 6. ἐκείνων τῶν ἔργων MANY. ἐκεῖνον τὸν γείτονα ἐκεῖνοι οἱ παῖδες ἐκείνη ἡ πατρίς ἐκεῖνοι οἱ ἄνδρες ἐκεῖνος ὁ σωτήρ ἐκεῖναι αἱ νύκτες ἐκεῖνο τὸ ἔργον ἐκεῖνα τὰ πυρά that neighbour those children that country/fatherland those men that saviour those nights that deed/task those ﬁre-signals 3C–E: 3 1.
ὑμεῖς ‘you’ (pl. παρὰ τὰς ναῦς 3. διὰ τὸν Δία 2. ἐν ‘in’. d. b. σπονδή ‘libation’.e. πολλῇ καὶ μεγάλῃ ἀπορίᾳ IRREGULAR NOUNS 3C–E: 7 1. βοή ‘a shout’ + θέω ‘I run’ = ‘I run to the help of’. b. e. i. ἐκεῖνος ‘that (there)’. ἐμπειρία ‘experience’. 2. ἡμέτερος ‘our’. πρὸς τὸν Δία 5. a. c. c. κελευστής ‘orderer’. ἐκεῖσε ‘over there’. πολλοῖς καὶ μεγάλοις ἐργοῖς 6. ἔνδον ‘inside’. εὔχομαι ‘I pray’. a. d. ἔμπειρος ‘experienced’. 3. κατακελεύω ‘I give the time’. B – WORD SHAPE 1.). ὑμέτερος ‘your’ (belonging to lots of you). (speciﬁcally in this chapter) ‘boatswain’. σπένδω ‘I pour a libation’. εὐχή ‘prayer’. οὕτως ‘thus’. d. e. εἰς τὴν ναῦν 4.40 Revision exercises for section 3C–E 5. a. βοή ‘a shout’. τοῦτον τὸν ἄνδρα ταῦτα τὰ ἔργα ταύτην τὴν λαμπάδα τὰς βοὰς ταύτας τούτους τοὺς λιμένας οὗτος ὁ γείτων αὗται αἱ λαμπάδες τὰ πυρὰ ταῦτα ἡ πατρὶς αὕτη οὗτοι oἱ ἄνδρες μέγα τὸ ἔργον πολλὴν ἐμπειρίαν μέγαν λιμένα πολλὰ δεινά . κελεύω ‘I order’. ἐπὶ τὰς ναῦς REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3C–E A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. οὗτος ‘this’. βοάω ‘I shout’. b. c. βοηθέω ‘I help’. ἡμεῖς ‘we’.
these ﬁre-signals. λαμπάδα ὁρᾷ (1) θεῶνται τὰ πυρά (4. 2. And the Spartans do not easily learn nautical technique. these deeds. E – TEST EXERCISE 3C–E While this ship is sailing past the island. these men.Revision exercises for section 3C–E 41 C – SYNTAX 1. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. this man. The sailors say that the Athenians are supreme at sea. 3. this country. (a) μέγας (5) (b) ναυτικήν (9) τρέχουσιν (5) (c) δῆλον (11) . 3. Dikaiopolis sees a light on the island. but this man [is stupid] about nothing. ἐκεῖνος ὁ μῶρος ῥαψῳδὸς ϕοβεῖται τούτους τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους. ἡ οὖν ναῦς πρὸς ἐκεῖνον τὸν λιμένα βραδέως πλεῖ. 4. 5) 4. but they are sleeping peacefully. great is the deed. For great is the danger of the Athenians. ἐπέρχονται (4) θεῶνται (4) 3. the men have much experience in naval matters. εἰς τὸν λιμένα (3) ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους (4) 2. and the Spartans by land. The captain knows well that it is not a light but the ﬁre signals. So the captain looks quickly towards Salamis. EXERCISE Note: there are many more possible answers 1. Finally these trierarchs arrive at the harbour and get on board. For he fears the Spartans. and great the confusion of the men. 2. That man is stupid about many things. these harbours. ἐκεῖναι μὲν γὰρ ἔμπειροι περὶ πολλά. And it is clear that these ships are going to a sea-battle. So when the ship arrives in the harbour. Don’t you know whether those men are sailors or not? οὐχ οἶδα πότερον ἐκεῖνος (ὁ ἄνθρωπος/ἀνήρ) στρατηγός ἐστιν ἢ οὔ. this lamp. Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode go towards the ships. Great fear seizes the rhapsode. This good captain does not hear these shouts. these shouts. πολλοὶ δὲ (ἄνθρωποι/ ἄνδρες) ϕαίνονται. The men in the harbour watch the ﬁre signals and run home for their weapons. αὕτη δὲ οὔ. this neighbour. 5. For they know that the danger is great. πολλαὶ δὲ αἱ βοαί. Then they offer their sacriﬁces and pour their libations and put out to sea. For the boatswains are looking for the trierarchs. μέγας μὲν γὰρ ὁ θόρυβος. So he hurries into the harbour: for those ﬁre signals reveal that the enemy are attacking the Athenians. the sailor sees many strange things. the captain steers towards a great harbour. these lamps.
it is often best to translate literally ﬁrst. πλῆθος is neuter (GE p. δαίμων English ‘demon’ is derived from this word. 73. When translating. It means the opposite of ‘divinely favoured’: some god is wishing evil upon you. 4A Page 42 1 ὅσον πλῆθος Once again the exclamatory use of ὅσος. 71. of another noun. pl.Section Four: Lawlessness in Athenian life In this Section. ἔπειτα δέ …. ‘divine spirit’. 3 πυράς τινας The meaning should be clear (cf. 42 . 8 Notice πρῶτον μὲν …. 6 κακοδαίμων ‘ill-starred’ is perhaps the closest English can get to this idea. 54. which you have learned (see GE p. 77–78. being a sailor. τὰ πυρά in Section 3) but note that here we have the acc. you might begin with ‘he. in effect. See the map on page 38 of RGT. of active and middle verbs in Sections C–D. he likes Pericles’. ‘What a great crowd … !’ 2 τὰ τείχη τεῖχος is another neuter noun of the 3rd declension like πλῆθος. Participles are very widely used in Greek: this means. the new grammatical material includes the use of participles – of the verb ‘to be’ in Sections A–B. that you should observe carefully the way they are used and not move on from Section 4 until you are quite happy with all the usages of participles encountered in this Section. adjectives and pronouns (see GE pp. This is a 3rd declension adjective (see GE p. then re-phrase more idiomatically. 11 Similarly. 4 πρὸς τῶν θεῶν ‘by the gods’ – the case usage will be explained later. γεωργὸς ὤν ‘because/as/since I’m a farmer’. likes Pericles’ before modifying to another clause – ‘because/as/since he is a sailor. a common pairing. #82). 10–11 ναύτης ὤν ‘being a sailor’. Participles have a wide range of usages in Greek (see GE p. Here. The Long Walls joined Athens to the Piraeus. however un-English it may seem. for example.70–72. There are also more types of 3rd declension nouns. #66). but note that the Greek has no ‘bad’ implications – it is a neutral term meaning ‘god’. #78) so the two agree. #88). ἡ πυρά ‘funeral pyre’. The endings are just the same as in the nouns like λιμήν. This is the ﬁrst example of the present participle. #77–80).
13–17).element in the middle. κρατοῦμεν As on p. so which form? 30–31 κακοδαίμονα ὄντα. and then understand κρατοῦσι in the next phrase. but that the stem of the adjectives is -oν. therefore the countryside of Attica could not be defended and the advice was given to farmers to abandon their property and take refuge in Athens where the city. κακοδαίμονα … οὖσαν. See GE p. The English introduction. 25 οὖσα δεινή is here the clue to determining the form. 24 νόσος Distinguish carefully from νήσος. Thucydides 7. 56–7. and that the adjective does not have a separate feminine form whereas the participle does. The policy of Pericles explained here was that it was not safe to risk a major land battle against the Spartans. 29 οὖσαν Agreeing with τὴν ἐμὴν γυναῖκα. case and gender show that it agrees with τὰς οἰκήσεις. with the basic sense of ‘leave’. Note the adjective stem without a ‘τ’ and the participle stem with one. ‘my son who is no longer alive’. RGT p. Deduce number. The verb ‘to be’ is often used in the sense of ‘to be alive’. 36 line 35. 23 οὔσας Use ὀλίγας to determine which form this is. here speciﬁcally ‘the plague’. 27 ὀλοϕύρομαι You may be able to deduce the meaning of this from the illustration on p. ‘we are superior/supreme’. 77. as you will see in line 40 below. O. 28 τὸν ἐμὸν υἱόν.and the stem of the participle is -oντ-.Section 4A 43 Page 43 12–13 Note how μέν and δέ are used to point the contrast between ‘us’ and the Lacedaemonians. 42. 49. This is the feminine form of the participle. .T. 41. could be defended. κακοδαίμονας ὄντας These show clearly the similarities and differences between the participle and the adjective. has already mentioned the plague which devastated Athens: νόσος generally means ‘disease’. case and gender from πολλοί and enter in grid. ‘to exist’. ‘It is men who make a city and not walls or ships with no men inside them. 13 καταλείπετε Note the -λειπ. #87 for the full paradigm of the participle. 15–16 πόλις … ἄνδρες Cf. while Athens waged war by sea (Thucydides 2. 19–20 τὰ δὲ πρόβατα … διαπεμπόμεθα So that’s what Dikaiopolis was doing over in Euboea way back in Section 1A! Page 44 21 πολλοὶ ὄντες Another form of the participle. #63). no longer being’. the Long Walls and Piraeus. 31 τοὺς ἐν τῇ πόλει ‘the people in the city’ (remember GE p. The number.77. Also there is a separate feminine.’ See also Sophocles. Notice that the endings are almost the same as the adjectives. οὐκέτ᾽ ὄντα ‘my son.
but men. Do not worry. also ill-starred. For he says: ‘We have supremacy at sea. many women. RHAP. Tell me. Why has the city such a great crowd. βαρὺν ὄντα This is accusative and refers to the νεκρός. But Pericles [is] a very good general. When we – and there are many of us – arrive in the city. The city-people have the houses. ‘I carry it. who is no longer. which is now the object of ϕέρω. the situation becomes difﬁcult. Page 46 21 σέβομαι Cf. rhapsode. and then also Pericles. For I am still lamenting my own son. many children. it is terrible and destroys many men. then in the temples. and τοὺς ἀσεβεῖς (line 28) and τοὺς εὐσεβεῖς (line 28). 12 ὢ τῆς ὕβρεως The case is a genitive of exclamation. 3 νεκρός Cf. . farmers. It will be explained later – for the present. who am ill-starred. also ill-starred. the crowd is unfortunate and the farmers in particular are unfortunate. RHAPSODE 4B Page 45 2 βαρύς ‘heavy’. and bring your property into the city. ‘What violence/aggression!’ Similarly with ὢ τῆς ἀνομίας (15) and ὢ τῆς ἀσεβείας (16). slowly. English ‘necromancy’. You see the city. which are few. But it is clear that that man likes Pericles because he’s a sailor. being heavy. and your land. what’s the reason? Indeed it is clear that some evil god is punishing the city. The war is primarily responsible. and my own wife.’ 11 ὦ ’νθρωπε = ὦ ἄνθρωπε. You see the [people] in the city. For a city is not dwellings or land. They are all from the same root. You see me. So leave your homes. But I’m not a sailor but a farmer.’ So. For the sailor – DIK. who is no longer. English ‘barometer’ etc. ‘necrophilia’. The ﬂocks we transport across to Euboea. Since I’m a farmer. and we live ﬁrst in the Long Walls. since he is a persuasive orator. Dikaiopolis? Alas! What’s this? I see funeral pyres. I think Pericles [is] responsible. You will not meet this type of 3rd declension adjective properly until Section 10. but the Spartans [have supremacy] on land. After this the plague occurs. We bring in from the country our children and our wives and the rest of our property. DIKAIOPOLIS The city is indeed unfortunate. The plague also destroys my household.44 Section 4B Translation for 4A Heracles! What a lot of people! The walls seem full. rhapsode. 25 ὥσπερ πρόβατα Our idiom is ‘like ﬂies’. by the gods. in this way Pericles persuades us. There you have the situation. cf. ἀσέβεια.
what’s this? Are you throwing a corpse onto that pyre? What irreverence! Stop – Y. So I’m turning to Aphrodite and pleasure.53). He no longer sees any point in trying to observe the old religion and morality. DIK. old man.M.’ O. since the plague is destroying both the pious and the impious alike.Μ. Do you not reverence the gods? Do you not honour the laws of man? Does nothing stop you. Don’t get in my way. She is a beautiful and kindly goddess. And do you speak to me of gods and laws? You fool – the gods either don’t exist or don’t care about us. master. For this corpse is heavy. But I don’t dishonour the gods. boy.Μ. . what are you doing? Are you hitting a citizen? What lawlessness! Stop! Alas. O. a comment on the transience of human existence. 35 Pindar quotation. but note the literal meaning ‘lasting for one day’ (ἡμέρα ‘day’). And don’t talk to me about laws and aggressive behaviour.Μ. but θεός as a feminine form is more common. 39 ἡ θεός There is a noun ἡ θεά.Μ. and as it’s heavy. I don’t care. a citizen? What aggressive behaviour! Don’t hit [me]. Foul [man]! Are you hitting me. O. wait and don’t hurry. Don’t get in my way. What are you saying? Corpses are falling upon corpses. 2. For I’m not afraid of punishment.Section 4B 45 33 ἐϕήμεροι English ‘ephemeral’ helps. she makes life happy. the most pious of men? Look. I’m carrying it slowly.Μ. neither fear of the gods nor the laws of men? Y. Stop. Since the goddess is beautiful and kindly. DIK. because they are ﬁne. throw the corpse onto this pyre. But today I am burying my son. ‘Man is the dream of a shadow’. who were always pious? Now where is my brother. stop! You are dishonouring the gods. Don’t you know that men are short-lived? What are we? What are we not? YOUNG MAN SLAVE ‘Man is the dream of a shadow.M. The only deity he has any time for is Aphrodite. The young man is depicted here as exhibiting the sort of moral deterioration which Thucydides describes as one of the effects of the plague (Thuc. Where are my mother and father. boy. But what are you doing? Don’t do this. Translation for 4B Look. stop! Y. and it is my pyre. Come here. quickly! Wait. a pyre. fellow. by the gods.Μ.Μ. though you are a mortal. men are dying like ﬂies in their homes and in the temples. Y. DIKAIOPOLIS What are you saying? You are carrying a corpse? Y. I honour Aphrodite particularly. Come on. Y. O L D M A N What’s this? What are these shouts? You there.
τῷ ἄστει 7. οὐδέν οἰκήσεις – εὔφρονες. 73–76. τις. 4. 4. οὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδέν 4A–B: 3 1. τάξις αἱ οἰκήσεις. εὔφρονας. τινες. πλῆθος. that I hate the city because I am a farmer. πράγματα. #81–86. rhapsode. τινές. τινά. τινάς ἄστυ – εὔφρον. οὐδεμία σκεύη – εὔφρονα. οἱ πρέσβεις τὴν οἴκησιν. 6.46 DIK. 2. τις . 2. ταῖς πόλεσι(ν) TYPE 3 ADJECTIVES. Exercises for section 4A–B Are you surprised. τάξιν τὰ ἄστη. before you try the exercises. τινάς τάξις – εὔφρων. 9. 2. πρᾶγμα τὸν πρέσβυν ἡ οἴκησις. 10. #77–80 and pp. πόλεις. 3. 6. 3. πόλις. 5. 7. τάξεις ὁ πρέσβυς τὸ ἄστυ. 8. πόλιν. τινά . 70–72. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4A–B TYPE 3 NOUNS 4A–B: 1 1. 4. πόλεις. τι. 70). τοῦ πλήθους 9. εὔφρονας. τοῦ πρέσβεως 8. τῷ πλήθει τοῖς ἄστεσι(ν) τῇ πόλει τοῦ πράγματος τῶν πρέσβεων 6. τῷ πράγματι 10. 7. τάξεις 4A–B: 2 1. and long for my own deme? For in the city there is nothing other than lawlessness and impiety and plague and a great quantity of corpses. Check that you know it and understand it. τι. 5. There is also some vocabulary to be learnt (p. πλήθη. Grammar Grammar for this part of Section 4 is given at GE pp. οὐδέν πόλιν – εὔφρονα. σκεύη τοὺς πρέσβεις τὰς οἰκήσεις. πλῆθος – εὖφρον. τι. οὐδεμίαν πρέσβεις – εὔφρονες. 5. 3.
genesis revelation embarkation question search spectacle calling. οὐδενί πράγματος – εὔφρονος. whereas nouns which end in -μα describe a thing done: e. οὐδενί ἄστεσι – εὔφροσι(ν).Revision exercises for section 4A–B 47 4A–B: 4 1. ποίησις = ‘making poetry’. lesson immortal. 2. 1. ὄν 8. 2. οὖσαν 9. 4. ὄντες οὖσα ὄντες. 4. #87–88 before trying the next exercises. show I embark I ask I seek I watch I call education. οὖσαν ὄν ὄντες ὤν οὖσαν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4A–B A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING Once again. mortal I become I reveal. do not be surprised if you cannot ‘deduce’ all the meanings. summons . but ποίημα is ‘a poem’. 4. 5. τινός. 3. ὄντες 7. PRESENT PARTICIPLES 4A–B: 5 1. 76–78. death origin. 5. τισι(ν) Check that you understand GE pp. 3. 3. 6. οὐδενός πρέσβεων – εὐφρόνων. οὖσαι 10.g. τινί. οὐδενός πόλει – εὔφρονι. πλήθει – εὔφρονι. Uneducated I die. ὤν 4A–B: 6 1. ὄντας ὄντα ὄντα 6. Note that nouns which end in -σις normally express the doing of something. τινῶν τάξεως – εὔφρονος. τινος. 2. 5. τινί.
.) … ἡμεῖς ὀλίγοι ὄντες … ὑμᾶς πολλοὺς ὄντας. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. e. τὸ τῶν νεκρῶν πλῆθος. σὺ γεωργὸς ὢν οἶσθα τοὺς νόμους. expedition speed honour. or a daughter or a wife? I am doing this because I am ill-fated. τὸ πλῆθος. which are very good. Ο. power learning (the process). create general army quickly I honour I dare falsely B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX beauty strength. honour the gods’ laws. κακοδαίμων οὖσα. Why are you lamenting. the city is in much perplexity and the people are short-lived and ill-fated. corpses fall upon corpses and people die because they are ill-fated. ἡ ἐμὴ γυνή. friend.Μ. οὐκ ἀτιμάζει τοὺς θεούς. who is ill-fated. E – TEST EXERCISE 4A–B YOUNG MAN OLD MAN Y. This general. b. τίς ὢν σύ … . But what is the reason? How are the people dying? Because of the plague. who are unlucky. I do not dishonour the gods. who is no more. You seem to be ill-fated indeed. I do not honour the city. c. … σέ. do. ναῦται ὄντες. friend? Are you lamenting a son. ὦ γυναῖκες … ἐγώ. or fem. and my daughter who is now a corpse. a. is not afraid of the Spartans who are hostile. 4. For I see the multitude of people are ill-fated. since he is very good. We have many problems because of the plague. ϕίλαι οὖσαι. οὐ ϕοβοῦμαι. Since I am a mortal. Ἀθηναῖος ὢν καὶ εὐδαίμων. The Athenians defeat by sea those men who are experienced on land. ϕοβεῖται τὴν νόσον. d. friend. κακοδαίμων ὤν / οὖσα (masc. μέγα ὄν. dishonoured recklessness. lie 1. κατὰ θάλατταν κρατοῦμεν. Come over here and tell [me]. For I am lamenting both my son. ἀγαθὸν ὄν. μεγάλους ὄντας. though it is beautiful. Y.Μ. κακὴν οὖσαν.M. learning (the thing learned) poem. Λακεδαιμόνιον ὄντα καὶ κακοδαίμονα. poetic art stratagem army. The people. 2. 5.48 Revision exercises for section 4A–B beautiful I am powerful I learn I make. 3. daring deed falsehood.
9 ἀποφεύγων τυγχάνει τυγχάνω is another verb that is normally accompanied by a participle (see GE p. ἔλθε εἰπέ line 1. agrees with υἱόν οὖσαν line 4.. sing. 82–83. . It means ‘to happen to be doing something’ or ‘to be really doing something’. agrees with θυγατέρα [nb. ‘experience’. s. ἀτίμαζε. #95). You can also see the present participle of παύω set out on GE pp. ‘Are you unaware of the man running?’. 3. ‘undergo’. The noun means ‘traveller’. ‘Or does the man escape your notice running?’ before trying to rephrase more idiomatically. but be resolute and honour the gods. ἀσέβει. m. ‘Do you not notice the man running?’ 7 προστρέχοντα You can tell from the -οντα ending that it agrees with αὐτόν. κακοδαίμονες line 8 ἐφημέρους line 11. #90 followed by the participles of contract verbs GE #91.. using as your example the verb παύω. 10 ὁδοιπόρος Both elements have been met. ‘they are clear pursuing …’ You will probably want to translate as ‘it is clear that they are pursuing’. in place of δῆλον ὅτι. s.Section 4C O. τίμα lines 13 and 14. The Greek usage is often not as strong as English ‘suffer’: here it’s almost ‘What’s the matter with him?’ 16 δῆλοί εἰσι διώκοντες δῆλοι is used personally here. GE p. sing. φίλε is vocative ἀπορίᾳ is dative 4C This section introduces the present participle of active verbs: as above (Sections A–B). which is the nearest English phrase: it means to do something either intentionally or accidentally unnoticed by yourself or another. 11 χλαμύδα This is the garment worn in the illustration on p... or ‘they are clearly pursuing’. 77. Page 48 6 λανθάνει A very awkward verb to translate as English has no direct equivalent. κακοδαίμονας line 12 4. 86. f. 14 πάσχει GE gives as ‘suffer’. 86. ὁδός ‘road’ and πορεύομαι ‘I travel’. The action that is ‘not noticed’ is expressed as a participle (in this case τρέχων). Literally. 52 (not the hat or sticks!). 49 So do not dishonour the gods and do not commit irreverent acts against the city. EXERCISE 1. The endings are exactly the same as those for the verb ‘to be’ which are set out in GE p. τόλμα. ὄντα lines 2 and 4. #95 gives ‘escape the notice of’.M. #87. there are more examples at lines 10 and 11] 2. you may like to make an empty grid in which to ﬁll in the various cases as they occur. It is probably best to stick to the literal translation to begin with.
Suddenly a man runs up to them. What’s the matter with him. slaves. Odyssey Book 6 can be found in its original context in RGT p. DIK. lines 207–208. For I see him running towards [us]. or ‘the fugitive’. 31–32 This quotation from Homer. SAT. Cf. ‘hard’ or ‘bad’. 260. by Zeus. You speak rightly. GE gives as ‘anticipate X (acc. Dikaiopolis. ‘dyspepsia’. And now some men are approaching. ‘the fugitive’. S A T Y R O S Where is the Spartan ﬂeeing to? Where is he? You there – do you know where the fugitive is? Or are you not aware of the man ﬂeeing? RHAP. #95. Tell me. But what’s this situation? A herald is approaching and – the Eleven and the public slaves.50 Section 4C 18 ϕθάνει Another awkward verb to translate and another of the group in GE p. 23 ὁ φεύγων Literally ‘the running away one’. DIK. It’s clear that he’s turning in for sanctuary. rhapsode. But perhaps he is a foreigner. But the situation is strange. But the man has anticipated the Eleven by running into the shrine. Dikaiopolis. Page 49 35 δυστυχής The force of δυσ. Do you see the man? Or are you not aware of the man running this way? DIK. ‘dystrophy’. into that shrine! Quickly lead away the stranger. Whoever is it? RHAP. 86.in compounds is the opposite of εὐ. Look! The man is running into the shrine of Heracles. as he’s a Spartan. before turning your literal translation into acceptable English. that he’s running into the shrine? RHAP. 28 τὸν ϕεύγοντα As above. English ‘dyslexia’. No. Or do you not notice that the man has a cloak? RHAP. I am aware of him. this time as the object. a man is running this way. Once again it helps if you translate it literally. καίπερ ‘although’ is always followed by a participle. But he’s in that shrine. Translation for 4C Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode travel towards the city. Clearly they are pursuing the man. Here the former is more likely: the fugitive escapes into the sanctuary before the Eleven can prevent him from doing so.) in -ing’: the basic sense is usually of doing something either before another can stop you. as a suppliant.and often has the sense of ‘with difﬁculty’. Come here. or of doing it before they can do it. what’s the din? What are those shouts? What’s happening? RHAPSODE Look. But he is not a slave and he seems to be a traveller. DIKAIOPOLIS . Perhaps he is a slave and happens to be running away. DIK.
6. and the oath is a characteristically Spartan one. 23 τὸν τοὺς θεοὺς ἐπικαλούμενον Notice that the participle can be itself an object. often this is best translated by a relative clause. The two gods are the twins Castor and Pollux. ‘those who have …’ 21 καθορᾶτε This could be either indicative or imperative. ‘All strangers are under the protection of Zeus. ‘you see’ or ‘see!’ The context favours the latter. seen below in ὀλοφυρόμενος (18). 35–36 πρὸς βασιλέα τὸν μέγαν βασιλεύς (without the article) is regularly used of the King of Persia (contrast our usage: to emphasise. 19 τοὺς … ἔχοντας Article + participle ‘the ones having …’. herald. #93) and one further type of 3rd declension noun (GE p. Don’t drag away the fugitive. 84. In fact.’ Don’t worry about that. The stranger happens to be a suppliant.91. thinking that if they succeeded in obtaining Persian support they would be victorious. #97). although he’s a Spartan. 11 ἀπόκοπτε τὰς χεῖρας Sounds rather drastic. ‘the man (obj. 29 ναὶ τὼ σιώ GE translates as ‘by the two gods’ (σιώ is Doric dialect for θεώ). 87.Section 4D DIK. both Athens and Sparta at different times asked Persia for help. 13 ὦνδρες = ὦ ἄνδρες. which may help towards meaning. 32 πρεσβευτής As an ambassador he would of course (as today) be regarded as having diplomatic immunity. παύομαι gives παυόμενος παυομένη παυόμενον. 15 ἐπικαλούμενος The ﬁrst example of a middle participle. HERALD DIK. #92–93) and the participles of the contracted verbs (GE p. Here the article is used to link the noun to the adjective μέγαν. 21–22 τοὺς ἀσεβοῦντας As above in line 19. he is sacrosanct. and govern an object. slaves. The middle participles are easily recognised. like καλός καλή καλόν Page 50 2 καθίζεται … ἱκέτης ὤν Illustrated at RGT p.) calling upon the gods’. 84–85. and he anticipated you by running into the shrine. 4D Now the middle participles are introduced (GE pp. 51 RHAP. but lead the man away. ἐπικαλοῦμαι is a contracted verb: the regular participle-ending is -όμενος. 52. but such an event is recorded by Herodotus. The especial signiﬁcance here is that throughout the Peloponnesian War. ‘those who …’ περὶ Δία ἱκέσιον καὶ ξένιον Zeus was regarded as protecting suppliants as well as strangers and foreigners. What lawlessness! Indeed the stranger appears to be unlucky. we would say ‘the king’). Because he’s a suppliant. Sparta’s later .
agreeing with πάντα. ‘plenty’. look down upon what I am suffering.) But nevertheless. hence ‘makes to appear’. ‘abundance’. Stop calling upon the gods. Look down upon those who are committing impiety against Zeus. STRANGER I call upon the gods – PUBLIC SLAVE But the stranger is holding on to the altar. Satyros. Nemesis can fall upon the wrongdoer himself or upon any one of his descendants. Cf. SAT. ‘reveals’. who have their daggers? STR. (b) εὔκοσμα and ἄρτια are neuter plural. I call upon you. 49 Δυσνομία A personiﬁed variation of ἀνομία. and don’t do anything. DIKAIOPOLIS . Once again notice the personal use of δῆλος with the participle. SAT. Page 51 43 νέμεσις μεγάλη The concept of divine retribution for wrongdoing is common in Greek Tragedy and in Herodotus (see Section 19 in RGT p. as a suppliant. Don’t you see those public slaves. The public slaves drag away from the altar the man who is calling upon the gods. therefore transitive. STR. Ο city. city! S A T Y R O S Drag away this man. since he’s a Spartan. Dikaiopolis. Here it is assumed that the extreme ill-fortune of the stranger can only be explained by the belief that he is being punished for the wrongdoing of one of his forebears. and stop lamenting.) Oh gods. or ‘you are clearly in favour of the Spartans’. do you see? What impiety! For the unfortunate stranger is sitting on the altar. and ﬁnally speaks. so εὐπορία means the opposite. god of suppliants and strangers. and the opposite of Εὐνομία.5). RHAPSODE (The rhapsode is silent.52 Section 4D success in securing Persian support undoubtedly contributed to her victory in the end. εὐπορία is the opposite of ἀπορία though here in a slightly different meaning from ‘perplexity’ which you met before. Translation for 4D Look. men! DIK. 50 In the second line of the quotation from Solon: (a) ἀποϕαίνει is active in form. line 1 for one instance in the original context). rhapsode. (He does not stop calling upon the gods. drag the fellow away to the other Spartans. 36–37 σὺ δὲ δῆλος εἶ φιλῶν τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους Literally ‘But you are clear loving the Lacedaemonians’. Cut off his hands. be quiet yourself too. fellow. but the public slaves are dragging him away while the stranger is holding on to the altar and calling upon the gods. The stranger is calling upon us. rhapsode and doesn’t stop calling upon us. You. away from the altar. εὐνομία is the opposite of ἀνομία. 47–48 εὐνομία and εὐπορία are contrasted with ἀνομία and ἀπορία. ‘visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons unto the third or fourth generation’ (Exodus 20. slaves. 230. ἀπορία can mean ‘shortage of provisions’.
The public slaves drag the Spartan away towards the market-place. including the forms for the contracted verbs. τρέχουσαι. τρέχον. τρεχόντων. 87. But who is that stranger? He happens to be an ambassador – What are you saying? An ambassador? What lawlessness! Are you killing ambassadors? He is an ambassador and happens to be travelling towards the great King. drag away those who ﬂee into shrines? Do you kill those who turn aside for sanctuary? By the twain. παυομένους 2. rhapsode. For they are killing him. #98–100) on elision and crasis. παυομένην 7. DIK. #89–93). τρέχων. παυόμενοι 6. but in war there is lawlessness and shortage.’ Grammar Check that you understand the participles (GE pp. παυόμεναι 3. τρεχούσης. It is clear that the gods hate the man. Shut up then and stop bewailing the Spartan. Do you. SAT. παυομένῳ 2. But you clearly love the Spartans. you are clearly being unjust towards men and impious towards the gods. παυόμενος 4. The stranger does not stop shouting and revealing what he is suffering at the hands of the Athenians. For in peacetime these things do not happen. παυόμενον 1. παυόμενον 4C–D: 2 5. and their various uses listed in GE pp. 53 DIK. τρέχων. SAT. 87–88. #94. But good government makes all appear well-ordered and perfect. But what’s the matter with our city? What’s happening? War seems to be a violent instructor. 85–86. ‘So bad government brings very many evils to the city. τρέχοντα. τρέχοντας. παυομένων . Athenians. τρέχοντες. Notice also βασιλεύς (GE p. Surely great retribution from the gods is coming upon him because of his ancestors and the aggression of his ancestors. In peacetime there is good order and plenty in the city. and the useful notes (GE pp. #97). although he is an ambassador and a suppliant. παυόμενος 8. DIK. παυομένης 3. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4C–D MORE PRESENT PARTICIPLES 4C–D: 1 1. τρέχοντος. τρέχοντι.Exercises for section 4C–D STR. τρέχουσαν. παυομένου 4. 95. 82–85. RHAP.
ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς 5. ἆρ’ ὁρᾷς. ἆρά εἰμι ἔμπειρος./acc. 1. f. 5. παυομένῳ 8. 3. 4. 8. m. νῦν δὲ ἐπὶ οἰκίαν 2. τὸν θεώμενον τὰς ὁρώσας τοὺς ποιοῦντας αἱ δηλοῦσαι οἱ φοβούμενοι ἡ ποιοῦσα τὴν ὁρῶσαν τὸ δηλοῦν τοῖς θεωμένοις τῇ ὁρώσῃ τῶν ποιούντων ταῖς δηλούσαις τοῦ φοβουμένου ταῖς ποιούσαις τῷ ὁρῶντι τοῖς δηλοῦσι(ν) the one watching those/ the women seeing the ones doing the ones/the women showing those afraid the one/the woman doing the one/the woman seeing the one/it showing 4C–D: 4 to/for those watching to/for the woman who sees of those doing. acc. f. n. τρεχούσῃ. pl. φεύγοντας τρέχοντα 4C–D: 5 1. παυομένοις 6. ἐν δὲ ἀπορίᾳ 4. κακός ἐστὶν ὁ πόλεμος 5. 7. nom. 2. of the doers to/for the women who are showing of the one who is afraid to/for the women who are doing to/for the one who sees to/for those who show 4. ὁ δ’ ἀνήρ 2. τρέχουσι(ν). 1. nom. f. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4C–D A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1 impiety temple. 6. 3. 6. s. 5. 8. nom. 5. s. acc. παίζων 3. sacred thing reverence priest . τρέχουσι(ν).54 Revision exercises for section 4C–D 5. s. s. pl. 3. ἀλλὰ ἐγώ 3. 2. 4. βοῶντας ELISION AND CRASIS 4C–D: 6 1. παυομένοις m. παυομένῃ 4C–D: 3 7. pl. acc. nom. εἴμ’ Ὀδυσσεύς 1. ἀφ’ ἡμῶν 4C–D: 7 4. βαίνουσα 2. φεύγων. acc m. τρέχοντι. 7. f.
The king is running away and does not stop running away. Who are ﬂeeing? Do you see them ﬂeeing? τοὺς ϕεύγοντας e. ἀποτρέχων f. ὁ ξένος οὐ παύεται ἡμᾶς ἐπικαλούμενος καὶ βοῶν. ὁ γὰρ Λακεδαιμόνιος φθάνει τοὺς διώκοντας τρέχων εἰς τὸ ἱερόν.Revision exercises for section 4C–D 55 a suppliant I hate stranger. τὸν τρέχοντα b. because some men are approaching quickly. I do not see any Spartan escaping. Don’t you see that the master has some gear? (Does the master escape your notice having some gear?) ἆρα λανθάνει σε ὁ δοῦλος τὸν ἱκέτην ἀϕέλκων. outrage 1. they drag him away. Who is running? I do not see the man running. (Lit. pursuing him. Women (in general) are always afraid. The pursuers arrive and ask the rhapsode where the stranger happens to be. E – TEST EXERCISE 4C–D A stranger happens to be running into the shrine of Heracles. host I happen/unlucky. although he is shouting and calling upon the gods. c. . The man escaping does not escape my notice (i. guest. 4. but the rhapsode and Dikaiopolis keep quiet. ὁ δ’ ἀνὴρ δῆλός ἐστι πρεσβευτὴς ὢν καὶ ἀποϕεύγων τυγχάνει. I know who is escaping. 2. ὁ ἀποϕεύγων d. But you are clearly a suppliant and you happen to be lamenting the situation. The stranger is clearly suffering something dreadful. unhappy offence B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX I beseech hated hospitality/I entertain chance I assault. For it is clear that the stranger does not escape the rhapsode’s notice running away. as they are afraid of the Eleven.e. The stranger does not stop lamenting and revealing what he is suffering. 5. Why don’t they stop being afraid? ϕοβούμεναι. (The Lacedaemonian anticipates the pursuers running into the shrine. So in this way lawlessness and impiety occur in the city of the Athenians.) The herald does not stop hating the strangers and being afraid. For the rhapsode is clearly aware that the stranger is running away. The stranger eludes his pursuers [by] running into the shrine which is nearby. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. (Does the slave escape your notice dragging away the suppliant?) For the ambassadors anticipate the public slaves (by) running away.) When the pursuers see him in the shrine. Who are lamenting? Where are the people who are lamenting? οἱ ὀλοϕυρόμενοι. I am aware of the man who is escaping). a. 3. ὁρῶμεν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/ἄνδρας τρέχοντας.
(c) n. (d) m. . (c) 3rd s. (b) m. 2. (d) 3rd pl. s. (a) m. nom. pl. nom. s./acc. nom. (a) 3rd pl. pl.56 Revision exercises for section 4C–D EXERCISE 1. (b) 3rd pl.
For example: ‘I was going’ indicates an event that was taking place and not necessarily completed (consider its likely context: ‘I was going to the shop when …’. A checklist of the active forms appears at the end of the notes to 5A. it may be helpful to look at the explanation in GE p. 57 . If you are not happy with the term imperfect. #103. by contrast. and GE p. in which you will meet new tenses of the verb. ‘I have just come in’. 93. #102. and in 5C–D the future. 53) + μανης (cf. leaving room to the right of the table to enter imperfect endings as they occur. ὀϕείλει The root cause of Strepsiades’ problem (see English note at top of page). Greek also has a perfect tense: this expresses a completed action in present time. so far the narrative has been conﬁned to the present tense alone. while ‘aorist’ means ‘undeﬁned’. Before beginning 5A you may ﬁnd it helpful to write out the present tense (active and middle) of παύω. #110. English ‘mania’). Note: In Section 6 you will met another past tense called the aorist. English ‘hypnosis’ (and again note English at top of page).). and it is not introduced until Section 13E. where the ‘when’ clause is likely to explain why I never reached the shop). 98. and a list of the middle forms and εἰμί at the end of 5B. 3 ἱππομανής Break it up into its constituent parts: ἱππος (illustrated p. In 5A–B the imperfect tense is introduced. 5A Page 54 2 χρήματα Illustrated at bottom of page 53. 92. The meaning of ‘imperfect’ in this context is ‘incomplete’.Section Five: ‘Socrates corrupts the young’ This is a vital section. indicates a deﬁnitely completed action – but at an undeﬁned time (yesterday / last week / ten years ago etc. Or see GE p. ‘I went’. It is much less common than the aorist. 6 τὸ χρῆμα τῶν νυκτῶν Literally ‘the business of the nights’ – GE glosses χρῆμα here as ‘length’. ‘I have shut the door’. ‘unﬁnished’. 4 ὕπνος Cf. and another table for εἰμί.
58 Section 5A 12 δάκνει Here = ‘worry’. 95. though note its literal meaning is ‘bite’. Similarly ὀλίγον χρόνον means ‘for a short time’. what would you deduce to be the 1st person singular of the imperfect of παύω? ὅλην τὴν νύκτα The accusative case without a preposition is used to express duration of time. ‘for the whole night’. παύω παύεις παύει ἔ -παυ -ον ἔ -παυ -ε(ν) . #105. Interim check: the imperfect so far. ἐλάμβανεν Identify the person of the verb by looking at the respective subjects (οὐδείς. This is called the ‘augment’. 28 ἐπαυόμεθα Which person? Notice that the subject is delayed and the verb comes ﬁrst for emphasis: ‘we never ceased…’. 23 ἦν Past tense of εἰμί – person? 24 ἐλάμβανε Compare ἐλάμβανεν (21). Past tenses in Greek have ἐ. ὁ υἱός) and use the endings to form the corresponding person of παύω. καθεύδων (9) and καθεύδει (9) indicate that 1st person singular of the present indicative must be καθεύδω. 18 ἐδίωκον Which person (oἱ χρῆσται is the subject)? You can conﬁrm the formation by comparing ἐλάμβανον. 17 ἐκάθευδον First example of the normal imperfect. and then you have to wait until the end of the sentence to ﬁnd out what we never ceased doing. Note that the person is indicated by ἐγώ. which indicates that ἦ is the past tense of εἰμί. #105. Note that the augment and the ending have been spaced so that you can see the stem clearly: 1st s. Note that πικρόν is brought forward to emphasise it. Can you explain the variation? δι-ελέγετο First example of a middle imperfect – which person? Note that when the verb has a preposition as a preﬁx the augment is attached to the verb stem and not to the preposition. 3rd s. have the same ending. See GE p. 13 τουτονί Adding the -ι to τοῦτον makes it even more demonstrative. 31–34 Note the contrast between rustic simplicity and urban extravagance – Aristophanes makes much more of this than the text here does. See GE p. the 1st person s. which is used later in this section. 20–21 ἔσῳζεν. Note that in the imperfect. 30 γάμους English ‘monogamy’. ‘picric acid’. should help with the meaning. 94. your present + imperfect table (active only) could look like this. If you followed the suggestion above. Using these indicators. ε + α = η. 16 χθές ‘yesterday’. etc. 2nd s. πικρούς ‘bitter’. ‘this son of mine here’. Cf. ‘polygamy’.as a preﬁx. and the 3rd person pl. 25 ἤκουε This is what happens when the augment merges with a vowel.
For I owe much money because of this son of mine. hold) me. ‘idle’. as you well know. For his son. but for the whole night I was always escaping from these lawsuits. And yesterday I was sleepless. for almost the whole night. alas! Ο king Zeus! The length of the nights – how great it is! Day is not yet coming. How sweet was the country life! Marriage – how bitter! For my wife happens to be from the city. 5B Page 56 2 ἅπτε λυχνόν λυχνός is illustrated opposite. Yes. sleep deeply! For the debts. For I was sleeping for a short while. I know that well. my debts which are heavy worry me. turn) onto my head. It is still ruining me even now. Alas unhappy me! Deep sleep does not yet come to (lit. my wife and I: we were always arguing. Alas! We never stopped arguing about the boy. Alas! Who was responsible? My wife [was] responsible.e. but the father cannot sleep (lit. STREPSIADES Alas. Now the son happens to be sleeping deeply. and because I owe [much money] my creditors pursue me and are always exacting their due. 2nd pl. and this son of mine kept on taking lots of money because he was horse-mad. And moreover even when sleeping the young man dreams of horses. which should help with the meaning of this phrase. nobody was saving me. But I am still sleepless and at a loss. then my creditors kept on pursuing me in my dreams and kept on exacting their due because of my son.(negative preﬁx) + ἔργoν. a vital commodity for the Athenians. I am unfortunate and sleepless. This expense already then was ruining me. 3rd pl. and being a citywoman she started to bring in much expense. sleep does not hold the father). ‘not working’ i. being horse-mad. See! My son is sleeping deeply and does not cease sleeping. 4 ἔλαιον ‘olive oil’. even when a boy he kept dreaming of horses.Section 5B 59 1st pl. ‘lazy’. 5 κλαῖε Literally ‘weep’. just as you are. παύομεν παύετε παύουσι (ν) ἔ -παυ -ον Translation for 5A Strepsiades happens to be lamenting because he owes a lot of money. But you. Ο king Zeus! Why do you make marriages so bitter? For always my wife makes my life bitter. But when I was sleeping. . 8 ἀργούς Compounded from ἀ. blaming him for the lack of oil – he should have ﬁlled the lamp. fall (lit. For she always used to take her son and talk to him about horses. And while I was at a loss. So her son always listened and learnt about horses. While I am sleepless. always takes much money. certainly. Strepsiades intends to hit the slave.
10 ἦσαν The past tense of εἰμί – person? 11 τοὺς δεσπότας κακὰ ἐποίουν ποιῶ here seems to take two objects. nor did they treat their masters badly. 2nd pl. then the old men always used to punish their slaves. he/she was stopping I/they were carrying you (s. Translation for 5B STREPSIADES SLAVE STR. ἦμεν The past tense of εἰμί. master? Look! There is no oil in the lamp. 2. it does. Strepsiades. ἐπείθοντο Imperfect middle ending. What are you saying? The lamp has no oil? Unhappy me! Come here and weep! How evil is the war! I no longer punish my slaves. 92. and put an end to these debts? Now. 3rd pl. save yourself! Hurray. 1st pl. By now the tables for παύομαι and εἰμί should look like this: Ist s. So they were not idle. For they were afraid of punishment. see GE p. ‘yourself’. #102 and p. How can I light the lamp. ἡμεῖς indicates the person. but they do not obey. for it is deep night. #110. In fact. For the war stops [me]. Alas for my troubles! For now we give orders. 2nd s. παύομαι παύει παύεται παυόμεθα παύεσθε παύονται εἰμί εἶ ἐστί(ν) ἦ(ν) ἦν ἦμεν ἦσαν ἐ -παύ -ετο ἐ -παυ -όμεθα ἐσμέν ἐστέ ἐ -παύ -οντο εἰσί(ν) For other persons. What would be the corresponding formation for παύομαι? 14 ἐμαυτόν and σεαυτόν (line 17) are reﬂexive pronouns: ‘myself’. because κακὰ ποιῶ (‘I do bad things’) was treated as a single idea.) were taking ἐπαύετο ἐφερόμην. For I can’t see anything now. ‘I harm’. But why don’t I save myself and my son from our debts? Why don’t I look for some scheme. but were good and always obeyed. taking a direct object. But when we were young. hurray! I have a plan! Now why don’t I stop this young man sleeping? EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5A–B THE IMPERFECT 5A–B: 1 1. But what do I owe? Slave! Come here! Light the lamp. 98. ἐφέροντο ἐλαμβάνου . 3. 3rd s.60 Exercises for section 5A–B 9 οὐ πείθονται The middle of πείθω means ‘I obey’. although they are idle.
he was lamenting . learned 7. 4. ὠφείλομεν ADDITIONAL IMPERFECT PATTERNS 5A–B: 6 4. we were turning 11. ἀπάγουσιν διαφθείρομεν εἰσφέρετε IMPERFECT OF CONTRACT VERBS AND VERB ‘TO BE’ 5A–B: 4 1. ἔπασχε(ν) 3.) were seeming 12. 6. 8. 11. he was ceasing you were obeying they were conversing we are afraid they were they were showing 7. we were learning you (pl. 4. 4. they were freeing you (s. 5. 2. 5. he was stopping we were honouring I was doing. 2.) killed I/they drove away we were destroying you (pl. 5. 9. 5. they were doing you (s. ἐτίμων 2.) lament he owes they pray ἠκούομεν εἶχον ὠλοφύρεσθε ὤφειλε ηὔχοντο 5A–B: 3 1.) were sacriﬁcing ἐμανθανόμεθα ἐθύεσθε AUGMENTS 5A–B: 2 1.Exercises for section 5A–B 61 4.) were owing he hears we were remaining he was doing 5A–B: 5 1.) were showing you (s. we hear they have you (pl. he came down you (s. 3. I was calling to witness 10. you (s.) were bringing in καταβαίνει ἀποκτείνεις ἀπάγω. 4.) are punishing he found out. 3. ἐκελεύετε 1. 3. he was afraid 8. 5. 6. 10. 12. ἐκώλυον 5. 3. I was. 2. they are ﬁghting 9. he/she/it was I was freeing. 2.
ἐπείθοντο 2. ἐμαχόμεθα 5A–B: 8 4.) used to obey ἐπείθεσθε they were afraid ἐϕοβεῖτο I was calling upon ἐπεκαλούμεθα I was stopping ἐπαύομεν he/she was ἦσαν you were afraid ἐϕοβεῖσθε he/she was watching ἐθεῶντο . 3. How bitter is marriage! For my wife always makes our marriage bitter. ἐβοᾶτε 7. we were conversing διελεγόμην we were watching ἐθεώμην they were bringing in εἰσέϕερεν you (s. b.) were watching ἐθεῶ you (s. We are young and punish the house-slaves.) owed ὠϕείλετε we were in ἐνῆ you (pl. ἐκάθευδον … ἐδίωκον. e. ἦμεν … ἐκολάζομεν … ἐγίγνοντο. ἐφοβεῖτο 3. ἐποιεῖτο 10. 4. For she always takes her son and talks to him about horses. διελέγοντο REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5A–B B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. but these men are still pursuing me. ἦν … ἐλάμβανε … διελέγετο.62 Revision Exercises for section 5A–B 5A–B: 7 1. a. Who is responsible? My wife. ἐδουλοῦντο 8. I am sleeping. 2. διελέγεσθε 1. ἦν … ἐπoίει. 5. ἐφοβοῦντο … ἐπείθοντο. c. 2. ἐτίμων 9. ἐφαινόμην 5. ἐκώλυε ἐπαύετο ἐπεκαλούμεθα ὤφειλες ἤκουον 6. For in this way the houseslaves become good. d. The slaves do not fear their masters nor do they obey them.
‘Will you obey?’ 13 Obediently. 58 line 10. 20 λέξω Verbs with stems ending in -γ/-κ/-χ combine the ﬁnal consonant of the stem with the -ς. ἡμεῖς μὲν ἐκελεύομεν. but the sailor did not stop chasing. οἱ δὲ δοῦλοι (οἰκέται) ἡμᾶς κακὰ ἐποίουν. 103. father? . Translation for 5C STREPSIADES PHEIDIPPIDES Pheidippides.to form -ξ-. 5C 1. See GE p. Note the -σ. 5. Note that verb-stems ending in dentals -τ/-δ/-θ/-ζ lose the ﬁnal consonant of the stem before adding -σ. In almost all verbs the distinguishing mark is a ‘-σ-’. #112–114. You (s.inserted between present stem and person-ending.) stopped the woman punishing the household slaves. 9 πείθου This is the middle imperative. Page 58 1 Φειδιππίδιον Note the diminutive form – affectionate? 5 αὔριov ‘tomorrow’. 3. ἐβοῶμεν καὶ τοὺς δούλους (οἰκέτας) ἐπαύομεν διαλεγομένους. god of horses (as well as god of the sea). The farmers always used to honour the gods. The point will be further developed later. 102–103. although when this is merged with a consonant stem it is not always apparent. future middle of πείθω. See GE pp. We used to pray to the goddess. 6 ϕιλήσω … παύσομαι 1st person singular of active and middle respectively. 17 ἀκούσομαι Some verbs change from present active to future middle with no change in meaning. #114. Pheidippides changes his oath to swear by Dionysus. but we did not make sacriﬁces. Pheidippidikins! What. In this section you will meet the future tense. 4.Section 5C 63 D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK The young man was shouting. this should alert you to what tense is coming next! ϕιλήσεις The ﬁrst example of the future – note ending -σ-εις. 103–104.and regular endings. 12 πείσῃ 2nd s. 22 σώσει See note above on p. ‘obey!’ 10 πείσομαι Also future. ϕιλήσεις there is an additional point to note: contracted verbs lengthen the vowel at the end of the stem before adding the same endings as uncontracted verbs. The sons owed much money. ὁ πατὴρ ἀεὶ ἐκόλαζε τὸν υἱόν. 2. (With ϕιλήσω. #115–116 6 τουτονί τὸν ἵππιον Pheidippides swears by Poseidon. see GE pp. βαθέως ἐκάθευδον ἀλλ’ ὁ υἱὸς οὐκ ἐπαύετο βοῶν. οἱ νεανίαι χρηστοὶ (ἀγαθοὶ) ἦσαν καὶ ἐπείθοντο.
Will you obey? I will obey. Look. I shall love you tomorrow and I shan’t stop ever. ‘brewery’ – the place where something is done. STR. What is your plan. 9 μαθήσονται The future of μανθάνω (μαθ-). constructed from ϕροντίζω ‘I think’. See GE p. I’m planning something big. by Dionysus. Yes. PHEI. by Dionysus. PHEI. Will you love me tomorrow? By Poseidon here. father? What will you order? How will your idea save us? How shall we stop from our debts? You will do it? I will do it. ‘bakery’. son.g. I was listening and I am listening and I shall listen. STR. Were you listening? Or weren’t you listening? Or am I speaking in vain? I’ll stop you sleeping. I am listening and obeying and I shall always obey. 5D Page 60 1 οἰκίδιον The diminutive form of οἶκος/οἰκία. Hence ϕροντιστήριον means ‘thinkery’. Tell [me]. For I have a plan and I am planning something. father. So speak then! What are you ordering? I shall order a small thing. PHEI. 3 ϕροντιστήριον An Aristophanic coinage. PHEI. Don’t worry. Here perhaps ‘argument’ ﬁts the meaning most closely. 13 λόγον Always a difﬁcult word to translate. Some irregular verbs use the stem given in brackets to form the future. STR. 6–7 Notice the implication that Socrates and his associates are well paid for their teaching – something which Socrates always vigorously denied. STR. STR. and I don’t ever stop [loving you]. STR. god of horses. son – for that one has the responsibility for my troubles – but listen and obey. but I will [tell you]. PHEI. PHEI. PHEI. ἄνθρακες English ‘anthracite’ may help towards meaning: ‘coals’. do you love me? I [do]. PHEI. a very small thing. Don’t ever mention that horsey one. earthenware ovens. For perhaps this idea will stop us somehow from our debts. STR. What is your idea? What have you in mind and what are you planning? Were you saying? No. which corresponds to English ‘-ery’ sufﬁx in e. my son. ‘I consider’ with the sufﬁx -ηριον. What were you telling me? I was telling you that I have an idea. #120 for a list of ‘important futures’. 105. 5 πνιγεύς Ilustrated on next page – these are bowl-shaped. Section 5D Tell me. Socrates is depicted as having two ‘arguments’ in his .64 STR.
In addition. However.104. always teaching and . which argues correctly. #117. ‘Won’t you obey?’ γενήσομαι The future of γίγνομαι (γεν-). 104. Father? This is the thinkery of wise souls.. 57 κόψω Notice how the -σ. and speaking they persuade their pupils that the heaven is a bell-oven and this bell-oven is around us and we are the coals. which. Verbs with a present stem ending in -λ-.in the future can combine with a labial consonant stem (κοπ-) to produce -ψ-. by verbal trickery etc. the accent distinguishes the two when not prefixed. This is doubly confusing because εἶμι (‘I shall go’) is identical in spelling with εἰμί (‘I am’). which gives the meaning of ὠχρούς. λήψονται The future of λαμβάνω (λαβ-). #120. as a sign of poverty. #117).and added -έω to form future (see GE p. but have a contracted future in -έω. These men persuade their pupils. Socates went unshod. ἄριστε ἀνθρώπων Strepsiades reverts to his wheedling. here it is also derogatory. why don’t you go in (as) a student?’ διαϕθερεῖ One of only two examples in this section of a grammatical point that is easily overlooked (see GE p. Inside live wise men. based on the bracketed stem. and the ‘wrong’ argument. -ν. ὠχρούς … ἀνυποδήτους Ochres are pale yellowish shades. and was hence a derogatory description for a man. See GE p. 50 γνώσομαι The future of γιγνώσκω (γνω-). 103. σοϕισταί Originally a neutral term for philosophers. οἱ ἔνδον ‘those inside’. What is it. εἴσιμεν The future of εἰσέρχομαι again (cf. See GE p. again based on the bracketed stem.to form future. Hence Strepsiades’ interest in the latter argument. but later acquiring pejorative overtones – hence the disgusted reaction from Pheidippides. Translation for 5D STREPSIADES STR. is again based on the bracketed stem but with the vowel lengthened.Section 5D 65 16 18 23 24 27 28 29 32 34 35 36–38 ‘thinkery’ (in the original play these ‘arguments’ actually appear as characters): the ‘right’ argument. See GE p. 104. can make the weaker argument appear the stronger. Page 62 41 ἐκβαλῶ βάλλω has shortened the present stem to βαλ.or -ρ. note on line 32). εἴσειμι The irregular future of εἰσέρχομαι. εἴσεισι. #117). To be pale was a sign of spending too much time indoors. PHEIDIPPIDES Look over here. ‘But you.(‘under’) -δητους (‘bound’): ‘unbound-under’ meant ‘shoeless’. εἴσει. ἀν-(negative) ὑπο. 105.do not insert -σ. σὺ δὲ διὰ τί οὐκ εἰσέρχῃ μαθητής. -μ-. οὔκoυν πείσῃ. #114. Do you see this door and the house? I see it.
be quiet! Will you not listen? I will listen. I know. god of horses. the just one won’t. STR. but not into the thinkery of the sophists. I’m not going in today. the just and the unjust. Why don’t you go into the thinkery. you and I? I won’t. For the unjust argument will put a stop to our debts. PHEI. STR. But if you won’t go in. For I love horses. PHEI. 102–103. But they are ﬁne. PHEI. not sophists. by Zeus. But what do the men teach? What will young men learn. an old man and slow in exact arguments. I know: I myself will go into the thinkery and will become a pupil of the sophists and I will learn the unjust argument. PHEI. So learn: in this way the creditors will not recover any of these debts. noble sophists. The students will learn these arguments? [Yes]. STR. What will I learn? The unjust argument. Then I’ll chase you out of the house and send you to hell! I’ll run away. Yuck! Awful [people]. But how shall I. PHEI. STR. becoming [their] pupils? The pupils will learn arguments. In this way I shall stop those creditors taking their money. And by Zeus no one of them will stop receiving much money from their pupils. Won’t you obey and do this? I won’t obey and I won’t do this. You may ﬁnd it .66 Section 5D PHEI. I’ll go into the house. STR. PHEI. And what’s more in lawsuits they will always defeat their opponents. PHEI. best of men? What are you saying? I. STR. And learn to decline Σωκράτης in GE p. before you go on (GE pp. being a student. PHEI. #127a. Which arguments do you mean. I shall become pale. PHEI. Why don’t I knock at this door and shout? I’ll do this and I’ll knock at the door and shout. What shall I do? Pheidippides will not win. but I shall become the winner. I won’t go in tomorrow and I won’t do so in any way. STR. #125. those inside have two arguments. STR. STR. I won’t do this. receiving a lot of money. Who are these men? What is the name of the men? I do not know the name. STR. Why do you not go in as a student? For this way we shall stop ourselves from our debts. learn philosophy? All the same I’ll go in. #112–114). hey. STR. 109. [go] into the thinkery? By Poseidon. Grammar Do not neglect the very useful table of indeﬁnites and interrogatives in GE p. 110. PHEI. What will you tell me? But as I was saying. Hey. Father? Which? I mean the just and unjust argument. wretched Socrates and Chaerephon. You mean the pale shoeless [people]. At this point you may ﬁnd it useful to revise the different formations of the future tense. who will go in? Shall we go in together.
δ. 3. but the stem vowel is lengthened. 4. ϕ τ. 4. -ει … . leaving the third column free to add the ﬁrst person of the aorist tense as you learn it in the next section. β. λ. Present Vowel stems Consonant stems κ. ρ most –ιζω Contracted verbs παύω εὔχομαι κόπτω πείθω θαυμάζω διαϕθείρω νομίζω ποιέω τιμάω δηλόω Future παύσω εὔξομαι κόψω πείσω θαυμάσω διαϕθερῶ (έω) νομιῶ (έω) ποιήσω τιμήσω δηλώσω Aorist The future of contracted verbs has ordinary. not contracted. 5. they will hinder he will order we shall travel you (s. -εις. ν. γ. they pray he hits you (s. 3.) will cease you (s. θ most ζ μ. 2. χ π. 5.) persuade εὔξονται τύψει ἡσυχάσεις τρεψόμεθα πείσεις . endings: -ω.) keep quiet we turn you (s.) will prevent κωλύουσι κελεύει πορευόμεθα παύῃ κωλύεις CONSONANT STEMS 5C–D: 2 1.Exercises for section 5C–D 67 helpful to make a chart like this. 2. Irregular verbs μανθάνω λαμβάνω γιγνώσκω γίγνομαι μαθήσομαι λήψομαι γνώσομαι γενήσομαι EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5C–D THE FUTURE TENSE 5C–D: 1 1.
3. they will go they will be I shall go you (s. 12. 2. ἴμεν 10. 11. 2.) will learn they will ﬁnd out he/she/it will be 7. they will set free ADDITIONAL FUTURE PATTERNS 5C–D: 4 νικῶμεν φιλεῖ κρατῶ (έω) ζητεῖτε ἐλευθεροῦσιν 1. 6. he will stop. . you (s. πρὸς τὰς τριήρεις οὔσας. you (pl. 9. 8. it will happen he/she will go 5C–D: 7 1. you (pl. 4. he will love 3. he will take they will become we shall be you (pl.) will do they will destroy we prevent he will converse he will consider I shall show 5C–D: 5 1. 10. 3. τιμήσω ποιήσετε IRREGULAR FUTURES 5C–D: 6 1. 2. 3. κελεύσουσι(ν) πείσει πείσεται 4. ἔσεσθε 1. γενήσῃ 5.) will seek 5. ἰουσῶν. λήψονται 7. they will suffer they will persuade you (s. 11.) will know he will become. 10. μαθήσομαι 8. 6. 5. γνωσόμεθα 4. 9. τῶν μητέρων οὐσῶν.68 Exercises for section 5C–D CONTRACT VERBS 5C–D: 3 1.) are knocking we shall pray you (s. ἔσεσθε 9. εἶσι(ν) 5C–D: 8 6.) will cease they will obey. ἴασι(ν) 2. 2.) were ordering 7. 5. I shall hold power over 4. 12. 8. 5. we shall defeat 2. ἔσται 3. 4. ἰούσας.
ϕιλήσει The idea saves us. ἀκουσόμεθα I am wise. 5. τὸν Σωκράτη ὄντα. k. a. this (man) does not defeat me. ἰόντες. h. διδάξομεν The men receive much money. d. ἔσομαι … νικήσει The son does not love his father. The sophists will teach you tomorrow. l. ἰόντος. . instruction the contestant in a lawsuit the juror ignorant an idea the house belonging to the house or family a sophist to do with teaching unjust I judge to do with learning I think I live in unfortunate I learn mind/sense I consider a household slave a little house the household or house wise wisdom I understand philosophy I love B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. 4. κόψω … βοήσομαι Who wins the lawsuits? νικήσει The pupils do not stop learning.Revision exercises for section 5C–D 69 3. f. b. ἰούσαις REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5C–D A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. ταῖς θυγατράσιν οὔσαις. oἱ νεανίαι τήμερον μαθήσονται τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. i. παύσονται Who are the wise men? ἔσονται D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. I shall never hate the gods. ὁ ἀγαθὸς υἱὸς ἀεὶ ϕιλήσει τὸν πατέρα. sir? λέξεις We do not teach the teachers. c. κελεύσει What are you saying. g. οἱ πατέρες ὄντες. σώσει I knock at the door and shout. j. ἀπὸ τοῦ Περικλέους ὄντος. e. responsible/cause I blame I teach the teacher justice/ right just I do wrong I am unfortunate the pupil teaching. ἰόντα. The father orders his son. 6. δέξονται We do not hear the words. 2.
Don’t you hear? It’s me. slave. in having such a clever slave. E – TEST EXERCISE 5 DIKAIOPOLIS SLAVE DIK. from the deme of Cholleidae. nom. The master will punish the slave. boy? How can a man be in and not in? It is clear that you are talking nonsense. But it is impossible. EXERCISE 1. but the man is in. s. I won’t go away. stop teasing me... s. . No. acc. Who is this? Who won’t stop calling me? You there! Who was shouting? Who? I was shouting. (b) imperfect (b) m. dear Euripides. and call him. οὖτος ὁ ἵππος οὐ παύσεται τρέχων. ὁ μαθητὴς εἴσεισιν εἰς τὸν οἶκον/τὴν οἰκίαν. if you get the idea. I was speaking correctly/ the truth.. nom. s. The women will listen to the words. come here. SLAVE DIK. SLAVE DIK. boy. Dikaiopolis calling you. Why is it impossible? Call Euripides.. Euripides. How do you mean. writing a tragedy. O thrice blessed Euripides. οἱ σοϕοὶ ἔσονται δίκαιοι. nom. 5. (a) imperfect (a) m... His mind is collecting words and is not in. 2. But tell me: is Euripides in? He is not in and he is in. How beautifully he speaks! But now. 3. s.. boy. (d) present (d) n. but I will knock on the door and call Euripides again. SLAVE DIK. 4.70 Revision exercises for section 5C–D The sailors will not stop looking for the captain. Slave. (c) future (c) m. by Zeus.
Note ἐ. 19 μόνοι ‘alone’. like the imperfect.(augment). though in the experiment something slightly less monstrous is envisaged: ‘slippers’. and is here used in its basic sense of ‘bite’. ἐπαυόμην. please refer back to the note at the beginning of Section 5). Note ἐ. To explain the humour of the situation. ‘monarchy’.(augment). 115–118. (b) -σε in the ending. ‘Who is the one knocking?’ Note the use of the participle. but. Cf. You will ﬁnd that in most cases the aorist adds a sigma before the ending.Section Six In this section the aorist tense is introduced (if you are uncertain of terminology. 71 . ‘monoplane’ etc. -σατο (person-ending).(as for imperfect). Page 64 17 ἐπαυσάμην Which person do you think this is? Cf. note also that π + ς = ψ. -σα (person-ending). 10 ποιήσω. ‘monopoly’. 5 ἔκοψα. as it is a past tense. line 12). -σας (person-ending). and the lengthening of the stem vowel. 6A Page 63 3 ἔκοψε. κόψω What tense? 12 τίς ὁ κόπτων. 6 τίς ὢν σὺ τούτο ἐποίησας Literally ‘You being who did this?’ or ‘Who are you that you did this?’ (2nd singular aorist indicated by σύ). i. The contracted verb lengthens the stem vowel before adding the ending. You may want to look at GE pp. 22 ψύλλα … ὀϕρύν There is no point in trying to guess here! ψύλλα is ‘a ﬂea’. ἐβόησα 1st person singular (as ἐγώ indicates). how many ‘ﬂea-feet’? 30–31 πρῶτον μὲν … εἶτα … τέλος δέ … Three stages of the experiment. Note (a) the augment ἐ. ἐπαύσατο The ﬁrst example of the middle aorist. Again.e. ἐ(augment). perhaps. 25–26 ὁπόσους … πόδας ‘how many of its own feet’. δάκνει has occurred at the beginning of the section 5A (p. 35 ἐμβάδας Illustrated below. and ὀϕρύς is ‘an eyebrow’. ἐβόησεν The ﬁrst examples of the aorist. the scholiast (ancient commentator) informs us that Chaerephon had shaggy eyebrows and that Socrates was bald. just as in the future. ὦ ᾽γαθέ = ὦ ἀγαθέ. 54. #128–138. just like the future. it will also have an augment.
40 ἐποίησαν Resumption of aorist endings. ἐ- (augment) and -σαν (person-ending). 42 ὡς ἔλεγον ‘as I was saying’. Notice the difference between the imperfect tense and the aorists which follow, ‘they made the wax warm etc.’
46–47 If the apparent lack of connection here is confusing, it is designed to convey the ignorance of Strepsiades. ‘Knowing the ﬂea’s leap’ = ‘being educated’, and if he’s educated, then he’s sure to win his lawsuits.
Translation for 6A
Strepsiades knocks at the door and shouts Boy! Young boy! S T U D E N T Go to hell. Who knocked at the door? Who shouted? STR. I knocked at the door and I shouted. STU. Who are you that you did that? Some ignoramus, I know well. STR. Strepsiades, from the deme Kikynna. STU. Go to hell, again. STR. Alas! What shall I do? Well, I’ll knock again. (He knocks at the door again.) STU. Who’s that knocking? Why did this fellow not stop knocking, when I told him to? Why are you knocking again? What do you have in mind? You’ve knocked away my thought [by] doing that. STR. But I’ve just stopped, my dear fellow. For you told me to. Don’t throw me out, although I’m a rustic and ignorant. But what was your thought? Tell me. STU. It isn’t right. Only the students learn these thoughts of the sophists. STR. Tell me then. For I have come to the thinkery as a student of the sophists. STU. I will tell you. A ﬂea bites Chaerephon’s eyebrow. When it jumps onto Socrates’ head, the men converse as follows. SOCRATES Look, Chaerephon. The ﬂea does not escape my notice being worthy of an Olympic crown. But tell [me], how many of its own feet did the ﬂea leap? CHAEREPHON I do not know, Socrates. But why don’t we measure the distance? SOC. How shall we measure it, Chaerephon? CHA. Look. First I take some wax, then I make the wax warm. Finally I put the ﬂea’s feet into the wax. SOC. What then? CHA. Now the wax is becoming cold. Look, Socrates: for the ﬂea has slippers. SOC. But what are you doing now? CHA. Now I am loosing the slippers. Look! STR. Ο king Zeus! Oh the wisdom of the men! But tell me, whatever did the men do, student? STU. You don’t escape my notice being a rustic, Strepsiades, not knowing anything. But as I was saying, ﬁrst they made the wax warm. Then they put the ﬂea’s feet into the wax. Finally they loosed the slippers and measured – of course – the distance.
Ο king Zeus! The men appear to be wise. Why then do we marvel at that [famous] Thales? Indeed I shall easily escape justice. For I shall know the ﬂea’s leap. Open, open the door!
1 θηρία GE gives ‘beasts’ – perhaps ‘monsters’ conveys the sense better. 4 οἱ … βλέποντες As before: article + participles = relative clause. 5 τὰ κατὰ γῆς As before: a very common idiom, using neuter plural of article + adjective/adjectival phrase. Literally ‘the things beneath the earth’. Here something like ‘subterranean phenomena’ might convey the meaning. 6 Strepsiades, of course, takes the words at face value: ‘They must be looking for trufﬂes.’ 7 πρωκτός If the students are bent double, what is pointing towards the heavens? 12 ἀστρονομία Possibly in the original production represented by some elaborate instrument. Likewise γεωμετρία (14). 15 The explanation of the original meaning of ‘geometry’, from γῆ ‘land’ and μετρέω ‘measure’. 19 περίοδος Both elements are known, ὁδός ‘journey’, περί ‘round’, hence the meaning ‘map’. 23 A stock joke in comedy was that Athens was litigation mad. Hence, to Strepsiades’ over-literal mind, a map couldn’t represent Athens without depicting a lawcourt and jurors. 30–31 Another over-literal interpretation: on the map Sparta looks too close, so Strepsiades suggests moving it further away. 35 κρεμάθρας See stage directions (line 34). 36 αὐτός ‘Himself’, ‘The Master’.
Translation for 6B
STREPSIADES STUDENT STR. STU. STR.
STU. STR. STU. STR.
Heracles! What are these monsters? Hey you! Why are you amazed? Why did you yell again? Are you amazed at these students? Yes, by Zeus, I am amazed. But what are these ones doing, who are looking into the ground? These are investigating subterranean phenomena. Then they are looking for trufﬂes. Don’t worry about it any more, monsters: I know where there are some lovely big ones. But who’s this? Why is his bottom looking towards the sky? Because his bottom is studying astronomy. Look! What’s this? Tell me! This is astronomy. And what’s this?
STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU.
Exercises for section 6A–B
Geometry. And what use is this? Tell [me]! With this we measure the land. This is a map of the world. Do you see? This is Athens. What are you saying? I don’t believe [you]: I don’t see any one of the jurors sitting. Where is my deme? It’s here. Do you see Euboea? I see [it]. But where does Sparta happen to be? Where? Here. Alas! Go away, go away! How near us Sparta is. But why don’t you drag this away from us a very long way? Impossible. By Zeus, you’ll regret it. But tell me, who’s this who is in the basket? Himself. Who’s Himself? Socrates.
At this point your chart should look like this:
Present Vowel stems Consonant stems κ, γ, χ π, β, ϕ τ, δ, θ most ζ μ, ν, λ, ρ most -ιζω Contracted verbs παύω εὔχομαι κόπτω πείθω θαυμάζω διαϕθείρω νομίζω ποιέω δηλόω τιμάω Future παύσω εὔξομαι κόψω πείσω θαυμάσω διαϕθερῶ (έω) νομιῶ (έω) ποιήσω δηλώσω τιμήσω Aorist ἔπαυσα ηὐξάμην ἔκοψα ἔπεισα ἐθαύμασα διέϕθειρα ἐνόμισα ἐποίησα ἐδήλωσα ἐτίμησα
Note once again that the aorist of contracted verbs has ‘ordinary’ endings -α, -ας, -ε … You will meet the aorists of the irregular verbs in the next section. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6A–B
THE AORIST 6A–B: 1
he sacriﬁced he ordered
they sacriﬁced they ordered
Exercises for section 6A–B
3. ἐκώλυσε(ν) 4. ἔλυσε(ν)
he hindered he set free
they hindered they set free
1. you (pl.) pray 2. they hit 3. he keeps quiet 4. we turn 5. I persuade
ηὔξασθε ἔτυψαν ἡσύχασε(ν) ἐτρεψάμεθα ἔπεισα
1. we defeated 2. he loved 3. I held power over 4. you (pl.) sought 5. they set free
νικῶμεν φιλεῖ κρατῶ (έω) ζητεῖτε ἐλευθεροῦσι(ν)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
ἤκουσε(ν) ἤκουσαν ἀνεχώρησε(ν) ἀνεχώρησαν ἠτίμασε(ν) ἠτίμασαν ἔβλεψε(ν) ἔβλεψαν ἐβόησε(ν) ἐβόησαν ἐδέξατο ἐδέξαντο ἐλύσατο ἐλύσαντο
he heard they heard he retreated they retreated he dishonoured they dishonoured he looked they looked he shouted they shouted he received they received he ransomed they set free
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
ἐδίδαξε(ν) ἐδίδαξαν ἐθαύμασε(ν) ἐθαύμασαν ἔθυσε(ν) ἔθυσαν ἐνίκησε(ν) ἐνίκησαν ἐθεάσατο ἐθεάσαντο ἐτρέψατο ἐτρέψαντο ἔκοψε(ν) ἔκοψαν ἐχώρησε(ν) ἐχώρησαν
he taught they taught he marvelled they marvelled he sacriﬁced they sacriﬁced he defeated they won he watched they watched he turned they turned he knocked they knocked he went they went
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
ἠκούσαμεν ἐδέξαντο ἀνεχώρησας ἐδίωξε(ν) ἐκόλασαν
6. ἐβόησατε 7. ἐνόμισε(ν) 8. ἐδήλωσα 9. ἔμειναν 10. διέφθειραν
Revision exercises for section 6A–B
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6A–B
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
a. Who is knocking at the door? ἔκοψε(ν) b. Who is going into the thinkery? ἐχώρησε(ν) c. But I knock again and do not stop knocking. ἔκοψα, ἐπαυσάμην d. I will tell you. ἔλεξα, εἶπον e. Finally we shall release the slipper. ἐλύσαμεν f. Why do we admire that Thales? ἐθαυμάσαμεν 2. a. The ﬂea leaps onto Socrates’ head. ἐπήδησεν b. But how will you measure, Chaerephon? ἐμέτρησας c. Finally we measure the distance. ἐμετρήσαμεν d. These are seeking things below the ground and do not stop seeking. ἐζήτησαν, ἐπαύσαντο e. What does the matter reveal, Socrates? ἐδήλωσε(ν) 3. a. αὐδάω they spoke f. ὠθέω I pushed b. ἐλπίζω you (s.) hoped g. ἐρωτάω they asked c. ὁμολογέω you (pl.) agreed h. οἰκέω I lived, dwelt d. ἡγέομαι I considered, led i. ἀσπάζομαι they greeted e. ἄρχομαι they began j. ἐκπέμπω he sent out 4.
imperfect ἐκέλευον ἐκώλυον ἐπαυόμην ἔβλεπον ἔκοπτον ἔκρυπτον ἐδεχόμην ἐδίωκον ἔπραττον ἠτίμαζον ἐκόλαζον ἔσπευδον διέφθειρον ἔμενον ἠπόρουν ἐδήλουν ἐμίσουν ἐνίκων future κελεύσω κωλύσω παύσομαι βλέψω κόψω κρύψω δέξομαι διώξω πράξω ἀτιμάσω κολάσω σπεύσω διαφθερέω μενέω ἀπορήσω δηλώσω μισήσω νικήσω aorist ἐκέλευσα ἐκώλυσα ἐπαυσάμην ἔβλεψα ἔκοψα ἔκρυψα ἐδεξάμην ἐδίωξα ἔπραξα ἠτίμασα ἐκόλασα ἔσπευσα διέφθειρα ἔμεινα ἠπόρησα ἐδήλωσα ἐμίσησα ἐνίκησα
present κελεύω κωλύω παύομαι βλέπω κόπτω κρύπτω δέχομαι διώκω πράττω ἀτιμάζω κολάζω σπεύδω διαφθείρω μένω ἀπορέω δηλόω μισέω νικάω
ἐλθ. but the imperfect uses the present stem. Don’t they know that you did this job easily? ἆρ’ οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅτι σὺ/ὑμεῖς ἡδέως ταύτην τὴν γνώμην ἐδέξω/ἐδέξασθε. line 33) with the meaning ‘ephemeral’. 6C New in this section is the second aorist. which has an augment at the beginning of the word and sufﬁx at the end – compare English ‘regular’ past tenses adding ‘-d’ or ‘-ed’ to the present stem (e. which still has the augment but it is added to a stem changed in some way – compare English ‘irregular’ past tenses (e. ἐπαύσαντο βλέποντες τοὺς ἵππους. 6 ὦ ἐϕήμερε ἐϕήμερος has been met in section 4A (p. ‘sleep’. three of the most irregular past stems have been introduced).g. ‘walked’). again as in English. Here Socrates uses it for comic effect. Literally. most verbs have either a ﬁrst or a second aorist: they are not alternative forms for the same verb. She stopped looking at the stranger. ὁ σοϕιστὴς οὐκ ἔπεισε τοὺς σοϕοὺς νεανίας. 2. #144–146. The woman looked for her son. and aorist). see GE pp. ‘slept’). ἐθαύμασε τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. Even though they were wicked. the neighbours did not punish the young man. ὁ γεωργὸς ἐβόησε καὶ ἔκοψε τὴν θύραν. The aorist tense in Greek is formed in one of two ways: 1. 8 εἰπέ εἰπ. First aorist. while the aorist has its own stem which is always different from the present stem. make a list of these verbs with their principal parts (present. ἦλθες 2nd singular of the second aorist. Note that.Section 6C 77 D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1.g. The endings are the same as those for the imperfect.is the second aorist stem of ἔρχομαι. Second aorist. ‘How did you hear me that I am wise?’ or ‘How did you hear that I was wise?’ . Notice the word order in πῶς δ’ ἤκουσάς με ὡς σοϕός εἰμι. ‘walk’. 46. ‘short-lived’. As you meet them.is the second aorist stem of λέγω. 5. This is the sort you have just learned. καίπερ σοϕὸς ὤν. Page 68 2 ἐλθέ You have met this already (in fact. 2. 124–126. 4. The suppliant did not respect/honour the goddess. ὁ δίκαιος. 3. future.
11–16 The content is repeated from earlier in the chapter, but note the presence of second aorists – ἔδακε (second aorist of δάκνω), ἤρου (second aorist of ἐρωτάω), ἐλάβετε (second aorist of λαμβάνω), ἐγένετο (second aorist of γίγνομαι), and ἔθετε (aorist of τίθημι, a verb which you have not yet learned in detail). 18 εἶδον ἰδ- is the second aorist stem of ὁράω. 19–20 πόθεν ὢν τυγχάνεις ‘Where do you happen to come from?’ 27 ἐξευρίσκεις εὑρίσκω has perfect tense ηὕρηκα, familiar from Archimedes’ cry on discovering the principle of displacement. Second aorist stem εὑρ- is met in the next line. 29–30 ἔμαθον, ἔτυχε Second aorists respectively of μανθάνω, τυγχάνω.
Translation for 6C
The student goes away. Strepsiades calls Socrates.
STREPSIADES SOCRATES SRT. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR.
SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
Socrates! Dear little Socrates! Come here! Who called? Who forced his way into the thinkery of the sophists? I shouted, Strepsiades from the deme Kikynna. But I didn’t force my way into the thinkery. Why call’st thou me, Ο creature of the day? For what purpose have you come? I have come as a student into the thinkery. For I have already heard that you are wise. Tell me, who said that? How did you hear that I was wise? One of the students said this. What did the student say? Tell [me]. The student said that a ﬂea bit Chaerephon’s eyebrow. Then it jumped onto your head. You asked Chaerephon how many of its own feet the ﬂea leapt. You measured it thus: ﬁrst you took the ﬂea and put it into warm wax. When the wax became cold, the ﬂea had Persian slippers. Then you measured the distance. I have never seen anything so wise. You have never seen anything so wise? But where do you actually come from? Kikynna. You did not escape my notice being a rustic, and ignorant. Don’t blame me. But tell me, what are you doing in that basket, Socrates? I am walking on air and contemplating the sun. Why are you doing that from a basket and not from the ground? What are you discovering or learning, being in a basket? I never discovered meteoric phenomena nor learnt anything, looking from the ground. For the earth happened to prevent thought.
The second part of your verb chart should now look like this:
Irregular verbs present μανθάνω λαμβάνω γίγνομαι future μαθήσομαι λήψομαι γενήσομαι aorist ἔμαθον ἔλαβον ἐγενόμην
and you should also have added:
ἔρχομαι ὁράω εὑρίσκω εἶμι ὄψομαι εὑρήσω ἦλθον εἶδον ηὗρον
Remember to add other verbs with second aorists to the list as you meet them.
This section contains mainly further practice in second aorist stems: these have been given in vocabularies so (it is hoped) they should pose few problems.
3–5 4 6 7 10–12 12 πάσχεις … ἔπαθον The question–answer format may help to link these two. ἔλαθον Second aorist of λανθάνω, cf. λαμβάνω, ἔλαβον. λήψονται Irregular future of λαμβάνω. ἕτερον ‘one of two’. Cf. line 8 πότερον ‘which of two?’ τί δράσω ‘What shall I do?’ is answered by ὅ τι; ‘What?’ κατακλίνηθι An irregular imperative form. The -κλιν- (Latin clin-) stem may guide you towards the meaning ‘lie down’ (‘recline’), and the noun κλίνη is anticipated in the stage directions ‘couch’. λήσω Irregular future of λανθάνω. ἔχεις τι ‘Do you have something?’ meaning ‘Have you an idea/suggestion?’, but the literal translation is probably better to lead into the vulgarity which follows. γυναῖκα ϕαρμακίδα ‘a woman sorceress’, a ‘witch’ in the sense of a woman with supernatural powers. In ancient Greece the months were lunar, and interest was due at the start of the month when the moon rose. Thus no moon = no month = no interest due. In the original, Socrates is more impressed with Strepsiades’ reasoning than the abrupt termination to this chapter would suggest.
Translation for 6D
20 28 38 38–43
But, Socratikins, why don’t you come down? For I have come into the thinkery because, owing much money, I am in debt.
Exercises for section 6C–D
SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
But how did you become a debtor? How do you suffer this? I escaped my own notice having a horse-mad son. So I became a debtor. And I suffered this through horse-fever and my son. For my creditors always exact justice, and unless I do something they will always exact [justice]. So teach me one of your arguments. One of my arguments? Which do you mean? The greater or the lesser? I mean the unjust one, the lesser, the one stopping debts. For this argument will win lawsuits, the greater won’t. What shall I do? What? First lie down on the couch. Then think out some way out of your affairs. Alas for me! The bedbugs will exact their penalty today. You there, what are you doing? Aren’t you thinking? I? [Yes] by Poseidon. And what did you think? Whether I shall escape the bedbugs, which are biting me terribly. You are talking rubbish. But the fellow’s silent. What’s he doing? (He addresses Strepsiades.) You there, are you asleep? By Apollo, I am not. Do you have something? By Zeus, I haven’t. Nothing at all? I have my penis in my right hand. To hell with you! Don’t joke, fellow. Socratikins! What, old man? I have an idea. Tell [me] your idea. I shall take a witch woman and I shall steal the moon by night. What are you saying? You will steal the moon? Tell [me] – how is this useful? How? Listen. The creditors lend money by the month. So I will steal the moon. The moon will no longer rise. How then will the creditors take their money? To hell with you! You are a peasant and ignorant. I will not teach you any longer, since you are ignorant. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6C–D
THE SECOND AORIST 6C–D: 1
1. εἶπε(ν), εἶπον 2. ἔλαβε(ν), ἔλαβον 3. ἔμαθε(ν), ἔμαθον 4. ἦλθε(ν), ἦλθον
he, they spoke he, they took he, they learned he, they went
Revision exercises for section 6C–D
5. ἐγένετο, ἐγένοντο 6. ἔδραμε(ν), ἔδραμον 7. ηὗρε(ν), ηὗρον 8. εἶδε(ν), εἶδον 9. ἔτυχε(ν), ἔτυχον 10. ἔσχε(ν), ἔσχον
he, they became he, they ran he, they found he, they saw he, they happened to… he, they had
1. 2. 3. 4.
ἐγένοντο εἴδομεν ηὗρες ἔλαβε(ν)
5. 6. 7. 8.
ἤλθετε εἶπες ἔμαθον ἔδραμον
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6C–D
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
βιασα- ἐβιασάμην κλεψα- ἔκλεψα θαυμασα- ἐθαύμασα διδαξα- ἐδίδαξα δεξα- ἐδεξάμην ϕιλησα- ἐϕίλησα δηλωσα- ἐδήλωσα 2. μαθ- ἔμαθον ἐλθ- ἦλθον ἐξευρ- ἐξηῦρον διελθ- διῆλθον 3. I saw (ὁράω) I said (λέγω) I escaped notice (λανθάνω) I found (εὑρίσκω) I learned (μανθάνω) I went (ἔρχομαι) I became (γίγνομαι) I suffered (πάσχω)
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
The sailors said that the captain had ﬁnally learned the truth. ὁ μαθητὴς εἶπεν ὅτι ἐξηῦρεν ὁπόσον ἐστὶ/ἦν τὸ χωρίον. 2. The young men happen to be suffering terribly. ὁ γεωργὸς ἔτυχεν ἀμαθὴς ὤν. 3. The suppliants ran into the temple/shrine. ὁ γέρων ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὴν πόλιν.
Summary exercises for section 6
The women saw the moon. ὁ πατὴρ ἄδικος ἐγένετο. You (pl.) took the money because of your debts. οὐκ ἔλαθές με ἄγροικος ὤν.
SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
impossible power I am able I force forceful force I do drama I am amazed amazing wonder horse-mad I am mad madness horse horsey horsemanship I steal thief theft All in the right-hand column are diminutives. old man little old man child baby door little door house little house father daddy Socrates Socratikins Pheidippides Pheidippidikins
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
When the Persian army and ﬂeet approach (προσῆλθον), the Athenians quickly embark (εἰσέβαινον) on their ships and sail (ἔπλευσαν) towards Salamis. Then the Athenians and the other Greeks keep quiet (ἡσύχαζον). Finally the Persian ﬂeet arrives (ἀϕίκετο) and when night comes (ἐγένετο), the ships sail (ἔπλευσαν) slowly this way and that. And when day comes (ἐγένετο), the Persians approach (προσῆλθον) quickly for a sea-battle, the Greeks are at a loss (ἠπόρησαν) and afraid (ἐϕοβοῦντο). Finally they are no longer afraid (ἐϕοβοῦντο) but are daring (ἐτόλμων) and advance (ἐπῆλθον) against the barbarians. So they ﬁght (ἐμάχοντο) in good order and defeat (ἐνίκησαν) the barbarians. And Xerxes also ﬂees (ἔϕυγε). In this way the Greeks become (ἐγένοντο) free through their courage.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
γέρων δέ τις καὶ ὁ υἱός, νεανίας ὤν, διελέγοντο περὶ χρημάτων. ὁ δὲ νεανίας ἔτυχεν ὀϕείλων πολλὰ χρήματα. καὶ διὰ ταῦτα, οἱ χρῆσται οὐκ ἐπαύοντο διώκοντες τὸν πατέρα. ὁ δὲ πατὴρ οὐκ ἐκόλαζε τὸν υἱόν (ἡ γὰρ μήτηρ ἔπαυεν αὐτὸν κολάζοντα) ἀλλὰ διενοεῖτο μηχανήν/γνώμην δεινήν τινα. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ πατὴρ ἔπεισε τὸν υἱόν, ὁ νεανίας πειθόμενος ἦλθε πρὸς τοὺς σοϕιστὰς καὶ πολλὰ ἔμαθεν. οἱ γὰρ σοϕισταὶ ἀεὶ ἔπειθον αὐτόν, καὶ πολλὰ καὶ σοϕὰ
s. For who took our son and talked to him about horses. οὗτος οὖν ὁ υἱὸς μανθάνων ταχέως τὸν δίκαιον καὶ τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. (a) vocative (b) imperfect (e) aorist (b) f. except you? Now what shall I do? How shall I stop our debts? You are responsible. FATHER MOTHER You. ἀεὶ τὰς δίκας ἐνίκα.Summary exercises for section 6 83 ἐδίδασκον καὶ πολλὰ χρήματα ἐδέχοντο. ἀλλὰ ἐπεὶ ὁ υἱὸς ἐπανῆλθεν οἴκαδε. Hurrah hurrah! For now the creditors will not get their money any longer. As you are ignorant and a yokel. and by persuading [him] I will stop [him] from his horse-madness. I will persuade and teach our son. but since I am from the city he loves me particularly. So. ἄγροικον ὄντα. s. For I have an idea. Finally the young man went into the thinkery of the sophists and became a student. καὶ οὐκ ἐπαύετο παίζων πρὸς τὸν πατέρα. the mother did not stop the young man. . (b) genitive (c) imperfect (f) future (c) m. nom. He saw and heard many wise things. the father said: FA. which is stronger. the creditors pursued him and did not stop exacting their dues. pl. except you? Who made our son horse-mad. So the father and mother converse. 2. wife. ἀλλὰ ἐμίσει. EXERCISE 1. nor did their son stop being horse-mad. αὕτη ἡ γνώμη οὐκ ἔπαυε τὰ χρέα τὰ τοῦ πατρός. acc. For my son will win the lawsuits through the unjust argument. 3. ὁ γὰρ νεανίας οὐκ ἐϕίλει τὸν πατέρα. E – TEST EXERCISE 6 A young man happened to owe much money because of his horse-fever. the young man does not love you or obey you. But don’t worry about it. and we shall escape our creditors. husband. But [despite] teaching and persuading. τέλος δὲ ὁ γέρων ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν. while the father was always defending the lawsuits of his creditors. and the sophists taught him much. appear to be responsible for my troubles. When the son learnt the just and the unjust argument. acc. (a) aorist (d) present (g) aorist (a) m.
#153. you will ﬁnd some rhetorical features mixed with a discursive. 10 ἀνάγκη ἐστί … See GE p. 3 οὐ βουλόμεθα διαβάλλειν σε ‘we don’t want to slander you’: βούλομαι + the inﬁnitive – a very common pattern. 134–135. 4 διέβαλον. In the ﬁrst (7A–C). #150–152). You may ﬁnd that it takes you a little while to get used to these changes of style and at ﬁrst the Greek may seem more difﬁcult. 7A–C Plato: Apology 20c–23b 7A Page 74 1 ἐρωτῶσιν οὖν τινες ‘some people ask. ἐγένοντο Tense? 6 ϕανοῦμαι Tense? ὅτι οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἢ τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγειν βούλομαι ‘that I want to speak nothing other than the truth’. and in the third (7G–H) you will meet the narrative style that Herodotus uses in his History. Make sure that you read the ‘Introduction’ to each passage so that you understand the context. #152. rather different from the style you have met before. taken from Plato’s version of Socrates’ defence at his trial (see Introduction). 142–145. 11 που The particle means something like ‘I suppose’.Section Seven: Socrates and intellectual inquiry This is another very important section which introduces some more extremely valuable grammar: inﬁnitives in 7A (GE pp. #162–166). and then in 7D the aorist participle is introduced (GE pp. In the second (7D–F) you will meet the typical style of the Platonic dialogue. GE p. you will enjoy the variation and will have acquired a new skill. You will ﬁnd the style of these passages. ἰέναι. 135. therefore …’: a typical rhetorical device which allows the speaker to pose the question which he wants to answer. reﬂecting a technical philosophical argument. almost colloquial style. 135. 8 εἰδέναι Learn carefully to distinguish the three inﬁnitives εἶναι. which are only slightly adapted from the original. although it is literally the indeﬁnite form of ποῦ ‘where?’ 84 . But once you adapt. εἰδέναι.
though. in reality. then. I suppose. gentlemen of Athens.: ‘I turned myself towards’. 7B Page 76 1–2 λέγει … λέγων You may want to translate this as ‘What does the god mean when he says?’ 5 πολὺν μὲν χρόνον ‘for a long time’. For the god at Delphi will bear witness to my wisdom. And know well that I do not want to joke with you.’ Therefore I want to explain to you and tell you why these men slandered me and from where the slanders and this reputation arose. And Chaerephon once reasoned thus to himself. What then must I do? It is clear that I must go to Delphi and consult the oracle. I want to bring the god at Delphi.’ Note the use of the participle. #155–160 for comparison of adjectives. But I want to know if anyone is wiser than Socrates.’ ἐπειρώμην ‘I tried’: the imperfect of πειράομαι. gentlemen! For. Listen then. We might say ‘who was a politician’. ‘That Socrates is wise. Accusative of duration of time. 18 μὴ θορυβεῖτε The jurors are reacting unfavourably. He was my companion from childhood. for perhaps I shall appear to be joking. and you know how impetuous Chaerephon was about everything. Lit. he asked whether there is anyone wiser than Socrates.Section 7B 85 14 σοϕώτερος ἤ … ‘wiser than …’ See GE p. ἔδοξέ γε σοϕὸς εἶναι. but you must be assured (know well) that I wish to speak nothing but the truth. 14–15 τί οὖv ποιεῖv με δεῖ ‘What is it necessary for me to do? ‘What must I do?’ 17 ᾔει What verb does this come from? See vocabulary and GE pp. For there is great necessity for the god to speak the truth. ἠπόρουν What verb? What tense? ἐτραπόμην Second aorist middle of τρέπω.’ So Chaerephon went to Delphi and he obtained this oracle in the presence of the god. indeed. I happen to have this reputation on account of some kind of wisdom. ‘He thought he was wise. Translation for 7A Some people therefore are asking ‘But.138–139. σοϕώτατος ‘wisest’. #161. and the Pythia answered that no one is wiser. . not being. Do you want to know what this wisdom is? As witness. And indeed it is necessary for the god to speak the truth.136–138. For we do not want to slander you. I know well. Socrates. Do not make a din. ὦvδρες = ὦ ἄvδρες. For perhaps Socrates is the wisest of men. and explain to us. For. οὐκ ὤν ‘He thought he was wise. he was not. You know Chaerephon. why are these men slandering you? What do they have in mind? From where do these slanders arise and this reputation of yours? Speak. This is a frequent plea by orators who are battling to be heard. 10 ᾤμην Tense? Verb? The vocabulary will tell you. 9 πολιτικόν τινα ὄντα Agrees with τοῦτον τὸν σοϕόν and refers to him.
So I went away from there thinking that I was wiser than the poets. And I am ashamed to tell the truth. For I did not want to be in doubt about the oracle.86 Section 7B 10–11 ἀποϕαίνειν αὐτὸν δοκοῦντα σοϕὸν εἶναι. while those who thought they knew nothing were wiser. though when he wasn’t’. line 11. for it is not lawful for him. those who thought that they knew something were more foolish. if you are stuck. 77. So. Therefore I went to a wise man (at least he thought he was wise). As a result of this (from this) that man and others of those present hated me. 16 ᾖα Cf. What then does the god mean when he says that I am the wisest and that no one is wiser? It cannot be that he is lying. Cf. ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄλλους τοὺς δοκοῦντάς τι εἰδέναι Cf.’ And for a long time I was at a loss to know what he meant. and then I turned to a search [to ﬁnd out] whether the god was speaking the truth or not. though they were not. through their poetry. And the man. 23 ἀπῇα What verb? What tense? Translation for 7B When I heard this. like the prophets and soothsayers. the poets thought that they had knowledge. I reasoned that ‘I am wiser than this man. lines 10 and 11. For indeed they say many beautiful things. gentlemen. For the poets do not make up their poems by wisdom. but by instinct and inspiration. but they do not know what these words mean. οὐδὲν εἰδώς ‘this man thinks he knows something.’ From there. though I know nothing. but nevertheless I must tell it. considered himself to be wise. by the dog. as I thought. .’ Therefore I spoke with this wise man. as I thought. who was a politician. For I wanted to test the oracle and to show that ‘You. After this. For after the politicians. and they thought they were the wisest of men. but I. εἰδώς -οτος This is the participle of οἶδα. I went to the poets. note on 7A line 17. though they had none. to myself. though he was not. note on 6C line 8. at the same time. though he knew nothing. It is necessary for the god to speak nothing but the truth. 21–22 τοὺς δὲ λόγους τούτους οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅ τι νοοῦσιν ‘they do not know these words what they mean’ – ‘they do not know what these words mean. though he knows nothing’. Apollo. For this man thinks that he knows something. 11 πολλοὶ τῶν παρόντων ‘many of those present’. though he was not.’ This is a very common pattern of word order in Greek. I went to another wise man and he too thought that he knew something. line 13. he and many of those present began to hate me. See p. And when I tried to show him that he considered himself to be wise. do not think that I know anything. but this man is wiser. And. Cf. though he knows nothing. οὐκ ὄντα ‘to show him that he thought he was wise. I went to the others who thought that they knew something. And. said that I was the wisest. I reasoned in this way to myself: ‘What does the god wish to say? For I know that I am not wise. which can be difﬁcult for speakers of English. 12–13 οὗτος δοκεῖ τι εἰδέναι.
and what they actually know. εἰδέναι. And. they say that. #152 and the past tense of εἶμι ‘I shall go’. as I think. moreover. Such was the experience which both the poets and the craftsmen were clearly experiencing. And. Note also the irregular comparative forms. they discover a great number of those who consider that they know something. Grammar Do not forget to learn εἶναι. ‘they can say nothing’. those who think that they know something become angry and say that ‘Socrates is a most disgraceful person and corrupts the young men. that they have been revealed as thinking that they know something. but know little or nothing.’ But I want to ask ‘How does Socrates corrupt the young men? What does he do or what does he teach to corrupt them?’ And they have nothing to say. 13–14 ἔχουσι μὲν οὐδὲν λέγειν ἐκεῖνοι ‘they have nothing to say’. 17 κατάδηλοι ‘obvious’ – the preﬁx κατα. ἰέναι.139. gentlemen of Athens. But. Socrates teaches ‘the things in the air and the things beneath the earth’ and ‘not to believe in the gods’ and ‘to make the weaker argument the stronger’. For young men are arrogant and very much enjoy examining their elders. . and my reputation. #159. as I thought. 135. τοιοῦτον πάθος is the object of πάσχοντες: ‘such was the experience they seemed to be experiencing’. in fact. enjoy listening to my words and often try to examine others in the way that I do. when. 137. knowing many things the craftsmen were wiser than I. as a result of this. GE p. Therefore. but not wishing to seem to be at a loss. who are wealthy and have most leisure. to tell the truth. they know nothing. GE p.Section 7C 87 7C Page 78 4 τοιοῦτον πάθος ἐϕαίνοντο οἱ ποιηταί πάσχοντες ‘such an experience the poets seemed to be suffering’. Therefore. Translation for 7C Finally I went to the craftsmen (artists).sometimes simply adds emphasis. #161. the young men. in the course of examining them. From this search. though they were not. they considered that because of their skill/art they were the wisest in many other respects. εἰδότων δ’ ὀλίγα ἢ οὐδέν ‘They ﬁnd a large number of those who …’ Note μέν … δέ making the contrast between what people think they know. For they do not wish. For I knew that I knew nothing and that the craftsmen knew many beautiful things. 9–10 εὑρίσκουσι πολὺ πλήθος τῶν δοκούντων μέν τι εἰδέναι. which are serious. arose the slanders against me. GE p. as I think. like the other sophists.
6. 5. βεβαιοτάτους λιμένας the safer. 3. 15. κάκιστας γυναῖκας the more wicked. most obvious lawlessness 7A–C: 4 τῷ πολεμιωτέρῳ. . 8. the worst women τὸ κάλλιον. most hostile sailor 2. τόν πολεμιώτερον. 2. πολεμιώτατον ναύτην the more hostile. θαυμάζειν πείθεσθαι δέχεσθαι ποιεῖν μανθάνειν λαμβάνειν 7A–C: 2 1. κάλλιστον ἄστυ the more beautiful. safest harbours τὴν ἀμείνονα. 16. ὑμῖν ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ μανθάνειν COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE OF ADJECTIVES 7A–C: 3 1. safest harbours 3. βούλονται πιστεύειν 3. 12. ἀρίστης θεᾶς of the better. τῶν βεβαιοτέρων. μέγιστοι βασιλῆς the greater. most hostile sailor τοὺς βεβαιοτέρους. τῆς ἀμείνονος. best goddess 1. 10. 2. ἀρίστην θεάν the better. 4. τὸν Σωκράτη δεῖ διδάσκειν 7. 9. φαίνεται νομίζειν 4. best goddess αἱ πλείονες. ‘the huge majority of’) οἱ μείζονες. βούλομαι ἰέναι 2. πλεῖσται νῆες more ships. 3. 5. for the more hostile. φαίνονται διαβάλλειν 5. πολεμιωτάτῳ ναύτῃ to. διαβάλλειν εὑρίσκειν πειρᾶσθαι εἰδέναι δηλοῦν λογίζεσθαι 7. παρεῖναι νομίζειν ἰέναι κλέπτειν ἀπιέναι βιάζεσθαι 13.88 Exercises for section 7A–C EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7A–C PRESENT INFINITIVE 7A–C: 1 1. 17. ὑμᾶς παρεῖναι 6. 18. 6. 8. most beautiful city ἡ δηλoτέρα. ἀνάγκη ἐστὶν ἀπιέναι 8. βεβαιοτάτων λιμένων of the safer. greatest kings τὰς κακίονας. 11. ἡμᾶς. δηλοτάτη ἀνομία the clearer. most ships (αἱ technically makes this ‘the great majority of’. 7. δεῖ με. 14. 4.
δοκεῖν 8. And Socrates often tried to show that the god was not telling the truth. ἦσαν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7A–C B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1a. oἱ σοϕοὶ δοκοῦσί τι εἰδέναι. greatest kings 5. 5. a. ἦμεν 9. διαϕθείρειν 2. 1. Σωκράτης. εἶναι 5. You must tell the truth. d. c. εὑρίσκειν 3. ἀλλ᾽ εἶναι. τῇ κακίονι. 3. ἰέναι 4. ἀνάγκη ἦν Σωκράτη ἰέναι πρὸς τοὺς σοϕοὺς καὶ διαλέγεσθαι περὶ σοϕίας. Σωκράτης ἐβούλετο εὑρίσκειν πότερον τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγει ὁ ἐν Δελϕοῖς θεὸς ἢ οὔ. for the greater. Socrates. The wise men seem to know something. but to be the best. e. καὶ πολλάκις ἐπειρᾶτο Σωκράτης δηλοῦν τὸν θεὸν οὐ τἀληθῆ λέγοντα. 6. ᾖμεν ἦμεν ἴασι(ν) ἐστί(ν) ᾔει εἶσι(ν) 7. 4. worst woman 6. τοῦ καλλίονος. Socrates wanted to discover whether the god in Delphi was telling the truth or not. ᾔεισθα 11. δεῖ ὑμᾶς τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγειν. 1. καλλίστου ἄστεως of the more beautiful. 2. ᾖτε 10.Revision exercises for section 7A–C 89 τοῖς μείζοσι. καὶ μὴ διαβάλλειν Σωκράτη. μεγίστοις βασιλεῦσι to. f. ἀποϕαίνειν 9. εἰδέναι 1b. PAST OF εἶμι I SHALL GO 7A–C: 5 4. It was necessary for Socrates to go to the wise men and talk about wisdom [with them]. although they do not. οὐκ εἰδότες. as I see it. διαβάλλειν 7. and not slander Socrates. . ὡς ἐγὼ οἶμαι. λέγειv 6. οὐ πειρᾶται διαϕθείρειν τοὺς νέους. b. κακίστῃ γυναικί to. διαλέγεσθαι 10. oὐ βουλόμεθα δοκεῖν ἄριστοι. is not trying to corrupt the young men. εἰσί(ν) 8. ἐσμέν 12. We do not want to seem the best. most beautiful city. for the worse.
We must make sacriﬁces and pray to the gods. 7D Page 79 5 ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ ‘I said’ these phrases only occur in direct speech and are very common in Platonic dialogue 6 ἢ οὔ. 3. 2. #162. s. ‘well all right then’. ἔδει με πρὸς τοὺς ποιητὰς ἰέναι.142. act. and having listened …’ . ‘or not?’ In Platonic dialogue most questions are asked in the form ‘Is X true. although you are a teacher. The farmers must go to the city. δεῖ σε ἐξετάζειν ἐμὲ καὶ ἀκριβῶς σκοπεῖν.90 Section 7D 2. 17 ἀκούσας Nom. 7D–F Plato: Euthydemos 275–277c Here you meet the dialogue style of Plato. #162–166. The women are trying to watch the play. Note that the aorist participle is formed from the aorist stem. GE pp. GE p. καίπερ οὐδὲν εἰδώς. You seem to be stupid. aor. We know that the king wanted to punish the herald. or not?’ 7 ἦ δ᾽ ὅς ‘he said’ Page 80 8 εἶεv ‘so be it’. 5. Kleinias. part. οἶσθα/ἴστε ὅτι ἐβούλου/ἐβουλόμεθα διαβάλλειν ἐμέ. ἀγαθός ἀμείνων ἄριστος βέβαιος βεβαιότερος βεβαιότατος δεινός δεινότερος δεινότατος κακός κακίων κάκιστος καλός καλλίων κάλλιστος μέγας μείζων μέγιστος μῶρος μωρότερος μωρότατος πολέμιος πολεμιώτερος πολεμιώτατος πολύς πλείων πλεῖστος ϕίλος ϕίλτερος ϕίλτατος χρήσιμος χρησιμώτερος χρησιμώτατος D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν ἐδόκουν τοὺς νέους διαϕθείρειν. ὦ Kλεινία. 4.. Another very common feature of dialogue style. Note the ‘echo’ effect: ἄκουε οὖν. and the aorist participle. ἀκούσας δέ … ‘Listen then. πειρῶμαι εὑρίσκειν ὅπως οἱ ποιηταὶ τὴν σοϕίαν ἀποϕαίνουσιν. masc. 142–145.
but answer boldly. He is young. Kriton. line 6.’ And at this moment Dionysodoros laughed and with a laugh said: ‘Indeed I know very well that Euthydemos will defeat him in discussion. Kleinias. I said. ‘the fact is that. Socrates. γελάσας δέ … Cf. turning men to philosophy. I. ‘Then you must turn this young man to philosophy and virtue.’ I did not answer. And being at a loss he looked at me and blushed. I said: ‘Do you.’ Kleinias said: ‘I will do this and answer. and I found Euthydemos and Dionysodoros conversing with many others. lines 17 and 23. seeing him blush.’ ‘But’.Section 7E 91 18 21 23 27 ἀποκρινοῦμαι Tense? Cf. said: ‘Don’t worry. … ἐγέλασεν. thus ἀ-μαθεῖς. and GE p. ἀποκρίνομαι. For I enjoy answering. and don’t be afraid.’ And Euthydemos said: ‘Tell me then. Kleinias. 11 πάνυ γε ‘certainly’. ‘are they … or …?’ … ἠπόρησεν. ‘So be it’.. ᾖσμεν Cf. Speak then. Therefore. asking questions and discussing. But the young man must answer. And you know that both these men have a good reputation. ὁμολογέω is another common word in Plato. πότεροι … ἤ … A double question. I said. Euthydemos.’ And Euthydemos said: ‘Listen then. and answer when you have listened. They call him Kleinias. have a reputation for turning people to philosophy and virtue or not?’ ‘We certainly seem to. Translation for 7D Yesterday I went to the Lyceum. ἀπορήσας δ᾽ … Cf. talking here in front of us?’ Euthydemos immediately answered boldly: ‘We are certainly willing to talk here. ἀμαθεῖς You can work out the meaning from μανθάνω and then make it negative with ἀ-. which people learn. Socrates’. he said. and they always question him closely while he is speaking and answering.146. 7E Page 81 3 6 7 10 ὡμολόγει ‘he agreed’. For it is by speaking and questioning that a sophist turns his students to virtue. For while Dionysodoros was saying this. For his friends often go to him. line 17. . #167. and question me. ᾖστε What verb does this come from? See vocab. enjoys answering. But why don’t you question the young man closely. Kleinias happened to answer that the people who learn are the clever people. the clever or the ignorant?’ And the young man – for it really was a big question – was at a loss. wanting to hear their arguments. Dionysodoros.
the past tense of οἶδα (see GE p. #167). ‘Then it is the ignorant who learn. were you ignorant?’ ‘Certainly. he said: ‘What then. praised this cleverness. ‘And when the teacher was teaching you as children. or someone else?’ He agreed that the teacher teaches those who learn. . we were certainly not clever since we knew nothing’. Kleinias? Let’s suppose the teacher speaks some words. And Dionysodoros at once caught up the argument. ἔϕην ‘I say’.’ 7F Page 82 2 ἐπῄνεσαν From ἐπ-αινέω. Translation for 7F So said Euthydemos. by Zeus! For since we were pupils we knew nothing. said Kleinias. like a ball. 7 ἄρα Climax again. 2–3 ἐξεδέξατo … ἐκδεξάμενος δὲ … Aor. you knew nothing yet?’ ‘No. but not the ignorant. indeed. the teacher. ‘I said’ (GE pp. laughing vigorously and making a din. 146–147. Kleinias. ‘Therefore. but being ignorant you were learning?’ The young man agreed. as you believe. ‘And when you were pupils. 146.’ ‘Were you then clever. ὥσπερ σϕαῖραν ‘just like a ball’. having received it. and. part… .’ said Kleinias. #168). ‘Then it is the clever who learn. but not the clever. the clever or the ignorant?’ ‘The clever. when you were pupils you knew nothing.’ ‘So then.’ At this point the students. σϕαῖρα = ‘sphere’. making a din and laughing at the same time. falling into perplexity. and ϕημί. indic… . when you knew nothing?’ ‘No. mid. But we. mid. aor. Who learns these words.92 Section 7F 12 ἄρα This particle shows that you are reaching the climax of the argument – see also in line 14. Translation for 7E And Euthydemos said: ‘But who teaches those who learn. were you pupils?’ He agreed they were. 4–5 πότεροι … ἤ … ‘are they … or …?’: a double question. immediately praised this cleverness. and you did not answer well just now. Grammar Do not forget to learn ᾔδη. if you were not clever. The students. were silent.
9. 4. βλέπω δηλόω πείθω βοάω τρέπομαι 7D–F: 2 1. nom. acc. 3. 9. 5. m. 10. m. and φημί I say 7D–F: 4 1. 8. 10. ἔφη 7. 4. δεξάμενος βιασάμενος λογισάμενος μαχεσάμενος ἀποκρινάμενος . pl. φησίν 9. 6. βιασάμενοι κολάσαντας μισήσασα δουλωσαμένους δεξαμένη 7D–F: 3 (a) With one look at Penthesilea. 5. nom. 5. 7. ᾔδη 8. 9. ᾔδεσαν. nom. m. pl. Achilles burned with passion. ἴσμεν 2. 3. 8. ἔφασαν 3. 1. f. s. 5. φαμέν 5. Achilles burned with passion. 3. ᾖσαν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7D–F B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. 2.Revision exercises for section 7D–F 93 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7D–F AORIST PARTICIPLES 7D–F: 1 1. acc. acc. ἔφατε 10. 7. 2. acc. m. 2. f. 1. 10. 4. s. m. ποιήσας βοηθήσας ἀπορήσας 4. nom. 2. οἶσθα 6. ᾔδει 4. 8. pl. pl. (b) While he gazed at Penthesilea. pl. s. παύω λύω ζητέω ζητέω δέχομαι 6. βλέψασαν θαυμάσας τρεψάμενον διωξάσας ποιήσαντες 6. f. ἐλευθερώσας τολμήσας θεασάμενος βλέψας φροντίσας ῥίψας σώσας παυσάμενος 6. s. 4. nom. m. 7. 3. ᾖδη I knew. m. s. nom.
hearing the argument. and I.’ ‘The truth.’ I said.’ ‘Well then. ἀποροῦντες βλέψας ἀκούσαντες γελῶν ἐκδεξαμένη ἀποκρινόμενος D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ἐπαινέσας αὐτοὺς ‘προτρέπετε’.’ ‘The doctor seemed to be most skilled. ‘εὐθύς αὐτούς.’ ‘You seem to speak well.’ said Socrates. and I shall reply. where did you go. 2.’ I said. .’ I said. d. Socrates. but that of any skilled doctor who happens to be [available]. Do we agree so or not?’ ‘We do by Zeus. ‘So we shouldn’t praise and respect the opinions of the many about the plague. the woman was silent. ὡμολόγησεν. c. E – TEST EXERCISE 7D–F ‘You. πρὸς ἐμὲ βλέψας.’ ‘Consider then. b. ἀπορήσας ὁ μαθητὴς ἐπειρᾶτο ϕεύγειν. and to no one else?’ ‘I did. f. ‘and my friends went there too. ‘So should we praise and honour good opinions. The suppliants hurried to the shrine and prayed to the gods. ‘Come then. ‘as I think. ‘when the plague fell upon the city and destroyed it. a. ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ.’ I said. 4. ὁ σοϕιστής. ‘and if you have anything to object. The students said in answer that lawlessness is not just. For the doctor knew about the plague.’ said Socrates. or not? Answer. make your objection.’ I said. shall obey.’ (lit. e. Socrates.94 Revision exercises for section 7D–F 3. ὁ Διονυσόδωρος γελῶν/γελάσας τὸν λόγον ἐξεδέξατο. laughed. 3. but not bad ones?’ I agreed.᾽ Having stolen the money the young man shouted loudly. then. for my part. ‘So did you have to go to the doctor. does he seem to you to speak the truth) in saying this. being more skilled than the others. 5.’ said Socrates. ὁ διδάσκαλος ἀποκρινόμενος εἶπεν ὅτι ἀρετή τις ἐστὶv ἡ ϕιλοσοϕία.’ he said. ‘question [me] carefully. With a glance at me. it was necessary) I said. to your friends or to the doctor?’ ‘I went to the doctor. ‘does a philosopher who says that we must not praise all the opinions of men speak the truth? What do you say? Do you think he is speaking the truth (lit.
and aor. part. for where in English we would write ‘they attacked them and fought them’. (f) s. the Greeks preferred to have only one main verb and to say ‘having attacked them. / main verb). pl. Page 84 5 ἰδοῦσαι εἶδov (second aorist of ὁράω) drops the augment to give the stem ἰδ-. λαβόντες δ’ αὐτάς Note the ‘echo’ effect.g. pl. fem. . therefore the participle is ἰδών. part. they fought them’. The second aorist participle has the same endings as the present participle. second aorist εἷλον.110–116. 2–3 τὰς ἐκ τῆς μάχης περιούσας περιούσας agrees with τὰς Ἀμαζόνας and is the acc. 7G Page 83 1 εἰσπεσόντες Nom. ἐξ αὐτῶν ‘from them’. 7D lines 17 and 23 and 7F lines 2–3. 10–12 Note the structure: οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι / οὐ γιγνώσκοντες τὴν ϕωνὴν / καὶ ἄνδρας νομίζοντες τὰς Ἀμαζόνας / ἐμπεσόντες καὶ μαχεσάμενοι / τοὺς νεκροὺς ἀνεῖλον (subject / pres. of εἰσπίπτω (second aor. λαμβάνων present participle. #174–176) which will be gradually introduced. part. the Amazons Now we change to Herodotus and the narrative style. GE pp. but has the aorist stem. Note: participle … participle … main verb. masc. part. 13 γνόντες From γιγνώσκω. λαβών aorist participle. (e) m. 7G–H Herodotus: Histories 4. participle of περίειμι ‘I survive’. You will often ﬁnd that the sentences are longer. 8–9 ἀϕικόμεναι … ἀποβᾶσαι Remember that the Amazons are feminine. ἔπεσον). ἰδόν. 2 αὐτάς ‘them’. the aorist participle is γνοῦς γνόντος. 151–152. part. ἰδοῦσα. 2. / pres. 12 ἀνελόντες What verb is this from? ἀν-αιρέω. ἀπέκτειναν line 5. stem ἑλ-. Cf. There are other uses and meanings (GE pp. 6 ἀποκτείνασαι Cf.. but the syntax will usually follow the sequence of events. ἔλαβον. 153. see GE p. aor. acc. (b) future indicative (d) imperfect indicative (b) acc. (c) acc. #172–173. second aorist ἔγνων. with a series of participles leading on to the ﬁnal event in the main verb. 153–155. / aor. #169–171: e. (d) nom.Section 7G 95 EXERCISE 1. Aorist participles are frequent. (a) present indicative (c) imperfect indicative (a) acc.
4 τὸ αὐτό ‘the same thing’. they sailed where the wind carried [them]. then.96 Section 7H 14 τοὺς ἑαυτῶν νεανίσκους ‘their own young men’ (lit. and thinking the Amazons were men. they defeated them in the battle. And having captured them. they discovered that they were women. αὐτός ‘himself’. and so. ἄξει What tense? What verb? 5 τῇ δ’ ὑστεραίᾳ ‘on the next day’. agrees with the subject: ‘coming himself …’ 6 τὴν Ἀμαζόνα αὐτήν ‘the Amazon herself’ (emphatic). They did not. not knowing the language. ordering them not to ﬁght. See GE pp. For while they were on the sea they did not guard the Amazons. It is from ἕπομαι ‘I follow’. and taking the horses they laid waste the land of the Scythians. So. In this way. they found a herd of horses. . αὐτός preceded by the article always means ‘the same’. Seeing the men ﬂeeing. And ﬁrst the Amazons went away. emphatic. they went away in three ships. Thus. then. So the Amazons gave chase. the young men followed [them] and made camp. they captured the Amazons who survived the battle. they did not worry about them any longer. Be careful to distinguish between αὐτόν ‘him’ and ἑαυτόν (or αὑτόν) reﬂexive ‘himself’. And having defeated them. 153–155. arrive at their native land. 7H Page 86 3 εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ χωρίον ‘to the same place’. seeing that the men were not guarding [them]. and the men ﬂed. Translation for 7G When the Greeks came upon the Amazons and were ﬁghting them. they sent their own young men to them. the young men of themselves). on taking up the corpses. 15 εἵποντο What verb? What had they been told to do? 16 ἀπῆλθον … ἀπελθοῦσαι The pattern as before. having attacked and fought) took up the corpses. Having discovered this. ἕπεσθαι Note the rough breathing. But the Amazons were not experienced in seafaring. the Amazons became quiet. Dative of time when. having learned that the men were not hostile. #172–176 for the different uses of αὐτός. but to have children by them. But the Scythians. but to follow and to make camp near the Amazons. attacked and having fought a battle (lit. coming near. lines 4 and 5 ‘they did the same thing themselves also’. and not wanting to kill [them] any more. And the Amazons. however. but on going away they saw the men following. 8 ἐποίουν τὸ αὐτὸ καὶ αὐτοί Cf. killed [them]. having killed the men. Finally having arrived at the land of the Scythians and having disembarked from the ships.
’ But they said to this: ‘We cannot live with your women.from οἰκέω. So having got up and left. Grammar Don’t forget to learn δύναμαι. giving a sign that she herself would do the same thing and would bring another Amazon. you must go to your parents and obtain [your] portion of the possessions. bringing another young man. At last the young men said to them: ‘We have parents and possessions. on coming across an Amazon who was alone. augmented or). but the women learned that of the Scythians. on coming himself to the same place. αὐτός / ἑαυτόν / ὁ αὐτός. try taking it apart: συν.preposition. For we cannot live in this region. . But the rest of the young men. came back again to the Amazons.e. then. but do women’s tasks. 153–155. he found the Amazon herself who had brought another Amazon.’ Having said these things. they convinced the young men. and we have not learned women’s tasks.’ 18–19 δεῖ ὑμᾶς There are two sets of actions which they must perform: (i) ἐλθόντας … μέρος and (ii) καὶ ἔπειτα … ἡμῶν. Translation for 7H So then a young man. they inhabited it. #172–176. For our customs and the Scythians’ customs are not the same. #177. but by means of a sign she ordered the young man to come to the same place on the next day and to bring another young man. But if you want to have us as your wives. and on the next day. on learning what had happened. on obtaining their portion of the possessions. -ῳ. and then come back and live with us. And she was not able to speak [his language]. And the Amazon did not prevent [him]. don’t we go away to our people? We shall have you as our wives and no others. But if you want to have us as your wives. But your women do none of these things. After this the Scythians and the Amazons began to live together. immediately had intercourse with her. 14–15 οὐ γὰρ oἱ αὐτοὶ οἵ τε ἡμέτεροι νόμοι καὶ oἱ τῶν Σκυθῶν ‘For our customs and the Scythians’ customs are not the same (oἱ αὐτοί). staying in the wagons and not using bows and arrows or riding horses. The men could not learn the language of the Amazons. and make sure that you understand GE pp. having laid waste the land. For we use bows and arrows and ride horses. GE p. 156. live there?’ And the young men obeyed these things too. therefore the stem is οἰκ. crossing the river Tanais. So the young men.Section 7H 97 9 συνῴκουν If you cannot identify it. and having arrived at the place. And the young man went away and told this to the others. went away. did the same thing themselves also. why don’t we get up and go off from this land and. on ﬁnding the Amazons and having had intercourse with them. Why. The two young men. So the Amazons said to them: ‘But a great fear holds us.= ε + οι (i.
τὸν λαβόντα 2. 1. ηὗρον εὑρών εἶδov ἰδών 8. τῷ εὑρόντι 8. αὐτοὶ ἀφίκοντο 6. τοὺς ἐλθόντας 3. I myself saw the same man 6. ἆρ’ εἶδες αὐτάς; 3. 2. He himself did the same thing 1. τὴν μαθοῦσαν 4. He himself saw him (someone else) 8. The Amazons came across the young men and conversed with them. ἔπεσον πεσών ἦλθον ἐλθών The young men went away and said these things to the rest. εἶδεν αὐτό REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7G–H B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτήν 7. τῷ μαθόντι τῆς τυχούσης ταῖς δραμούσαις τοῦ ἀφικομένου 5. εἷλov ἑλών ἀϕικόμην ἀϕικόμενος 9. τῇ εἰπούσῃ/λεξάσῃ 6. τοῖς γενομένοις 7. ἔλαβον λαβών ἔμαθον μαθών 7. ἔλαβεν αὐτόν 5. I myself saw the man himself 7G–H: 4 5. The young man saw the Amazon and went towards her. οἱ γενόμενοι 6. καταλαβοῦσαι c. ἰδών . τὸν αὐτὸν ἄνδρα 2. οἱ αὐτοὶ νόμοι 8. ἡ ἑλοῦσα 1. ἀπελθόντες b. τοῦ λαβόντος ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS: αὐτός-ή-όν 7G–H: 3 1. I saw the man himself 4. τὸ πεσόν 8. a. 3. 3.98 Revision exercises for section 7G–H EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7G–H SECOND AORIST PARTICIPLES 7G–H: 1 1. 5. I saw him 3. 2. 2. τὰς ἀφικομένας 7. αἱ ἰδοῦσαι 7G–H: 2 5. I myself saw the same man 7. 4. 4. ἐγένομην γενόμενος 6. αὐτὴ ἦλθεν 4. I saw the man 2.
αὐτούς τοὺς νεανίας i. αὐτός f. force/power I praise. ϕίλοι γενόμενοι. oἱ νεανίαι ἐθαύμασαν. 5. On discovering the men. the guard (act of guarding). The Scythians ﬁnd the Amazons and come closer. 4. 1. SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7 A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. laughter. having picked up the corpses and found them to be women. seeing the old man. Saying this/with these words. the sailor laughed εὑρόντες ταύτας τὰς γυναῖκας. 2. I compel I laugh. τὴν αὐτήν e. the guard (person). The Scythians. αὐτούς b. went away. διὰ δὲ ταῦτα oἱ νεανίαι πρὸς τὰς οἰκίας ἐπανελθόντες τὰ κτήματα ἔλαβον. μαθόντες a. εὑρόντες e. the praise a possession. After this the boy ran into the house and looked for his father. αὐτός h. αὐτή d. the (act of) possessing I reason. Having become pupils. powerful. the crossing I destroy. the agreement I try. d. the women stopped worrying. αὐτούς D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK The women. necessity. the destruction I am able. ὁ αὐτός c.Summary exercises for section 7 99 3. were amazed. necessary. αὐτάς. ἀvελόντες. the reasoning I agree. the young men wanted to learn. The young men came closer and pitched camp. οἱ ἄνδρες ἀνελόντες τοὺς τῶν γυναικῶν νεκροὺς ἀπῆλθον. περὶ τὰ αὐτά g. I possess. ταῦτα εἰποῦσαι αἱ γυναῖκες ἔπεισαν τοὺς νεανίας. the attempt I guard. ἀϕικόμενοι f. unguarded . 3. oἱ νεανίαι δύνανται διαλέγεσθαι πρὸς ἐκείνας τὰς γυναῖκας. laughable I cross.
ἐπειδὴ ἀϕικόμεναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐμαχεσάμεθα. νέος young. and taking up their corpses and ﬁnding them to be women. ἀλήθεια truth.’ E – TEST EXERCISE 7 Some Amazons arrived in the land of the Scythians and disembarked from their boats. ἀλλὰ ἔδει τούς τε νεανίας καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας διὰ τὸν ποταμὸν διαβαίνειν καὶ ἄλλην τινὰ χώραν οἰκεῖν. σοϕία wisdom. οἰκέω I live. ‘τὴν γὰρ ὑμετέραν γῆν’. EXERCISE 1. δόξα reputation D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK αἱ δ’ Ἀμαζόνες τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἀποκτείνασαι πρὸς τὴν τῶν Σκυθῶν γῆν ἀϕίκοντο. ‘οὐ βουλόμεθα οἰκεῖν. and. διαβάλλω I slander. λογίζομαι I reason. τέλος δὲ ϕίλοι γενόμενοι συνῴκησαν ἀλλήλοις. The Scythians defeated them in battle. οἱ οὖν νεάνιαι πλησίον ἑπόμενοι οὐκ ἐμαχέσαντο.100 Summary exercises for section 7 2. wanted to have children by them. ἔϕασαν αἱ Ἀμαζόνες. But the Amazons did not wish to go back to the mass of the Scythians. to become friends. ‘we cannot live with your women. ἀληθής true. μάχη battle. The Amazons. and falling on the land they laid it waste. ἀϕικόμεναι δὲ καὶ ἵππους εὑροῦσαι πρὸς τοὺς Σκύθας ἐμαχέσαντο. μάχομαι I ﬁght. διαβολή slander. advised the others to do the same. 2. λόγος word. no longer worried about them. Then a Scythian. coming across an Amazon who was on her own. they found a land near by and lived in it. but to go closer and become friends. νεανίας young man. taking their possessions and crossing the river. δοκέω I seem. ϕάσμα apparition. argument. and they sent them towards the Amazons. For our customs and those of the Scythians are not the same. if they came on any Amazons. ‘For’. αἱ δ᾽ Ἀμαζόνες ταῦτα ἰδοῦσαι αὐταὶ ἡσύχαζον. οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι αὐτὰς νικήσαντές τε καὶ περὶ αὐτῶν γνόντες ϕίλοι γίγνεσθαι ἐβούλοντο. ἀποϕαίνω I reveal. ἥδομαι I have pleasure. they said. (a) aorist (e) present (a) imperfect (b) aorist (f) aorist (b) aorist (c) present (c) imperfect (d) aorist (d) aorist .’ So. So the others obeyed. ϕαίνομαι I appear. and becoming friendly [with her]. σοϕός wise. and eventually the Scythians and the Amazons began to live together. οἰκία house. on seeing them following close by but not ﬁghting. ἡδέως with pleasure. So they ordered their young men never to ﬁght.
8 λαμβάνεται τοῦ ἱματίου He takes hold of his tunic.Section Eight: Aristophanes’ Birds Now we return to Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode. 167–169. 86. This is called a partitive genitive. 3–4 καθορᾷ …. 21 φθάνω + participle ‘to do something before someone else’. 23 ποῖ δὴ καὶ πόθεν. You have already met it frequently. where he escapes into fantasy from the bitter realities of life in Athens during the Peloponnesian War. is deeply serious. You will need to supply verbs in English. περιμένομεν: which is future and which is present and how can you tell? See GE p. 160–161. #95. 8A Page 90 1 Look for the subject and the two aorist participles before you go on to the main verb. ἰδ is the stem of the second aorist εἶδoν. the ‘being’ verb does not. 104. but now all forms of it are laid out (GE pp. 163–165. however amusingly expressed. 101 . you should be able to recognise the verb. The social comment. and to an episode based on another play of Aristophanes. This section introduces the genitive case formally. 4 ἀπιόντα Remember the difference between ὤν (‘being’) and ἰών (‘going’). 165–167. The genitive is used because he takes hold of part of his tunic (not the whole thing). but the meaning should be clear. #180). 20 περιμενοῦμεν Tense? Cf. Page 91 11 τίς ὢν σύ … Note the idiomatic use of the participle. καθ-. #181–182) as well as the optative mood (GE pp. #117. κατ-. See GE p. κατιδών If you remove the preﬁx. You will also meet other forms of the comparative (GE pp. ‘Who are you to take hold of…?’ 13 τυγχάνω + participle ‘happen to be …’ 19 ὑμῶν ἕνεκα ἕνεκα follows the word it governs. #178–179) and the main uses are listed (GE pp. #183–186). The ‘going’ verb has an iota.
29 ἀνιστάμεθα See GE p. For Euelpides. goes away through the crowd of citizens towards the agora with the rhapsode. DIK. It is the opposite of πολυπράγμων ‘meddling’. holding a basket in his hand. SLAVE .102 Section 8A 25 κυρία ἐκκλησία There was a ‘sovereign’ assembly once a month unless additional emergency ones were needed. he is coming up behind. Wait. I am the slave of Euelpides. 167–169. 30 λέγοιτ᾿ ἄν This is a new mood. Translation for 8A Dikaiopolis. greets you. 32 λέγοιμι ἄν And another. Do you not see him. SL. Dikaiopolis. #183–186). 6A line 4 βάλλ᾿ εἰς κόρακας. 31 ἂν ἀκούοιμι Another one. called the optative (GE pp. having observed the lawlessness of the Eleven and having heard the words of the suppliant. #187. the son of Polemarchus. Thus Euelpides’ slave approaches Dikaiopolis and shouts. Cf. πράττω and πρᾶγμα. Having seen them. my good fellow? SL. wait! DIKAIOPOLIS What shout is that? Who is responsible for that shout? The slave runs up and grabs his tunic. running through the crowd of people? And a friend of his is following with him. Euelpides runs up. ἀπράγμονα ἀ-πράγμων = ‘not busy’ or more often ‘not meddlesome’. But wait! DIK. And Euelpides the son of Polemarchos sees him going away with the rhapsode towards the market-place. The optative + ἄν means ‘could’ or ‘would’. But whose slave are you? Who sent you? SL. It is called the potential optative. He gets there before Peisetairos and taking Dikaiopolis’ hand he greets him. all of which are concerned with authority or power. Peisetairos. and he happened to send me. Who are you. It is clear that he is running after you. he sends his slave to them. 170. The head of the family is ὁ κύριος. You can usually recognise it easily because of -οι. and the word is also used in the New Testament for Jesus Christ. but you may want to start making a chart to ﬁll in. Don’t try to learn it now. Joke! Cf. I was the cause of the shouting. as he comes up. the son of Stilbonides. We will wait. Here he is. and why are you holding my tunic.in the ending. DIK. Page 92 27–28 μῶν εἰς κόρακας. But where is he? SL. or ‘trouble-free’. DIK. I am a slave. κύριος is a word with a wide range of meanings.
20 οἱ μὲν γὰρ τέττιγες … For the Athenian love of litigation see also Section 6B lines 23–24. See GE pp. 164. ἔπαθον. Cf. for I would be very glad to know the reason. 9 τί παθόντες Aorist participle of πάσχω. This crow is guiding us. I do not mean that. 13–14 εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον Note the -ηριον ending which denotes a place where an activity takes place. 4 εὐδαιμονεστέραν This is another form of the comparative. ϕροντιστήριον. second aor. Translation for 8B Are you looking for a greater city than Athens? No. where are you going and where have you come from? DIK. #158 and GE p. τοιοῦτον = ‘such’. DIK. #154–160 for more forms. Greetings to you too. as is the superlative which follows in the next line. we shall settle in a peaceful city. and when we get there. 136–138. DIK. by Zeus. καταψηϕίζομαι means ‘I condemn’. Athens is clearly the greatest. see GE p. I will tell you. Meanwhile Peisetairos comes up. It is easily recognisable. Literally ‘having experienced what. There is no city wealthier than this one. with a crow on his wrist. ἀποψηϕίζομαι means ‘I acquit’. For. 137. our fatherland. He is certainly the best guide. are you leaving?’ 13 τοιοῦτον τὸ πάθος πάθος is a neuter noun 3c. We are looking for a peaceful place. DIKAIOPOLIS EUELPIDES . For Athens is the wealthiest. From the Piraeus. There is no greater city than this one. 16 κατεψηϕίσαντο ψηϕίζομαι means ‘I vote’. RHAPSODE Are you looking for a wealthier city than this one? EU. We shall go there. 166. It will be a sovereign assembly today. but where on earth are you going with that crow? Could it be that you are going to the crows? PEISETAIROS Of course! We are leaving the country. EU. Peisetairos.Section 8B EUELPIDES 103 Greetings. and wanting what. 30 ἀποκρινοῦμαι What is the tense? Cf. For who can lead us to the crows better than a crow? DIK. DIK. But why do you want to carry that crow on your wrist? EU. Note that there are two ways of saying more … than …: GE pp. #182. and I am on my way to the assembly. ἀποκρίνομαι. But why do you want to leave like this. #180(e). 8B Page 94 1 μείζονα Comparative. and we are following it. my friend. where Strepsiades cannot believe that it is Athens on the map because there are no jurors sitting. in the name of Zeus. my friends? Please tell me. my dear Dikaiopolis.
I do. since you give a just account of the lawcourt and the jurors. or what is it that you want that makes you leave the city? EU. For the crickets sing for a little while in the branches. PEI. Peisetairos here and I have had a terrible experience. but the jurors condemned us. But the remark was made by a slave in comedy. because of the false testimony of the witnesses. What sort of misfortune? What had you done. For I. but the people are full of distress. even though we were innocent. RΗAP. and he was re-elected the following year. and should not perhaps be taken too seriously. 23 γνούς Aorist participle of γιγνώσκω. But how do the orators show their love for the people? Consider. I am not surprised that you are setting off to ﬁnd another city. Why are you silent? You will not say? They do not pity them. Why not? PEI. I will answer for you. Dikaiopolis. For we ﬁnd the affairs of the city hard to bear. We did nothing and we did no wrong. the assembly is full of it and the lawcourts are full of it. what are you saying? Do you really think that the orators love the city? DIK. The land is full of their audacity. everywhere there is lamentation and funeral pyres because of the plague: everywhere there are corpses. we do not hate the city itself. Tell me then. 166. And it is with reason that I shall not do this. there is much lawlessness. DIK. or what wrong did you do so that you suffered this misfortune? EU. and so we want to go away. His conviction was largely a political move. from the second aorist ἔγνων. but they will destroy the city. 21 τὸ ἀγαθόν Plato’s lectures on ‘The Good’ were said to be the ultimate in obscurity. 8C Page 96 3–4 13 15 16 οἴκοι μέν … ἐν δὲ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ … Note the contrast. by Zeus. . my friends. You are doing this with reason. They were found to be ﬁve talents adrift and he was convicted. #181. you know it well. but the Athenians sing all the time in their lawsuits. especially the lawcourts. βελτίους Not what it seems at ﬁrst glance – see GE p. So great was the misfortune we suffered when we entered the lawcourts. Dikaiopolis. The war drags on. Section 8C What then? What do you have in mind? Do you perhaps hate the city? PEISETAIROS No. DIK. love the city and I shall never cease to love the city. like the orators. Do the orators show pity for the people? Do they pity them or not? Tell me. χείρους What case is it? βελτίους What case is it? κλοπήν Pericles was suspended from his ofﬁce of strategos and ordered to submit his accounts for inspection.104 DIK. what happened to you.
#177. therefore. you and I. DIK. ‘would’. It is probable that they were. don’t say that! For the people are most skilled at home. DIK. Who will save the city? A man who loves the city will save it and not destroy it. R H A P S O D E But if Pericles – DIK. 34 ἄλλο τι πλήν … ‘anything else but …’ 42–44 Note ἄν + optative repeatedly. for ‘the good’.Section 8C 105 25 δύναται GE p. Translation for 8C You seem to speak the truth. It shows Aristophanes’ sympathy with ‘honest country folk’. Did Pericles do this or not? RΗAP. But who will save the city. Odyssey 1. When Pericles began to speak in the assembly. by Zeus! PEI. But what is the good. since the orators seem to be worth nothing? Perhaps the people themselves? E U E L P I D E S Ο Herakles. you must seek the good of the city. 48–49 Two lines from the Homeric Hymn to Demeter 216–217. PEI. What do you mean. Peisetairos. were the Athenians worse. 33 εἶμι (not εἰμί) ‘I shall go’. I know it well. and when he died were they better? RHAP. but no one can discover it. Don’t speak of Pericles! RΗAP. because of him.267. and a glimpse of the pre-war Athens. He did it. but when they became better. so they say. and it is clear that he was a villain. The vocabulary should give you all the help you need. they condemned him for theft. and others think DIKAIOPOLIS . as you say. as I hear. Page 97 46 A quotation from Homer. For the good citizen makes the others better. You don’t know what ‘the good’ is? But on the ship you seemed to be some sort of a philosopher. but absolute idiots in the assembly. You speak the truth. my friend? Pericles seemed to be the best of them all. But we know clearly. ἀναπείσω What verb does this come from? Try πείθω. rhapsode? For I don’t know what it is that is the good [of the city]. that at ﬁrst Pericles was well thought of when the Athenians were. knowing their jargon. PEISETAIROS But the good citizen makes the citizens better instead of worse. Some think that it is virtue. 156. worse. Dikaiopolis. RHAP. DIK. 25–26 οἱ μέν … οἱ δέ … ‘some … others …’ 27–30 A rather touching personal view. rhapsode! For the philosophers search. 32 ἂν βουλοίμην ἄν + optative again – ‘could’. What must we do? RHAP. Don’t mock me.
I think these men are stupid. τῶν πολιτῶν τοῦ δικαστοῦ. courage τῆς ἀνομίας. τῶν μαχῶν τῆς φωνῆς. friends. children. But how shall I alone persuade the people? What shall I say or shout or order. It is peace. They have found it in the ﬁelds. I do not know if anyone else wants to make a treaty and to live at peace. health. both the bad and the better. relation. 4.’ EXERCISES FOR SECTION 8 THE GENITIVE CASE 8A–C: 1 1. relations. lawlessness peace market-place assembly battle voice virtue. but I would like to. 6. though grieving. τῶν ἀγορῶν τῆς ἐκκλησίας. poet 4. + PEI. but they do not know. Don’t they know that the poet spoke truly who said ‘These matters lie in the lap of the gods’ For we must accept the gifts of the gods with resignation. 3. I wouldn’t hurry off to the assembly. nor would I want to ﬂee from my own country. Dikaiopolis. myself. a sophist 8A–C: 3 τοῦ πολίτου. ‘We men must endure the gifts of the gods. kinsman 4. τῶν σοφιστῶν 1. off to the assembly! EU.106 Exercises for section 8 that it is justice. ready to shout and abuse anyone who speaks about anything else except peace. 2. feasts. 7. wealth. but peace is full of weddings. For the yoke lies upon our necks. Socrates 3. τῶν συγγενῶν τοῦ Περικλέους . τῶν τριηρῶν τοῦ Σωκράτους τοῦ συγγενοῦς. For war is full of events. τῶν δικαστῶν τοῦ ποιητοῦ. 5. Come on now. But the farmers know what is good. if I am going to make a treaty? But I shall go. τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν τῆς μάχης. perplexity and plague and ﬁtting out ships. τῶν ἀρετῶν 8A–C: 2 1. citizen 2. τῶν ἀνομιῶν τῆς εἰρήνης. τῶν ποιητῶν τοῦ σοφιστοῦ. τῶν φωνῶν τῆς ἀρετῆς. juror 3. Yet we are setting off for a place that is peaceful. food. trireme 2. Farewell! RHAP. τῶν εἰρηνῶν τῆς ἀγορᾶς. Pericles τῆς τριήρους. wine and pleasure. I wouldn’t do that.
τοῦ σοῦ. τῆς δεξιᾶς. 5. τῶν ποταμῶν τοῦ νεανίσκου. 5. 2. τοῦ χαλεποῦ. 7. best 10. τῶν γερόντων τοῦ ποδός. τῆς βελτίστης. τῆς ὑμετέρας. τῶν δαιμόνων τῆς γυναικός. crowd 3. wall 8A–C: 7 τοῦ πάθους. ἐκείνων τῶν τοῦ δεξιοῦ. τῶν κηρύκων τοῦ κτήματος. τῶν δήμων τοῦ δικαστηρίου. τῶν οὐρανῶν 8A–C: 5 1. 5. food a philosopher the people lawcourt time river young man heaven. τῶν δεξιῶν τοῦ ἑτοίμου. 6. τῶν ὑμετέρων τοῦ μεγίστου. worthy that right ready himself difﬁcult your (pl. τοῦ αὐτοῦ. your (s. number. 3. τῶν αὐτῶν τοῦ χαλεποῦ. τοῦ ὑμετέρου. τῆς πολλῆς. this 8A–C: 6 τοῦ ἀξίου. τῶν χρόνων τοῦ ποταμοῦ. 6. τῆς ἀξίας. 3. 4. ἐκείνου τοῦ. τῶν χαλεπῶν τοῦ ὑμετέρου. 4. object god woman τοῦ πράγματος. ἐκείνης τῆς. τῶν δικαστηρίων τοῦ χρόνου. 7. τῆς σῆς. 8. τῶν μεγίστων τοῦ βελτίστου. τῶν φιλοσόφων τοῦ δήμου. 8. τῆς μεγίστης. suffering 2. τῶν βελτίστων τοῦ σοῦ. τῶν ἀξίων ἐκείνου τοῦ. τῶν σίτων τοῦ φιλοσόφου. τῆς αὐτῆς. τῶν παθῶν τοῦ πλήθους. τούτου τοῦ. τοῦ πολλοῦ. much 12. τοῦ ἀξίου. τῶν κτημάτων τοῦ ῥήτορος. 6. τῶν γυναικῶν . ταύτης τῆς. τῶν νεανίσκων τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.) greatest 9. τῶν φροντίδων τοῦ χρήματος.) 11. τῶν χρημάτων τοῦ δαίμονος. 8. τῶν ἑτοίμων τοῦ αὐτοῦ. sky τοῦ σίτου. τῶν ῥητόρων τοῦ γέροντος. τοῦ ἑτοίμου. 3. τῆς χαλεπῆς. 10. τῶν πραγμάτων τοῦ κήρυκος. 7. τοῦ βελτίστου. thing. τούτων τῶν 1. τῶν ποδῶν τῆς φροντίδος. 9. τῶν σῶν τοῦ πολλοῦ. 2.Exercises for section 8 107 8A–C: 4 1. τοῦ μεγίστου. τῶν πολλῶν τούτου τοῦ. τῶν τειχῶν 1. τῆς ἑτοίμης. τοῦ δεξιοῦ. affair herald possession speaker old man foot thought thing. 4. τῶν πληθῶν τοῦ τείχους. 2.
Exercises for section 8
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
ill-fated going being better having set free worse someone
κακοδαίμονος, κακοδαίμονος, κακοδαιμόνων ἰόντος, ἰούσης, ἰόντος, ἰόντων ὄντος, οὔσης, ὄντος, ὄντων βελτίονος, βελτίονος, βελτιόνων λύσαντος, λυσάσης, λύσαντος, λυσάντων χείρονος, χείρονος, χειρόνων τινός, τινός, τινῶν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Zeus I ship king you eyebrow old woman
τοῦ Διός ἐμοῦ, μου, ἡμῶν τῆς νεώς, τῶν νεῶν τοῦ βασιλέως, τῶν βασιλέων σοῦ, σου, ὑμῶν τῆς ὀφρύος, τῶν ὀφρύων τῆς γραός, τῶν γραῶν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
juror child, slave sun dwelling possession plan temple, shrine city
τοῦ δικαστοῦ, τῶν δικαστῶν τοῦ παιδός, τῶν παίδων τοῦ ἡλίου, τῶν ἡλίων τῆς οἰκήσεως, τῶν οἰκήσεων τοῦ κτήματος, τῶν κτημάτων τῆς διανοίας, τῶν διανοιῶν τοῦ ἱεροῦ, τῶν ἱερῶν τοῦ ἄστεως, τῶν ἄστεων
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
μετὰ τοῦ Σωκράτους ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας διὰ τοῦ πλήθους ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου καταδικάζω τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀκούω τῆς γυναικός λαμβάνομαι τοῦ πολίτου
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
ἄξιος τῆς ἀρετῆς αἴτιος τῆς ἀνομίας μετὰ τοῦ κήρυκος διὰ τοῦ ποταμοῦ περὶ τοῦ νόμου ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀθηνῶν ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας
ALTERNATIVE COMPARATIVE FORMS 8A–C: 12
1. τὸν βελτίονα, βελτίω ναύτην 2. τοὺς βελτίονας, βελτίους λιμένας
the better sailor the better harbours
Exercises for section 8
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
τὴν βελτίονα, βελτίω θεάν αἱ βελτίονες, βελτίους νῆες οἱ βελτίονες, βελτίους γεωργοί τὰς βελτίονας, βελτίους γυναῖκας τὸ βέλτιον ἄστυ τὰ βελτίονα, βελτίω πλοῖα
the better goddess the better ships. the better farmers the better women the better city the better ships
COMPARING ADJECTIVES LIKE εὔφρων 8A–C: 13
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
ὁ εὐδαιμονέστερος, εὐδαιμονέστατος ναύτης the more fortunate, most fortunate sailor τὸ κακοδαιμονέστερον, κακοδαιμονέστατον ἄστυ the more unfortunate, most unfortunate city τὴν εὐφρονεστέραν, εὐφρονεστάτην θεάν the more gracious, most gracious goddess τὰς κακοδαιμονεστέρας, κακοδαιμονεστάτας γυναῖκας the more unlucky, most unlucky women ἡ εὐδαιμονεστέρα, εὐδαιμονεστάτη νῆσος the more fortunate, most fortunate island τοὺς κακοδαιμονεστέρους, κακοδαιμονεστάτους διδασκάλους the more unfortunate, most unfortunate teachers
THE OPTATIVES 8A–C: 14
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
they ﬁnd he/she examines we reckon he/she becomes you (s.) marvel
εὑρίσκουσιν ἐξετάζει λογιζόμεθα γίγνεται θαυμάζεις
εὑρίσκοιεν ἐξετάζοι λογιζοίμεθα γίγνοιτο θαυμάζοις
1. you (s.) love 2. they intend 3. he conquers 4. he/she tries 5. they dare
ἄν + OPTATIVE 8A–C: 16
φιλεῖς διανοοῦνται νικᾷ πειρᾶται τολμῶσιν
φιλοίης διανοοῖντο νικῴη πειρῷτο τολμῷεν
1. φέροιεν ἄν 2. διαλεγοίμεθα ἄν 3. σκοποίη ἄν
4. 5. 6.
πέμποιμι ἄν δέχοιο ἄν ἀδικοῖεν ἄν
Summary exercises for section 8
7. ὁρῷη ἄν 8. πείθοιτε ἄν
ἀνίσταμαι, I LEAVE, EMIGRATE 8A–C: 17
9. φυλάττοιμεν ἄν 10. πείθοιντο ἄν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
you (s.) leave he/she is able leaving (n.m.s.) to be able you (pl.) leave, leave!
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
they are able being able he/she leaves we are able to leave
SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 8
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
I wrong I stand up worthy people/I am powerful leader I am powerful I send citizen difﬁcult hand
the wrongdoing the awakening, resurrection important the power of the people the leadership most powerful the procession constitution I am difﬁcult/angry I set my hand to something, I try
I engage in government
political/to do with the city
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. A Β
But who is responsible for this war and this perplexity? (τούτου τοῦ πολέμου, ταύτης τῆς ἀπορίας) The orators are responsible for this matter, I know it well. For the city is full of noise and shouting because of the war and the boldness of the orators. For who does not know about their boldness? (τούτου τοῦ πράγματος, θορύβου, βοῆς, τῶν ῥητόρων, τῆς τόλμης, αὐτῶν) But I don’t think the orators are responsible for these matters, but [I consider them] the best of men. For they always ﬁght for the people and the city, as they themselves say. (τούτων τῶν πραγμάτων, ἀνθρώπων, τοῦ πλήθους, τῆς πόλεως) Yes. But they tell lies. For the mass of these men is bad and no one is worse than an orator. For the orators seize the assembly and the
Summary exercises for section 8
lawcourt, (τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν, ῥήτορος, τῆς ἐκκλησίας, τοῦ δικαστηρίου) 2. 1. μένοις ἄν You could wait 5. ἀποκρίνοιο ἄν You could answer 2. λέγοιμι ἄν I might speak 6. κελεύοις ἄν You would order 3. βουλοίμεθα ἄν We would like to 7. παυοίμην ἄν I could stop 4. πείθοισθε ἄν You would obey 8. ϕέροιμεν ἄν We would carry 3. a. i(i) The foreigner sits on the altar. (ἐπί + gen.) (ii) The ship goes towards the enemy. (ἐπί + acc.) b. (i) I shall go tomorrow into the agora with my friends. (μετά + gen.) (ii) After this I shall go back home. (μετά + acc.) c. (i) The ship sails past the island. (παρά + acc.) (ii) The sophist receives much money from the pupils. (παρά + gen.) d. (i) The slave ran towards us, forcing his way through the crowd. (διά + gen.) (ii) My wife is afraid of the city because of the plague. (διά + acc.) 4. 1. Διονυσόδωρος καλλίων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 2. Διονυσόδωρος μείζων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 3. Διονυσόδωρος κακοδαιμονέστερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 4. Διονυσόδωρος εὐϕρονέστερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 5. Διονυσόδωρος ἀμείνων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 6. Διονυσόδωρος μωρότερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 7. Διονυσόδωρος σοϕώτερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. 1. The herald’s son listens to the speaker. ὁ παῖς ὁ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς τῆς τοῦ ῥαψῳδοῦ χειρὸς λαμβάνεται. 2. Who is responsible for this lawlessness, which is so dreadful? τίς ἐστιν αἴτιος ἐκείνων τῶν βοῶν, μεγίστων οὐσῶν; 3. Since we are Athenians we are worth much. σοϕιστὴς ὤν, οὐδενὸς ἄξιος εἶ. 4. Why do you say that no one is wiser than Socrates? διὰ τί οἱ ῥήτορες πλουσιώτεροί εἰσιν ἢ τὸ τῆς πόλεως πλῆθος/[no ἢ] τοῦ τῆς πόλεως πλῆθος; εἰπέ μοι. 5. We made our way through the city of the Lacedemonians. πολλὰ κακὰ παθόντες πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας ἐμαχεσάμεθα ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας.
Summary exercises for section 8
2. ἰδού, ὁρῶ γὰρ παῖδά τινα πρὸς ἡμᾶς προστρέχοντα. τίνος εἶ σὺ παῖς; παῖς ὢν τυγχάνω τοῦ Eὐελπίδου, τοῦ σοῦ ϕίλου. εἴποις ἂν ὅτι βούλῃ, καὶ τί βουλόμενος πρὸς ἐμὲ προσέδραμες; ΔΟΥ. ὅ τι; εἴποιμι ἄν. δεῖ γὰρ ἐμέ, ὡς ἐκέλευσεν ὁ Eὐελπίδης, κελεύειν ὑμᾶς μένειν. ΔΙΚ. μενῶ οὖν. χαίρετε, ὦ Eὐελπίδη καὶ Πεισέταιρε. τί βουλόμενοι ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἀπέρχεσθε; ποῖ διανοεῖσθε ἀπιέναι; ΠΕΙΣΕΤΑΙΡΟΣ πρὸς πόλιν τινὰ νέαν καὶ χρησιμωτέραν δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἀπελθεῖν.
E – TEST EXERCISE 8
A slave, going through the crowd of citizens, ran towards Dikaiopolis and, taking hold of his hand, asked him to wait. Then those who had sent the slave, Euelpides and Peisetairos, who were friends of Dikaiopolis, came towards Dikaiopolis and greeted him. He, however, since he did not know what their object was in leaving the city, asked them where they intended to go and for what reason. They answered that they had to look for Cloud-Cuckooland, and, when they had found it, to live there. Dikaiopolis thought that Athens was the most prosperous, and that no city was better than Athens. So at ﬁrst he could not understand why they were leaving, then having heard about the dikasts and the lawcourt and the politicians, he agreed. For the dikasts seemed to be wronging the good men, and the politicians (as it seemed) were actually destroying the people and not pitying them. So Dikaiopolis’ friends went away. But he, ﬁnding the affairs of the city and the people hard to bear and thinking that peace was best, decided to make a treaty in the assembly. But the rhapsode, who thought that the men were ignorant and stupid, did not himself want to accompany him, but went away alone.
(a) aorist (e) aorist (a) genitive (e) genitive
(b) aorist (f) present (b) genitive (f) accusative
(c) present (g) present (c) accusative
(d) aorist (h) present (d) nominative
the aorist imperative (GE pp. 113 . #195–197). They ﬁrst converse with each other. do you … ?’ ἀπολεῖς με … ‘you will destroy me’. 201. the dative case (GE pp. γιγνώσκω (GE p. #190.Section Nine: Aristophanes’ Wasps This is a long section with a lively story which introduces several important items of grammar. #189–190). the aorist inﬁnitive (GE pp. πολλοῖς δὴ οὖσιν ‘Tell the spectators. 176–177. 9A Page 100 10 τί βουλόμενος As before. 22 καταλέξω From καταλέγω. #190 (e)). The future of ἀπόλλυμι. 20 οὑτοιί οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο + ι is even more demonstrative. (Note that the neuter is τουτί ταυτί. but it pays to learn the new grammar carefully after each section in which it is introduced. What tense? Translation for 9A In front of the house are two slaves. SOSIAS Hey you. 179–180. what is the matter with you? I’m talking to you. 187–189. ‘you will be the death of me’. ‘These spectators here’.180. 176–180. Before you start you may like to look at the table (GE pp. 11 βοῇ χρῶμαι χράομαι (‘I use’) takes the dative (GE p. τοῖς θεαταῖς. Notice the predominance of ι: in -ᾳ -ῃ -ῳ -ι -ει in the singular in -αις -οις -σι in the plural The various uses of the dative are well described in GE pp. What part of the verb is οὖσιν? Can you recognise it? It is the dative plural of the participle ὢν οὖσα ὄν. and the principal parts of common and very irregular verbs (GE p.) 20–21 κάτειπε…. being many indeed’. then with the spectators. the inﬁnitive is εἰδέναι. #103) where the forms of the dative are set out. 189–191. #209). Xanthias. The meaning is the same as if βοῶ had been written. ‘wanting what. what is the matter with you? (what are you suffering?) Hey you. 17 ἐμπεσεῖται Future of ἐμπίπτω – πίπτω πεσοῦμαι ἔπεσον. #211). #198–200). 18 τυγχάνεις εἰδώς εἰδώς -ότος is the participle of οἶδα. None of this is difﬁcult. 202.
But I say to the man that it is clear that he is speaking nonsense.114 XANTHIAS SOS. ill-favoured man that you are. 9 ὑμεῖς δ’ ἀποκρίνεσθε ἡμῖν ἐρωτῶσιν Note the dative plural of the participle agreeing with ἡμῖν. and responsible for many evils. Come now. . and we obeyed his orders. What would you like to say to me? I’d like to say to you that a great evil will befall you. what happens to be the name of this illness? You answer us asking.’ 4 τῷ δὲ δεσπότῃ Possessive dative. since he knew that he was more wicked than the others in the city. answering such things. what does this man say? He in answering us thinks that the old man is ‘a lover of dice’. and unlucky. ‘We obeyed him ordering. and it’s for your sake that I’m shouting. ‘You answer us asking. who is sleeping above peacefully. For the master’s father has a certain illness. a pun on the name of Philoxenos. But the master has a very old father. see GE p. XAN.’ Note the aorist participle ἐρόμενος from ἐρωτάω ἐρωτήσω ἠρόμην. So I ask you. ἔγνω What is it? Aorist of γιγνώσκω γνώσομαι ἔγνων: see GE p. Section 9B XΑΝ. But these spectators here don’t know. SOS. 9B Page 101 1 ἐκεινοσί Compare οὑτοιί (line 20). XAN. All right. unlucky Xanthias. I’m talking to you. SOS. 180. So tell the story of the play to the spectators.’ 16 οὗτος δέ μοι ἐρομένῳ ἀποκρίνεται ‘This man answers me. 18 ϕιλόξενος … Φιλόξενος This is the joke we have been working up to. 201.’ 6 ἐνέπεσεν For the principal parts of πίπτω see 9A line 17. #190 (b). So don’t sleep. Sosias? Wanting what do you shout thus? You will destroy me by shouting. #209. The master ordered us to guard his father. spectators. Don’t you happen to know what sort of beast we are guarding? I certainly think I know. ΧAN. with all the words beginning ϕιλ-. ‘That is our master there. 5 κελεύοντι ἐπιθόμεθα πείθομαι takes the dative. For the master fell into perplexity about his father. Can’t you see him sleeping? So this is our master here. SOS. But what are you suffering? I’m sleeping with pleasure. Translation for 9B XANTHIAS SOSIAS That is our master there. having asked. For the master will kill you. ἐπιθόμην is the second aorist. You’re sleeping? But I would like to say something to you. who are many. I’ll tell the large number of spectators the story of our play. None the less ‘love-’ is the beginning of this evil. What’s the shouting? To whom are you speaking.
181. XAN. be silent now. SOS. is a homosexual. #191 for time phrases.) πείσῃ Can you recognise this? It comes from πείθω. Was it just to take his mind off being a juror. See GE p. 9C Page 102 1 ἐξευρήσετε What tense? What verb? If you do not know. But what does this man say? This man answers me. sitting in the lawcourt during the day and dreaming of cases during the night. 4–5 τῆς μὲν ἡμέρας … τῆς δέ νυκτός Genitive of the time within which. and learn the principal parts of πίπτω. look up εὑρίσκω in the list of irregular verbs (GE pp. if you want to know what the illness is that has befallen the father. but this man. he is not a lover of strangers (philoxenos). 13 ὁ δὲ πατήρ ‘But his father did not obey him (αὐτῷ) persuading (ἀναπείθοντι) him not to go out. on seeing and approaching. lovers write on a door ‘Demos is beautiful’. the old man loves something. 12 παύσῃ Can you recognise this? (2nd person singular future indicative middle. or does Aristophanes say this simply for the ridiculous picture of him sitting in court banging his tambourine? 15 ἐμπεσών What is it? It should be familiar by now! If not see 9A line 17. spectators. Indeed. the illness of the old man. 115 Yes. 2 ἐμπεσοῦσα What verb does this come from? What is it? Try the aorist participle of πίπτω. You will ﬁnd this very helpful when you need to hunt for an unfamiliar form or if you are not quite sure which verb it comes from. like no man.’ So we are guarding this man. 8–9 ἐπεὶ τὸν πατέρα ἔμαθεν ϕιληλιαστὴν ὄντα ‘When he learned that his father was ϕιληλιαστής’. 436–442. By the dog. writes alongside near by ‘Kemos (a voting funnel) is beautiful.Section 9C XAN. ὑμῖν ἐν ἀπορίᾳ οὖσι Note that οὖσι agrees with ὑμῖν ‘you being in perplexity’. since Philoxenos. ‘during the day and during the night’. ‘learned his father being …’ The rest of the story will explain why his father’s mania was such a bad thing. Indeed. For he is always being a juror and loves the lawcourt. that he thinks the father is ‘a lover of sacriﬁces’ or ‘a lover of strangers’. at any rate. #389).’ 14 ἐκορυβάντιζεν We do not know why he enrolled his father as a Korybant. He is a lover of being a juror in the court of the Eliaia. having shut him in with these bars which are . Verbs of knowing and perceiving are often followed by a participle. old fellow. having asked. being in perplexity. Translation for 9C XANTHIAS You will never ﬁnd [it] out. For I shall tell you.
ﬁnding the illness hard to bear. ‘happening upon’. as it seems to me at any rate. is seeking a hole with great zeal. 9D Page 104 6 τίσι Dative plural of τίς. For when his son learned that his father was a lover of being a juror in the lawcourt of the Eliaia. ‘meeting with’. ﬁrst he tried to persuade him not to go out of the house. But wanting what are you standing up/what need makes you stand up. having fallen [headlong] into the lawcourt. whatever noise is the chimney making? Out of the chimney comes Philokleon. saying such things: ‘Why’. 8 ἐντυχών τυγχάνω takes the dative in the sense of ‘ﬁnding’. Sosias. while the name of this son is Bdelykleon. my father. ‘do you always judge cases. Bdelykleon is saying something to us. will destroy [us]. 20 καπνῷ ἐξιόντι οὐχ ὅμοιος εἶ ὅμοιος takes the dative (‘like to’): ‘You are not like smoke coming out. in the lawcourt? Won’t you stop being a juror in the Eliaia court? Won’t you obey your son?’ But the father didn’t obey him persuading [him] not to go out.) Xanthias and Sosias. who are you? PHILOKLEON Me. But to whom is the man speaking? XAN. What need? In theory my father is quiet. ‘in theory … in practice …’ a very frequent contrast. 11 λόγῳ μέν … ἔργῳ δέ … ‘in word … in deed …’. Then the son introduced the father into the Korybantic rites. Father. but more like …’ 22 oὐδενὶ … ἤ … ‘He seems to me to be more like to no one than Philokleon. You. SOS.’ Translation for 9D (Shouts to the slaves from the roof. but in practice he wants to go out. He seems to me too to be saying something. master? ΒDΕL. having gone into the oven. drum and all. Lord Poseidon. But the father. And my father always uses audacity when he wants to go out. BDELYKLEON . The name of the old man is Philokleon. And our master. Xanthias. I’m smoke coming out. The master is no longer sleeping. ‘as it seems to me’. we have been guarding him with these nets. having shut him inside.116 Section 9D many and big. ‘To whom is the man speaking?’ 7 ὡς ἐμοί δοκεῖ This is the impersonal use of δοκεῖ. on happening upon us sleeping. was a juror. But now. but is already standing and shouting. SOS. are you asleep? XANTHIAS Oh dear. From that time. poor me! SOSIAS What is it? XAN. he said. as it seems to me.
look for some other scheme. 17 εἰσιών. ‘lithograph’. See GE p. This man is preparing a great mischief. go in and lead out the mule. The picture of Odysseus escaping from the Cyclops under a ram should make the reference clear. I could do this better than you.’ 35 λίθων From λίθος we get ‘monolith’. Father. 86. By Zeus. 11 τὸν ἡμίονον The ‘half-donkey’ is a mule. You want to sell the mule. ΒDΕL. PHIL. offspring of a horse and a donkey. 37 ἐνέπεσε What tense? What verb? Try πίπτω. PHIL. 9E Page 105 6 νουµηνία The ﬁrst day of the month was market day. as it seems to me.) 27 Ἰθακήσιος Odysseus came from Ithaka. #95. but I am coming out. ‘megalith’. since I want to sell the mule in the market-place. not at all. but I [could do it] better than you. PHIL. PHILOKLEON . master. pack-saddle and all. Odyssey 9 for the story. ‘going in. Here now. For the meaning of ϕθάνω and of λανθάνω + participle see GE p. by Zeus. Translation for 9E But open the door. bring out …’ 20–21 εἰ μὴ φέρεις Ὀδυσσέα τινά ‘If you are not carrying an Odysseus’. etc. never at all. ΒDΕL.Section 9E ΒDΕL. 180. 12 αὐτοῖς τοῖς κανθηλίοις ‘pack-saddle and all’. No. ΒDEL. but he was not ‘the son of runaway horse’! 31 γιγνώσκω γάρ σε πάντων πονηρότατον ὄντα ‘I know you are (participle) the most wicked of all men. Xanthias? XANTHIAS It seems so to me too. PHIL. as it seems to me at any rate. pack-saddle and all? But I could do this. What do you think. 117 Smoke? But you are not like smoke coming out. ἔξαγε Note the preﬁxes. 15 ἄμεινον ἢ σύ Both this phrase and σοῦ ἄμεινον in the next line have the same meaning. Well. But it is the ﬁrst of the month today. (See Homer. Page 106 25 Οὖτις Odysseus also tricked the Cyclops by telling him that his name was Οὖτις ‘Nobody’. Xanthias? He seems to me to be more like to no one than Philokleon. but more like Philokleon. #190 (h). XAN. What do you think. 41 ϕθήσεται The future of ϕθάνω. BDELYKLEON By Poseidon. ΒDEL.
as it seems to me at any rate. ταῖς τόλμαις 1. ταῖς θαλάτταις 2. ταῖς ἐλευθερίαις 4. fellow? Nobody by Zeus. ταῖς τριήρεσιν τῷ Σωκράτει τῷ συγγενεῖ. poet 3. Exercises for section 9A–E SOSIAS ΒDΕL. But he will anticipate us by escaping. Nobody? From which country are you? An Ithakan. You. push the mule and yourself into the house with. perplexity τῇ ἀπορίᾳ. mule? Is it because today we are going to sell you? But don’t groan any longer. and the old man will not again give trouble to us who have shut him in and are guarding him. Ο most foul man.118 ΒDEL. daring τῇ τόλμῃ. Father. where is my net? Shoo. victory τῇ νίκῃ. goddess τῇ θεᾷ. But suffering what are you groaning. if you are not carrying an Odysseus? But by Zeus it is carrying this certain someone underneath. ταῖς νίκαις 7. SOS. mule. trireme 2. captain 4. What is this affair? Why are you groaning. safety τῇ σωτηρίᾳ. τοῖς σοφισταῖς 1. sophist 9A–E: 3 τῷ θεατῇ.) Come now. I know you are the most wicked of all men. nor will he escape our notice by running away. You then. τοῖς θεαταῖς τῷ ποιητῇ. SOS. ΒDEL. push many of the stones towards the door with your hands. ΒDΕL. τοῖς ποιήταῖς τῷ κυβερνήτῃ. Who is the mule carrying? Who are you. The man is becoming a sparrow. τοῖς συγγενέσιν . Alas poor me! What is this? From wherever did the clod of earth fall on me? Look. PHIL. why don’t we sleep for a little while? EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9A–E DATIVE CASE 9A–E: 1 1. ΒDΕL. PHIL. the son of runaway horse. Drag him from beneath. Socrates 3. ταῖς ἀπορίαις 3. For my father is most like Odysseus. freedom τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ. harmony τῇ ὁμονοίᾳ. Sosias. ΧΑΝ. ταῖς θεαῖς 6. ταῖς ὁμονοίαις 8. relation τῇ τριήρει. shoo back! (He pursues the father with the net. ταῖς σωτηρίαις 9A–E: 2 5. all urgency. Where. spectator 2. shoo. Since we have shut him in. But. Alas wretched me! For it does not escape my notice that my father is becoming a sparrow. master. at any rate. sea τῇ θαλάττῃ. τοῖς κυβερνήταις τῷ σοφιστῇ.
τοῖς ἡμιόνοις τῷ πλοίῳ. τοῖς θεοῖς 9A–E: 5 1. 12. ἐκείνῃ τῇ.Exercises for section 9A–E 119 9A–E: 4 1. crowd. τοῖς σοῖς τῷ πολλῷ. τοῖς πονηροῖς. 4. τῇ σῇ. wicked that disgraceful like bad safe greatest clear 9. 3. mule ship man lawcourt time friend word god τῷ ἡμιόνῳ. 2. ταῖς μεγίσταις. τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τῷ δικαστηρίῳ. τοῖς σοῖς. τοῖς πονηροῖς ἐκείνῳ τῷ. ταῖς μιαραῖς. τοῖς μεγίστοις τῷ δήλῳ. τοῖς πάθεσιν τῷ πλήθει. τοῖς δικαστηρίοις τῷ χρόνῳ. ἐκείναις ταῖς. your (s. suffering 2. drama. ταῖς πολλαῖς. τοῖς ὁμοίοις τῷ κακῷ. τοῖς φίλοις τῷ λόγῳ. this such τῷ πονηρῷ. much 11. τοῖς κακοῖς τῷ σώῳ. 2. 4. mass 3. τούτῳ τῷ τούτοις τοῖς. ταύτῃ τῇ. τῷ πολλῷ τοῖς πολλοῖς. τῇ μιαρᾷ. τῇ σώᾳ. ἐκείνοις τοῖς τῷ μιαρῷ. τῷ μεγίστῳ τοῖς μεγίστοις. τοῖς σώοις τῷ μεγίστῳ. τοῖς τείχεσιν 1. τῇ κακῇ. ταῖς σώαις. 5.) 10. τῇ πονηρᾷ. τοῖς δράμασιν τῷ ἄνακτι. τοιούτῳ τοιούτοις. 6. τοις μιαροῖς τῷ ὁμοίῳ. τοῖς λόγοις τῷ θεῷ. τῇ μεγίστῃ. τῷ πονηρῷ. τῷ μιαρῷ. 5. ταῖς πονηραῖς. king τῷ δράματι. τοῖς ἄναξιν . τῷ σῷ. τῇ πολλῇ. ἐκείνῳ τῷ. 8. τοιαύταις. 7. lord. 3. τῇ ὁμοίᾳ. play 2. τῷ σώῳ τοῖς σώοις. τῷ ὁμοίῳ τοῖς ὁμοίοις. τοῖς χρόνοις τῷ φίλῳ. τοῖς πολλοῖς τούτῳ τῷ. ταῖς δήλαις. wall 9A–E: 7 τῷ πάθει. τοιαύτῃ. 7. τοῖς δήλοις τῷ σῷ. 6. 8. τοῖς μιαροῖς. τῷ κακῷ τοῖς κακοῖς. τοῖς πλήθεσιν τῷ τείχει. ἐκείνοις τοῖς. τοιούτοις 9A–E: 6 1. ταῖς σαῖς. ταῖς ὁμοίαις. τῇ δήλῃ. τῷ δήλῳ τοῖς δήλοις. ταύταις ταῖς. τοῖς πλοίοις τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ. ταῖς κακαῖς. τούτοις τοῖς τοιούτῳ.
τοῖς κτήμασιν τῇ μάχη. τοῖς ποταμοῖς τῇ οἰκήσει. 5. τοῖς γείτοσιν τῇ λαμπάδι. οὔσῃ. θυσάσῃ. 4. ταῖς γυναιξίν 9A–E: 8 1. having sacriﬁced 5. better 2. ταῖς λαμπάσιν τῇ νυκτί. 2. 10. θυσᾶσιν εὐδαίμονι. ἰόντι. τοῖς χρήμασιν τῷ γείτονι. ὑμῖν τῇ ὀφρρύι. τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν σοί. torch night fatherland leader. shrine city τῷ δικαστῇ. 3. οὖσιν. οὔσαις. 7. juror boy. 5. fortunate 6. θύσαντι. ὄντι. τοῖς παισίν τῷ ποταμῷ. ταῖς ναυσίν τῷ βασιλεῖ.) money neighbour lamp. ταῖς οἰκήσεσιν τῇ κτήματι. σοι. 2. slave river dwelling possession battle temple.120 Exercises for section 9A–E 3. ἀμείνοσιν ἰόντι. ταῖς ὀφρύσιν τῇ γραί. τοῖς δικασταῖς τῷ παιδί. ἰοῦσιν᾽ ἰούσαις. name thing. being 4. θυσᾶσι. δοκεῖ τῷ Σωκράτει ἕπομαι ὑμῖν ἐντυχάνω τῷ βασιλεῖ ἐν ταῖς ναυσί(ν) δοκεῖ ἡμῖν πρὸς τοῖς θεαταῖς 7. 3. someone 9A–E: 9 ἀμείνονι. ταῖς μάχαις τῷ ἱερῷ. 11. οὖσιν θύσαντι. τοῖς ἱεροῖς τῷ ἄστει. ταῖς γραυσίν 9A–E: 10 1. going 3. ταῖς πατρίσιν τῷ ἡγεμόνι. 2. 9. θυσάσαις. μοι. ἰούσῃ. εὐδαίμοσιν τινί.) eyebrow old woman τῷ Διί ἐμοί. 4. 9. 6. 3. ταῖς νυξίν τῇ πατρίδι. ἡμῖν τῃ νηί. τισίν 1. τοῖς ἄστεσιν 9A–E: 11 1. 6. 12. (pl. 10. 7. 8. 6. 8. Zeus I ship king you (s. 5. σὺν ἡμῖν χρῶμαι σοί ἕπομαι αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ πλήθει ἐπὶ τῇ νίκῃ λόγῳ μὲν … ἔργῳ δέ . ἰοῦσιν ὄντι. τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν τῇ γυναικί. 4. τοῖς ὀνόμασιν τῷ χρήματι. 7. guide woman τῷ ὀνόματι. 5. 8. 6. 4.
τοῖς θεαταῖς 5. κακοδαίμοσιν οὔσιν 3. 8. ἠρώτησαν δύναιτο ἄν ἐροῦμεν ἔλαθεν 6. τὸ ὄνομα τούτῳ τῷ θεατῇ ἐστι Φιλόξενος. They are speaking to us and our children/slaves. τῷ μεγάλῳ δικτύῳ D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. On the next day the son chased his father back into the house with the big nets. μεγάλῃ βοῇ 6. 3. since you are accursed. 3. ὑμῖν. but in fact no one is worse. We must obey those who give orders. ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν. The suppliant stayed in the shrine for two days. 7. 5. 4. Α great evil will befall you. ἀνισταῖτο ἄν ἤρετο. 3. We went away in the night. 10. λέγει ὑμῖν καὶ τοῖς θεαταῖς. 2. This woman’s plan is dangerous/terrible. Tell the spectator the plot of the play with full (all) enthusiasm. ἡμῖν 2. a very wicked man. The sailors happened to be on the ships. ἠρωτήσαμεν REVISION EXERCISES FOR 9A–E B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. Why do you (pl. χαλεπῶς οἴσουσι καθίζοντες ἐν τῷ δικαστήριῳ. He met the man on the ﬁrst day. What is the name of the king? τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν 9. 2.Revision exercises for section 9A–E 121 TIME PHRASES 9A–E: 12 1. In theory no one in the city is better than your father. λήσει ἤροντο. 4. . τῷ κελεύοντι 8. ἠρώτησεν ἐροῦσι(ν) δύναιντο ἄν ἠρόμεθα. I shall go within two days. ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ 7. 5. He was bringing the man on to the ship with the help of the sailors. 9. He was shouting all night. We shout loudly (use great shouts). PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS 9A–E: 13 1. He is my father.) try to persuade me with this argument? τούτοις τοῖς λόγοις 10. 2. 4.
PHIL. 25 λήψῃ What tense? What person? What verb? Try the future of λαμβάνω. since today you will be able to be a juror. from ἐπίσκοπος an ‘overseer’ or a ‘bishop’ in Christian Greek. 11 μοι … ἐνθάδε μένοντι Note the agreement: ‘How will it be possible for me remaining here to be a juror?’ ‘How will it be possible … if I stay here?’ Page 108 16 παύσασθαι First aorist inﬁnitive middle.’ 10 δικάσαι First aorist inﬁnitive active from δικάζω. He is destroying Socrates with a wicked slander. a process) and obey me [now] (aorist inﬁnitive denotes a single event). 28 ποιῆσαι ποιέω ποιήσω ἐποίησα. The participle has not. 7 πιθέσθαι Aorist inﬁnitive from ἐπιθόμην (second aorist of πείθομαι). Father. 9F Page 107 2 ἐάσω The future of ἐάω ‘I allow’. and obey me. σκοπέω. 5. 202. ΒDΕL. nor will you escape my notice by trying to go out. 3 λήσεις The future of λανθάνω. Remember that the inﬁnitive does not have an augment. Remember that the aorist indicative has an augment. Listen. γενέσθαι What is this? What are the principal parts of γίγνομαι? 19 ἐξευρεῖν What is it? Try the principal parts of εὑρίσκω. not allowing me to go out. ‘You must (χρή) stay here (present inﬁnitive = all the time. For aorist inﬁnitives see GE pp. 187–189. PHILOKLEON What’s this? But you will destroy me. 5 οὐκ ἐάσας What is this? Compare it with εἴασας. 17 κατάσκοπον κατά. the various English ‘-scope’ words. Father. #195–197. You must stay here. δυνήσῃ The future of δύναμαι: ‘you will be able’. 47 ἐσθίειν Another very irregular verb: ἐσθίω ἔδομαι ἔφαγον ‘I eat’. 40 ἐξήνεγκον For the principal parts of φέρω see GE p. ἐνέκλεισα τὸν πατέρα πολλοῖς δούλοις χρώμενος.122 Section 9F 4. καλοῖς λόγοις ἔπεισαν τὸν δῆμον οἱ ῥήτορες. BDELYKLEON . λαβεῖν What is it? Try the principal parts of λαμβάνω. But nevertheless I want to be a juror. Father. I stole the money with (using) my right hand. Most relevant here is ‘episcopal’. #211. ΒDΕL. Get up. Therefore aorist inﬁnitive active. I shall not allow you to go out to the courtroom any longer. Here the aorist is used to emphasise the aspect. Cf. Translation for 9F Bdelykleon speaks to the father.
Hold on now. I shall bring everything out. What do you say? But in what way and about what? About many things. as it seems to me. ΒDEL. So wouldn’t you like to do this. The old man waits around. For the speeches of the prosecutors are long. By Zeus. You speak well. although sitting in the lawcourt. 123 PHIL. For at last I have brought out the things of the lawcourt. For I shall come quickly bringing the things of the lawcourt in my hands. hurrah! For it will be possible for me to eat the lentil-soup while I am judging. Look. with all eagerness. Come then. For you have many household slaves. Look. I think at any rate that I have brought everything. So you must become a spy of the affairs which happen in the house. See GE p. near the ﬁre there is some lentil soup for you. PHIL. ΒDΕL. PHIL. Grammar Make sure that you have learned the principal parts of the irregular verbs you have met in this section before you go on further. 9G Page 110 4 ἄκουσον What is it? 2nd person singular of the aorist imperative. 189. And I have brought out this ﬁre. and to force the household slaves to cease from their evils and become better? I certainly would like to.Section 9G PHIL. Indeed. #198. And you would be willing to do this? I would do this. And it will be possible for you being a spy to discover these evils today. have you brought out everything? [Yes] by Zeus. and you are clever at sleeping. PHIL. After a short while Bdelykleon. ΒDEL. but you know well that the slaves do not want to stop doing wrong. For you convince me with your words. But you have not yet said this. from where I shall be able to get the pay. and check that you can recognise the aorist inﬁnitives active and middle. being clever at eating. . ΒDΕL. Note this form of the aorist imperative active in -σον. PHIL. And by Zeus I shall eat it. at least. ΒDΕL. ΒDΕL. But wanting what have you brought out the cockerel? What? The cock will be able to wake you up with its voice. ΒDEL. But how will it be possible for me to be a juror if I stay here? There will be a courtroom for you in your own house and you will be able to judge the members of the household. Wouldn’t you like to reveal the matter? You will get it from me. PHIL. but are responsible for many bad things. ΒDΕL. Hurrah. but the son goes into the house. and having discovered them to exact justice. carries the things of the lawcourt in his hands with difﬁculty. on coming out.
The old man begins to run out. ΒDEL. ‘accuse’. Translation for 9G BDELYKLEON PHILOKLEON ΒDEL. PHIL. Everything does indeed please me. Where are the voting-urns? For I cannot place the vote without voting-urns. the 2nd person singular second aorist middle imperative from ἐπιθόμην. Don’t go away in any way. 34 κατηγορεῖτε The κατά. all right. #201 for the imperatives of εἰμί. child.) . Where is the water clock? Bring it to me. father. Note πιθοῦ. PHIL. but listen. what is it? Except the water clock. know it well. The spelling is exactly the same as the aorist inﬁnitive active παῦσαι from ἔπαυσα.) Stop running out. PHIL. ὦ πάτερ More imperatives. speak. Page 111 24 ἡ κλεψύδρα The water clock was used to measure the time allowed for the prosecution speech and the defence speech. I must look for the voting-urns and place my vote. But let [me]. Fine! For everything of the lawcourt is here – except – Speak. since I happen to have these cups. (Again begins to run out. PHIL. one for guilty and one for innocent. child. ‘prosecute’. Father. 12 μὴ ἄπιθι μηδαμῶς. I am calling the ﬁrst case. ΒDEL. Well. Note all the other aorist imperatives that follow. Therefore sit down. ΒDΕL. 14 ἔασον The -σον ending again from the aorist imperative of ἐάω. Hey. But.preﬁx suggests ‘I speak against’. know that well. ἀλλ’ ἐμοὶ πιθοῦ καὶ ἄκουσον. PHIL. So don’t go away. but the context will almost always make the meaning clear. Look! (He shows his father’s chamber-pot. ΒDΕL. where are you hurrying? I’m running out because of the urns. The 2nd persons plural are much easier to recognise than the 2nd persons singular. though without the augment. Father. PHIL. Father? Tell me. BDEL. Father. Look. Don’t call the case. What do you say? Go on. 191. Does everything please you. but obey me and listen. εἶμι and οἶδα.124 Section 9G 5 ἴθι See GE p. I’m listening. 32 παῦσαι See the note on line 17 above. Jurors placed their pebbles in one or the other. 11 κάδων ἕνεκα There were two voting-urns. λέξον Another aorist imperative. 17 παῦσαι 2nd person singular of the aorist imperative middle of παύω. because they are like the 2nd person plural of the aorist indicative. ΒDΕL. you.
aor. aor.) ﬁnd (pl. 8. aor. speak (s. 9. 2. and stop worrying. 6. aor.) . and bring out the ﬁre. drive aorist aorist present aorist aorist present AORIST IMPERATIVES AND MORE PRESENT IMPERATIVES 9F–G: 3 1. 12. aor. speak (s. do to conquer to speak to set free to learn to run aorist present present aorist present aorist 7. stop (s.) 7. learn (pl. Listen.) 6. 2. then.) 3. 10. 8. 3. Sit down. 6. stay (pl.) stop (pl. loose (s. Father. aor. and obey me. Grammar Make sure that you know these forms of the imperative before you go on to the next section. and after praying. aor) 5. 4. slaves. to learn to run out to begin to lead out to make. 12. 10. pres. After bringing out the ﬁre all the slaves go away. 8. 11. aor. aor. 7.) let go. 11. become (s.) receive (s. aor.) obey (s. what is this? Do you not think that this chamber-pot is an excellent water clock? Everything is now here. 9. 9.Exercises for section 9F–G 125 Speak.) 2. seek (s. while those present pray to the gods. 3.) 4. do to wrong (someone) to consider to guard to turn towards to sacriﬁce μαθεῖν ἐκδραμεῖν ἄρξασθαι ἐξαγαγεῖν ποιήσασθαι ἀδικῆσαι νομίσαι φυλάξαι προτρέψαι θῦσαι 9F–G: 2 1. pres. 10. prosecute. to judge to see to begin to become to go to lead. 4. 5. 5. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9F–G AORIST INFINITIVES 9F–G: 1 1. You pray to all the gods. to make.
.. 11. 10. nom..) 6. voc. 7. voc. 5. voc. ﬂee (pl. voc. pres. be (s. EVERY 9F–G: 5 1. 9. 2.. 4. 2. show (s. 1. nom. aor. nom.) and carry all the equipment REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9F–G B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX ἐπαυσάμην παύσασθαι ἤκουσα ἀκοῦσαι ἐποίησα ποιῆσαι ἠδίκησα ἀδικῆσαι εἶπoν εἰπεῖν ἤνεγκον ἐνεγκεῖν ἐγενόμην γενέσθαι ἔμαθον μαθεῖν ἔλαβον λαβεῖν ἀϕικόμην ἀϕικέσθαι εἶδoν ἰδεῖν ἐπιθόμην πιθέσθαι ἔπεσον πεσεῖν 2. run away. pres. 5. 10.. pres. 12.) 2.) 1. Be. 8. 3. nom. 8. aor. WHOLE. 9. look.ALL.) . aor) 5.. voc. arrive (pl.. nom.. πᾶς παντ. see (s. 7. know. go!. or ἤνεγκα ἐνέγκαι 4..) 3. voc. voc voc. all you women are going It was possible for you all to bear everything Everyone be brilliant at selling. voc. 6. voc. know All of you women. nom. 4.. 6. (Only the accent shows it is imperative) All of you leave and do not remain but go It will be possible for all to leave Everybody come and carry everything It is not possible for me to carry all these things Get up and go (s) Go (pl. 3.126 Revision exercises for section 9F–G VOCATIVES 9F–G: 4 1. bring (s.
. Look at the ships. aor. The son did not allow his father to go out to the lawcourt. look (s. 2. You (s. γενέσθαι 9. mule? ἐξενεγκεῖν 8. The 3rd person endings of the imperative are easy to recognise: Active Singular Plural -έτω -όντων -άτω -άντων Middle -έσθω -έσθων -άσθω -άσθων . ἐλθεῖν 6. #206–207 for the full paradigm. to listen to all the speeches? ἀκοῦσαι 7.Section 9H 127 3. which we have to translate as ‘let him/her …’ or as ‘let them …’ See GE pp. boys/slaves. ἀφικνεῖσθαι 12. He himself wants to keep taking the whole fee from his son. 4. I learn many things.) 8. but I do not understand everything. πάντα πάρεστιν ἐνθάδε πλὴν τοῦ πυρός. δικάσαι δικάζειν 2. I shall not allow him to reach the lawcourt.) must become a juror in the house. δεῖ σε μένειν ἐνθάδε και δικάζειν. pres) 10. τί βουλόμενος ἐξέδραμες;’ ‘ὅ τι; τὰ πάντα. ‘Tell me. Why aren’t you willing to bring out Philokleon. 7. λαβεῖν.’ 9H This section introduces the 3rd person of the imperative. we must stay here and ﬁght.’ ‘εἰπέ μοι. pres) 9. ὦ πάτερ. It is permissible for Philokleon to prosecute. κατηγορεῖν 5. ἐξιέναι 3. ἐξενέγκετε τὰ πυρά/τάς λαμπάδας. What must you do? ποιῆσαι 4. what did you want when you knocked on the door?’ ‘What did I want? The master. They must learn the words of the play. cease (s.. 197–199. but my son does not allow me to be a juror here. be afraid (pl. It is possible for me both to take the whole reward here and eat it. 5.. ἐξέσται πᾶσιν ὑμῖν πωλεῖν τοὺς ἡμιόνους. We must all go out into the market-place. It is possible for me to listen to the orators. φαγεῖν D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. go (s. General. μαθεῖν 10. How shall I persuade you.. λαμβάνειν 11. I want to be a juror in the house. father. 3. aor) 1. ὦ παῖδες.
τóτε ‘then’. 35 προσιόντων πάντες What is προσιόντων? What makes sense in the context? See introduction to 9H.128 Section 9H But it is easy to confuse the active endings -όντων and -άντων with the genitive plural of the present and aorist active participles which are the same in spelling. . 27 ἑλεῖν αἱρέω αἱρήσω εἶλoν. The two inﬁnitives are governed by δεῖ. Who is the defendant? Let him come forward.e. Cf. Note μονο. There is probably a topical reference here to a case which Kleon. 3 ὁ ϕεύγων ‘the defendant’.’ 14 Dogs say αὖ αὖ. 16 ‘This seems to me to be another Labes (i. on that basis (οὕτω) cast your vote. ‘because’. This is part of the evidence for the pronunciation of vowel sounds in the ﬁfth century BC. This usually means ‘to take’ (middle ‘to choose’). but in the context of a lawcourt it will usually mean ‘to convict’. 3 εἰσίτω and προσίτω Note the 3rd s. 40 κατάβηθι ‘get down’. i. having heard them. and ἀκούσαντα is accusative agreeing with σε. 11–12 ἐξαπατήσειν µ’ ἐλπίζεις ἐλπίζω is normally followed by a future indicative: ‘You hope to deceive me. Note that αἰτοῦντι agrees with μοι. 23 οὗτος ὁ ἀδικήσας ‘the one having done wrong’. and sheep say βῆ βῆ. ᾔτησα From αἰτέω αἰτήσω ᾔτησα ‘I ask’. and. Once again only the context will help you. 8D line 11. 7 Λάβης From λαμβάνω. Compare ἠκούσατε ‘you heard’. Page 112 1. let him come in and make haste. Note the principal parts βαίνω βήσομαι ἔβην. Cf. 25 οὐ παρεῖχέ μοι αἰτοῦντι ‘did not give it to me asking’.e.’ λόγῳ μέν…. 24 ὅτε ‘When’. the politician. Page 114 18 ἀναβάς This is the aorist participle. The dog is called ‘Grabber’. ‘the criminal’. aorist imperative of βαίνω is βῆθι. Translation for 9H BDELYKLEON PHILOKLEON If any juror happens to be outside. like μονο-ϕαγίστατον. 31 ὡς ὄντα … ‘as being …’ ‘on the grounds that he is …’ κυνῶν … ἄνδρα An intentional absurdity.and the superlative ending. 5 ἀκούσατε ‘Listen to …’ This must be imperative because there is no augment. ὁ διώκων ‘the prosecutor’ in line 11. 29–30 δεῖ σε … ‘You must hear them both. ἔργῳ δέ … Note the contrast. ἀδικήσας is the aorist participle of ἀδικέω. Note that the 2nd s.’ σε is accusative after δεῖ. Cf. may have been intending to bring against a man called Lakhes. and do not confuse it with ὅτι ‘that’.and ϕαγ. Grabber. thief). 19 ἀναβῆναι Aorist inﬁnitive of ἀναβαίνω. imperative of εἶμι ‘I go’.
and convict him. dog. Suffering what are you silent? You should speak. So I must cast my vote. obey me and don’t prejudge. as I know well about legal matters. 3 γιγνώσκω αὐτὸν … γιγνώσκω is followed by accusative and participle. For I intend to make the speech for the defence. Do not confuse τοσοῦτος ‘so great’ with τοιοῦτος ‘of such a kind’. Come. But the dog. escaped my notice by going off alone and eating all the cheese. but in deed himself also a thief. But. For he doesn’t know how to speak. and having heard on that basis place your vote. ὦνδρες = ὦ ἄνδρες ‘gentlemen’. I know it. by the gods. come up. Ο foul one here. PHIL. Listen now to the charge. Hurrah. DOG ΒDEL. come up and prosecute. dog. This one seems to me to be another Labes. But I. the one who has done wrong. Judge. who is in word innocent. For this dog. and I shall listen to the prosecution while eating. comes forward. the cup. Woof woof! He is here. and indeed you must make the speech for the defence. the matter is clear. dog. PHIL. Let him come forward. Punish him. he did not give [it] to me asking. ΒDΕL. the dog from the deme of Kydathenaion? Come. τοσαύτης διαβολῆς ‘such a great slander’. ΧAN. as it seems to me. For it is possible. good fellow.Section 9I 129 ΒDΕL. and all the other equipment. I know that you are a thief. But this one at least is not able. the cooking-pot. Be quiet. the cheese-grater. runs away. And when I asked for a share. Dog of the deme Kydathenaion has indicted dog Labes of the deme Aixone for theft. For at last the dog has come up. Come. 9I Page 116 2 This is a typical beginning for a speech in a lawcourt. not wanting to come up. and good at eating all the cheese. For it cries out. since he is moreover much the most selﬁsh eater of all dogs. who is a dog. But where is the prosecutor. And indeed the defendant Labes here is present. father. But you. make the speech for the defence. DOG PHIL. The defendant. at the same time as judging. will eat all the lentil soup. ΒDEL. Get down. But you hope to deceive me. and convict him. Let all the witnesses of Labes come in. You have heard the charge. For the defendant has done wrong by eating up the cheese on his own. ΒDΕL. I shall stop prosecuting. PHIL. sit down. men of the jury. . DOG ΒDΕL. For you must hear both. dog. Now I for my part shall call in the witnesses.
if he steals the cheese and. but he is the best of all the dogs now [alive].130 Section 9I 7 ἑλεῖν … ἑλόντα … From αἱρέω meaning ‘convict’. rather this one seems to me to be a thief and worthy of death. did you grate the cheese for both the dogs? She says that she grated it all for both. to the witnesses. PHIL. For this Labes never stays in the house. Come. ΒDEL. In this case. pity those who suffer evil things. This is a character reference. ask and plead weeping. 12 κιθαρίζειν γὰρ οὐκ ἐπίσταται Literally ‘he does not know how to play the lyre’. of course. 30 ποῦ τὰ παιδία. cheese-grater. eats it up? ΒDΕL. but I know she is lying. BDEL. and the speaker persuades me with his words. in the Athenian courts to smear your opponent’s character and to build up your own. or even. It was normal. and the more cheese. But if he stole the cheese. Listen. Father. having stolen it. ‘he has not had a good education’. PHIL. since he is able to guard many sheep. and having convicted him. For by staying here he hopes to steal the food from the others. The meaning is ‘he is not educated’. and indeed expected. For you happened to be guarding the cheese. And when he steals nothing. The middle of αἱρέω means ‘to take for oneself’. my good fellow. Translation for 9I Bdelykleon speaks. I beg you. good fellow. As most cheese was made of sheep’s milk.suggests stealth. but goes out of the house looking for food. ΒDΕL. but none the less I shall speak. to reply on behalf of a dog who has met with such a great slander. But the other dog only guards the house. It was normal practice in an Athenian lawcourt to parade the children of the defendant. who has suffered evil things. Come up. By Zeus. See RGT 9H line 27. But. the more milk. So I must convict him as a thief. wretched ones. For I know that he is good and chases the wolves. weeping to arouse the pity of the jurors. and speak loudly. and acquit him. judge another case as well. Where are the children? Come up. Arghh! Whatever evil is this? An evil surrounds me. What use? For he also guards the door. For he does not know how to play the lyre. 10 ὑϕαιρεῖται The preﬁx ὑϕ. pity him. 9 ‘Able to guard many sheep’. the children are. this is not a completely irrelevant characteristic. Answer clearly. puppies. forgive him. PHIL. So what is the use. beginning the defence. PHILOKLEON No. It is difﬁcult. The cheese-grater comes up. BDELYKLEON . he bites. gentlemen. The better the sheep are guarded. By Zeus.
See GE p. 21 οὐχ ἑκών ‘not willingly’. ΒDΕL. ΒDΕL. BDELYKLEON The dog is acquitted. For Philokleon has acquitted the dog unwillingly. let me take you round this way. See ἀγωνίζομαι. this ‘get down’ deceives many very much. ΒDEL. Come now. How then have we contested? PHILOKLEON . ‘peripatetic’. get down. This has the same meaning as ἄκων ‘unwillingly’ (line 34). Daddy dear.) PHIL. 14 περίπατον Cf. so he has to blame the lentil soup. The context will give you the right meaning here. For I do not know how to play the lyre. and acquit (him). Place the voting-pebble. This voting-pebble is in here. But none the less I shall get down. It must have disagreed with him. 9J Page 118 2 ἀπεδάκρυσα Philokleon cannot bear to admit that he could pity a defendant. then when he has got down. they ﬁnd him guilty. Father. then? PHIL. 7 βελτίω = βελτίονα. 27 ἔπαιρε σεαυτόν ‘Lift yourself up’ from αἴρω ἀρῶ ἦρα ‘I raise’. Is this the nearer? ΒDEL. 9 ὑστέρῳ Juries ﬁled past two urns: the one they came to ﬁrst (the earlier or nearer) was for condemnation and the next (the later or further) for acquittal.Section 9J PHIL. 202. And yet. turn to better things. 22 ἠγωνισάμεθα. For I burst into tears as I ate this lentil soup. No indeed. For the jurors order the defendant to get down. #211. 131 Get down. ἀνίστασο 2nd persons. get down. by putting the voting-pebble in the further voting-urn. Translation for 9J Go to hell.) Hurrah! I have deceived him. ΒDΕL. I shall get down. (Speaks to himself. PHIL. get down. imperative of ἀνίσταμαι. This is it. Did you recognise this form of the comparative? τά should have provided a useful clue. 33 πείσομαι Can be the future of either πάσχω or πείθομαι. How bad (not good) I consider the lentil soup. Taking this voting-pebble in your hand. Come. PHIL. Here it is almost in the sense of ‘to settle a contest’. It is difﬁcult for me to know. he walks to the further voting-urn ﬁrst. put it into the further voting-urn. PHIL. (So taking him round a big walkabout.
8. 3. 3. 3. Don’t worry. let everyone carry the man out. let him/her carry 8. What are you suffering? Alas. It is possible to see everything in the house. PHIL. 6. Exercises for section 9H–J I intend to reveal [it]. because I did that by placing my voting-pebble involuntarily and not convicting. 2. PHIL. 5. Labes. my good fellow. has he really been acquitted? You will destroy me with the word. let them turn 9H–J: 2 1. BDΕL. κελεύσειν κωλύσειν ζητήσειν πείσεσθαι δέξεσθαι ἐξαπατήσειν to be about to order to be about to hinder to be about to seek to be about to obey to be about to receive to be about to deceive . but stand up. Ο much-honoured gods. where is water? Lift yourself up. let them release 9. PHIL. You have been acquitted. Then I am nothing. stand up. 4. ΒDΕL. 9. Now tell me that. 2. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9H–J THIRD PERSON IMPERATIVES 9H–J: 1 1. let every one arrive. let it be impossible to ﬁnd these things in the harbour. let him/her/it be. 5.132 ΒDEL. 4. 7.) 7. put all these things here. let them leave and let them not remain/ let them leave without waiting. let him/her/it begin 10. be victorious (pl. 10. let him/her learn everything. let him/her hear let them retreat let him/her converse let him/her learn let them be silent 6. 5. [Yes] by Zeus. 4. But did I acquit the man who was the defendant with the voting-pebble? What do I suffer? Whatever shall I suffer? But. forgive me. let him/her know. Father. FUTURE INFINITIVES 9H–J: 3 1. 6. Father. let him/her/it go. 2.
s. εἷλετο 11. ὑπισχνεῖται ἀπιέναι 8. βιάσασθαι Future: ϕροντιεῖν. inf. part.) ὁράω λαθών escape notice (aor. αἱρήσω ἐπίστανται πείθειν ἐλπίζει αἱρήσεσθαι εἷλον ἔβη πείσονται 7. βαλών -οῦσα -όν παῦσον.) λανθάνω ἐλθέ go (aor.) λαμβάνω ἀπέθανε die (aor. ἔπαθον 9.) λαμβάνω ἑλεῖν take (aor. 3 s. ποιήσειν. Present: Aorist: . ἀποχωρεῖν.Revision exercises for section 9H–J 133 7. inf. μαχέσασθαι. part. ἔβης REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9H–J B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX πλεῖν.) τρέχω 1. 5. inf. part. s. ἀπολογήσεσθαι 8. γενέσθαι. imperative pl. παῦσαι. nom. nom. λήσειν escape notice (fut.) μανθάνω γένεσθε become (aor. inf. δράσας -ασα -αν ἐλθέ. indic. ἐπαινέσας -ασα -αν βάλε. m. δρᾶσαι.) ἐρωτάω μαθόντες learn (aor. παύσεσθαι.) ἀποθνῄσκω γενήσεσθαι become (fut. 4. 2. βιάσεσθαι IRREGULAR PRINCIPAL PARTS 9H–J: 4 to be about to defend oneself to be about to accuse to be about to write/ indict to be about to use force 1. κρατῆσαι.) γίγνομαι δραμεῖν run (aor. ἐλθεῖν. κατηγορήσειν 9. 3. γενόμενος -η -ον κώλυσον. m. δεξάμενος -η -ον δρᾶσον.) ἔρχομαι λήψεσθαι take (fut. ὀλοϕυρεῖσθαι. βοηθῆσαι. διώξειν. λήψεσθαι. part. inf. δέξεσθαι. m.) λανθάνω λάβετε take (aor. imperative s. παύσας -ασα -αν 3. nom. γράψεσθαι 10.) αἱρέω ἰδών see (aor. ἔσεσθαι. ἔπεισαν 10. μαθήσεσθαι. δέξαι.) γίγνομαι ἐρόμενος ask (aor. βαλεῖν. masc. κωλύσας -ασα -αν ἐπαίνεσον. nom. s. εἷλεν 12. 6. ἐπαινέσαι. 2. κωλῦσαι. σπεύδειν. pl. ἐλθών -οῦσα -όν γενοῦ. δέξασθαι. ὀϕείλειν. imperative pl. ἀϕικέσθαι.
part. fem. τῷ δὲ γέροντι Φιλοκλέων.) throw (aor. ὁ δὲ γέρων ἐτύγχανεν ἔχων νόσον τινὰ δεινήν. εἰσελθόντων οἱ κύνες.) happen (aor. 4. masc. ὁ δὲ . 3 pl. part.) have (fut. nom. γέρων ὤν.) be (pres.) fall (aor. gen. ἐλπίζω τοὺς ϕεύγοντας καλῶς ἀπολογήσεσθαι.) go (impf. inf.) fall (fut. Let the suppliants pray to the gods. s. This woman intends to listen to the stranger.) know (pres. imperative pl.) carry (aor.) have/hold (aor.134 Summary exercises for section 9 οἴσει τυχούσῃ ἐνέγκατε εἶναι ἰόντος ᾔδεσαν ᾔεισθα βαλεῖν εἰδότες εὑρήσειν πεσόντι σχές πεσοῦμεν ἕξειν will carry (3 s. masc.) ϕέρω τυγχάνω ϕέρω εἰμί εἶμι οἶδα εἶμι βάλλω οἶδα εὑρίσκω πίπτω ἔχω πίπτω ἔχω D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. 5. ὁ κλέπτης ὑϕελέσθω τὸ μέρος τὸ τούτου τοῦ κυνός. fut. understanding evidence. masc. inf.) go (fut./neut.) know (past indic.indic. dat. inf. οὗτος ὁ δικαστὴς τὸν θάνατον μέλλει καταδικάσειν τοῦ κυνός. part. οὐδέποτε γὰρ ἐπαύσατο βουλόμενος δικάζειν ἐν τοῖς δικαστηρίοις. I bear witness I name wretchedness 1. He expects/hopes to pursue/prosecute the wicked citizen. inf. part./neut. 2 s. s. dat. SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9 A – WORDS I take I write down I hope I know how to witness name wretched D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK I destroy letter hope knowledge. pl. dat. part. ὁ διώκων ἀρχέσθω κατηγορεῖν./neut. νεανίᾳ τινὶ ἦν πατήρ. imperative s. τὸ δ’ ὄνομα τῷ μὲν νεανίᾳ ἦν Bδελυκλέων. s. Let the children play. 2 Let the herald enter the city. masc.) ﬁnd (fut. 3. s.
Summary exercises for section 9
νεανίας ἐπειρᾶτο αὐτὸν πεῖσαι μὴ δικάζειν, ὁ δὲ γέρων αὐτῷ οὐκ ἐπείθετο καίπερ πολλὰ πείθοντι. τέλος δὲ ὁ μὲν νεανίας αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἐνέκλεισεν, ὁ δὲ ἀπορῶν ἐπειρᾶτο φεύγειν, πολλοῖς λόγοις χρώμενος. ἀλλὰ οὐκ ἐδύνατο λαθεῖν τοὺς δούλους τοὺς τὴν οἰκίαν φυλάττοντας. 2. ΒΔΕΛYΚΛΕΩΝ ἄκουσον γάρ, ὦ πάτερ, καὶ ἐμοὶ πιθοῦ. οὐ γάρ ἐάσω σε λιπόντα τὴν οἰκίαν ἐν τῷ δικαστηρίῳ δικάζειν. ΦΙΛΟΚΛΕΩΝ ἀλλὰ διὰ τί οὐκ ἐάσεις ἐμέ; ἐλπίζω γὰρ σέ μοι πάντα λέξειν. ΒΔΕΛ. διότι πονηρότατος εἶ τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. ΦΙΛ. τί οὖν ἐάσεις με ποιεῖν; τί μέλλεις ποιήσειν; ΒΔΕΛ. ἔξεσται σοι δικάζειν ἐνθάδε ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ. ταῦτα δὲ βούλοιο ἂν ποιῆσαι; ΦΙΛ. βουλοίμην ἂν ἔγωγε. εἰπέ μοι ταχέως, τί δεῖ με ποιεῖν; ΒΔΕΛ. μεῖνον ἐνθάδε. ἐξοίσω γὰρ τὰ τοῦ δικαστηρίου. (ἐκφέρει μὲν τὰ σκεύη. τὸ δὲ δικαστήριον ποιεῖται.) προσελθέτω ὁ ἀντίδικος. ἡ δὲ δίκη ἀρχέσθω. ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ κατήγορος; δεῦρο ἐλθέ, ὦ κύον, καὶ κατηγόρησον. ἀνάβηθι καὶ εἰπέ. λέγε ἡμῖν τίς καὶ τί βουλόμενος τὴν γραφὴν ἐγράψατο. ὦ πάτερ, ἐλπίζω σε προσέξειν τὸν νοῦν. ΦΙΛ. μὴ φρόντιζε. ἄγε δή, ὦ κύον, εἰπὲ δή.
E – TEST EXERCISE 9
JURORS PHIL. JUR. PHIL.
Come, all [my] friends, come. For I hear you singing, but am not able to sing myself. What shall I do? For these men are guarding me, although I want to come with you to the lawcourt and make some trouble. But, Ο Zeus, stop giving me troubles and become my friend and pity my suffering. Save me, Ο Zeus. Either make me suddenly into smoke, or indeed make me a stone, on which they count the votes. Lord, dare to save me. Who is it who is shutting you in? Speak, we beg you. My son, know it well. But don’t shout. For he’s actually to be asleep here in front. Why isn’t it possible for you to come along with us and listen to the prosecutors and those defending themselves? Men, my son doesn’t allow me to pass judgement or to do anything bad. But look for some device, I beg you. For I intend to hear both the prosecutors and the defendants today. We can’t save you, friend. For all the members of your family are guarding you, and it is not possible for you to escape. Therefore I must pray to the gods, in hope of escaping. May the gods hear, then, and help. Ο lord Lykos, neighbouring hero – for you love the lawcourt – pity me and save me in my perplexity. You too, slaves, run and shout and tell Kleon this and order him to come. For Bdelykleon says that it is necessary not to pass judgement on cases. So let Kleon come and become a saviour to the old man.
Summary exercises for section 9
(a) 2nd s., aor. (e) 2nd pl., pres. (a) voc. (e) voc.
(b) 2nd s., aor. (f) 3rd pl., pres. (b) acc. (f) dat.
(c) 2nd s., aor. (g) 2nd s., aor (c) voc.
(d) 2nd pl., pres. (h) 3rd s., aor (d) nom.
Section Ten: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata
We now embark on one of Aristophanes’ most famous and delightful plays. With its female lead (though played by a man, of course), it brings back women into the text, alive and very decidedly kicking. The grammatical input here is challenging, consisting of the aorist optative active and middle (GE pp. 210–211, #212), δίδωμι (GE pp. 212–214, #214), ἀμελής and γλυκύς (GE pp. 214–215, #215) and the relative pronoun (GE pp. 216–219, # 216–219). It is worth mastering this material very thoroughly. δίδωμι, of which GE says comfortingly that ‘there is little here that is difﬁcult to recognise’, is the valuable gateway to a family of verbs which end in -μι.
1 ἥ Your ﬁrst relative pronoun: feminine because it goes with Lysistrata, nominative because it is the subject of the verb in its clause. 3 καταλύσασαι What part of the verb is this? Women are the subject of the sentence. 5 ἴδοιμι From ὁράω. The second aorist is εἶδον, the aorist stem is ἰδ- and this is the aorist optative. 6–7 καὶ Κλεονίκη … κἀμοί = καὶ ἐμοί; what does καί mean in both these phrases? 8 οὔσαις What part of the verb? It’s a participle, and we are still talking about women. οἵ What gender, what case? Why? See GE p. 216, #216. Note that in the nominative case m.s., f.s., and pl. the relative pronoun has an accent, whereas the article has none. 11 ἀναγκάσειν What inﬁnitive? Cf. ἀναγκάζειν. 12 λέξον Aorist imperative from λέγω. ἔλεξα is an alternative form for the aorist. ἐκεῖνο ὅ Literally ‘that which’. 15 τῶν ἀϕροδισίων Cf. Aphrodite, the goddess of sex, and ‘aphrodisiac’. 16 οὕς You have now met seven forms of the relative pronoun. Learn it (GE p. 216, #216). 19 ποιήσαιμι We now meet the ﬁrst aorist optative. Note that -σαι- is a characteristic element of this. Contrast with -οι- in the present optative (and in
the second aorist optative – see GE pp. 210–211, #212 and cf. ἴδοιμι in line 5 on this page). Don’t overlook the ἄν. ἑρπέτω What part of the verb is this? See GE pp. 197–198, #206–207. 20 κέλευσον If you cannot recognise this, see GE p. 189, #198 . 21 ἐθελήσαιμι 1st person singular aorist optative. Note the ἄν. μᾶλλον … ἤ ‘rather than …’ 25 ποιήσειας Which part of the aorist optative is this? (GE p. 210, #212).
27 ποιήσειε Which part of the aorist optative is this? 29–30 συμψηϕίσαιο, σώσαιμεν Look at the aorist optatives active and middle of παύω (GE pp. 210–212, #212) and learn them. Note that the endings of the second aorist optative are identical with those of the present optative. 31 ναὶ τὼ σιώ This is a particularly Spartan oath. ‘The Two’ are Castor and Pollux, the divine brothers of Helen of Troy, who were born in Sparta to Leda in an egg, as the result of her liaison with Zeus in the guise of a swan.
Translation for 10A
Lysistrata, who is an Athenian woman, comes forward and speaks. Do you hope, women, to bring the war to an end with me? For you know well that once we have brought the war to an end we shall see peace again. MYRRHINE (Myrrhine, who is a friend of Lysistrata, agrees.) By the gods, I would gladly see peace after bringing the war to an end. KLEONIKE (Kleonike, who is another friend, also agrees.) To me also it seems a good idea to bring the war to an end. But how is this possible for us, women that we are? Do you have some plan? For it is necessary that the men, who ﬁght the battles, should bring the war to an end and make a treaty. LYS. Let me speak. For one mustn’t keep silent. But, women, if we are going to force the men to make peace, we must refrain from … ΜYR. From what? What is the plan? Say what you have in mind. LYS. So will you do what I order? ΜYR. We shall do everything you tell us to. LYS. Then we must refrain from sex. All the women, after hearing the words which Lysistrata says, begin to go away. LYS. Where are you going? Why are you weeping? Will you or won’t you do what I order? Or what do you intend? ΜYR. I couldn’t do what you say, Lysistrata; instead let the war take its course. KLE. By Zeus, I won’t either; instead let the war take its course. Order me to go through ﬁre. I would be willing to do that rather than to refrain from sex. For nothing is like sex, my dear Lysistrata. I won’t do it – no way. LYS. What about you then? Would you do what I tell you?
LAMPITO LYS. ΜYR.
I too would be willing to go through ﬁre. No, by Zeus, I would not do it. Oh how totally lascivious is all of our sex! Will no one do what I propose? But, my dear Spartan, would you vote with me? For if so, we might still save the whole business. By the two gods, it’s difﬁcult for us to sleep without sex. But we must bring the war to an end and have peace. I would vote with you. Ο you my dearest friend and the only true woman among them. Then if these things seem good to you, they seem a good idea to us too.
2 πεῖσαι What part of the verb? GE pp. 187–188, #195–196. Triremes and the silver to ﬁnance them were the basis of Athenian naval power. 5–6 αὐτῷ τῷ ἀργυρίῳ ‘with silver and all’. The Athenian reserves of silver were kept in the treasury on the Acropolis. 9 τῆς θεοῦ Don’t worry about the apparently masculine ending of θεοῦ. The word θεός can refer either to a god or to a goddess. 16 ὡς ‘to’, ‘towards’, normally only with persons. 21 ἔγνω The paradigm for this aorist (of γιγνώσκω) is in GE p. 201, #209. Learn it. 22 ᾤμωξε Take the augment out of this (so that ω becomes ο) and put the iota subscript back above the line (οἰ-). You should then be able to identify the word. 24 γνῶναι The aorist inﬁnitive of γιγνώσκω, GE p. 201, #209. 27 συνοικεῖς This is the normal word for a man and woman living together in marriage.
Translation for 10B
So we shall persuade our husbands and force them to make peace. In what way will you be able to persuade your men, who have the triremes and the silver? By money or gifts or by doing what? LYSISTRATA Oh, but we have prepared this well too, because today we shall take the Acropolis, by seeming to be sacriﬁcing. Having taken it we shall guard it, money and all. Suddenly Lampito hears a shout and, having heard it, she speaks to Lysistrata. LAM. Who shouted? Who was responsible for the shout? LYS. This is what I was talking about. For the old women, who had to take the Acropolis of the goddess, now hold it. But, Lampito, you go off home and put affairs among you [Spartans] in good order, while we go into the Acropolis, which the old women have just taken, and guard it. Lampito, going away, walks along the road which leads to Sparta, while the other women go into the Acropolis and guard it. Suddenly Lysistrata shouts having spotted a man who is approaching. LYS. Oh, oh, women! Come here to me quickly. KLEONIKE What is it? Tell me, what is the shout?
7 ἀνὴρ δῆτα ‘Indeed I am a man. Myrrhine. and as he approaches. δίδωμι now makes many appearances. 27 τοῦτ᾽ ἂν διδοίην You should be able to work out that this is an optative and to guess what verb it comes from. 26 The gift of an apple could be an erotic token. I’ll join you in tricking him by waiting here after sending away the old women whose job it is to guard the Acropolis. LYS. Oh. Does Kleonike speak the truth? Have you recognised the man? For to me as well you seem to recognise the man. Lysistrata. MYR. Does any one of you recognise the man who is approaching? MYRRHINE My god! KLE. KINESIAS LYSISTRATA KIN. LYS. 30 νὴ τὴν Ἀϕροδίτην Who else would she swear by? Page 125 54 οἷον τὸ τεκεῖν ‘What it is to be a mother!’. 10C Page 124 2 σπασμός GE gives ‘discomfort’. It’s your job now to trick and love and not to love this man who you live with. Look. literally ‘What a thing it is to bear a child!’ Translation for 10C The old women go away while Kinesias arrives. Speak.) Who is this man who has forced his way through the guards without our noticing? It’s me. what discomfort tortures me! (Speaking from the wall. For after seeing him and recognising him she cried ‘My god!’ LYS. a man.’ Kinesias conﬁrms the obvious. Look. MYR. aorist imperative from ἐκ-καλέω. so Kinesias’ condition would be clear for all to see. Learn GE pp. he laments. Remember the reﬂexive ἑαυτόν or αὑτόν. 22 εὐξαμένῳ Agrees with μοι: ‘to me having prayed’. whose wife I am. Section 10C I see a man approaching. I shall do these things. Presumably Kinesias’ problem was a massive erection.140 LYS. It’s clear. 13–14 oἱ θεοί. . poor me. 12 πρὸς ἑαυτὸν λέγων ‘speaking to himself’. For he is Kinesias. 18 ἐκ-κάλεσον ‘call out’. οἷς εὔχομαι … ‘the gods to whom I pray …’ δώσουσι ‘will grant’. Comic actors wore a padded costume with a large phallus attached. By Zeus. #131. that Myrrhine has recognised him. I do recognise him. 134–136.
Kinesias of the deme Paionis. ΜYR. your wife said. (He gives what he has in his hand to Lysistrata. when some discussion concerning men arose. a man. grant that I may see my wife. Quickly. MYRRHINE (Inside. who are chucking me out? LYS. A guard. KIN. Who are you. Her husband. I’ll give you something. she says. which is unwashed? ΜYR. Myrrhine baby. For I don’t want to go down. with whom she lives. Then go and call her. but listen to our baby at any rate. Oh by the gods. Don’t go away. LYS. What then? Will you give me something? KIN.) You there. What it is to be a mother. So what I have I give you.’ KIN. unlucky as I am. Lysistrata. [Yes] by Aphrodite. I’ll go away instead.) Hurrah! Because I’ve prayed. You there. . KIN.Section 10C LYS. pray to all the gods. which a servant carries. I have this. (The man prays. to whom I am praying. LYS. KIN.) KIN. Won’t you get the hell out of here then? KIN. call Myrrhine out here now. I must go down. Hello. (She goes down from the wall. Perhaps the gods.) Ο all you gods. ‘How gladly would I give this to Kinesias. For you are always on your wife’s lips.) LYS. Yes. even yesterday. am I the man to whom Myrrhine wants to give apples? LYS. By Zeus. (He speaks to the baby. to whom I give this. For we too know your name well. my dear lady. KIN.) Don’t you call me to him. LYS. won’t you call mummy? BABY Mummy mummy mummy. will grant that I can see my wife. ‘I consider Kinesias the best of all.) It’s clear that I must. (Again he addresses Lysistrata. By Zeus.) By the gods. ΜYR. Come down then. Indeed. the gods have granted that I can see Myrrhine. So you. KIN. I won’t. dearest Kinesias. My god! (Speaking to himself. call her. Who are you? KIN. what’s up with you? Don’t you pity the baby. Taking an apple. I’ll go down and call her for you. 141 Are you a man? KIN. for the sake of our baby. (Speaking to himself. In that case I do pity it. why are you doing this? Come down with all haste and come here. LYS. Well then.’ KIN.
how unlucky you appear to be because of your father. and don’t stretch out your hand to me. Come. ‘glucose’. I ﬁnd fault with your father since he’s uncaring. so won’t you lie down? But where should one do this? For ﬁrst I must bring a little couch. τοιαύταις ‘by such women’. My child. who is carrying the baby. This one is middle. ‘having obeyed’. coming down and reaching the gate.142 Section 10D 10D Page 126 3ff. 20 ἐρῶ ‘I shall say’. I shan’t allow you to lie down on the ground despite the state you’re in. For γλυκύς cf. (Stretching out his hand to his wife. By Apollo. Manes. goes off home. 11 πιθομένη Second aorist participle middle from πείθω. Many -ιζω verbs have futures of this type. Before I do. 19 κατακλίνῃ Notice also κλινίδιον ‘bed’. KIN. βαδιοῦμαι. Won’t you come back home? By Zeus. take the baby home. For your mother’s kiss is sweet. KIN. MYR. MYR. 15 βαδιῇ (What part of the verb is this?). he speaks. KIN. #215). MYR. ‘recline’. how sweet you are. that you do these things. MYR. Child. KIN. MYR. KIN. Will you do this? Why won’t you lie down with me for a short time? No. in front of the baby? [You’re right] by Zeus. the men must cease from the war and make a treaty. KIN. Translation for 10D Myrrhine. Not at all. MYRRHINE KINESIAS MYR.) Oh what good luck! It’s clear that my wife loves me. 215. γλυκύς and ἀμελής are used frequently. I’ll kiss you. you vilest of men. ‘incline’. speaks to the baby. (She goes out. you bad woman. Cf. or ‘having been persuaded by’. But do you call your husband uncaring? For there’s no one more uncaring than you and no one more unlucky than me. as in the next line. Learn these adjectives either now or at the end of this section (GE p. 13 παῦσαι The context will tell you whether this is aorist imperative middle or aorist inﬁnitive active. the baby is out of the way. but an uncaring one. I won’t go home.) What is it that you want. And yet I won’t say that I don’t love you. ὡς here means ‘that’. since it is possible for us to lie down on the ground. The servant. but you do not have a sweet father. Look. Your mother is sweet too. obeying such women? Stop. You love me? So why don’t you lie down? You silly fellow. .
50 ἔα From ἐάω ‘I allow’ or ‘let pass’. The verb διατρίβω means ‘I wear away something’. And yet I must bring a mattress. Present followed by future. and ὦ ϕίλτατε should help you to recognise the person. By Zeus. ‘quickly’. But I don’t need one. as many as I need’ (δέομαι takes the genitive). Why don’t you lie down? And indeed I’m undressing. who ﬁrst …’ 52 νὴ τὴν Ἄρτεμιν An ominous change of oath from the goddess of love to the virgin huntress. ‘waste time’ and thus ‘delay’. jump up.Section 10E 143 10E Page 127 11 προσκεϕάλαιον How does this word come to mean ‘pillow’? Page 128 17 ἀνίστασο ‘stand up’. ‘May he perish most wretchedly. but it comes to be used as if it were an adverb: ‘of course’. hence ‘I spend time’. (She goes out again. strictly speaking. goddess of chastity.) Stand up. I’m undressing. (After kissing her husband she goes out again. There. but I need one. She returns bringing a pillow. i. Page 129 40 μυριῶ Future of μυρίζω. ταχύ The neuter (singular or plural) of the adjective is often used in place of the adverb. KIN. And yet you don’t have a pillow.’ 32 ἀμέλει This is. τί πείσομαι. Let me kiss you instead. Perhaps translate ‘Forget it!’ κάκιστ᾽ ἀπόλοιτο There is no ἄν with this optative. . 55 ψηϕιοῦμαι See above. so ‘Never mind’. ΜΥR. a mattress. Look. She comes back very quickly bringing a mattress. What kind of mattress? Don’t bother just for me. 57–58 τί πάσχω.e. You should now be able to recognise the tense. 46 διατριβῆς ‘delay’.) Look. Myrrhine returns bringing a little couch. Translation for 10E MYRRHINE KINESIAS ΜYR. 19 Literally ‘Now I have all things. so it must express a wish. 35 ἡ ἄνθρωπος This is a derogatory expression here. ‘Now I’ve got everything I want. 53 ψηϕιεῖ From ψηϕίζομαι. an imperative of ἀμελέω.
Look. 2. Hang on. Who shall I screw now? Alas! I’m the unluckiest man alive. Of course you’ll do this. my dear lady. ΜYR. Exercises for section 10 ΜYR.) You don’t have a blanket. The myrrh which you have given me is not pleasant. I shall do this. KIN. by Artemis. but I want to screw you. Myrrhine returns bringing a blanket. For I’m coming back quickly. You have met them a few times. #219 to master two further forms of the relative pronoun. KIN. what am I suffering? What shall I suffer? Oh dear. MYR. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 10 AORIST OPTATIVE 10: 1 1. For it smells of delay. KIN. KIN. I’ll do this.) The creature will kill me with her blankets. Good. but it doesn’t smell of marriage. Myrrhine baby. ὅσπερ and ὅστις. ΜYR. I’m undoing my shoes at any rate. (Suddenly she stops undressing. not me. What’s going on here? The wife’s gone off and left me. will you vote to make a treaty? I’ll vote. I’ve brought the myrrh from Rhodes. Now I’ll love you. By Aphrodite. may I die [if I cheat you]. 219. MYR. May the man who ﬁrst made myrrh die very horribly. I’ve now got everything I need. σώσειεν ποιοῖεν. 3. KIN.144 KIN. Myrrhine runs away. he saved they make/do they refrained from σῴζοι. the wife will destroy me. KIN. Now I’m untying my sash. my dearest husband. (She goes out. But. Notice that both parts of ὅστις decline. ΜYR. I don’t need one. ΜYR. Grammar Now learn GE p. MYR. Everything? Come here then. Poor me. But take care not to cheat me over the treaty which we recently discussed. KIN. Stretch out your hand and take what I shall give you and anoint yourself. But lie down and don’t bring me anything. KIN. Shall I anoint you with myrrh? By Apollo. ἀπόσχοιντο . By Zeus. ποιήσειαν ἀπέχοιντο. Let it be. Oh dear. By Zeus.
5. γλυκέα παίδια τοῖς ἀμελέσι. 3. ἅττα ὧν. ἀναγκάσειας μέμφοιτο. οἵτινες οὕς. you (s. he ﬁnishes we lived together I voted we cease you compelled he blamed I ﬂee καταλύοι. καταλύσειεν συνοικοῖμεν. to give (pres. ὅστις οὕς. 10. οὕστινας ἧς. giving (f. τοὺς ἀμελεῖς. 8. you were giving he/she gives he/she gave to give (aor. ἔδοτε ἀμελής and γλυκύς 10: 4 6. δώσεται 3. 5. οὕστινας. 5. they were giving 10: 3 1. participle) 8.) 10. give! 7. δώσεσθαι 1.s. 7. βραχεῖς ἀληθῶν. παυσαίμεθα ἀναγκάζοις.) giving (m. 4. βραχείας ἀληθῆ.) 6. γλυκεῖς μάρτυρες τῶν ἀμελῶν. γλυκεῖς φύλακας τῆς ἀμελοῦς. ἅ. 2. 6. 6. 3. δότε. 6. δώσομαι 7. ἔδοτο 2. συνοικήσαιμεν ψηφιζοίμην. s. φύγοιμι δίδωμι 10: 2 1. ὅτων . 7. who whom whose to whom whom who (those) whom whose ὅς. pres. ἅς. γλυκέων υἱέων 7. ἅστινας οἵ. pres. δούς 8. part. βραχέσι ἀληθεῖς. 2.) will give 9.Exercises for section 10 145 4. βραχέα ἀληθέσι. 5. 4. ἧστινος αἷς. ψηφισαίμην παυοίμεθα. γλυκείας μητρός τὰ ἀμελῆ. δώσουσι 5. 3. δοίη 4. 9. ἅστινας. δοῖτο 10. βραχεῖς ἀληθοῦς. 4. 2. ἀληθεῖς. γλυκέσιν ἀμφοτέροις οἱ ἀμελεῖς. μέμψαιτο φεύγοιμι. βραχέων THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 10: 5 1. 8. αἷστισι(ν) ἅς. ὧντινων. δώσετε 9.
d. Myrrhine? δίδως Suddenly giving (aorist participle) the woman the money which she demanded. παυσαίμην We should like to make a truce with great eagerness. 2. uncaring I give a gift a scheme zeal. ἐθελήσαιμεν I could not do this. e. The women are on the Acropolis. e. important giving in return. ποιήσαιμι I could see the city. a. βαδίζει πρὸς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν. c. . ἅττα ὅ. serious. ὅτῳ 5. the man went away. ἴδοιμι Will you give me what you have? δώσεις He was giving the money to the woman. b. marriage I fortify the act of giving (dose) I give a present. δούς a. The men do not in any way want to end the war. contrive I am zealous. You could speak to me. haste I live with a wall it concerns I give back the gift. I bribe eager. ὧν. ἅτινα. ὧντινων. προσαγορεύσαις I would gladly give up the war. ὧν. c. Kinesias goes to the Acropolis. ὅτι. ἅττα 1. a. ἅτινα. ᾗτινι 2. ὧν. Κινησίας. βοῶσιν. αἵ εἰσιν ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλει. ὧντινων. ἐδίδoυ Why are you not willing to give me what I ask for? διδόναι Why are you giving me this apple. b. 3. ᾧτινι. ᾗ.146 Revision exercises for section 10 9. ὅτι ἅ. Kinesias is the husband of Myrrhine. ὧντινων. busy a living together. what 10. ἅ. ᾧ. ὅτων REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 10 A –WORDS 1. bribe I plan. ὃς ἀνήρ ἐστι Μυρρίνης. ὅτων 3. ὅτων 4. The women are shouting. Mother. αἱ γυναῖκες. d. repayment (antidote) B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. c. what 10: 6 ὅ. The men are ﬁghting the battles. b.
δεῖ τοίνυν ἡμᾶς ἀπέχεσθαι πάσας τῶν ἀϕροδισίων. f. ποῦ ἐστι Κινησίας οὗ Μυρρίνη ἐστὶν ἡ γυνή. ΛYΣ. e. αἱ γρᾶες μηχανὴν μηχανῶνται ᾗπερ τὰ τείχη λήψονται. 4. Lysistrata speaks the words. ποῦ αἱ γρᾶες ὧν τὸ ἔργον ἐστὶ ϕυλάττειν τὰ χρήματα. δοκεῖ ἡμῖν. ἐγὼ οὖν συμψηϕιοῦμαί σοι. 3. Do you recognise the man? The man is approaching. 1. δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰρήνην ἄγειν ἣ αἰτία ἐστὶ πολλῶν καλῶν. τοῦτο ποιεῖν. ἀλλ᾽. ἆρ᾽ οὐδεὶς ἀναγκάσει τοὺς ἄνδρας παύεσθαι τοῦ πολέμου. 2. I can see the old women. χαλεπὴ οὖσα τυγχάνει ἡ μηχανὴ. oἱ ἄνδρες. The women want to hear the words. ΛYΣ. ἀκούετε οὖν τοὺς λόγους οὓς λέγω. αἱ γυναῖκες ἐθέλoυσιν ἀκούειν τοὺς λόγους οὓς λέγει Λυσιστράτη. ἀλλὰ πῶς (τίνι τρόπῳ) ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν. g. οὐδεμίᾳ σπουδῇ ϕυλάττουσιν. The old women hold the Acropolis. Where are the old women? It is their task to guard the money. ἆρ᾽ ἐστὶν ἥτις ποιήσει ἃ κελεύω. ὦ ϕίλη Λαμπιτώ. ΜYΡΡΙΝΗ οὐ ποιήσω τοῦτο οὐδαμῶς. ΛΑΜ. ποιεῖν ἃ ἐθέλομεν. εἰπέ μοι ἃ ἐν νῷ ἔχεις. νὴ Δία. j. γυναιξὶν οὔσαις. καὶ πείσομεν τοὺς ἄνδρας. τὸν πόλεμον καταλυσάσας. What is this? What do you want to say? τί ἐστι τοῦτο ὃ ἐθέλεις λέγειν. ἰδού. οὗτοι οἱ ϕύλακες. ἆρα γιγνώσκεις τὸν ἄνδρα ὃς προσέρχεται. ΛYΣ. ἣν ἐν νῷ ἔχω. καὶ πίθεσθε. ΓYΝΗ κἀγὼ δὴ ἐθελήσαιμ᾽ ἄν. ΛYΣ. ΛYΣ. ΚΛΕΟΝΙΚΗ οὐδ᾽ ἐγώ. ΓYΝΑΙΚΕΣ ποιήσαιμεν ἄν. ΛΑΜΠΙΤΩ ἀλλὰ δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰρήνην ἄγειν. αἱ γρᾶες ἔχουσι τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ἃς ἐγὼ ἰδεῖν δύναμαι. i. καταλῦσαι τὸν πόλεμον. οὐκ ἐθέλoυσιν οὐδαμῶς τὸν πόλεμον καταλῦσαι. ΛΑΜ. ἆρα ποιησαιτ᾽ ἂν ἃ κελεύω. ἀμελεῖς ὄντες. h. δός μοι τὴν χεῖρα. Peace is the cause of many good things.Revision exercises for section 10 147 d. εὐθὺς δ’ ἄπειμι. We must keep peace. δεῖ ἡμᾶς. oἳ τὰς μάχας μάχονται. 2. Where is Kinesias? Myrrhine is his wife. σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι. παυσάσας τοὺς ἄνδρας οἳ τὰς μάχας μάχονται. αἳ γυναῖκές ἐσμεν (γυναιξὶν οὔσαις). ἆρα αἱ γυναῖκες ἀϕέξονται τῶν δώρων ἃ oἱ ἄνδρες δώσουσιν αὐταῖς. ΛYΣΙΣΤΡΑΤΗ . 5. καὶ πεῖσον τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους. ἄπιθι δῆτα πρὸς τὴν Λακεδαίμονα. ὧν τὸ ἔργoν ἐστὶ μάχεσθαι. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1.
And how are you getting on? You are suffering severely. LYS. All of you. Therefore. I would gladly tell you. Oh. ATH. Why then don’t we call Lysistrata.148 Revision exercises for section 10 F – TEST EXERCISE 10 Where is the Athenian Council? I would like to report something new. Yes. from what you say. ATH. LAC. men. therefore. LACEDAEMONIAN . make a treaty and end the war. there is no need for us to call her. It is a Spartan code-staff. ATHENIAN Who are you who come here to the wall. by the twin gods. For a great evil has befallen us. when instead of this it is possible for you (lit. Why are you ﬁghting now in this way. and Lampito is responsible. And then let each one take his own wife and go off home. but I have sense. I am a woman. I am really suffering severely. But what is happening in Lacedaemonia? Could you say? LAC. I know what you mean. who alone could make a treaty for us? For we too have suffered this evil. And yet we ask for no other gift than to be able to make love. having heard what we were saying. we must obey the women and make the truce. ‘to whom it is possible …’) to see peace and to be friends and allies? LAC. Listen to the words which I speak. and I have just come from Sparta about peace. coming. you who have the same altars and the same sacriﬁces? Why do you destroy Greek men and cities. and end the war. ATH. LAC. What is this thing of yours which you have got in your hands? LAC. for here she is herself. who came back from Athens and persuaded the women to refrain from sex. by the twin gods. by the twin gods! Who could tell us where Lysistrata is? ATH. & ATH. which they themselves will tell us to make. walking with such great eagerness? LAC. and why do you not cease from your nastiness. ATH. I am a herald. LYSISTRATA Come.
231. The concept of the passive will present no problem to Latinists. #221 will be useful. 2 ἡ Πνὺξ αὑτηί αὑτηί is the extra demonstrative form. the genitive absolute (GE p. ἥγω or ἥχω.g. 226–227. #225) and the optative of ϕημί (GE p. Compound adjectives (e. 5 σχοινίον A rope with vermilion dye was swept across the agora to push people towards the Pnyx (the hill on which the ecclesia was held). comparative adverbs (GE pp. ἀ-θάνατος. #226. οὑτοσί. ἥκω. it has no separate feminine ending. To ﬁnd out what the present stem is. any citizen arriving with vermilion dye. #222). It involved the sacriﬁce of a pig. 149 . The ten tribes between them subdivided the year into ten parts. you will ﬁnd ἥκω ‘I come’. which are the same as the middle. 13 ἐντὸς τοῦ καθάρματος A puriﬁcation ceremony was held before each meeting of the βουλή and the ἐκκλησία. remove the ς from the ξ and you will be left with three possibilities. The Assembly itself was proclaimed by a trumpet call. i. Cf.Section Eleven: Aristophanes’ Akharnians There is relatively little grammatical input in this section. You learn the present and imperfect tenses passive (GE pp. It holds out a tantalising vision of peace. could be ﬁned for arriving late. 92. See GE pp. 230–231. Aristophanes’ comedy Akharnians tells us much about Athenian politics and the feelings of the countrymen of Attica cooped up inside the city during the Peloponnesian War. If you now check with the vocabulary or a dictionary. and therefore touched by the rope. GE p. 227. 228. ἥξουσιν This is a future tense. 229–230. Section 8A line 25 and the map on RGT p. as well as a number of other adjectives. οὑτοιί See note on line 2 about the extra demonstrative. ἐρῆμος Why no feminine ending? It’s a two-termination adjective. #220).e. #227). 10 The Prytaneis: ‘presidents’ acting as chairmen for the meetings of the assembly. each tribe having a spell of providing these presidents. εὐ-δόκιμος) mostly fall into this category. 11A Page 132 1 κυρία ἐκκλησία See RGT p. 91.
gentlemen. One of their duties was keeping order in the ἐκκλησία. ‘since Amphitheos stays there’.150 Section 11A 14 παρελθόντων … πάντων The genitive absolute – see GE pp. but an immortal whom the gods have ordered to make a treaty with the Spartans. Who are you? AMP. Who wishes to speak? AMP (Again he addresses the herald. Not a man? AMP.e. HER.e. But since I’m an immortal. ‘as they lead him away’. But I always come into the assembly and sit down ﬁrst. . The men in the agora are talking to each other as they run from the rope all over the place. 32 ἀπαγόντων … αὐτῶν ‘them leading him away’. i. When all have come forward. HER. ‘when all had come forward’. that I am well disposed to the people. This is precisely what I was saying. i. Translation for 11A DIKAIOPOLIS But what’s this? For I know that the sovereign assembly is going to be held today. I know it well. 18 μένοντος … Ἀμϕιθέου Another genitive absolute – ‘Amphitheos remaining’. 228–229. but he complains that the prytaneis are not granting him his travel expenses. 26 Amphitheos claims to be a god. HERALD (He makes a proclamation. As Amphitheos waits he continues his proclamation. So don’t listen to this man unless he speaks about war. but the herald doesn’t answer. But nobody thinks how peace will happen. I don’t have the travelling expenses which I need. #222–223 – ‘all having come forward’. But the Pnyx here is empty.) I do.) Come forward to the front. and on my own I look out to the country. For the prytaneis don’t give them to me. Athenians. Come forward inside the puriﬁed place. who obeyed the orders of the state executives. All those present come forward to the front. So I hope to receive the travelling expenses … A SPEAKER Know well. suddenly someone called Amphitheos addresses the herald. But here are the prytaneis coming in late. The prytaneis will come in late. 31 oἱ τοξόται ‘the bowmen’: these were Scythian mercenaries. No. Amphitheos. i. Don’t worry too much about this construction. It occurs mainly in stage directions in this section and is thoroughly revised in Section 12. AMPHITHEOS Has anyone spoken yet? Amphitheos waits. The Athenians praise this and raise a clamour. HER. hired by the state.e. loving peace but hating the city and longing for my own deme.
. but the structure is clear: γνούς (a participle. DIK.(cf. 231.’ The verbs are passives. 22 ἐξισταμένοις What verb?: Hint: -στα-. ἐξαπατώμενος. By Apollo. but you do business about peace. 33 πρεσβεύεσθε. Learn GE p. ‘realising’) followed by acc. ἀπολλύμενοι Present passive participle of ἀπόλλυμι: ‘being destroyed by …’ The datives here mean ‘by’ (dative of instrument). then a genitive absolute τῶν ἄλλων πολεμούντων. Dikaiopolis becomes angry. Archers! The archers come in and lead off Amphitheos. 12 ἔστω ‘so be it’. 13ff. #187. 170. As they are leading him off. and οὐκ ἀναγκαζόμενον … ποιεῖν ἃ μὴ ἐθέλω. This is quite a complicated looking sentence. I won’t. the opposite of ἕκοντες. 31 δούς. The ambassadors from the king. ἀπόλοιντο in line 4). 14 ἄκοντες ‘unwilling’. ἐκδικάζετε.Section 11B HER. HER. θωπευόμενος. 11B Page 134 1 ὄλοιντο Note the stem ὀλ. 25 μοι This is an ethic dative. 6–7 πειθόμενος. 4 ‘For we are always being deceived and wronged and ruined by them. GE p. or with the dative when it is a thing. ἀλλ᾽ εἰρήνην ἄξω (future of ἄγω). then the main clause ἐγὼ … οὐ πολεμήσω. You could translate it ‘please tell me’. and participle (twice) ἐμαυτὸν … ὄντα. 151 DIK. meaning ‘by’ when it is a person. Write out this sentence in English with the verbs in the active beginning with ‘For they …’ At this stage all passives are used with ὑπό + gen. sometimes called the dative of the person concerned. What verb? Note that there is no ἄν with the optative and therefore this is a wish. Shut up and sit down. διαϕθειρόμενος These are passive participles: the ﬁrst one means ‘being persuaded’. A further statement of Pericles’ policy at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. you wrong the assembly by leading off the man who was going to make a treaty for us. 5 ἀδικουμένοις Passive participle: ‘being wronged’. 23ff. HER. 28. τοῦ Δικαιοπόλεως δόντος Note the aorist participles of δίδωμι. Prytaneis. What do the others mean? 10 ϕαίη Optative of ϕημί. #227. χρηματίζετε Indicative or imperative? 36 δεῖται + genitive = ‘needs’.
You deal with ambassadors. Realising that I am free and not being forced by anyone to do what I don’t want to. But the city needs neither triremes nor dockyards if it is going to be happy. If they want to be deceived and persuaded and ﬂattered by the speakers.’ Perhaps this man might answer ‘But aren’t you free? So don’t worry at all. For in this city nobody is ever forced by anyone to do what he doesn’t want. being destroyed by the way they live. without peace. I consider utterly free the horses and the mules in the city. . their lack of provisions and the plague. where is Amphitheos? AMPHITHEOS Here I am. then do business about the war and about ways of raising money and about making laws and about allies and about triremes and about dockyards and about sacriﬁces. For what do we farmers not suffer at their hands? For we are always being deceived and wronged and ruined by them. But perhaps someone may say.’ All right.152 Section 11C Translation for 11B Death to all the Athenians who praise and obey what the prytaneis say. so be it.) You take these eight drachmas and make a treaty with the Spartans for just me and my children. But what can we do when we are always being wronged by them in this way? For the people seem to enjoy being persuaded by the speakers and being ﬂattered and cheated and ruined by their words. ‘And yet the sailors have power in the assembly while the farmers are forced against their will to live in the city. After Dikaiopolis has given him the travelling expenses. then. I myself shall not make war but shall live in peace. angry old men eager to go on with the war because their vineyards are being burnt by the Spartans. DIK. ‘So what? The people are free and rule themselves and are not ruled by any other. then make judgements. come here. while the others are making war.’ But I answer. Amphitheos goes away. either about the people or the speakers or the war or the written or unwritten laws. but the good man who gives good advice is never honoured by them. and the worst death of all to those speakers who ﬂatter the people and always deceive them. (Giving to Amphitheos eight drachmas. DIKAIOPOLIS 11C Amphitheos is now back from Sparta. For the man who says ‘I am well disposed to the crowd’ is always honoured by the people. He is being hotly pursued by Akharnians. who as they go along the roads love to bump into the travellers who don’t get out of their way. But please. Amphitheos. nor great numbers nor great size.
) Yuk! AMP. 229–230. I was hurrying here bringing a treaty for you. ‘although’) in English and create a clause.) This is for ﬁve years.g. are you bringing a treaty when the Spartans have destroyed our land?’ And they took up stones. But they were following me and shouting. DIK. the moment they spotted me bringing the treaty.Section 11C 153 Page 136 2 Δικαιοπόλεως δὲ ταῦτα εἰπόντος Genitive absolute. ‘when Dikaiopolis had said this …’ 9 Genitive absolute. we often have to supply a word (e. DIKAIOPOLIS . ‘since’. AMPHITHEOS Not yet. Amphitheos. It doesn’t please me because it smells of equipping of ships. Those old men. (He gives him one sample. #225. DIK. AMP. all shouted. The central feature was a procession bearing a phallus to promote the fertility of the autumn-sown crops. Learn the comparative and superlative adverbs. ‘the Spartans having destroyed our land’. Take it and taste. ‘although the Spartans have wrecked our land’.e. Dikaiopolis. in the genitive absolute construction. What is it? DIK. But I didn’t evade the Akharnians. 23 ὀξύτατα Superlative adverb. ‘most sharply’. DIK. It smells too – very pungently of ambassadors to the cities. I’ll say. being ﬁghters at the battle of Marathon. DIK. What English word should we supply here? 11 βοώντων GE #206–207. 9–10 λίθους δὲ λαβόντων αὐτῶν See note above. What’s up? AMP. AMP. Note how. then. i. But here is a thirty-year peace by both land and sea. Greetings. Here are three samples. I ran away. ‘You foulest of creatures. But are you bringing the treaty? AMP. Amphitheos keeps running. Translation for 11C But here’s Amphitheos back from Sparta. For I must ﬂee and escape from the Akharnians. Dikaiopolis tastes it. Let them shout. Though Dikaiopolis has said this. (Giving him another sample. Page 137 26 The Rural Dionysia was a festival held in winter.) You take this ten-year treaty instead and taste it. ‘when’. (After Amphitheos has given it him. And when they took up stones. GE pp. In Akharnians Dikaiopolis emerges from his house leading his family in a mini-procession of the Rural Dionysia.
I was guarded by the guards. 2. ἐξεφέρετο ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. by the wall. but the important thing is that agents (people) are in the genitive with ὑπό. 6. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. 2. we were prevented by the teacher. 5. ἤρχοντο they are/were being ruled ἐλευθερούμεθα. τοῖς λόγοις. ἐφυλαττόμην ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων. I’ll choose this with the greatest pleasure. Exercises for section 11 AMP. this smells of ambrosia and nectar. by the guards. πείθονται τοῖς λόγοις. they were loved by the herald. κατελύετο it is/was being ended διώκονται. GENITIVE ABSOLUTE 11: 3 1. ἐφιλοῦντο ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος. 5. by the men. it is announced by the herald. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. 11: 2 κηρύττεται. (Seeing the Akharnians approaching. it was carried out by the men. ἡμῶν φυγόντων εἰς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν τῶν ῥητόρων ἀκουσάντων τῶν λόγων . EXERCISES FOR SECTION 11 THE PASSIVE 11: 1 1. bidding a long farewell to the Akharnians. 4. Ceasing from war and its evils I intend to go in and celebrate the country Dionysia. ἐδίδοτο he is/was being given ἀναγκάζομαι. ἐκωλυόμεθα ὑπὸ τοῦ διδασκάλου.B. τῷ τείχει. There are a number of possible answers in this exercise. ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων.154 DIK. 4. τῇ ἀληθείᾳ. Ο festival of Dionysos. ἐκηρύττετο it is/was being announced φιλῇ. while instruments are translated by the dative alone. 9. by the men. They are persuaded by the arguments. 8. 2. κηρύττεται ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος. ἐξηγόμεθα we are/were being driven out 1.) are/were being honoured δίδοται. 6. ἠναγκαζόμην I am/was being compelled καταλύεται. without a preposition. 3.) are/were being loved ἄρχονται. 7. by the truth N. 3.) And I’ll run away from the Akharnians. 10. ἐφιλοῦ you (s. ἠλευθερούμεθα we are/were being freed τιμᾶσθε. ἐδιώκοντο they are/were being pursued ἐξαγόμεθα. ἐτιμᾶσθε you (pl. with the words.
δούσης μοι τὸ ἀργύριον τῆς γυναικός. a. The gifts/bribery persuaded the people. 2. f. It was called the tholos. ἐπείθετο τοῖς δώροις ὁ δῆμος. oἱ πολῖται πείθονται ὑϕ᾽ ὑμῶν εἰρήνην ἄγειν. b. b. 8.Revision exercises for section 11 155 3. ἡ ἐκκλησία ἠδικεῖτο τοῖς λόγοις τοῖς τῶν ῥητόρων. for 10A) perception willing the prytaneion (the building in which the prytaneis lodged during their term of ofﬁce. The speeches of the politicians were unjust to / wronged the assembly. You persuade the citizens to maintain peace. ἀπῆλθον. The politician deceives the people. g. The schemes of the women compelled the men to make a truce. i. Lysistrata compels us to make peace. oἱ χρηστοὶ τιμῶνται ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου. ἡμεῖς πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐπορευόμεθα. ταῖς μηχαναῖς ταῖς τῶν γυναικῶν ἠναγκάζοντο oἱ ἄνδρες σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι. d. The walls used to guard the city. σοῦ δόντος ἡμῖν τὰ σῖτα τῶν δούλων ἐλευθερουμένων τῶν σοφιστῶν τοὺς νεανίσκους διδαξάντων λαβόντων τῶν Περσῶν τὰς ναῦς ἐλθόντος ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν τοῦ δώρου διδομένου τῇ γυναικί REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 11 A – WORDS 1. ἐξαπατᾶται ὑπὸ τοῦ ῥήτορος ὁ δῆμος. ἡ πόλις ἐϕυλάττετο τοῖς τείχεσιν. I perceive unwilling the prytanis (see vocab. We ﬂatter the assembly with our words/speeches. h. The woman gave me the money. 6. a.) B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. c. e. ἀπελθόντων τῶν ἀνδρῶν. ἀδικεῖται ἡ πόλις ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. 7. The men went away. ἡ ἐκκλησία θωπεύεται τοῖς ἡμετέροις λόγοις. 4. and I went away. The orators/politicians wrong the city. The people honour good men. 5. but we went on towards the city. . ἀναγκαζόμεθα σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῆς Λυσιστράτης. j.
ὁ Δικαιόπολις ἐδέξατο. ἄκοντες μὲν γὰρ ἀναγκαζόμεθα ἀκούειν τὰ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν λεγόμενα. I started to run away (imperfect). ἡμῶν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων ἐξαπατωμένων. f. The assembly is ruled by no one and the people do what they like. τοῦ κήρυκος κηρύττοντος. καὶ ἡκόντων αὐτῶν. τῆς πόλεως ἀδικουμένης ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. e. 2. The rest are at war. τοῦ Ἀμϕιθέου δόντος τὰς σπονδάς. 2. d. ἡσυχίαν ἄξομεν. οὐδεὶς ἑκὼν χρηματιεῖ οὔτε περὶ τούτων οὔτε περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης. οὐκ ἀρέσκει μοι οὐδαμῶς τὸ πρᾶγμα. j. The god is waiting. h. οἱ δὲ τἀληθῆ οὐ λέξουσιν. ἀλλ᾽ οἱ πρυτάνεις οὑτοιὶ ἥκουσιν. οἱ πρυτανεῖς εἰσέβαινον εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν. but the god was silent. ἡμεῖς δέ. oἱ δὲ οὐδενὶ ἀλλῷ ἢ ἑαυτοῖς εὐνοῖ ὄντες τυγχάνουσι. τῆς ἐκκλησίας περὶ τοῦ πολέμου χρηματιζούσης. τῶν Ἀχαρνέων λίθους λαβόντων. E – TEST EXERCISE 11 This is a difﬁcult passage based on a later extract from the Akharnians when Dikaiopolis has persuaded the chorus to listen to his anti-war argument. τῶν ἄλλων πολεμούντων.156 Revision exercises for section 11 c. The Akharnians picked up (aorist) stones. τῆς ἐκκλησίας ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἀρχομένης. i. ὁ Δικαιόπολις οὐδὲν ἐϕρόντιζεν. τοῦ κήρυκος κηρύξαντος. γεωργοὶ ὄντες. ὁ θεὸς ἐσίγησεν. ἀεὶ γὰρ λέγουσιν ὅτι ἡ πόλις ἄρχεται αὐτὴ ὑϕ᾽ αὑτῆς ϕιλουμένη ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ῥητόρων. ὁ δῆμος ἐπείθετο πολεμεῖν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. Amphitheos presented treaties. εἰς τοὺς ἀγροὺς βλέποντες. ἐγὼ ἔϕευγον. but the Athenians do not care. but the Athenians do not want to listen. The city is wronged by the politicians. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι οὐδὲν ϕροντίζουσιν. λέγειν βουλόμενοι. τῆς δὲ πόλεως ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν διαϕθειρομένης. 3. οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι διαϕθείρουσι τὴν γῆν. τῶν γεωργῶν πρὸς τοὺς ἀγροὺς βλεπόντων. τοῦ θεοῦ μένοντος. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. 1. λέγεται ὅτι οἱ ῥήτορες εὐνοῖ εἰσι τῇ πόλει. εὖ οἶσθ᾽ ὅτι οἱ ῥήτορες παρίασι. ἐγὼ οὐ πολεμήσω. The assembly was discussing/doing business about the war but Dikaiopolis did not care. He also refers to an occasion when Kleon had indicted Aristophanes for abusing the . οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι οὐ βούλονται ἀκούειν. The herald made a proclamation. ἡ ἐκκλησία ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἄρχεται. ὁ δῆμος ποιεῖ ἃ ἐθέλει. 4. g. 5. and Dikaiopolis received them. but I shall not go to war.
DIKAIOPOLIS Don’t make a noise. the Olympian. May they perish. But (for you who are here are friends) how are the Lacedaemonians responsible for these disasters? There are men among us (I do not mean the city. we were not willing to do so. . For even comedy knows what justice is. spectators. even though I am taking part in a comedy. this is at the Lenaia. And I shall tell you terrible but just things. My vineyard is being cut down by them. being destroyed by the plague and always gazing out at our ﬁelds. For we are on our own. the big spring festival. and no strangers are here yet. who proposed the law that Megarians must not remain on land. nor on the sea. For it was not pleasing to Pericles. themselves. a festival held in winter when few foreigners could sail to Athens. though the Megarians and the Lacedaemonians often asked and begged us to withdraw the decree.Revision exercises for section 11 157 Athenian people in public when there were foreigners in the audience. That was at the City Dionysia. nor on the mainland. And. This was the start of the war. remember this. and we are shut up in the city against our will. nor in the market. most particularly Pericles. For Kleon will not now abuse me for speaking ill of the city when strangers are present. if I come as a beggar and begin speaking among Athenians about the city. that I do not mean the city) who are responsible. their wives and their children. I hate the Lacedaemonians very much.
they immediately greet one another.’ 9–10 Στρυμοδώρῳ … διατρίβοντι … νέῳ ὄντι καὶ ἀπείρῳ All agree. or. shaking hands. ποῦ ‘where?’ interrogative. The case is also fairly confusing. s. When Komias and Euergides come into the lawcourt – where they are going to judge a case about Neaira – they greet one another. μέλλουσι δικάσειν μέλλω + future inﬁnitive. with imaginary conversations between three jurors at intervals. Cf. aorist optative of ὄλλυμι: ‘may you perish’. which ingeniously reinforce the new points of grammar and syntax that have been introduced. Section Twelve: Neaira as slave 12A Page 144 1–2 ἄλλος ἄλλον ὡς ὁρῶσιν ἥκοντα ‘as they see one another coming’. so it is well worth reading the introduction before you start.Sections Twelve–Fourteen: The prosecution of Neaira The next three sections are taken from a lawcourt speech. 9 οὐκ ἤλπιζον ἐντεύξεσθαι ἐλπίζω + future inﬁnitive. before you can translate them in detail. The speech throws some interesting light on the position of women in Athenian society. 3 οὗ ‘where’. relative. A great deal of new grammar and syntax is introduced in these sections and so it is wise to do the exercises when they occur to consolidate your learning with practice. ﬁnish reading Section 12 and then go back to revise the grammar and do the exercises. And as they see one another coming in. Rhetorical Greek is often elaborately structured and you may ﬁnd that you have to analyse the sentences carefully as a whole. 11 ἐξέσται The future of the impersonal verb ἔξεστι: ‘it will be possible’. ‘I did not expect to meet. ‘I am about to do something’. 158 . 15 ὄλοιο 2nd. Translation for 12A When the herald summons them the dikasts come into the courtroom. if you ﬁnd that makes you lose track of the story.
I know it well. KOM. Euergides.) You. according to the oath which we swore. what did you mean by holding my tunic? To hell with you! (May you perish!) EU. EUERGIDES But it makes no difference if his nature is meddling or not. ὁ ϕεύγων = ‘the ﬂeer’. Strymodoros. A good suggestion (you speak well) and we will call him. walking quickly? KOMIAS This happens to be the prosecutor in the trial. 16 οὐκ ἂν σιγῴης καὶ προσέχοις τὸν νοῦν. And Apollodoros. neighbours. who is approaching the rostrum. ὅπως μή + future indicative expresses a caution ‘see that you …’ (GE p. since he is a young man and without experience in judicial matters. as a prosecutor are very clever at speaking. will say the same things. Euergides. And indeed Apollodoros seems to himself and to many others to be beneﬁting the city and making the laws valid by bringing a charge against Neaira for being an alien. Strymodoros! STRYMODOROS Greetings. #245). Sit down. he will say. For we must show common goodwill for the contestants and listen in the same way to the arguments which each of them uses. ‘Won’t you be quiet and concentrate?’ 19 ὅπως σιωπήσεις ὅπως. Translation for 12B Apollodoros the prosecutor comes in. ‘prosecutor’. ὁ διώκων = ‘the pursuer’. EU. Oh what luck! But I did not expect to meet Strymodoros spending his time in the lawcourt. 12B Page 145 5 oὐδεν διαϕέρει ‘it makes no difference’. Komias. What a big crowd! But who is this? It’s not really our neighbour Strymodoros. Oh the size of the crowd! (He is pushed by a juror who is holding his tunic. 20 καὶ προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν See above on line 16. is it? Yes. ‘I did not begin the enmity’. and ‘The defendant did me the greatest STRYMODOROS . Page 146 12 πάνυ δεινὸν λέγειν ‘very clever at speaking’. ἄν + optative expresses a polite request. whose name is Apollodoros.Section 12B EUERGIDES 159 Greetings. But who is that. For such things are always said by the accusers. and he has a meddlesome nature. KOM. Well done. by Zeus. an idiomatic use of δεινός + the inﬁnitive. But I know that you. KOMIAS And [greetings] to you too. 260. it is indeed the man himself. Perhaps Apollodoros is naturally patriotic. ‘the defendant’. Why don’t you call him over here? It will be possible for him to sit with us.
#228). and ‘I want to be revenged on him. pl. 17 ἡδέως ἄν τι μάθοιμι Cf. καθίστημι εἰς + object means ‘I put someone into a state’. Reasonably. if it does not have an object it will mean ‘stand’. Some tenses are transitive and have an object. #234. aorist passive participle of ἀδικέω. which I am now pursuing.160 Section 12C EU. 11–12 τίς γὰρ οὐκ ἂν βούλοιτο … ‘Who would not want?’ Potential expressed by ἄν + optative. gentlemen of Athens. 236–237. m. See GE p. injustice’. If it has an object it will mean ‘place’. For I did not begin the enmity. but my daughters and my wife. as people do who are starting to speak. having been placed in such danger. [although] he had not been wronged in any way yet by us in word or deed. 3 κατέστην From the verb ἵστημι. Euergides.’ But I am not always persuaded by such statements. ‘set up’. and concentrate. 12C Page 146 2 ἠδικήθην 1st s. potential ἄν + optative. But now won’t you be quiet and concentrate? For Apollodoros is already clearing his throat. m. ἀδικηθείς Nom. It is therefore for the sake of revenge that I am engaging in this contest. APOLLODOROS For many reasons. Strymodoros. ‘be set up’. And having been wronged by him. For I was greatly wronged by Stephanos whose wife this Neaira is. KOM. but Stephanos did. line 19). and he is standing up. not only myself. Similarly. s. 2–3 οὗ γυνή ἐστιν … ‘Whose wife is …’ oὗ = ‘whose’. I want to give you a preliminary outline of everything we suffered and [to tell you] how. line 21. But see that you are silent too. aorist passive of ἀδικέω: ‘I was wronged’ (GE pp.’ Translation for 12C Apollodoros speaks. but καθίσταμαι εἰς (without an object) means ‘I get into a state’. ‘set myself up’. 242. . some have not and are intransitive. I wanted to bring this charge against Neaira. we were placed in extreme danger of poverty and loss of citizen rights. and to come before you. genitive of ὅς. 7 ἀδικηθέντες Nom. aorist passive participle of ἀδικέω. I was placed in extreme danger. having been wronged by him. Page 147 14 ὅπως μὴ … πιστεύσεις ‘See that you don’t trust …’ (see note on 12B. ‘I would gladly learn something. I shall be silent.
who was wronged by Stephanos. s. STR. Aorist passive. because I owed money to the state and was unable to pay. For. For he was seeking. The disaster and the disgrace was going to be great for me in regard to my wife and daughters if I had been bankrupted and could not provide a dowry and owed the amount of my ﬁne to the state. having placed me in extreme embarrassment. aorist indicative from αἰτέω. 4 ὃ οὐχ οἷός τ᾽ ἦ ἐκτεῖσαι ‘Which I was not able (οἷός τ᾽ ἦ) to pay’. But this Stephanos indicted my decree as illegal. 12D Page 148 3 ἑλών Nom. but who inﬂicted a lesser penalty on me. I feel goodwill towards him because it was Stephanos who began the enmity. For Apollodoros says that being wronged by Stephanos he was placed in danger of poverty. For Apollodoros is continuing to speak about the beginning of the conﬂict. Translation for 12D When I was acting as a member of the Council I proposed a decree which I brought before the people. And now with all my friends encouraging me . to deprive me of my citizen rights.Section 12D STRYMODOROS 161 Apollodoros. he asked for a large ﬁne which I could not pay. 9 oἳ οὐκ ἐπείσθησαν ‘who were not persuaded’. aorist participle of αἱρέω from εἷλον. Therefore we were all going to be placed in poverty. What did Stephanos do to bring Apollodoros into this danger? EUERGIDES Listen. For when they stand up in court the contestants use every art to win the goodwill of the jurors. Page 149 19–21 ϕάσκω Στέϕανον τοῦτον συνοικεῖν … εἰσαγαγεῖν … ἐγγυᾶν … ἀσεβεῖν ‘I allege that Stephanos does …’ (a series of things in the inﬁnitive). m. I am deeply grateful to the jurors who were not persuaded by Stephanos. For who would not want to take vengeance on an enemy? Everyone wants to do good to their friends and harm to their enemies. is a clever speaker. Strymodoros. though he had never been wronged by me. But I would gladly learn something. KOMIAS Take care that you do not easily trust the contestants. #235–236. and thus began our enmity. ᾔτησε 3rd s. 247–249. 7–9 μοι … καταστάντι … οὐ δυναμένῳ … ὀϕείλοντι Note the agreement of all the participles with μοι. The grammar of this is explained later in GE pp. Stephanos therefore became the cause of such great evils for us all. and having brought false witnesses. as it seems. having secured a conviction against the decree.
becomes transitive and ‘true’ middle. mid. Below is a simpliﬁed version in chart form. Imperf. act. by whom I was so wronged. 238–242. The verb ἵστημι Transitive Pres. and that he is committing sacrilege against the gods. The aorist passive (GE pp. 1. act.162 Section 12D and urging me to take vengeance on Stephanos. 236–237. This is difﬁcult and seems complicated at ﬁrst. Act. and that he gives in marriage the daughters of prostitutes as if they were his own daughters. I bring this case before you. Grammar You should now learn the grammar for 12A–D before you go on. It may be helpful if you look back over the passage you have just read in this section and see how it has been used. aor. mid. act. 2nd. Thus I have come to you and I declare that this Stephanos is living with a foreign woman contrary to the law. insulting to the city and contemptuous of your laws. mid. and that he has introduced alien children into the phratries and to the demesmen. Therefore I bring this Neaira before you and charge her. Fut. Intransitive ἵσταμαι (ἱστάμενος) I am standing up στήσομαι (στησόμενος) I will stand up ἱστάμην I was standing up ἔστην (στάς στᾶσα στάν) I stood up ἐστησάμην (στησάμενος) 2nd. Act. That Neaira is an alien and that she is living with Stephanos against the laws. That I was formerly wronged by Stephanos you know well. this I want to prove to you clearly. Fut. #228–229) indicative and participle. 1st aor. mid. Imperf. Act. This is easy to recognise because of ‘θ’ but make sure you also read the notes! 2. then go on and try the exercises to conﬁrm your understanding. ἵστημι (ἱστάς) I am setting up στήσω (στήσων) I will set up ἵστην I was setting up ἔστησα (στήσας) I set up Pres. . mid. mid. 1st aor. For my friends reproach me and call me the most cowardly of men if I do not exact vengeance on behalf of my daughters and my wife. The verb ἵστημι ‘I set up’. (intrans. #230–233. I set X up for myself so 1st aor. aor. she who is irreverent to the gods. For Stephanos was trying to deprive me of my family against the laws. See GE pp..) has taken place of 1st aor.
8. 10. 4. 9. ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. 2. 2. ἵσταμεν ἵσταναι we are setting up to set up .g.) were made 12A–D: 2 1. ‘I am made’. e. Examples 3 5 8–9 17–18 18–19 12C (pp. e. 2. ‘I become’. 146–147) εἰς κινδύνους τοὺς ἐσχάτους κατέστην. 6. ‘elect’. 5.Exercises for section 12A–D 163 Note on καθίστημι In its transitive forms it means ‘I put someone in a certain position’. τοὺς πολεμίους πεισθέντας τῷ δούλῳ λυθέντι τῶν χρημάτων δοθέντων αἱ γυναῖκες κελευθεῖσαι τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἀδικηθέντος 12A–D: 3 1. 4. In its intransitive forms it means ‘I am put in a certain position’ or ‘I am elected’. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12A–D THE AORIST PASSIVE 12A–D: 1 1. κατέστησα αὐτὸν εἰς πενίαν ‘I reduced him to poverty’ (‘I placed him in poverty’). ἐκωλυθήσαν ἐπέμφθημεν ἐλύθη ἐπείσθητε ἐδόθην ἐφυλάχθη ἐδιώχθης ἐγράφησαν ἐτιμήθη ἐποιήθητε they were prevented we were sent he/she was set free you (pl.g. 3. καταστὰς εἰς τοιοῦτον κίνδυνον … εἰς τοὺς ἐσχάτους κινδύνους κατέστημεν περί τε τῆς πενίας καὶ περὶ ἀτιμίας. κατέστην εἰς πενίαν ‘I was reduced to poverty’ (‘I was placed in poverty’). εἰς κίνδυνον κατέστη περὶ τῆς πενίας. 7.) were chased they were indicted/ written he/she was honoured you (pl. τί ποιῶν ὁ Στέϕανος κατέστησε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον εἰς τοῦτον τὸν κίνδυνον. 3.) were persuaded I was given he was guarded you (s. 5.
pres. we were setting up (if iota is long) stand up! (you pl. I stood up to set up for oneself (1st aor.pl. 7. 8. Therefore the Athenians move the Aeginetans from Aegina. But you. reduced (καταστάς intrans. therefore. For. 5. 2. ἵστασθαι 2. 2. emigrated (ἐξανέστην intrans.) from the city. 3. ἐστάθη 5. are placing my daughters in great despair by condemning (having condemned) me. he/she/it stood up they were setting up for themselves. . κατεστήσατε 1. I remained for two years. imperative).) lying witnesses in the lawcourt. κατέστη b.) in the position of loss of citizen’s rights. where. they were being set up setting up for himself. 2 aor. 5.) we are setting up. ἵσταται 12A–D: 5 to be being set up they were setting themselves up/being set up being set up (n.) he/it was set up he/she/it is being set up 1.s. owing the ﬁne to the city. For my daughter is getting into a state of poverty because of this case. having left (ἀναστάς lit. 4. 9.1st aor.) may he set up 12A–D: 4 1. Then. and being placed (καταστάς intrans.164 Revision exercises for section 12A–D 3. having got up from) my fatherland. part. I. set yourselves up they will set themselves up he set up for himself I set myself up. ἵστης ἱστᾶσα ἱσταίη you (s.) were setting up setting up (n. part. ἵσταντο 3. 4. having set up (ἀναστήσας trans. he convicted me and asked for a large ﬁne. pres.) to a state of poverty. ἱστάμενοι 4. ἀνέστησαν c. a. 10. being set up set up! (2.m.s. 6. pass.f. imperative. gentlemen of the jury. inﬁnitive active) REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12A–D B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX Apollodoros wronged me greatly and placed (κατέστησεν transitive) us all in great despair. I went to Megara.
ἀνέστη κατέστησεν 3. τίμημά τι μέγα ᾐτήθη ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. ἐξαπατηθείσης d. σὺ δὲ ἠδικήθης 5. being persuaded by the opponent. βιασθέντος e. When I was forced to introduce the child to the clan.Revision exercises for section 12A–D 165 d. a. 2. I am well disposed towards the man who was wronged by Stephanos.) were condemned καταδικάζω ἐξηλέγχθης you (s. Since the woman had been deceived by the one who had lost his citizen’s rights. You were greatly wronged by this man. This prosecutor stands up in court and terriﬁes (brings to fear) the defendant. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἔμελλε καταστήσεσθαι εἰς τὴν ἐσχάτην ἀπορίαν. ἀδικηθέντα b. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἠδικήθη μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου καὶ Nεαίρας. and I was condemned. ἐκλήθησαν they were called καλέω ἐλήϕθη he was taken λαμβάνω ἠπορήθην I was at a loss ἀπορέω κατεδικάσθητε you (pl.) were convicted ἐξελέγχω ἐξεδόθημεν we were given in marriage ἐκδίδωμι ὑβρίσθη he was insulted ὑβρίζω διηλλάχθησαν they were reconciled διαλλάττομαι ἐγράϕην I was written γράϕω ὠργίσθητε you (pl. The jurors were not persuaded by the defence. We gave many drachmas to the old men who had been deceived by Kleon. οὗτοι oἱ λόγoι ἐλέχθησαν d.) were made angry ὀργίζομαι ἐλέχθη it was said λέγω ἐβιάσθημεν we were forced βιάζομαι κατηγορήθη he was accused κατηγορέω ἀπελύθης you were acquitted. my daughter became hostile. But indeed it makes no difference to me if you were not acquitted but condemned. . 3.) were deceived ἐξαπατάω ἐπείσθην I was persuaded πείθω 4. a. her husband despised her. We. My friends helped me when I lost my citizen’s rights and was in despair. For this speech was made by the opponent. ἀπελύθητε κατεδικάσθητε c. ὁ μὲν δικαστὴς οὐκ ἐπείσθη … ἡμεῖς δὲ κατεδικάσθημεν b. released ἀπολύω ἀπεπέμϕθησαν they were sent away ἀποπέμπω ἐξηπατήθης you (s. ἀπορηθέντι f. exacted the penalty. πεισθέντες c. ἐξαπατηθεῖσι D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1.
EUERGIDES These things were said by Apollodoros. Komias. myself. Who would not be concerned about this? STR. ἄν + the optative. Page 150 3 ϕησὶ γὰρ ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος Followed by the accusative (τὸν Στέϕανον) and inﬁnitive (ἄρξαι) construction. But I am not persuaded by them. ‘Apollodoros says that Stephanos began the enmity. and that he would not be able to give his daughters in marriage. STRYMODOROS Rightly. indeed. KOMIAS . About poverty I would agree. and then the nominative (αὐτός) and inﬁnitive (ἀγωνίζεσθαι) construction. ‘How could Apollodoros not be ashamed …?’ Translation for 12E Don’t you see? This is just what I was saying. of course. but I think that perhaps Apollodoros is saying something important. The contestants always say such things. No one. 247–249. 5. and that he (Apollodoros) is bringing the case for the sake of revenge …’ 6–7 ἀλλ᾽ ἡγοῦμαι … Introduces more accusative and inﬁnitive: ‘I think that Apollodoros …’ 7–9 πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ ἔϕη Ἀπολλόδωρος … καταστῆναι … οὐ δυνήσεσθαι … This time the construction is nominative and inﬁnitive with the nominative left out: ‘Apollodoros said that he (Apollodoros) had been in danger …’ 11ff. When trustworthy evidence is brought by Apollodoros we shall ﬁnd out in detail. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἐπείσθη τιμωρεῖσθαι τὸν Στέϕανον. For Apollodoros says that Stephanos began the enmity and that he himself is bringing the action for revenge because he has been wronged by him. All this is what you said. ὁ Στέϕανος κατέστησε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον εἰς κίνδυνον μέγαν. But about the laws and the gods I do not know clearly. But perhaps Komias would not agree? KOM. For how could Apollodoros not feel ashamed at having unmarried daughters? And who would marry a woman from such a father who did not have a dowry? EU.166 Section 12E 4. #235–236). Then he said that Stephanos and Neaira were contemptuous of the laws and irreverent to the gods. For ﬁrst of all Apollodoros said that he had been put in danger of poverty and loss of citizen rights. A series of potential optatives (‘could’ or ‘would’). 12E This section introduces the accusative (or nominative) and inﬁnitive construction to express an indirect statement after verbs of saying and thinking (GE pp. by Zeus.
. He said that I had been placed in great danger. ϕασὶ τὸν Στέϕανον εἰσαγαγεῖν εἰς τoὺς ϕράτερας τoὺς ἀλλοτρίους παῖδας. I said I would arrive.Revision exercises for section 12E 167 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12E INDIRECT SPEECH USING THE INFINITIVE 12E: 1 1. The antagonists always say something dreadful/clever. ἡγοῦμαι ἀεὶ λέγειν τι δεινὸν τoὺς ἀντιδίκους. ἔϕην τὸν κατήγορον σπουδαιότατον εἶναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων. The prosecutor is the most eager of men. 3. ἔϕη ἐμὲ εἰς μέγαν κίνδυνον καταστῆναι. 2. ‘That man will arrive. I was placed in great danger. I said that man would arrive. 4. They did not think that Stephanus had deceived the woman. ‘He is wise. I said to be about to arrive. ‘We cannot see. ‘I am wise. I consider that the antagonists always say something clever. 3. He thought he (someone else) was wise. I said that the prosecutor was the most eager of men. ϕησὶν ἐμὲ εἰς μέγαν κίνδυνον καταστῆναι.’ We think not to be able to see. I say that the prosecutor is the most eager of men. 2.’ He thought himself to be wise. ἡγούμην ἀεὶ λέγειν τι δεινὸν τoὺς ἀντιδίκους. He says that I was placed in great danger.’ REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12E B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. I considered that the antagonists always said something clever. Stephanos introduced the alien children to the brotherhood.’ They thought Stephanos not to have deceived the woman. 5. ‘I will arrive.’ He thought him to be wise. He thought he (himself) was wise. We think we cannot see.’ I said that man to be about to arrive. 4. 6. ϕημὶ τὸν κατήγορον σπουδαιότατον εἶναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων. ‘Stephanos did not deceive the woman.
this law which does not allow an alien woman to live with a male citizen nor a female citizen to live with an alien man. We said that we wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. 5. Who does not think that Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws? 6. ϕαμὲν βούλεσθαι τότε τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐχθρούς. She had been brought up by her from the time when she was a small child. Translation for 12F Apollodoros continues.168 Section 12F They say that Stephanos introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. For Neaira was ﬁrst of all a slave of Nikarete in Corinth. you have heard the law. paid many drachmas for her. And this is clear and reliable proof of this. τίς οὐκ ἂν οἴοιτο τὴν Νέαιραν οὐκ αἰσχύνεσθαι καταϕρονοῦσαν τῶν νόμων. We say that we wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. nor to have children. I want to prove to you in detail from the beginning. ὅτι …. They said that Stephanos had introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. We wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. ᾐσχύνετο γὰρ τὴν γυναῖκα ‘He felt ashamed in respect of his wife. ἔϕασαν τὸν Στέϕανον εἰσαγαγεῖν εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας τoὺς ἀλλοτρίους παῖδας. he decided to make her an initiate and to spend a lot of money on the feast and on the ceremonies. Who would not think that Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws? τίς οὐκ οἴεται τὴν Nέαιραν οὐκ αἰσχύνεσθαι καταϕρονοῦσαν τῶν νόμων. Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws. βουλομένῳ Dative in apposition to αὐτῷ in line 9. ‘he decided to’.’ Page 152 9 10 13 16–18 ἔδoξεν αὐτῷ ‘It seemed good to him to’. τούτων ὑμῖν αὐτὸν τὸν Φιλόστρατον μάρτυρα καλῶ ‘that (ὡς) I am speaking the truth [when I say] that (ὅτι) … I call Philostratos himself as witness to you of these things (τούτων)’. Now then.’ ὡς οὖν ἀληθῆ λέγω. judges. And Nikarete was persuaded to go . the sophist Lysias. But since all the money which he had paid for her had been taken by Nikarete. ἔϕαμεν βούλεσθαι τότε τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐχθρούς. That Neaira is not only an alien but also a slave and a prostitute. whose lover. Note that the main clause is delayed to the end of the sentence. 12F Page 151 2–4 ὅτι … τοῦθ’ ‘That Neaira is not only … this is what I want to prove. wanting to spend his money on Metaneira and not on Nikarete. For Nikarete had another slave called Metaneira.
) were giving we placed he/it was given to put.Exercises for section 12F 169 to the mysteries taking Metaneira.) will give δείκνυμι 12F: 2 1.) to place you (pl. Lysias did not take them to his own house (for he felt shame before the wife whom he had and his mother. you (pl. 8. 6. 10. Neaira came with them to Athens. 5.) . to have put he gave having put give! (s. 7. 3.) will place τίθησι(ν) ἐδίδοτε ἔθεμεν ἐδόθη θεῖναι ἔδωκε θέντες δός τιθέναι δώσετε he puts you (pl.) to give (pres. being herself also the slave of Nikarete and already working with her body.pl. who was still a bachelor and was a friend of his.pl.f. I call Philostratos himself as witness.) he placed having given (n. #239. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12F τίθημι 12F: 1 1. 251–253.) δείκνυτε θήσομεν ἔδειξαν ἐτίθη δεικνῦσαι you (pl. 3. 9. Grammar You now need to learn τίθημι (very important). That I am telling the truth and that Neaira was the property of Nikarete and came with her. who was an old woman and lived in the house).pl.m.) put (s. #237–238 and δείκνυμι (less important) GE pp. 5. 4. 254–255. 4. he gives you (pl. 2. Lysias established them in the house of Philostratos. but being somewhat younger.) you (pl. GE pp.) are placing we shall show they placed he was showing placing (n.) are showing we shall put they showed he was placing showing 12F: 3 ἐδείχθημεν ἐτέθησαν ἐδεικνύμεθα δειχθέντες we were shown they were placed we were being shown (could be middle) having been shown (n. 2.) were putting we gave he was placed to give (aor. When they arrived.
καθισταμένης θεῖναι d. the proper negative in a conditional clause. ‘see to it that …’ ‘take care that you don’t …’ Page 154 1 ἀπολοίμην The optative is used to express a wish ‘may ‘I perish’ Cf. ‘If he does not remember the arguments?’ Note that a participle is used instead of an ‘if’ clause: ‘not having remembered’. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος οὐ* ϕήσει ἀδικῆσαι τὸν Στέϕανον. #213). #245: ὅπως. ὅπως μή + future indicative expresses a caution. #240–241) and ἄν + the imperfect indicative (GE pp. πολλοὶ πολλὰ χρήματα ὑπὲρ τῆς Nεαίρας ἔθεσαν. a. #244) by the imperfect indicative. Lysias. *The negative is always attached to φημί (GE p. 257–258. Nikarete did not give her anything. . he said.’ ἔθηκα e. ‘I am damned if I can remember’ (GE p. 5. τιθείς κατέστησε D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1.170 Section 12G REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12F B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. 4. I shall put down this money on behalf of Metaneira herself. Note also μὴ. ἔθηκε b. 8 πῶς γὰρ ἄν δικαίως τιθεῖτό τις ‘For how could anyone justly cast his vote?’ Potential ἄν + optative. 259. but she was reducing the girl to despair. ‘But’. 9 μὴ μνημονεύσας τοὺς λόγους. #224). 2. 247. But then. #243). 258–259. 212. θέντος δίδωσι κατέστησεν c. when the girl had been reduced to despair. establishes Nikarete and Metaneira at Philostratos’ house. 260. Note also GE p. having gone to Athens and paid many drachmas. ‘acting thus. 3. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρός ϕησι τὸν Στέϕανον δούλῃ συνoικεῖν ὡς γυναικί. 259. The sophist pays many drachmas on behalf of Metaneira. 6–7 βουλοίμην μεντἂν μεντἄν = μέντοι ἄν. #244). 12G This section introduces conditional (‘if’) sentences with ἄν + the optative (GE pp. ὁ Στέϕανος ϕήσει τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον ὑπάρξαι τῆς ἔχθρας. Therefore we have the optative + ἄν and therefore the meaning is potential: ‘I would like. the sophist decided to pay many drachmas for the mysteries. εἴθε + optative expresses a wish (GE p. Wishes for the future are expressed by the optative without ἄν and wishes for the past (GE p. Although the sophist was paying money on behalf of Metaneira. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἔϕη βούλεσθαι τιμωρεῖσθαι τὸν Στέϕανον. however …’ 7 εἴθε μνημονεύοιμι ‘Would that I could remember’.
Strymodoros. feeling ashamed in front of Euergides. Komias. and how would I learn?’ 23 εἴθε ταῦτα εἰδείην A wish. ἄν + the indicative expresses an unfulﬁlled condition (GE p. 23–24 εἰ ταῦτα ᾔδη ἐγώ.’ 11–13 εἰ μέντοι σοφιστὴς γένoιo σύ. and I am damned if I can remember. Why did Apollodoros mention Lysias and Metaneira? For I don’t remember. I’m damned (May I perish!) if I can remember – You seem to me to be in some perplexity.Section 12G 171 10 χαλεπὸν δή ἐστι τῷ δικαστῇ διακρίνειν τὴν δίκην.’ 26–27 εἰ δέ τις ἐπιλάθοιτο. 20 εἰ πάντες οἱ σοϕισταί με διδάσκοιεν. καὶ πῶς ἂν ἐμάνθανον ἐγώ. 167.’ A conditional sentence with optative and ἄν. 19 εἴθε μνημονεύσαιμι A wish. 258–259. 21–22 ἀλλ᾿ εἰ Ἱππίας ἡμῖν νῦν συνεγίγνετο. and what would he be saying. εἴθε + optative (no ἄν) expresses a wish. KOM. ‘take care that you …’ 33 ἀπόλοιντο … ‘May they perish!’ Translation for 12G STRYMODOROS KOMIAS STR. See GE pp. If you were a sophist. if he does not remember (lit. Would that I could remember everything he says. 16 εἰ νῦν Ἱππίας ἦσθα. A series of unfulﬁlled conditions in present time. πλουσίος ἂν ἦ τὸ νῦν An unfulﬁlled condition in present time. οὐκ ἂν οἷοί τ᾿ εἶεν ‘If all the sophists taught me. not remembering). RGT 12G p. they would not be able’. 15 εἴθε Ἱππίας γενοίμην ἐγώ cf. you would easily remember . #151. A remote future condition. ‘see that you …’. This is called a remote future condition. 154 line 7. if he cannot remember the arguments? It is difﬁcult for the juror to judge the case if he can’t remember everything which the prosecutor says. I will tell you. #245). And. 260. οἷός τ᾽ ἂν ἦσθα ‘If you were Hippias. you would be able’. ἄν + imperfect indicative. what is perplexing me. how would he teach me. πῶς ἂν δικάσειε What sort of condition? 28–29 οὐ γὰρ ἂν γένοιτο … εἰ μὴ μνημονεύσειε What sort of condition? Page 155 30 ἀλλ᾿ ὅπως προθύμως προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν ὅπως + future indicative (GE p. #242). καὶ τί ἂν ἔλεγεν. πῶς ἂν ἐδίδασκέ με. I would like to remember what the contestant says. by Zeus. μὴ μνημονεύοντι μνημονεύοντι agrees with τῷ δικαστῇ: ‘It is difﬁcult for a juror to judge the trial. ῥᾳδίως ἂν μνημονεύσαις … καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἐπιλάθοιο ‘If you became a sophist you would easily remember … and would not forget. ‘If Hippias were with us now. For how could anyone cast his vote justly. The imperfect indicative is used to express present time and the aorist indicative to express past time. but tell me what is perplexing you. ‘If I knew this. I would be rich now. Don’t cover up your perplexity.
KOM. how could he judge the case and cast his vote? I do not know. having heard them once. Strymodoros! For if I knew that I would be rich now. For Hippias. εἰ γὰρ ἐξεφεύγομεν 2. KOM. 3. and you would not forget the things that have been said. ὤφελε στῆναι 4. Oh dear! For. See to it that you (pl. If all the sophists taught me. εἰ μὴ ἐτρέχομεν. ὤφελε δοῦναι 3. 5. οὐκ ἂν εὕροις. STR. 12G: 2 1. like an old man. as it seems. having heard it once. εἰ μὴ φιλοίης. εἰ μὴ ἀκούοις.172 Exercises for section 12G STR. like a Hippias. εἰ ὑμεῖς ἐκελεύετε. For by doing this the jurors cast their votes easily. If anyone forgets so much.) listen. you would be able to list all the archons from Solon. SΤR. εἴθε ἀπεθνῄσκον ὅπως + FUTURE INDICATIVE 12G: 3 1. and what would he be saying? And how would I learn? I wish I knew this. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12G CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES 12G: 1 1. how would he be teaching me. ὅπως ἀκούσεσθε. For he would never be a good juryman if he could not remember the things said by the prosecutor … But see to it that you concentrate on the arguments and the laws and the evidence. εἴθε ἔδωκε. οὐκ ἂν ἐφεύγομεν. ἐπειθόμην ἂν ἐγώ. I forget everything I hear. See to it that you (s. all the arguments. 2. ὅπως μὴ εἶ. εἰ γὰρ ἔστη. εἰ μὴ ζητήσειας. Strymodoros. εἴθε ἐτίθεσαν 5. used to remember ﬁfty names. STR. Strymodoros. οὐκ ἂν μένοιμι. Like Hippias? Would that I were Hippias! If you were Hippias now. whoever are jurors and forget what the contestants say. KOM. But if Hippias were here. and not a poor man and a juror.) do not go. 2. 4. What skill! Would that I could (if only I could) remember so much! But I am not clever by nature. you would remember everything. But. May they perish. . of the laws and the arguments and the evidence. they would not be able to make me a sophist. φιλοίην ἂν ἐγώ.
I don’t want my family to be rich. ταῦτα μὴ εἰδεῖτε. εἰδείης. See to it that you (s. δίκην λαμβάνοι ὁ ἀντίδικος. ὅπως κολάσεις. ἴοιεν 3. ἴοις 2. j. εἰ τίμημα μέγα τιμῴην. 4.) punish. The jurors are persuaded by the prosecutor / they condemn the defendant.) want to be rich. I do not want to perish. εἰδείη. See to it that you (s. δίκην ἐλάμβανεν ἂν ὁ ἀντίδικος. εἴθε οἱ ἐμοὶ οἰκεῖοι μὴ πλούσιοι εἶεν. I receive a big ﬁne / the opponent exacts the penalty. εἰ ἐτίμων τίμημα μέγα. τοῦ ϕεύγοντος ἂν καταδικάζοιεν. εἴθε δικαστὴς καθισταίμην καὶ τιθείμην τὴν ψῆϕον.) are. h. b. εἰδεῖμεν 4. I don’t want you to know this. You (pl. see to it that you (s. . i.) know/see to it that you (s. τοῦ ϕεύγοντος ἂν κατεδικάζον. εἶμεν. ἴοι 5. 2. 12G: 4 1.Revision exercises for section 12G 173 3. εἰ oἱ δικασταὶ πείθοιντο ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου. εἴθε πλούσιοι εἶτε (εἴητε). ὅπως εἴσῃ (fut.) do not become. I want you to put down money for me. οἶδα ‘know’) or ὅπως ἔσῃ (= fut. εἴην. f. a. I want to be appointed as a juror and to cast my vote. e. He wants to make the boy a sophist. εἴθε μνημονεύσειε τὴν μαρτυρίαν. εἴθε θείης χρήματα εἰς ἐμέ. μὴ ἀπολοίμην. b. g. a. I want him to remember the evidence. εἴθε σοϕιστὴς γένοιο. σοϕιστὴν τὸν παῖδα ποιήσειεν. ἐπιλάθοιντο τούτων τῶν λόγων. εἰδείην REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12G B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. εἶεν. 5. εἰ ἐπείθοντο oἱ δικασταὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου. You want to be a sophist. d. I want them to forget these arguments. εἰμί ‘be’). c. ὅπως μὴ γενήσῃ.
264–265. d. Page 156 1 4 12 14 ᾤχετο Past tense of οἴχομαι. #248). ᾤετο Past tense of οἴμαι. τὰ τεκμήρια ἂν ἦν ϕανερά. εἰ μὴ oἱ πλούσιοι ταῖς ἑταίραις συγγίγνοντο. and the future passive (GE pp. ὅπως προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν καὶ ἀκούσῃ. ὅπως εὖ θήσεις τὸ πρᾶγμα. Don’t ﬂatter the jurors. εἰ ἐποίεις μνείαν τῶν ἀστῶν. ϕανερὰ ἂν εἰή τὰ τεκμήρια. τοὺς πένητας ἠσπάζοντ᾿ ἂν ἐκεῖναι. g. εἰ oἱ ἀστοὶ ἐξ ἑταιρῶν ἐπαιδοποιοῦντο. Arrange the affair well. a. ὅπως μὴ θωπεύσετε τοὺς δικαστάς. The citizens have children from the prostitutes / we know clearly. f. f. σαϕῶς ἂν ᾖσμεν. The rich men do not have dealings with prostitutes / those women welcome the poor men. c. You mention the citizens / the accuser does not forget. the things of herself)’. οὐκ ἂν ἐπιλανθάνοιτο ὁ κατήγορος. τοὺς πένητας ἀσπάζοιντ᾿ ἂν ἐκεῖναι. ᾔδει γὰρ ‘For she knew’: a verb of knowing followed by three participles.174 Section 12H c. b. Don’t despise your friend. #247). Don’t forget the arguments. εἰ παιδοποιοῖντο oἱ ἀστοὶ ἐξ ἑταιρῶν. e. εἰ ὑπάρχοιτε τῆς ἔχθρας. ὅπως κατερεῖς (καταλέξεις) τὸν τοῦ δράματος λόγον. Remember the words. h. Don’t have children from prostitutes. 3. ὅπως μνημονεύσεις τοὺς λόγους. ὅπως μὴ ἐπιλήσῃ τῶν λόγων. Concentrate your mind and listen. σαϕῶς ἂν εἰδεῖμεν. . 265–266. οὐκ ἂν ἐπελανθάνετο ὁ κατήγορος. δοῦσα … πάντα τὰ αὑτῆς ‘Giving all her own things (lit. εἰ μνείαν ποιοίης τῶν ἀστῶν. ὅπως μὴ καταϕρονήσεις τοῦ ἑταίρου. εἰ ὑπήρχετε τῆς ἔχθρας. You begin the enmity / the evidence is clear. e. d. εἰ μὴ oἱ πλούσιοι ταῖς ἑταίραις συγγίγνοιντο. ὅπως μὴ παιδοποιήσεσθε ἐκ τῶν ἑταιρῶν. 12H This section introduces accusative (or nominative) and participle construction after verbs of knowing or perceiving (GE pp. Recite the plot of the play.
and the clothes and the gold jewellery which Phrynion had given her. So this awkward sentence will mean ‘Although Stephanos claimed her as free according to the .e. and since. as she thought. taking her with him. but at ἀδικηθήσεσθαι αὐτήν the subject of the clause is someone else. gave Stephanos all the things she had brought with her when she came from Athens. he treated her disgracefully. then. since she was being treated like dirt in a shameful way by Phrynion. as she was a hetaira. and two slave girls. collected all Phrynion’s belongings from the house. 14–15 ἀϕαιρουμένου δὲ … εἰς ἐλευθερίαν A genitive absolute. she ran away to Megara. went to Athens. 2 ἐκόμπαζε Followed by accusative and inﬁnitive: ‘He boasted that Phrynion would not touch her’. having described the whole affair and the insolence of Phrynion. belonging to the subject of the sentence. she was not loved. and so appears in the accusative. being very eager to live here. She spent two years in Megara but she could not make an adequate income for the management of the household (to meet the household expenses). Phrynion. and that he had a pompous and contemptuous character. But when he arrived in Athens. 12I Page 158 1 τῷ λόγῳ ‘by his word’. and then by nominative (αὐτός) and inﬁnitive (ἕξειν) ‘that he would have her as his wife’. There are several more examples of this usage in this passage. Thratta and Kokkaline. ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι τινα εἰς ἐλευθερίαν has the technical meaning ‘to claim as free’. πυθόμενος … (followed by accusative and participle). For she knew that Phrynion had been wronged by her and was angry with her. 7–8 παρὰ τὸν ψιθυριστήν ‘next door to the Whisperer’. and always went to riotous parties with her. Note that αὑτοῦ = ἑαυτοῦ ‘of himself’ i. Then this Stephanos travelled to Megara and lodged with her. Neaira. ‘in order to take her’). 4 ὡς αὑτοῦ ὄντας ‘as being his own children’. Neaira therefore gave everything she had to Stephanos and made him her protector. followed by inﬁnitive (the nominative is omitted). Taking all these. and he used to go to dinners everywhere. but being afraid of Phrynion. παραλαβὼν … ἦλθεν … ὡς ἄξων αὐτήν (ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose. Neaira.Section 12I 175 Translation for 12H Apollodoros resumes. having paid the money on behalf of Neaira for her freedom. 3–4 ἔϕη δὲ ‘he said that he’. taking her. unless he …’ 12–14 Note the structure of the sentence: ὁ δὲ Φρυνίων. ‘by his promise’. This was the title of a statue of Hermes. 10–11 εὖ γὰρ ᾔδει Στέϕανος … Followed by nominative and participle ‘For Stephanos knew very well that he had no other income.
I know you are not foolish. believing that she was his own (αὑτῷ) slave. b. + fut. after verb of hoping or expecting. He found out the enemy had ﬂed. They heard that we had gone. We learned they were ﬂeeing. inﬁn. having found out that Neaira was living in Athens and with Stephanos. For Stephanos knew very well that he had no other income or livelihood. c. Phrynion compelled her to give securities to the polemarch. . regarding her as his slave since he had put down money on her behalf.176 Exercises for section 12H–I laws. He came with her for two reasons: so that he would have a beautiful hetaira for free and so that she would work and look after his household. + participle construction. bringing her with him and her three children with her. Having said this he arrived here from Megara. And he brought her and the children to a little house which he had in Athens next to the Whisperer Hermes. We say that politicians do not speak the truth. took young men with him and went to the house of Stephanos to take her away. + inﬁnitive construction. 12H–I: 2 1. d. and she would not be harmed by anyone.’ καταθέντι (dative) agrees with αὑτῷ. Phrynion compelled her to give securities before the Polemarch. ὅτι + indicative clause. nom. They hoped to arrive quickly/they hoped they would arrive quickly. 3. For he boasted that Phrynion would never touch her. But Phrynion. I know I am wise. This Stephanos ﬁlled Neaira with great hope in Megara by this promise. 2. He said he would be present. between the house of Dorotheos the Eleusinian and the house of Kleinomachos. and they would become citizens. 4. Proxenos and Ariston and a girl child who is now called Phano. Translation for 12I Apollodoros goes on speaking. since he had paid money for her. and that he himself would take her as his wife. And he said that her children would be introduced into the phratries as if they were his own. Although Stephanos claimed her as free in accordance with the law. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12H–I INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE IN REPORTED SPEECH 12H–I: 1 a. unless he earned something by informing. acc. nom.
+ participle construction THE FUTURE PASSIVE 12H–I: 3 1. Stephanos and Neaira will arrive in Athens from Megara. He thinks that the prostitute’s children will become citizens. οὔ ϕαμεν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ᾿ oὐδενός. He thought that the prostitute’s children would become citizens.Revision exercises for section 12H–I 177 5. I shall be brought into εἰσάγω we shall be convicted ἐξελέγχω you (s. The woman will be wronged by no one. d. 4. He thinks that Stephanos and Neaira will arrive in Athens from Megara. b. ᾤετο τοὺς τῆς ἑταίρας παῖδας πολίτας γενήσεσθαι. We say that the woman will not be wronged by anyone. 5. 2. He thought that Stephanos and Neaira would arrive in Athens from Megara. acc. 2. . 3. ἀκουσθήσομαι δουλωθήσεται δοθήσονται τεθήσεται σταθήσεται I shall be heard he will be enslaved they will be given he/she/it will be placed it will be set up REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12H–I B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. I shall be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion.) will be compelled ἀναγκάζω he will be angry ὀργίζομαι to be going to be ﬁned ζημιόω they will be wronged ἀδικέω a. We said that the woman would not be wronged by anyone. He knew that they (the women) had obeyed. ἡγήσατο τὸν Στέϕανον καὶ τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕίξεσθαι ἐκ τῶν Μεγάρων Ἀθήναζε. ϕησὶν ἐμὲ ἀναγκασθήσεσθαι παρὰ Φρυνίωνος τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι. ἡγεῖται τὸν Στέϕανον καὶ τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕίξεσθαι ἐκ τῶν Μεγάρων Ἀθήναζε. οὐκ ἔϕαμεν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ᾿ oὐδενός. c. He says that I will be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. The prostitute’s children will become citizens. οἴεται τοὺς τῆς ἑταίρας παῖδας πολίτας γενήσεσθαι.
εἶδε τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ ἐλθοῦσαν ὡς Στέϕανον. 3. were despising the laws and were being irreverent to the gods. b. a. γιγνώσκετε ἀδικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν νόμων καταϕρονοῦντες καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες εἰς τοὺς θεούς. You knew that you had wronged the city. e. Phrynion was wronged by me and was angry with me. ᾔδη τὸν Φρυνίωνα ἀδικηθέντα ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ ὀργισθέντα ἐμοί. I know that Phrynion was wronged by me and was angry with me. ᾔδεισθα ἑταίρα οὖσα καὶ παιδοποιουμένη ἐξ ἀστῶν.178 Revision exercises for section 12H–I 3. αἰσθάνονται ἡμᾶς ἀδικηθέντας ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου καὶ καταδικασθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν. You are a prostitute and you are having children by citizens. You knew you were a prostitute and that you were having children by citizens. εἰ δυναίμην μνημονεύειν τὰς μαρτυρίας. οἶδα τὸν Φρυνίωνα ἀδικηθέντα ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ ὀργισθέντα ἐμοί. They perceived that we had been wronged by the prosecutor and had been condemned by the jurors. ὁρᾷ τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ ἐλθοῦσαν ὡς Στέϕανον. I knew that Phrynion had been wronged by me and had been angry with me. ἔγνωτε ἀδικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν νόμων καταϕρονοῦντες καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες εἰς τοὺς θεούς. δικαίως ἂν θείμην τὴν ψῆϕον. ᾔσθοντο ἡμᾶς ἀδικηθέντας ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου καὶ καταδικασθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν. They perceive that we were wronged by the prosecutor and condemned by the jurors. οἶσθα ἑταίρα οὖσα καὶ παιδοποιουμένη ἐξ ἀστῶν. You know that you have wronged the city and are despising the laws and are being irreverent to the gods. You wronged the city and despised the laws and were irreverent to the gods. D – TRANSLATE INTO GREEK 1. He said that I would be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. . 2. You know you are a prostitute and that you are having children by citizens. We were wronged by the prosecutor and condemned by the jurors. d. Sentences 1. He saw that Neaira was resident in the town and had gone to Stephanos. ἐμνημόνευον ἂν τούτους τοὺς λόγους. εἴθε μνημονεύσαιμι τοὺς λόγους τοὺς τοῦ κατηγόρου. He sees that Neaira is resident in the town and has gone to Stephanos. c. Neaira was living in town (imperfect) and went to Stephanos. ἔϕη ἐμὲ ἀναγκασθήσεσθαι παρὰ Φρυνίωνος τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι. εἰ σοϕιστὴς ἦν.
I would not be able to go on living. may I perish most miserably. On the next day. if I mention such things. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν ἐλπίζω ἔγωγε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον νικήσειν τὴν δίκην. and ﬁrst seeing Timarkhos there. 2. He went regularly to visit Pittalakos who was a fellow-gambler. went naked into the market-place and sat on the altar of the mother of the gods. gentlemen of the jury. See that you listen carefully. and they ﬁrst of all smashed up the furniture. wanted to take him to his own home. if only Pittalakos would get up (genitive absolute). realising that he had spent so much money on Timarkhos in vain. By Zeus. 5. Finally they persuade him to get up from the altar. seeing Timarkhos in the gambling-den. χαλεπώτατον ὂν ἂν ἐϕαινετο. ἀγαθὸν ἂν εἴη τῇ πόλει. Pittalakos was angry.Revision exercises for section 12H–I 179 4. to be unjust and disdainful. as for the outrages. καὶ ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος λέγει ὅτι σαϕῶς ἐπιδείξεται τὸν Στέϕανον αὐτὰ ταῦτα ποιεῖν. Hegesandros and Timarkhos hurried to the altar and standing beside it they kept begging Pittalakos to get up. ὁ Φρυνίων ᾔδει τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ τὰ χρήματα ἔχουσαν. This man. ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου καὶ εἰς κίνδυνον καταστάς. by Zeus the Olympian. For. For when this Timarkhos here was released from Antikles. claiming that the whole affair had been a drunken brawl. Prose ὁ δὲ Ἀπολλόδωρος. And. εἰ γὰρ ὁ Στέϕανος ταῦτ’ ἐτύγχανε ποιῶν. Hegesandros. and ﬁnally beat up Pittalakos himself for a long time. whose character you know even better than I do. οὐ γὰρ ἐῶσιν oἱ νόμοι ἑταίρᾳ ὡς γυναικὶ συνοικεῖν ἀστὼν οὐδένα. E – TEST EXERCISE 12 But I shall tell you what came next (the things after this). a slave of the city. For he thought that he was close to his own nature. When Timarkhos had been detached from Pittalakos and taken up by Hegesandros. and he kept visiting the house of Hegesandros. he used to spend his days in the gambling-den. ὁ Στέϕανός οὔ ϕησι τὴν Νέαιραν ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ’ οὐδενός. if I were to speak in your presence of the things that this man did. Meanwhile Hegesandros is sailing here from the Hellespont. Pittalakos. which I know clearly were inﬂicted on Timarkhos by this man. they forced their way during the night into the house where Pittalakos lived. I would not dare to speak of them before you. But when Hegesandros and Timarkhos got angry with him for coming so often. And Timarkhos himself kept declaring that everything would be done by him. εἰ γὰρ καὶ νικῴη οὗτος. being angry about the affair. ἀγωνίζεται ταύτην τὴν δίκην. took him to his home and kept him with him. . When a crowd ran up. One of the gamblers is a certain Pittalakos.
14–16 Note the structure: ‘Phrastor seeing (ὁρῶν) that (acc. 21 ἐκπεσούσης δὲ Φανοῦς ἐκπίπτω is used as the passive of ἐκβάλλω. 272–273. either he would not have divorced her or he would have given back the dowry’. ἢ οὐκ ἂν ἐξέβαλεν αὐτὴν … ἢ ἀπέδωκεν … An unfulﬁlled condition in past time: ἄν + the aorist indicative. You will meet lots of examples of this in 13A and B. 8–9 ὥσπερ αὑτοῦ θυγάτηρ οὖσα ‘as his own daughter’.Section Thirteen: Neaira as married woman This section continues the story of Neaira. Note that this is a genitive absolute construction. #252: ‘Before she came to Athens’. and 180 . realising that he would be convicted. Note the breathing: αὐτοῦ could have meant someone else’s daughter αὑτοῦ or ἑαυτοῦ ‘his own’ belongs to the subject of the main verb. or to continue reading to the end of Section 13 and then go back to revise the grammar and do the relevant exercises. 8 πρὶν Ἀθήναζε ἐλθεῖν πρίν + inﬁnitive. 25–26 γνοὺς δὲ Στέϕανος ὅτι ἐξελεγχθήσεται … καὶ ὅτι ἐξελεγχθεὶς κινδυνεύσει … διαλλάττεται … ‘Stephanos.’ 17 πρὶν εἰδέναι ‘Before he knew that …’ Followed by accusative and participle construction. 18–20 εἰ … μὴ ἐξηπατήθη ὁ Φράστωρ καὶ Φανὼ γνησία ἦν. GE pp. + participle) … was very angry (ὠργίσθη μάλιστα) … considering (ἡγούμενος) that he … (nominative + inﬁnitives). + participle twice) …. The subordinate clauses (ὅτι μὲν … δούλη ἦν Nέαιρα … καὶ ἀπέδρα … καὶ ὁ Φρυνίων … κατηγγύησε …) come ﬁrst. As in Section 12 there are long exercises which practise the grammar which has been introduced. 10–11 καὶ δὴ ἴστε τὴν Φανώ … μαθοῦσαν Accusative and participle: ‘You know that Phano had learned’. These clauses are all subordinate to the main clause. Once again you may decide to do the exercises when they occur. 13A Page 162 1–4 The main clause (δῆλά ἐστι τὰ τεκμήρια ‘There are clear proofs that …’) is delayed until the end of the sentence. and having found out (ἅμα δὲ πυθόμενος) that (acc. Note the negative in the ‘if’ clause is μή and in the main clause οὐ: ‘if Phrastor had not been deceived and if Phano had been legitimate.
either Phrastor would not have divorced her or he would have given back the dowry. before she lived with Phrastor. realising that he would be convicted of doing wrong and that having been convicted he would risk meeting with the most severe penalties (for Phano was the daughter of an alien woman). who was a working man and reckoned his income with precision. Translation for 13A That Neaira was from the beginning a slave and a hetaira. he would be in danger of … was reconciled with …’ Page 163 28–29 ἀλλ’ εἰ ἀστῆς θυγάτηρ ἦν Φανώ. When Phano had been divorced. This girl was given in marriage by Stephanos here. οὐκ ἂν διηλλάχθη Στέϕανος What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? ‘If Phano had been the daughter of a citizen. was very angry. before the case came to court. Phrastor also . and at the same time having found out clearly that Phano was not the daughter of Stephanos but of Neaira. And Stephanos gave her a dowry of thirty minas. having been convicted. Stephanos would not have been reconciled. whom she brought with her to the house of Stephanos. Formerly she had been called Strybele. Now I want to demonstrate to you that Stephanos himself provides evidence against Neaira that she is living with him as his wife although she is a foreigner. For Neaira had a daughter. Phrastor. as if she had been his own daughter from a citizen wife. For he had married Phano before he knew that she was the daughter of Neaira. [of all this] there is clear evidence. in accordance with the law which requires a man who divorces his wife to give back the dowry. having lived with her for a year. Therefore he divorced Phano. was reconciled with Phrastor and gave up his claim to the dowry and withdrew the charge. But when Stephanos had brought this suit. Phrastor of the deme of Aigileia. had learned her mother’s character and extravagance. thinking that he had been insulted and tricked by Stephanos.Section 13A 181 that. before she came to Athens. seeing that she was neither well behaved nor willing to obey him. And when they came to Athens they called the girl Phano. to an Athenian man. she did not know how to make herself pleasing to Phrastor’s ways. Stephanos. Stephanos brought a suit against Phrastor. and he did not give back the dowry. Phrastor brought a charge against Stephanos here in accordance with the law which does not allow anyone to betroth the daughter of an alien to an Athenian man. 276. and that she ran away from Phrynion to Megara and that when she returned to Athens Phrynion demanded securities from her before the polemarch on the grounds that she was an alien.’ See GE p. If Stephanos had not deceived Phrastor and if Phano had been legitimate. And. Therefore when she went to Phrastor. And furthermore you know that Phano. #254. she was pregnant.
. 271. #250) and that you can recognise ὡς + the future participle used to express purpose (GE p. jurors. 276. For they went to him.’ See GE p. 271–272. But if Phano had been the daughter of a citizen woman. οἱ οἰκεῖοι ἔλαβον ἂν τὰ αὐτοῦ What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? ‘For if Phrastor had died childless. Translation for 13B I want to provide you with another piece of evidence from Phrastor and the members of his phratry and of his clan that this Neaira is an alien. before he got better. I am sure you know yourselves. But in his state of need he was courted by Neaira and Phano. Grammar Now make sure that you know the aorist inﬁnitive passive (GE p. Before he got better. Phrastor was persuaded. 17–18 εἰ γὰρ ἄπαις ἀπέθανε Φράστωρ. #249) and the future participle passive (GE pp. nor did he want to die without a child. Phrastor fell ill and was in a very bad way and was in total need. This was the child which Phano had borne when she had been sent away in a pregnant state by Phrastor. Before he was ill there had been a long-standing difference with his relations.’ Note the future inﬁnitive. Stephanos would not have been reconciled. 272–273. Phrastor promised that he would do this. And Phrastor was childless. Since they were doing this.182 Section 13B withdrew his charge. 4 διετέθη What tense? It comes from διατίθημι. how valuable is a woman in time of sickness when she is at the side of a man who is suffering. to take back Phano’s child and to make him his son. #251) and πρίν + the inﬁnitive = ‘before’ (GE pp. #251): ‘They went to him to look after him and …’ 13–14 καὶ πρὶν ὑγιαίνειν ὑπέσχετο δὴ τοῦτο ποιήσειν ὁ Φράστωρ ‘And before he got better. since he did not want his relations to inherit his property. 13B Page 164 3 ἐξεπέμϕθη What tense? It comes from ἐκπέμπω. For not long after Neaira’s daughter was divorced. #252). Phrastor promised that he would do this. making the natural and reasonable calculation that he was in a poor condition and did not expect to survive. 271. and they brought remedies (things useful) for the illness and visited him. but he wanted to take back Phano’s child before he died (although he knew that he was not legitimate). #254. his relatives would have taken his property. and anger and hatred. to look after him and to care for him enthusiastically (for Phrastor had no one who would look after him). his relations would have got his property. For if Phrastor had died without a child. 270. 7 ὡς θεραπεύσουσαι καὶ … ἐπιμελήσομεναι ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose (GE p.
ransomed about to persuade about to obey about to be persuaded οἶσων -ουσα -ον about to carry οἰσόμενος -η -ον about to carry off for oneself. MIDDLE. ἐνεχθῆναι. λυθῆναι. ἀπελθεῖν 3. πρὶν ἐσθίειν. PASSIVE 13A–B: 2 λύσων -ουσα -ον λυσόμενος -η -ον λυθήσομενος -η -ον πείσων -ουσα -ον πεισόμενος -η -ον πεισθησόμενος -η -ον about to loose about to ransome about to be loosed. ὡς ληψομένη αὐτήν 2. φαγεῖν 4. πρὶν ἐκβάλλειν. πρὶν π(ε)ίθεσθαι.Exercises for section 13A–B 183 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13A–B THE AORIST INFINITIVE PASSIVE 13A–B: 1 δοθῆναι. τεθῆναι FUTURE PARTICIPLES ACTIVE. πεισθῆναι. πεισθῆναι 2. ὡς πείσων αὐτήν 4. πρὶν τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπιέναι. ὡς σώσοντας ἑαυτούς 3. set up for oneself about to be set up about to take about to take for oneself. ὡς δώσοντες πρίν + INFINITIVE 13A–B: 4 1. win οἰσθησόμενος/ἐνεχθησόμενος -η -ον about to be carried στήσων -ουσα -ον στησόμενος -η -ον σταθησόμενος -η -ον ληψόμενος -η -ον ληψόμενος -η -ον ληφθησόμενος -η -ον ὡς + FUTURE PARTICIPLE 13A–B: 3 about to set up about to stand. ἐκβαλεῖν . take hold of about to be taken 1.
prove I ﬁnd out I die I receive from I fall out. divorce I meet I introduce. lead in I establish. . πείθω ἐκπέμπω ἐξαπατάω ἐξελέγχω ὑβρίζω ἐκβάλλω διατίθημι εἰμί οἶδα ἀποδίδωμι τίθημι δείκνυμι ἀπόλλυμι ἀποδίδωμι ἀϕίστημι τίθημι Exercise 3 is on the use of ὡς + future participle to express purpose.184 Revision exercises for section 13A–B REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13A–B B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. ἐκβαλοῦντι ἐντευξομένῃ εἰσαχθησόμενος καταστήσοντι παρέξοντες ἐκδώσοντα ἐρῶν θησόντων ἀϕαιρησόμενος γνωσομένην λήσουσαν ἐσόμενον ἀναγκασθησομένῳ ἐπιδειξουσῶν πευσομένων ἀποθανουμένῃ παραληψομένῃ ἐκπεσούμενοι Aorist passive inﬁnitives πεισθῆναι ἐκπεμϕθῆναι ἐξαπατηθῆναι ἐξελεγχθῆναι ὑβρισθῆναι ἐκβληθῆναι διατεθῆναι Other inﬁnitives εἶναι εἰδέναι ἀποδιδόναι θεῖναι δεικνύναι ἀπολλύναι ἀποδοῦναι ἀϕιστάναι τιθέναι ἐκβάλλω ἐντυγχάνω εἰσάγω καθίστημι παρέχω ἐκδίδωμι λέγω τίθημι ἀϕαιρέω γιγνώσκω λανθάνω εἰμί ἀναγκάζω ἐπιδείκνυμι πυνθάνομαι ἀποθνῄσκω παραλαμβάνω ἐκπίπτω I throw out. get divorced 2. I am thrown out. set up I provide I give in marriage I speak. tell I place I take away I know I escape notice I am I compel I show. while Exercise 4 gives you practice in πρίν + inﬁnitive = ‘before’.
This example is followed by three more: διὰ τὸ ἄπαις εἶναι καὶ τὸ θεραπεύειν αὐτὰς αὑτὸν καὶ τὸ τοὺς οἰκείους μισεῖν. b. #254): ‘Phrastor would not have done that if he had not been ill.’ 2 ὡς … τάχιστα ‘as soon as …’ 4–5 ὅτι οὐχ ἑκὼν ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον οὐχ ἑκών ‘not willingly’: ‘that he did not willingly take back the child’. ὡς ἄξοντες b. 5 ἀλλὰ βιασθεὶς διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν ‘but forced by his illness’. 279. The man went into the lawcourt to defend himself and to be acquitted. ὡς ἐρῶν… καὶ ἀκουσόμενος d. 4. Here the inﬁnitive is used as a noun with the article. 13C Page 165 1–2 ὅτι οὐκ ἂν ἔπραξε τοῦτο ὁ Φράστωρ. 6–7 εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε … οὐκ ἂν ἀνέλαβε … What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? Page 166 10 εἰδότες Can you recognise this participle? It comes from οἶδα. ὡς διατρίψουσαι καὶ ἐργασόμεναι c. Phrastor withdrew the charge ii(i) πρὶν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον before he came to court i(ii) πρὶν ἐκπέμψαι τὴν Φανώ before he divorced Phano (iii) πρὶν ὑπισχνεῖσθαι ἀναλήψεσθαι τὸ παιδίον before he promised that he would take back the child (iv) πρὶν λεχθῆναι τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας before these words were spoken by Neaira. a. The women went off to Athens to live (spend time) in Stephanos’ house and to work. ὡς ἀπολογησόμενος καὶ ἀπολυθησόμενος 4. εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε ἄν + the aorist indicative expresses an unfulﬁlled condition in past time (GE p. a. 276.Section 13C 185 3. Note that a whole accusative and inﬁnitive phrase can be used in this way (GE p. Stephanos brought Phrastor to the lawcourt ii(i) πρὶν τὸν Φράστορα γράψασθαι γραϕήν before Phrastor indicted him i(ii) πρὶν τὸ τῆς Φανοῦς παιδίον γενέσθαι before Phano’s child was born (iii) πρὶν τὸ παιδίον ἀναληϕθῆναι ὑπὸ Φράστορος before the child was taken back by Phrastor (iv) πρὶν γνῶναι ὅτι ἐξελεγχθήσεται ἀδικῶν before he knew that he would be convicted of wrong-doing. 10–13 The structure of the sentence is as follows: ἀλλὰ οἱ γεννῆται. #257. #258). εἰδότες … καὶ ἀκούσαντες … ἀποψηϕίζονται τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ οὐκ ἐνέγραφον … There is an . See GE p. Therefore I am going to him to speak the truth and listen to lies. 280. Those men came to the house of Stephanos to take away Neaira.
the legitimate daughter of Satyros of the deme of Melite. προκαλουμένων δ’ αὐτὸν τῶν γεννητῶν Another genitive absolute. having divorced her. voted against the boy and …’ Note that this is another unfulﬁlled condition. οἱ οἰκεῖοι ἂν ἔλαβον τὰ αὐτοῦ. he would have sworn. But if Phano had been the daughter of a citizen. λαχόντος οὖν τοῦ Φράστορος Genitive absolute. I want to show you another proof that this Neaira is an alien. εἰ ἀστῆς θυγάτηρ ἦν Φανώ. Stephanos would not have been angry. the members of the clan challenged him to swear by the sacred mysteries that he truly believed the child to be his own son from a citizen wife legally married in accordance with the law.186 Revision exercises for section 13C 13–14 14 16–17 18 accusative + participle clause depending on εἰδότες and an accusative + participle + inﬁnitive clause depending on ἀκούσαντες. b. . Therefore when Phrastor brought a suit against them. the members of the clan would not have voted against the child. had then taken back the child. but would have registered him in the clan. For as soon as Phrastor recovered from that illness. because of his illness. οὐκ ἂν ὠργίσθη Στέϕανος. If Phrastor had died childless. Phrastor abandoned the oath and went away before he could swear that his son was legitimate. he took a citizen wife according to the laws. a. But if his son had been legitimate and born from a citizen wife. and having heard that Phrastor. the sister of Diphilos. knowing that his wife was the daughter of Neaira. when he was ill. If Phano had been the daughter of a female citizen. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13C 1. his relatives would have taken his possessions. of whom Phrastor is a member. When the members of the clan challenged him. For if Phrastor had not been ill. but was forced to do it because of his sickness and the fact that he was childless and because the women were looking after him and because he hated his relations. introduced Phano’s son into the phratries and into the Brytidae. knowing that the woman was the daughter of Neaira. voted against the child and did not register him in the clan. For Phrastor. ἀλλ’ εἰ ὁ παῖς … What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? What mood and tense are the verbs? Translation for 13C Now I shall prove to you by a great and clear piece of evidence that Phrastor would not have done this if he had not been ill. he would not have taken back the child. This is proof for you that he did not willingly take back the child. And furthermore. But the members of the clan. and having heard that Phrastor had divorced her and had then because of his illness taken back the child. εἰ ἄπαις ἀπέθανε Φράστωρ. ‘But the clansmen.
Section 13D 187 c. Φράστωρ οὐκ ἂν ἐξηπατήθη.’ 5–9 Φράστωρ δὲ μαρτυρεῖ ἐκβαλεῖν … καὶ οὐκ ἀποδοῦναι … ἔπειτα δὲ αὐτὸς … πεισθῆναι διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν καὶ τὸ … οἰκείους ἀναλαβεῖν τὸ παιδίον καὶ … ποιήσασθαι. Neither εἰμί nor οἶδα have an aorist.… and that he himself introduced him to the clan. If Stephanos had not brought this suit against him. If Phano had been called the daughter of a foreigner.B. was persuaded by … on account of his illness and because he was childless and because of his hostility to his relations. Phano would not have been sent away. These actions are perfectly clear and form great proofs that they knew that this Neaira was an alien. N. αὐτὸς δὲ εἰσαγαγεῖν … ἀλλ’ οὐκ ὀμόσαι … ὕστερον δὲ γῆμαι … A string of inﬁnitives depends on μαρτυρεῖ: ‘Phrastor bears witness that he divorced … and did not give back the dowry. οὐκ ἂν ἐγράψατο Φράστωρ αὐτὸν γραϕήν. and Phrastor bears witness that he divorced the daughter of this Neaira and did not give back the dowry. 13D Page 167 3–4 ὁ μὲν γὰρ Στέφανος … ‘For Stephanos bears witness against Neaira through his unwillingness (διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι) to engage in litigation on behalf of her daughter about the dowry. For Phano would have been a citizen. and he himself introduced the boy to the members of the clan. and that he later married a citizen wife according to the law. For Stephanos bears witness against Neaira because he was not willing to go to court on behalf of her daughter about her dowry. εἰ ᾔδει Φανὼ Nεαίρας οὖσαν θυγατέρα ὁ Φράστωρ. ἐξέβαλεν ἂν ὡς τάχιστα. If Phrastor had known that Phano was the daughter of Neaira. on account of his sickness and childlessness and his hatred of his relations. εἰ μὴ ἔλαχε Στέϕανος τὴν δίκην ταύτην. if . but then. e. to take back the child and make him his son. Phrastor would not have been deceived. d. but did not swear that he was the son of a citizen woman. Translation for 13D Therefore I clearly demonstrate to you that the very members of Neaira’s own family have furnished proof that she is an alien. he would have thrown her out (divorced her) as quickly as possible. both Stephanos here who has her now and is living with her and Phrastor who married her daughter. and then was himself persuaded by Neaira and Phano. For if Neaira had been a citizen. Phrastor would not have brought this accusation against him. to take back the child and to make him his son. but he did not swear that … and that later he married a citizen woman …’ 11–13 Look to see if there is an ἄν and note the mood and tense of the verbs. εἰ Φανὼ ξένης θυγάτηρ ἐκλήθη. so the context will determine the translation. And furthermore.
ἄνευ τοῦ μισεῖν διὰ τὸ διανοεῖσθαι τοῦ θορυβῆσαι ἕνεκα. . that he was weak and that he was depressed and that he was being looked after by Neaira. τοῦ ἀσθενεῖν τε ἕνεκα καὶ εἰς ἀπορίαν καταστῆναι καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας θεραπεύεσθαι h. ὁ Στέϕανος ἦλθε πρὸς τὸν Φράστορα ὡς ἐγγυήσων αὐτῷ τὴν Φανώ. Stephanos is clearly committing an injustice towards the city and irreverence towards the gods. because they knew that he was not legitimate. The clansmen were forced to vote against the child. and because the members of the clan voted against the boy. the clan members would not have voted against her son. Stephanos was clearly doing wrong because he did not swear. διὰ τὸ εἰδέναι f. 5. Impiety is a great evil. 3. ὁ Φράστωρ ἔγημε τὴν Φανὼ πρὶν εἰδέναι αὐτὴν Νεαίρας θυγατέρα οὖσαν. τὸ ἀσθενεῖν b. 2. τῷ ἀπορεῖν διὰ τὸ βοᾶν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13D B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. 8. I was compelled to go in by force (being forced).188 Revision exercises for section 13D Phano had been a citizen. The child clearly belongs to an alien woman. 4. τῷ βιάζεσθαι D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. 3. Care is a good thing. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13D VERBS IN THE INFINITIVE USED AS NOUNS 13D: 1 1. 9. 2. οὐκ ἂν ἀνέλαβεν ἐκεῖνος τὸ παιδίον. a. And he made mention of these facts. διὰ τὸ φυγεῖν μετὰ τὸ μέλλειν ἀντὶ τοῦ παύσασθαι τῷ μάχεσθαι τοῦ φυλάξαι ἕνεκα 6. τὸ θεραπεύειν g. τὸ ἀσεβεῖν i. 10. 7. Illness is an evil. εἰ μὴ ἐθεράπευσε τὸν Φράστορα ἡ Φανώ. Phrastor took back the child on account of his illness and his hatred of his relations and his childlessness. διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν καὶ τὸ μισεῖν τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ τὸ ἄπαις εἶναι c. Because of the fact that Phrastor was not willing to swear an oath. because the clansmen voted against him and did not register him in the clan. διὰ τὸ τοὺς γεννήτας ἀποψηϕίσασθαι αὐτοῦ καὶ μὴ ἐγγράψαι εἰς τὸ γένος e. διὰ τὸ μὴ ὀμόσαι d.
being an alien’. ὁποία … Nεαίρας and ὅπως … ἠδίκησαν: ‘what sort of shamelessness …’ and ‘how they wronged the state’. When Theogenes took up ofﬁce. 11 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν οἷ ‘and that she went in to where’. And she went into the place where no other Athenian goes except the . becoming his assistant by giving him money. αὗται αἱ πράξεις δηλώσουσιν Note the rhetorical inversion of the clauses again: ‘That I am speaking the truth.Section 13E 189 4. everyone knew that Phano was clearly an alien and not a citizen. see GE pp. Φράστωρ ἂν ὤμοσεν. 4 ἦν γάρ ποτε Θεογένης τις … ‘There was a man called Theogenes. ξένῃ οὔσῃ ‘and she saw what it was not ﬁtting for her to see. 5. If you want to ﬁnd out about it before you meet it in reading. 20 ὅτι δ’ ἀληθῆ λέγω. 9–10 οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει ὁ Θεογένης ὅτου θυγάτηρ ἐστὶ οὐδὲ ὁποῖά ἐστιν αὐτῆς τὰ ἔθη ‘for Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor what sort of character she had’ (‘what sort were the characteristics of her’). and saw what it was not ﬁtting for her to see. Φράστωρ ἀνέλαβε τὸ τῆς Φανοῦς παιδίον διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν καὶ τὸ τὴν Φανὼ θεραπεύειν αὐτόν. Page 168 2 σκοπεῖτε τοίνυν ‘Consider then’. Before Theogenes entered on his ofﬁce. There was once a certain Theogenes who was elected as basileus (King Archon). It is very easy to recognise. εἰ γνήσιος ἦν ὁ παῖς. gave the daughter of Neaira to Theogenes as a wife and betrothed her as being his own daughter. For Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor what sort of habits she had. this Stephanos. ποῖ ‘where to?’ 15–16 οὐ μόνον … ἀλλὰ καί … ‘not only … but also …’ 15–20 A series of examples of the perfect tense! 18 ἐκδούς Can you recognise this? It comes from ἐκδίδωμι and agrees with the subject. the perfect active (I have -ed). these actions will prove. 282–283. being a foreigner. And this woman made the secret sacriﬁces for you on behalf of the city. Stephanos. 11–12 καὶ εἶδεν ἃ οὐ προσῆκεν αὐτῇ ὁρᾶν. being well born but poor and inexperienced in affairs.’ Translation for 13E Because of this. For they openly dared to allege that the daughter of Neaira was a citizen.’ 6 ὡς πάρεδρος γενησόμενος ὡς + future participle expresses purpose. 13E In this section you will meet a new tense. Notice that ξένῃ οὔσῃ is dative agreeing with αὐτῇ. So greatly did this man despise you and the laws. Cf. #260–262. Consider then what shamelessness Stephanos and Neaira showed and how they wronged the city. followed by two clauses. Stephanos gave him money so that he would become his assistant and share in his position.
) have shouted βοάω βεβόηκας he has ordered κελεύω κεκελεύκασι(ν) we have done πράττω πέπραχα I have loved ϕιλέω πεϕιλήκαμεν you (s.) have gone χωρέω κεχωρήκατε they have worried ϕροντίζω πεϕρόντικεν 13F Here you will meet: 1.λελ. 2. #263). The aorist optative passive.βεβ. These are formed just as you would expect by adding the optative endings to the future indicative stems.ἐπιδεδ.τεθ.κεχ. The future optatives (GE p.ἐκπεπ.μεμ.πεπ. 285–286. I want to tell you in greater detail about these things. τετ.λελνεν. sacred and secret. I have shown you then that Stephanos has acted most irreverently.γεγ2. #266). And then this woman has performed the rites and sacriﬁces on behalf of the city. and she was presented to Dionysos as his bride. but for respect towards the gods.πεϕ. . by giving the daughter of Neaira as a wife to Theogenes when he was holding the ofﬁce of basileus. #264 (this is worth studying before you go on reading). ἀναβάντων … ἀρχόντων Two genitive absolutes. they have set free λύω λέλυκεν you have borne witness μαρτυρέω μεμαρτύρηκας he has conquered νικάω νενικήκασι(ν) we have honoured τιμάω τετίμηκα you (s.and -είην (GE p.γεγ. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13E B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. Followed by two indirect questions: τίς αὐτὰ ποιήσειε and πῶς πράξειαν οἱ ἄρχοντες.190 Section 13F wife of the basileus. 3–4 ἤρετο ἡ βουλή ‘the council asked’.πεπ. For he has made the laws invalid and has shown contempt for the gods.ἐκβεβ.πεπ.πεϕ. 285.ἐπιδεδ. these events will prove.) have lived in ἐπιδημέω ἐπιδεδημήκατε I have written γράϕω γεγράϕαμεν you (pl. For you will be casting your vote not only on your own behalf and on behalf of the laws.κεκτεθ. Page 170 2–3 γενομένων … ἱερῶν. 287. which is easily recognised by -θ. The use of the optative in indirect speech (GE pp. That I am speaking the truth. 3.γεγ. and she performed on behalf of the city the ancestral rites to the gods which are numerous.
the Council on the Areopagos inquired about the sacred rites. Greek does not repeat ‘he said’. main verb (ἐδεῖτο) subject + participle + participle. and what sort of things she had done. ἐπέσχεν (main verb). 7 ἐζημίου This is a special use of the imperfect tense. And when it found out whose daughter Theogenes had as a wife. ‘on the grounds that he had been deceived’. + inﬁnitives that this is indirect speech. I shall send the woman away from my house. at once pitying him for his innocence and at the same time thinking that he had truly been deceived by Stephanos. it showed concern about the rites and proposed to punish Theogenes. ‘was inclined to punish’. who had performed them and how the archons had acted. ‘proposed to punish’. imploring and entreating. because of this he had allied himself to him by marriage before he found out clearly what sort of person he was. and had himself accepted Phano as being his (Stephanos’) legitimate daughter in accordance with the law. Translation for 13F Stephanos. But the sentence starts with an inﬁnitive which follows διὰ … τὸ: ‘because of his inexperience in affairs and his innocence he had made Stephanos …’ 17–19 The structure is: genitive absolute. ‘That I am not lying’ he said ‘I shall demonstrate to you by a great proof. held back. and the nine archons had gone up onto the Hill of Ares (Areopagos). But on account of his inexperience in affairs and his naivety he had made Stephanos his assistant so that he could administer the ofﬁce. ἡ βουλή (subject) ἅμα μὲν ἐλεήσασα … ἅμα δὲ ἡγουμένη + inﬁnitive. Note that the verbs in the ὅτι clause are all in the optative. And immediately the Council started to ask who was this wife of Theogenes. This shows that they are part of what he said. Theogenes began to beg them. When these sacred rites had taken place. When arguments had taken place and the Council of the Areopagos was angry and punishing Theogenes on the grounds that he had taken such a wife and allowed her to perform the secret rites on behalf of the city. + inﬁnitive. 10 ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὅτι ‘for he said that’. He said that Stephanos appeared to be well disposed towards him. but shows by the use of nom. the . and this woman performed these holy rites. then. When Theogenes came down from the Areopagos. For he said that he did not know she was the daughter of Neaira. 13–14 Here the construction changes to nom./acc. genitive absolute + ὅτι clause with two verbs in the optative (λάβοι. since she is not the daughter of Stephanos but of Neaira. married his daughter to Theogenes while he was holding the ofﬁce of basileus. ἐάσειε) + inﬁnitive.’ Since Theogenes promised that he would do this and was entreating. the Council of the Areopagos. 23 ἐξαπατηθέντι ‘granted a pardon to him having been deceived’.Section 13F 191 5–7 The pattern continues. 7–10 The structure of this sentence is: genitive absolute./acc. he immediately banished the woman. but he had been deceived by Stephanos. genitive absolute.
εὑρεθείην. 5. ὅτι πεισθείη d. and what was the impiety of Neaira and how she had wronged the city. διαφθαρείην.) will see why they are angry. from the council board. πεισθείην. κελευθείην. He answered that the king had died.) knew where the enemy were assembling. When Phano had been sent away. from his house. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13F THE AORIST OPTATIVE PASSIVE 13F: 1 βληθείην. For Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor that she had worked with her body. ληφθείην.192 Revision exercises for section 13F daughter of Neaira. a. τιμηθείην. THE FUTURE OPTATIVE 13F: 2 I shall vote ψηφισοίμην you (pl. The council was annoyed at the affair. τεθείην. The jurors asked what Stephanos had done. You (pl. 3.) will blame μέμψοισθε Ι shall run δραμοίμην 13F: 3 he will be guarded φυλαχθήσοιτο they will be given δοθήσοιντο we shall invite προσκαλοῖμεν we shall carry οἰσοίμεθα 1. ποιηθείην. ὡς τὰ ἱερὰ πραχθείη . δουλωθείην. that Phano had been given in marriage to Phrastor and that the sacred rites on behalf of the city had been performed by a foreigner. and pardoned him because he had been deceived. I know why he does not obey/ is not persuaded. δοθείην. 2. ἀποθάνοι παρέσοιντο συνίοιεν κολάσοι REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13F B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. who had deceived him. 4. ὅτι ἐργάζοιτο c. ὅτι οὐκ εἰδείη ὁποῖοι εἶεν. You (pl. Theogenes said that he did not know what were Phano’s habits and that he had been persuaded by Stephanos to do this. the Areopagites ceased judging Theogenes and being angry with him.) will be saved σωθήσοισθε you (pl. and removed Stephanos. ὅτι Φανὼ ἐκδοθείη. I knew why he would punish the slave. πεμφθείην. He said that the citizens would not be present. ὅτου θυγάτηρ εἴη. 6. ὅ τι πράξειεν ὁποία εἴη ὅπως ἀδικήσειεν b.
The rest of this section is full of various forms of the perfect active and middle. STRYMODOROS . b. Didn’t you hear that we went into the lawcourt and that those men were condemned and didn’t you hear what was said in the prosecution? ὡς εἰσέλθοιμεν. Page 171 2 πεποιήκασι What tense? Page 172 4 καταπεϕρονήκασιν What tense? 5 μεμαρτυρήκασιν What tense? καταπεϕρονηκέναι What is it? Perfect inﬁnitive active. What sort of woman was Phano? ἠρόμην ὁποία γυνὴ εἴη ἡ Φανώ. EUERGIDES If indeed Apollodoros is speaking the truth. Translation for 13G Oh what lawlessness! For Stephanos committed many disgraceful acts. 291–295. Who did this? ἠρόμην ὅστις ταῦτα ποιήσειεν. 292–293. #267–273).Section 13G 193 e. ἅττα λεχθείη 2. τὸν Στέϕανον is the subject of all the participles. e. See GE pp. 291–292. For they have shown contempt for the laws of the state (lit. #282. From where (for what cause) did Theogenes divorce his wife? ἠρόμην ὁπόθεν ἐκβάλοι τὴν γυναῖκα ὁ Θεογένης. Stephanos and Neaira have done the most sacrilegious things. #267–268). 12–13 οἳ ἂν ἀποϕαίνωσι ‘whoever show’: ἄν + subjunctive makes the relative clause ‘indeﬁnite’. ‘For many people have borne witness that they have shown contempt for the city and for the gods. 14 ἀλλ’ εὖ ἴσμεν ‘But we know very well that’ is followed by a series of accusative + participle phrases. Who was Theogenes’ wife? ἠρόμην ἥτις εἴη ἡ γυνὴ ἡ Θεογένους. d. a. How did the archons behave? ἠρόμην ὅπως πράξειαν οἱ ἄρχοντες. ὡς καταδικασθεῖεν. 13G Here you will meet the perfect middle and passive. You will meet this construction later in GE pp. #270. 304–305. the perfect inﬁnitives and participles and some important irregular perfects (GE pp. c.’ 8 πεπολίτευμαι. γεγένημαι These are perfect middle (GE pp. The inﬁnitive shows that this is an indirect statement. on behalf of the state) and the gods. The perfect middle and passive are the same.
and was not born a citizen. For the dikasts have often acquitted those who have done wrong who can point out the virtues of their ancestors and their own good services. Stephanos will say the sort of things which all defendants say in their defence. Reasonably. 5 ἐξελεγχθήσεται What tense? What verb? Try ἐξελέγχω. and the STRYMODOROS . 7 εἴληϕε This is an irregular perfect from λαμβάνω. See list at GE p. nor has he been a trierarch. STR. So that it is clear that Stephanos will be convicted of lying. This shows clearly how close the perfect is to the present in meaning. Section 13H KOMIAS EU. 15 πεϕύκασι ‘They have been born’. and who were introduced to the phratries by Stephanos. I wonder what Stephanos will ever say in his defence. 295. that ‘I have been a good citizen’ and ‘I have been responsible for no disaster in the city. #272. who were Neaira’s. if he says such things. It is probable. ‘they exist’. What then? That he did not take Neaira as his wife but as a concubine in his house? EUERGIDES But Stephanos has brought evidence against himself. nor has he done any good to the city.e. For the children. Translation for 13H What then? What will Stephanos say in his defence? Will he say that Neaira was a citizen and that he lives with her in accordance with the laws? KOMIAS But Apollodoros has employed the strongest evidence. Page 173 8 Στέϕανος αὐτὸς ὑϕ’ αὑτοῦ ‘Stephanos himself has been condemned by himself. For many people have borne witness that they have shown contempt for both the city and the gods. nor has he been appointed choregos. #272.194 SΤR.’ For you know well that all the defendants claim that they have performed their state duties patriotically and that they have won many glorious victories in the games (contests) and that they have accomplished much good for the city. 295. proving that Neaira was a hetaira and became the slave of Nikarete. ‘they are born to make mistakes’. 13H Page 172 3 κέχρηται What tense? What verb? It comes from χράομαι. which takes the dative. But we know well that Stephanos is not rich. at least. nor has he been a good citizen.’ 12 εἴρηται Perfect passive from λέγω: see GE p. i.
Before you pass judgment. fem. as it seems to me. but a much greater one for what he has done. these clearly prove that Neaira was living with Stephanos as his wife. also ἠδικημένοι and ὑβρισμένοι. and it is clear that the truth has been spoken by Apollodoros. Therefore Neaira has been put in the most terrible danger on account of the things that have been done by Stephanos. all men indeed are born to make mistakes. and make sure also that you look at the lists in GE pp. line 15 ‘those who have been born to …’: ‘those who by nature are more inclined to impiety rather than piety’. but a much bigger one. which show awkward cases where you cannot use an ordinary reduplication.Section 13I 195 STR. #267–271). Translation for 13I You have heard the evidence. EU. You will need to learn these by heart. daughter. 2 ἠσεβηκυῖαν Acc. 13I Page 173 1–3 μεμαθήκατε This is followed by two sets of accusative + participle phrases. Grammar Now make sure that you know both active and passive forms of the perfect indicative. 3–4 ὁ Στέϕανος ἄξιός ἐστιν οὐκ ἐλάττω δοῦναι δίκην … ἀλλὰ καὶ πολλῷ μείζω ‘Stephanos is worthy to pay no less penalty than …. of the perfect participle of ἀσεβέω. #272–273. by declaring himself to be an Athenian. who was given in marriage to an Athenian man. and some irregular perfects. s. judges. For I have proved that he. know that this Stephanos deserves to pay no lesser penalty than this Neaira. and their participles and inﬁnitives (GE pp.’ Page 174 8 πεϕυκότας Cf. 291–294. Yes. and that you yourselves have been greatly wronged and insulted. 173. You must therefore take vengeance upon those who have been impious to the gods and you must punish those who have wronged the city and are disposed to sacrilege rather than to piety. p. . followed by two sets of nominative + participle phrases. And Stephanos also is done for. and you have learned in detail that Neaira is an alien and has shown a lack of reverence towards the gods. Note the form of the reduplication when the verb starts with a vowel. has thus shown much contempt for the laws and you and has been irreverent to the gods. 294–295.
) have been shown κεκωλῦσθαι. he has gone. τετιμῆσθαι. . δεδηλῶσθαι 13G–I: 3 κεκωλυκότος κεκωλυκότες κεκωλυμένου κεκωλυμένοι τεθυκότος τεθυκότες τεθυμένου τεθυμένοι γεγαμηκότος γεγαμηκότες γεγαμημένου γεγαμημένοι τετιμηκότος τετιμηκότες τετιμημένου τετιμημένοι δεδηλωκότος δεδηλωκότες δεδηλωμένου δεδηλωμένοι 13G–I: 4 κεκωλυκυίας κεκωλυκυῖαι κεκωλυμένης κεκωλυμέναι τεθυκυίας τεθυκυῖαι τεθυμένης τεθυμέναι γεγαμηκυίας γεγαμηκυῖαι γεγαμημένης γεγαμημέναι τετιμηκυίας τετιμηκυῖαι τετιμημένης τετιμημέναι δεδηλωκυίας δεδηλωκυῖαι δεδηλωμένης δεδηλωμέναι κεκωλυκότος κεκωλυκότα κεκωλυμένου κεκωλυμένα τεθυκότος τεθυκότα τεθυμένου τεθυμένα γεγαμηκότος γεγαμηκότα γεγαμημένου γεγαμημένα τετιμηκότος τετιμηκότα τετιμημένου τετιμημένα δεδηλωκότος δεδηλωκότα δεδηλωμένου δεδηλωμένα it has been announced. γεγαμῆσθαι.) have hurled you (s. τεθύσθαι. he has been wronged. you (pl. they are standing.) have suffered.196 Exercises for section 13G–I EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13G–I PERFECT INDICATIVE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE 13G–I: 1 κεκώλυται τεθύμεθα γεγάμημαι τετιμημένοι εἰσίν δεδήλωσθε 13G–I: 2 he has been prevented we have been sacriﬁced I have been married they have been honoured you (pl.
b. gentlemen. ϕάσκω τοῦτο εἰργάσθαι τὸν κατήγορον. ἐστέρηται. h. ἀφῄρηται. j. ϕάσκω ὑμᾶς τεκμηρίῳ ϕανερῷ κεχρῆσθαι. ϕάσκω ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ταῦτα διαπεπρᾶχθαι. i. I have had witness borne against me by myself). e. οἶδα ἡμᾶς ἠδικημένους μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. ϕάσκω ὑμᾶς μεγάλα ὑβρίσθαι καὶ ἠδικῆσθαι. οἶδα καταμεμαρτυρημένος αὐτὸς ὑπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. . οἶδα τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας εἰρημένους. ἠδίκημαι These words have been spoken by Neaira. ἠδίκημαι REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13G–I B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. gentlemen. οἶδα τούτους αἰτίους γεγενημένους πολλῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. You have governed well. εἴρηται You have used clear proof. πεπόνθαμεν. κέχρησαι I myself have been condemned by myself (lit. d. e. 3. i. εἰργασμένοι εἰσίν οἶδα σε εὖ πεπολιτευμένον.Revision exercises for section 13G–I 197 13G–I: 5 εἰρήκασι. ὕβρισαι ἠδίκησαι The prosecutor has accomplished this. ἐζήτηκας. g. ἴσμεν τὸν Στέϕανον οὐδέποτε δίκην δεδωκότα. γεγένηται You have been treated most violently. οἶδα ὑμᾶς μεγάλα ὑβρισμένους καὶ ἠδικημένους. c. εὖ πεπολίτευσθε We have been greatly wronged by Stephanos. g. ἕστηκα. c. f. a. f. ϕάσκω τούτους αἰτίους γεγενῆσθαι πολλῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. καταμεμαρτυρήμεθα Those men have done these things. διαπέπρακται Phano’s son has been introduced to the brotherhood by Stephanos. οἶδα τὸν Φανοῦς παῖδα εἰσηγμένον ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας. b. οἶδα ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ταῦτα διαπεπραγμένους. εἰσηγμένοι εἰσίν These men have been the cause of many evils in the city. οἶδα ὑμᾶς τεκμηρίῳ ϕανερῷ κεχρημένους. οἶδα τοῦτο εὶργασμένον τὸν κατήγορον. and you have been greatly wronged. 2. οὔ ϕαμεν τὸν Στέϕανον δίκην ποτε δεδωκέναι. j. a. ϕάσκω σε εὖ πεπολιτεῦσθαι. a. Stephanos has never paid the penalty. ϕάσκω τὸν Φανοῦς παῖδα εἰσῆχθαι ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας. ϕάσκω ἡμᾶς ἠδικῆσθαι μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. h. ϕάσκω καταμεμαρτυρῆσθαι αὐτὸς ὑπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. d. ϕάσκω τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας εἰρῆσθαι.
Θεογένης ἔϕη ἐξαπατηθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. ἀναστὰς γὰρ γυναῖκα γνησίαν κατὰ τοὺς νόμους ἔγημεν. c. ϕὴς τὸν Στέϕανον ὡς τὴν αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα τὴν Φανὼ ἐκδεδωκέναι. Since. d. e. E – TEST EXERCISE 13 1. and who would bury him when he had died and would carry out the customary tasks on his behalf in the period after his death. βουλομένη τὸν Φράστορα τὸ παιδίον ἀναλαβεῖν. 5. Phano is an alien by birth (has been born). but my brother here’. ‘For’. 2. 3. ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον πρὶν ἀναστῆναι. Neaira has been irreverent towards the gods. ἡ δὲ ἐκβεβλημένη ὀλίγον χρόνον ἔμεινεν. will look after your affairs and mine.198 Revision exercises for section 13G–I b. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK Sentences 1. he said.’ And Menekles said that it was a good idea (that he was speaking well) and so adopted me. meaning me. καὶ οὐ διὰ πολλοῦ ἠσθένησεν ὁ Φράστωρ. . Prose τὴν οὖν Φανὼ τῆς Νεαίρας θυγατέρα οὖσαν ἐπιδεδειγμένην εὐθὺς ἐξέβαλεν ὁ Φράστωρ. You have been appointed jurors. οἶσθα τὸν Στέϕανον ὡς τὴν αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα τὴν Φανὼ ἐκδεδωκότα. 4. ᾔδεισθα τὴν Νέαιραν ἠσεβηκυῖαν εἰς τοὺς θεούς. 2. εὖ ἴσμεν πάντες ὅτι οὐδὲν καλὸν οὔτε εἴρηται οὔτε πεποίηται οὐδέποτε ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. ἔϕασκες τὴν Νέαιραν ἠσεβηκέναι εἰς τοὺς θεούς. ‘I am always abroad. he praised his words and said that because Menekles was an old man and alone he needed me to look after him. ϕατὲ δικασταὶ καθεστηκέναι.’ And when my brother heard this. ἡ βουλὴ ἤρετο ὁποίαν γυναῖκα ἔγημεν ὁ ἄρχων βασιλεύς. indeed I would have had children from this family. Menekles began to take thought so that he might not be childless. δῆλον ὅτι. Therefore I want to make one of you my son. Στέϕανος εὖ πεπολίτευται καὶ πολλὰ καὶ καλὰ πεποίηκεν. ἐπιδέδειχα τὴν Φανὼ τεθυκυῖαν τὰ ἱερὰ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως. οὐ βουλόμενος ἄπαις τελευτᾶν. εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε. then. but that he might have a child who would look after him before he died. But. Stephanos has given Phano in marriage as his own daughter. he started to enter into an agreement with us and he said ‘Fate did not allow me to have children with your sister. After this. Make him your son. καὶ διὰ τὴν ἔχθραν τὴν πρὸς τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι αὐτοὺς λαβεῖν τὰ αὑτοῦ. εὖ οἶδα τὴν Φανὼ ξένην πεϕυκυῖαν. ‘who is always at home. he found no other relation closer to him than us. if I had been able. ἴστε δικασταὶ καθεστηκότες. ϕημὶ τὴν Φανὼ ξένην πεϕυκέναι. as you know. ὁ γὰρ Φράστωρ οὐδέποτ’ ἂν ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον.
being persuaded by him. take away the name from me. Do not therefore. and bearing in mind the law and the oath which you have sworn and the things that have been said about the matter. vote for justice in accordance with the laws. gentlemen of the jury. since the matter has come to you and you have become responsible for it. . help us and that man who is now in the house of Hades. Instead.Revision exercises for section 13G–I 199 My opponent here wishes now to disinherit me and to render the dead man childless and nameless.
whose future is ψηϕιοῦμαι. of the relative pronoun: ‘she whom …’ ἥ What is this? ἤ This has a smooth breathing. which prepares for πρίν. since you have found out and since you all know. 8–9 πρίν is followed by two accusative and inﬁnitive clauses ‘before she did x and y. νομίζω νομιέω. But. will you vote that she is a citizen? And if you vote in this way. 14B You now meet the subjunctive (GE pp. and since you are able to punish her. Translation for 14A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Gentlemen of the jury. fem. Cf. and before you did z’. This makes a clause indeﬁnite (GE pp. #282). at this moment)’. 304–305. Do not translate πρότερον. she who has openly prostituted herself throughout the whole of Greece? For where has she not worked with her body? Or where has she not gone for her day-to-day earnings? Now that Neaira is clearly known by all as the kind of woman she is. Try ‘or’. [this woman] who was neither left a citizen by her parents nor was she made a citizen by the people? Will you allow her to act irreverently towards the gods with impunity. 200 . ἐλήλυθεν What tense? What verb? Learn it! ψηϕιεῖσθε This comes from ψηϕίζομαι. you yourselves will be acting impiously towards the gods if you do not punish this woman. ἥν This is accusative s. so it cannot be a relative pronoun. #274–281) and one of its commonest uses with ἄν.Section Fourteen: Guarding a woman’s purity 14A Page 176 ἐάσετε Future of ἐάω. what ﬁne thing will you say that you have accomplished to those who ask you? For [formerly] her crimes existed. 300–304. to the crimes). and the city was indifferent (lit. will you then allow this Neaira to insult the city so disgracefully and so contemptuously. 10 ἐπειδὴ δὲ πέπυσθε καὶ ἴστε … Notice the present force of the perfect ‘since you have found out and you all know (now. before this woman was charged by me and brought to trial and before all of you found out who she was and what sort of impiety she had committed.
’ (And you will go through the other things about the charge saying how well and carefully and accurately on each point she was prosecuted. #389 of GE.’ ὅ τι ἂν βούλωνται Another indeﬁnite clause: ‘what(ever) they like’. she lived with a citizen against the law and because she married her daughter to Theogenes when he was basileus and she performed the sacred and secret rites on behalf of the city and was given as a bride to Dionysos.Section 14B 201 ‘when he says’. #282). endings are identical.) And they. hearing this. 9 ἐπειδὰν πύθωνται ‘When they ﬁnd out’. when they ﬁnd out. and f. will ask ‘What then did you do?’ and you will say ‘We acquitted her. For you will seem to be contemptuous and yourselves to be in agreement with Neaira’s standards of behaviour. be angry with you because you thought it right that Neaira should equally with them have a share in the business of the city and in the sacred rites? And moreover. which is potential and means ‘could’ or ‘would’ (GE #283) or ἄν + indicative in unfulﬁlled conditions. though an alien. l. 4 ὅτι should probably be translated as ‘because’. m. that someone will immediately ask ‘Whom were you trying?’ and you will say ‘Neaira’ (of course) ‘because. Cf.e. ‘whenever he says’. 11 ἄδειαν διδόναι ποιεῖν ‘To grant licence to do. 304–305.’ 3 ἐρήσεται What tense is this? You may ﬁnd it useful to look up the principal parts of ἐρωτάω in the irregular verb list on pp. i. This gives the predicted reaction of thoughtful women and foolish women. Do not confuse this ἄν with ἄν + optative. Note that ἀνόητος is a compound adjective and has only two terminations. 3. This is the indeﬁnite construction expressed by ἄν + the subjunctive (GE pp. Page 177 1 τί δὲ ϕήσειεν ἄν ἄν + optative: ‘What would each of you say …’ 2 ἐπειδὰν γάρ τις ἔρηται ὑμᾶς ἄν + subjunctive ‘when someone asks (if they actually do ask). 4–6 Look carefully at all the tenses here. 6 διηγήσεσθε What tense is this? 7 κατηγορήθη What tense is this? 8–11 οὔκουν ἤδη αἱ σωϕρονέσταται τῶν γυναικῶν and καὶ δὴ καὶ ταῖς ἀνοήτοις γυναιξί. you will seem to be granting licence to foolish women to do what(ever) they like.’ Will not the most self-controlled of women. Translation for 14B And what would each one of you say when you go back to the house to your wife or your daughter or your mother if you have voted (having voted) to acquit Neaira? For when (whenever) someone asks you ‘Where were you?’ and you say ‘We were trying a case’. . ἀτιμώρητος p. 176. 436–442.
202 Section 14D 14C Page 178 6 ἐπειδὰν γάρ τις καλῶς λέγῃ An indeﬁnite clause: ‘when anyone speaks well’. Of course. What do you say about what he has said? Are you. What do you say. too. Euergides. and you would be concerned about female citizens. of the aorist passive subjunctive of ἀπορέω. κύριαι. For whenever anyone speaks well and truthfully. who does not enjoy listening? STR. but there is also the fact that the established laws will become powerless. ἐξέσται ‘For if we acquit Neaira. 12–13 Note the opposites ἄκυροι. For if we acquit Neaira it will be permissible for prostitutes to live with whoever they like. with the speech which Apollodoros made. Strymodoros. 9 ἐὰν γὰρ ἀποψηϕισώμεθα Nεαίρας. pleased by his words? EUERGIDES I am certainly very pleased. 198. and why do you neither praise nor criticise the arguments? For I am very pleased. STRYMODOROS 14D This section is full of future conditions (ἐάν + subjunctive) and indeﬁnite relative and adverbial clauses (‘whoever’. you would understand. Your concern is with female citizens? How do you mean? Perhaps you are saying something important. STR. but I don’t understand. KOM. now I have heard the speech which Apollodoros has made. and to declare that their children belong to whoever they happen to ﬁnd [to father them]. then. It is normal to express a future condition as an indeﬁnite. but I am concerned with none of these things. it will be possible’: see GE p. #176. Not only that. . More indeﬁnite clauses. Strymodoros. My concern is with female citizens. If you were a woman. STR. What then? Must we condemn Neaira? EU.) expressed by ἄν + the subjunctive. ‘however’. Euergides. Consider. ‘in whatever way’. 10–11 ἄν + subjunctive. Strymodorus. and hetairas will have the power to do whatever they like. Komias? Do you think the laws will become powerless? KOMIAS You are concerned with hetairas and the laws. Page 179 1 ἀπορηθῇ Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. 19–20 What sort of condition is expressed here by ἄν + imperfect indicative? Translation for 14C But why are you silent. etc.
Therefore. The perfect is used because ‘he has been placed in a situation’ = ‘he is in a situation’. If Neaira is acquitted (freed). σκοποῦσιν ὅπως + future indicative: ‘see to it that …’. εἰ καὶ πένητος ὄντος ‘Even if he is a poor man’. even if that citizen is poor. ‘has gone through the argument’. who do not have a dowry? The function of prostitutes will come completely to the daughters of citizens because they have no dowry and the reputation of free women will come to hetairas. But if the Athenians have children however they please. EU. who will marry the daughters of poor men. KOMIAS 14E Page 180 3 ὁμοίως Nεαίρᾳ τῇ πόρνῃ ‘in the same way as Neaira the prostitute’. of the perfect active subjunctive of καθίστημι. if Athenians marry whomsoever they like. Apollodoros has delivered his speech well. ‘acquitted’: ἀπολυθῇ is the 3rd s. ‘take care that …’ ἀποδῷ 3rd s. the law provides a sufﬁcient dowry. For hetairas will be allowed to have children with whomever they like and to share in mysteries and sacred rites and honours in the city. 6 καὶ ὅταν μὲν τοῦ κατηγορεῖν γένησθε ‘and whenever you are concerned with prosecution’. This is why I am concerned about citizen women. even if a woman is in dire straits and her father has fallen into poverty and cannot give his daughter a dowry. ἐάν τις βούληται ‘If someone wants’: ἐάν + subjunctive. If nature grants a girl moderate beauty. he must marry the daughter of a citizen. how will it be possible for us to distinguish between the citizen and the alien? And if we cannot distinguish between the citizen and the alien. -ῃ indicates the subjunctive. perfect indicative of διέρχομαι. πένητος ὄντος is genitive in apposition to ἀστοῦ in the previous line. But be quiet. for Apollodoros is ending his speech. of the aorist passive subjunctive of ἀπολύω. aorist active subjunctive of ἀποδίδωμι. ἐὰν δὲ ἀπολυθῇ Nέαιρα ‘If Neaira is set free’. Translation for 14D For now. it will not be necessary for Athenians to marry citizen women. as it does in ἀπορηθῇ. διελήλυθε 3rd s. In this way the lawmakers take care that the daughters of citizens will not be unmarried – STR. EUERGIDES What then? KOM. friends. it will be permissible for the Athenians to live with hetairas and have children however they please. If someone wants to rear children that are citizens.Section 14E 203 5 6 8 10 21 καθεστήκῃ Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. but they will be able to marry whomsoever they like. but this matter has been expressed by Komias even better and more sincerely. . STRYMODOROS What do you mean? KOM.
and if she is acquitted. remember the condemnation of the laws and the proof of the things which have been said which you have heard. So great then is the prosecution which Apollodoros has delivered. and puts me in great perplexity. she has done these things. as it seems. being Neaira. First listen and then decide (judge). And when you look upon the face of Neaira. ‘would you be quiet and concentrate?’ 11–12 ὅπως + the future indicative: ‘Take care that you…’ Translation for 14F Good. STRYMODOROS But what shall I say when my children and my wife ask whether I condemned or acquitted her? EU. although I am eager to do it. And when you are concerned with prosecution. you will say that you condemned her. KOMIAS And the defendant too will drag you round in a circle. STR. another of his mother. Translation for 14E I want each one of you to know that you are casting your vote. what next? EUERGIDES .204 Section 14F 8 ὅταν δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀπολογεῖσθαι ἦτε ‘and whenever you are concerned with the defence’. But when we have cast our vote. one of you on behalf of his wife. whether. think only of this one thing. But. Do not show respect for these women in the same way as for Neaira the prostitute. look after them with much good discipline and care. Good. 14F There are many more examples of the use of ἄν + the subjunctive in this section. I cannot remember the prosecution. And when you are concerned with the defence. like a sophist. listen to the laws themselves. If Neaira is condemned. Strymodoros. another of his city and its laws and its religion. How then will it be possible for me to judge the trial? ΕU. gentlemen of the jury. and give them in marriage in accordance with the laws. But Neaira with her many disgraceful ways has had intercourse with many men many times each day. Look after them. for the prosecutor leads me round in a circle. But now we must hear the defence of Stephanos and when we have heard it we must cast our vote. σιγῴης ἄν … προσέχοις ἄν ἄν + optative = a polite request. Page 181 10 ὡς ἀπολογησόμενος ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose. another on behalf of his daughter. the laws through which we live in the city. STR. STR. Of course. and by which you have sworn to give judgment. Strymodoros. you will say that you acquitted her.
Strymodoros. we always judge carefully. ὅπου ἂν ᾖ ἐπειδὰν ἀπίωσιν/ἀπέλθωσιν ἐὰν δουλῶμεν/δουλώσωμεν. Komias.Revision exercises for section 14 KOM. and all the household welcome me because of the three obols. Would you please be quiet and pay attention. With reason! But stop chattering. Strymodoros. subj. a. ὅστις ἂν ὦσιν. ἐπειδὰν εἰδῶ. see that you remember the things said by Apollodoros and that you pay attention to everything which Stephanos may say. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 14 THE SUBJUNCTIVE 14: 1 he made a mistake he was stopping he will persuade/you (s. And as for you. 205 EU. Whatever evidence the witnesses give and whatever they say. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 14 B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. see above) ἐνέγκῃ ἐὰν ὁρῶσιν/ἰδῶσιν ἐπειδὰν ἀκούω/ἀκούσω ὅστις ἂν ἴῃ/ἔλθῃ. we shall receive our three obols. is διδῶσιν. For Stephanos is now standing up to make his defence. παύῃ no future subjunctive ἐκπέσῃ σχῶσι(ν) I have married he will go they are we have become they placed we make/do (for ourselves) they see they knew they were giving he carried 14: 3 γεγαμήκω ἴῃ ὦσι(ν) γεγενημένοι ὦμεν θῶσι ποιώμεθα ὁρῶσι(ν) γνῶσι(ν) imperfect (pres. It is very pleasant when I go home with my three obols in my mouth. What next? When we have got up from our seats and cast our votes.) will obey he fell out/was thrown out they had 14: 2 ἁμάρτῃ the imperfect subjunctive shares the expect of the present subj. μαρτυρῶσι λέγωσιν .
καίτοι εὖ ἴσμεν πάντες ὅτι οὐδὲν οὔτε καλὸν οὔτε ἀγαθὸν διεπράχθη ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ οὐδέποτε. all the citizens are pleased. ϕήσει. But if it does not. δώσουσί σοι ὅ τι ἂν βούλῃ. I want to tell you how they frame the laws in Lokris (among the Lokrians). ἡγῆσθε τιμᾶτε h. ἢ τοιοῦτό τι πρᾶγμα ἀκηκόατέ ποτε. ὅταν οἱ δικασταὶ οἴκαδε ἔλθωσιν. ἀπολύσεις τὸν ϕεύγοντα. For there they think the citizens ought to observe the long-established laws and preserve tradition. Note that it is possible to translate this passage into Greek in a number of different ways. And if the law seems to be good and useful. Whoever is not condemned but acquitted by the jurors. he is killed when the noose is drawn tight. πρόσσχητε προθυμῆσθε j. οὐ δῆτα. When(ever) the prosecutor speaks and persuades us. 3. the laws are preserved. μὴ δῷ i. οὔτε γὰρ οὑτοσὶ οὔτε οἱ πρόγονοι πρὸς τὸ εὐσεβεῖν πεϕύκασιν ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὸ ἀσεβεῖν. ἐπειδὰν οἱ κατήγοροι λέγωσιν. μὴ καταδικασθῇ ἀπολυθῇ e.206 Revision exercises for section 14 b. This is only one of them. 5. we condemn. 4. the proposer lives and gets away. When(ever) a citizen goes to law or the clansmen reject (vote against) a child born from an alien. you will condemn (vote against) Neaira. You may. When you enter the house and your wife meets you. but they observe the ancient laws . we regard as innocent. Whatever ﬁne you think just and inﬂict. Prose ἀπολογούμενος οὖν τί λέξει ὁ Στέϕανος. If an evil man loses his citizen’s rights (is placed in loss of citizen’s rights). δῆλον ὅτι. ὅταν γυνή τις χρήματων λάβηται. εὖ πεπολιτεῦσθαι καὶ πολλά τε καὶ ἀγαθὰ διαπεπρᾶχθαι. ﬁnd that you have constructed a different version and are still perfectly correct. So that. see that you ﬂatter her. εἰσίῃς ἐντύχῃ D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK Sentences 1. he proposes it with his neck in a noose. ἀγωνίσηται ἀποψηϕίσωνται d. therefore. 2. αἱ γυναῖκες ἀσπάζονται αὐτοὐς. if someone wants to make a new law. E – TEST EXERCISE 14 1. ἐὰν προσέχῃς τὸν νοῦν πρὸς τὴν ἀπολογίαν. Whenever you want to say something terrible and you reveal the truth. ἀεὶ τὰ αὐτὰ λέγουσιν. that is the penalty that the man who has been condemned owes to the city. χαλεπὴ γίγνεται. If you concentrate your mind carefully on the prosecution and are eager. καταστῇ f. your enemies will always take vengeance on you. The law provides an adequate dowry to any woman whose father does not give a dowry. βούλῃ δηλοῖς g. λέγῃ πείθῃ c. ἐὰν ϕιλῇ ὑπὸ τῶν θυγατέρων. 2. In fact they do not dare to propose new laws.
An enemy is said to have threatened his enemy.Revision exercises for section 14 207 strictly. and thinking that his life would be unliveable if he suffered this. the one who knocked out the eye must offer his own eye to be knocked out in return. the one-eyed man was upset. For there is a law established in Lokris that. he is said to have dared to put forward the following law: if anyone knocks out the eye of a one-eyed man. For in this way they would both suffer the same injury. . In the course of many years. who happened to have one eye. that he would knock out this one eye. he will have to give both his eyes to be knocked out in return. only one new law is said to have been passed. When this threat had been made. if a man knocks out an eye. And the Lokrians are said to have passed this law alone in more than two hundred years.
#286. the Greek should prove manageable. We have tried to keep the translation as literal as possible throughout. utterances can be far more oblique and tightly packed with meaning. 310. Consult the translation. again. SERVANT Of course [she is] the best. εὐκλεής = ‘a glorious [woman]’. οἶδα is followed by a participle (‘know that …’. 310. see GE #247). Note (e) here contains the warning: ‘Word order in verse can be far more ﬂexible than in prose. ‘gloriously’. 4–5 Difﬁcult. but it is not always easy to recognise whether the preposition is there in its own right or if it is a case of ‘tmesis’. The vocabulary tells you that κατθανουμένη is the future participle of καταθνῄσκω. πῶς γὰρ οὔ. 11 ἐκ … ἑλοῦσα This splitting of a verb from its prepositional preﬁx is called ‘tmesis’ (‘cutting’). 15A Page 184 1 ἴστω The third person singular imperative of οἶδα (GE #207). This squashing together of two separate words (τὰ ἐμά) is called ‘crasis’. 3 πῶς δ’ οὐκ …. #286 for a list of tragic usages. 16 τἀμά See GE p.’ While it is probably true that you will ﬁnd an increase of difﬁculty in this section. Translation for 15A CHORUS FEMALE Let her know then [that she] is going to die gloriously and by far the best woman of those under the sun.Section Fifteen: Alkestis in Euripides’ play In this section you are introduced to the verse of Greek Tragedy in a touching scene from Euripides’ Alkestis (produced in 438 BC). crucial for the continued existence of the home. Consult GE p. 13 ‘Εστία Hestia is the goddess of the hearth. It is quite common in verse authors. It is easiest to translate it as an adverb. (literally ‘for how not?’ = ‘of course’) has appeared from Section 1 onwards. 15 πίτνω This form of πίπτω is very common in poetry. Who will disagree? What should this outstanding woman be called (how should she be described)? How could anyone declare more [clearly] that she holds her husband in honour than by 208 .
chest) clothes and decoration. 4 μεθίστη Imperfect (GE #230–234). she washed her white skin in waters from the river. where I lost my virgin maidenhood to this man for whose sake I die.’ 15B Page 186 1 δόμους Poetic plural – the house is in fact singular. Here means ‘from the action of …’ περί + gen.’ . 3 Note the preﬁx ἀ. 8 ἐκ + gen. having taken out from their cedar home (i. You will see that it is middle or passive. she adorned herself becomingly. but perhaps [will be more] fortunate.e. adds a sense of grandeur. but this use of the plural. and the coming disaster did not change the graceful nature of her complexion. I shall beg you to look after my orphaned children. but may they happily complete a pleasant life in their father’s land. elision usually works the other way round. for shrinking from betraying you and my husband. but you will wonder as you hear what she did in the house. Then rushing into her bedroom and [falling onto] her bed. not lamenting’). Here means ‘for the sake of …’ 11 κεκτήσεται Future perfect. And may the children not die – as I their mother am being destroyed – before their time. I die. has reduplication and uses future endings. 310. unweeping. farewell. and standing before the Household Hearth. then indeed she wept and said these things: ‘O bed.Section 15B 209 being willing to die for him? And the whole city knows these things. Have a look at this rare form at GE pp. #286). you have destroyed me alone. Some other woman will have you for her own. without lamentation. the vowel at the end of a word disappears. As you will remember.e. For I do not hate you. i. she prayed: ‘Mistress – [I am addressing you] for I am going beneath the earth – appealing to you for the last time. 5 κἄπειτα Crasis (GE p.(‘not weeping. For when she realised that the appointed day had come. which is fairly common in poetry. And join a dear wife in marriage to the boy and a noble husband to the girl. 6 ᾽δάκρυσε The ﬁrst syllable (ε) is elided (struck off) after the vowel at the end of the previous word (prodelision). 309–310. #284–285. she could not be more chaste. Translation for 15B She approached all the altars which [are] throughout the house of Admetos and she garlanded them and addressed them in prayer. and.
she went headlong. She. and no one was so low-born that she did not speak to him – and was addressed by him in return. but nevertheless still breathing (although [just] a little). have perished. She stretched out her right hand to each of them. a pathetic weight in his arms. 10 ἄλλοτ’ ἄλλον ‘at one time one. she wishes to look towards the rays of the sun – as [she] never [will] again – but now for the last time. he weeps. as she was on the point of dying. Tragic verse metre Read GE pp. For she is dying and wastes away through the disease. #287–290 and try to scan the ﬁrst four lines of section 14B. #284–285). meaning ‘often’. Translation for 15C FEMALE SERVANT CHORUS F. pitying their mistress. falling out of) the bed. And embracing [the bed]. page 188 16 λελήσεται Future perfect of λανθάνομαι (GE pp. she kissed it and bedewed all the bed with a ﬂood [of tears] welling from her eyes. And. Such are the evils in the house of Admetos. and begs her not to forsake (lit. You will have this explained to you in Section 17. seeking the impossible. 19 χεροῖν This is a dual ending. Then read aloud to yourself as much of 14B as you can. 12 κοὔτις Crasis of καὶ οὔτις. 22 χειρός Literally ‘of his hand’. 309–310. Translate ‘in his hands’. betray) him. at another time another’. having died). Her children. throwing herself from (lit. if he must be deprived of a good woman? Yes. if he had died (lit. were weeping. he would. Translate ‘in both hands’. clinging to their mother’s robes. but escaping death he has so much grief – which he will never have forgotten. Here it gives the answer ‘I suppose he does’ to the question the Chorus ask. 311–313. But when she had had enough of many tears. taking them into her arms. holding his dear wife in his arms. All the servants were weeping throughout the house. now the other.210 Section 15C 15C Page 187 5 πολλά Neuter plural used as an adverb. Then read it naturally. and often going out of the bedroom she turned back and ﬂung herself back again on the bed.S. embraced now one. to be sure. . trying to bring out the iambic rhythm first of all. 17 που The enclitic που can mean ‘I suppose’. Does Admetos grieve over these evils. Exhausted.
Apollodoros. What do you say? Did you go to them about puriﬁcation. and I am going home. GE #294–295. and ϕοβοῦμαι μή + subjunctive = ‘I am afraid that something may happen’ (GE #293). you seem to me to be depressed. 13 ἐπεποιήκει What tense? see GE p. who is very depressed. AP. or about burial? APOLLODOROS 211 . as it seems. #291–294. ἔχω + adverb expresses the state that someone is in. 315. Apollodoros’ next question shows two of the procedures which they might advise on. I went to the ofﬁcials. But. e. καλῶς ἔχω ‘I am well’. Apollodoros. Notice particularly μή + aorist subjunctive = ‘don’t …’ (GE #292). for what purpose were you spending your time in the agora? AR. there he meets Aristarchos the son of Ariston. walking along the road outside the wall. AP. κακῶς ἔχω ‘I am in a bad way. Translation for 16A Apollodoros is going straight towards Ilisos.Section Sixteen: Ofﬁcial justice – ships. Also there are verbal nouns ending in -τέος which express obligation (‘must’). ἠδικήκει What tense? 17 διεξελθόντι δέ μοι … οὐκ ἔϕασαν ἐξεῖναι … Literally ‘to me having related … they said that it was not possible to …’ ἐπεπόνθη What verb? What tense? Try πάσχω πείσομαι ἔπαθον πεπόνθα. Where are you going to and where have you come from. Tell me then. For you seem to be upset about something. 16A Page 192 3 ἀθύμως ἔχοντι Agrees with Ἀριστάρχῳ. seeing Aristarchos coming towards him. When he is at the gate. state and individuals In this section you will meet a number of different features of grammar and syntax that are clearly described in GE pp. beneath the wall itself. #291. my friend.’ 10 τοὺς ἐξηγητάς These were state ofﬁcials who advised what to do in cases of murder. Aristarchos? ARISTARCHOS From the agora. 315–318. Apollodoros. addresses him.g.
And indeed. Aristarchos. APOLLODOROS . the ﬁrst aorist indicative is ἀπώλεσα and its subjunctive is therefore ἀπολέσω. 315–316. 317–318. One must not despair but take heart. 6 ϕοβοῦμαι μὴ σ’ ἀπολέσω See GE p. What then? Do you want to listen while we go for a walk or while we sit down? The path along the Ilisos is in every way suitable for us to speak and to listen as we go. The future is ἀπολῶ. #292). how you will relate the affair to me as clearly as possible. 16B Page 194 1 μὴ ἀπορήσῃς. for you are a clever prosecutor and reasonably experienced in legal matters. and don’t be despondent any longer. For this man had wronged me particularly. 316. 2 ἀθυμητέον.212 AR. AP. Verb forms in -τέoς mean ‘must’. I went for this reason (thus) being angry with a violent man. and do not conceal anything. but take heart. That is what we have here. but when I had told them what I had suffered and what Theophemos had done. ARISTARCHOS But I am afraid that I may ﬁnish you off in telling you. Then I must tell everything from the beginning. 18 συμβουλεύσωμαι What mood and tense after ἵνα? 19 χάριν γὰρ εἴσομαι Have you remembered that εἴσομαι is the future of οἶδα? Translation for 16B Don’t despair. We must consider this matter from the beginning. Taking this tragedy to heart and wanting to take revenge on this man. my friend. concentrating in every way on this. #294–295. #293. my friend. προθυμητέον See GE pp. For I have time to spare (leisure). going into the farm and offering violence to my family and what is more killing an old woman who was a freedwoman. 15 βοηθήσω What mood and tense is this? compare ἀπολέσω. For you must not be upset by what has happened nor be despondent. Don’t be afraid that this will happen. ἵνα + subjunctive expresses purpose. it is in fact the aorist subjunctive. Fears for the future in primary sequence can be expressed by μή + subjunctive. Theophemos by name. Speak now. I went to the ofﬁcials. Apollodoros. AR. For it is not a short story. Therefore don’t regard me without respect (do not hold me in dishonour). they said that it was not possible to take revenge in the way I had in mind. as it seems. Section 16B Yes. for what he had done. and don’t hold back. Tell me therefore. μηδὲ ἀθυμήσῃς μή + aorist subjunctive = ‘Don’t …’ (GE pp. 5 διέξει What tense? What person? This is the second person singular of διέξειμι. it is ﬁtting for you to hear it (the hearing is ﬁtting for you). Note that although this looks like a future indicative at ﬁrst sight.
So that. I shall be grateful to you. arrived φοβοῦνται μὴ ἀφίκηται we are afraid they ﬂed φοβούμεθα μὴ φύγωσιν he is afraid we stayed φοβεῖται μὴ μείνωμεν you (pl. don’t (s. so that when I have heard I can take counsel with you.) do this 2. 3. don’t (pl. 4. then.) stay 4. The gratitude would be twofold.) say this VERBS OF FEARING 16A–B: 3 μὴ τοῦτο ποίει μὴ δράμητε μὴ μένετε μὴ πέσῃς μὴ λέγετε ταῦτα 1. 213 AR. so that I can help you in your despair and despondency. 5. AR.) had conquered. so that I can learn what has happened. Listen. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16A–B THE PLUPERFECT 16A–B: 1 ἐτετιμήκης ἐτεθήκει ἐτεθνήκεμεν ἐβεβλήκεσαν ἐβεβήκη ἐπεφιλήμεθα ἐδεδούλωντο ἐκεκρατήκετε μή + SUBJUNCTIVE 16A–B: 2 you (s. Certainly.) fall. held power 1. if you listen.) are afraid he was enslaved φοβεῖσθε μὴ δουλωθῇ I am afraid they did not ﬁght φοβοῦμαι μὴ οὐ μάχωνται . if in your walk you go all the way to Megara. they are afraid he came. don’t (pl. AP. You speak. I am very eager to listen.) run 3. I shall not stop accompanying you. And indeed I shall be grateful to you if you speak.) had honoured he had placed we had died they had thrown I had gone we had been loved they had been enslaved you (pl. don’t (pl.Exercises for section 16A–B AP. don’t (s. 2. die 5. Why not? For it is not yet the stiﬂing midday heat.
Take the young men. . 13 ἐξῆν What verb does this come from? Imperfect of ἔξεστι. b.214 Section 16C REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16A–B B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. μὴ θῇ τὴν ψῆϕον. μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς. ὅτε … ‘There was at that time. Forget this matter. You must go home. 2. e. Restrain yourself. a. ὡς + superlative = ‘as … as possible’. c. a. d. μὴ ἐπιθυμήσητε. b. c. μὴ κατείπῃς τὸν τῆς ἀπολογίας λόγον. ὑμᾶς/ὑμῖν πολεμητέον. 4–5 ἐξιούσης τῆς ἀρχῆς Genitive absolute. j. The man must endure the disaster. f. f. 16C Prevent the man. We are afraid that. Hold back. I am dreadfully despondent in case my friend may not do this. this is the relative form of the interrogative πόθεν ‘from where?’. e. d. Page 196 1 ὅθεν ‘from where’. Take revenge on your friends. c. ἡμᾶς/ἡμῖν ἀκριβῶς σκεπτέον περὶ ταῦτα. μὴ καταϕρονήσῃς τῶν θεῶν. Cast your vote. We must consider these things in detail. h. Tell the argument of the defence. μὴ ἐπιλάθησθε τούτου τοῦ πράγματος. g. It is necessary to send you home. μὴ παραλάβῃς τοὺς νεανίσκους. i. 6 καίπερ δέον καίπερ + participle = although … δέον is the neuter singular of the participle of δεῖ. a. k. μὴ μνημονεύσητε πάντας τοὺς λόγους. d. You must make war. Take care (see that) you do not tell lies to the jurors about what happened. μὴ τιμωρήσησθε τοὺς ϕίλους. βοηθητέον αὐτοὺς/αὐτοῖς. #297. #296). I am afraid that Demosthenes did not save the men. μὴ ἐπίσχῃς. ἵνα μάθῃς ‘so that you may learn’. the man may be disheartened. μὴ κωλύσητε τὸν ἄνδρα. 14–15 ἵνα … προστάττωμεν καὶ ἀναγκάζωμεν Purpose clause. Be despondent. ‘the ofﬁce ﬁnishing (going out)’. Remember all the arguments. when …’ Note τότε and ὅτε. ἵνα + subjunctive expresses purpose. 321. 3. 10 ὡς τάχιστα See GE p. They must help. οἴκαδε πεμπτέον σέ. Despise the gods. hearing this. 7 ἦν τότε. used impersonally ‘although it being necessary …’ (GE p. Be eager. οὐκ ἐξόν Accusative absolute ‘it not being possible …’ 14 γράϕει Χαιρέδημος Note the change to present tense for vividness. b. 320. τῷ ἀνδρὶ/τὸν ἄνδρα οἰστέον τὴν συμϕοράν. σοὶ/σὲ ἰτέον οἴκαδε.
In addition to this. ‘It being necessary …’ Translation for 16C I want therefore to tell you the origin of the enmity towards Theophemos (from where it arose) so that you may learn what happened and know that he wronged not only me but also the people and the Boule (Council). 286. send it out as quickly as possible. so that he too can prepare the ship. But although it was necessary for us to send out the ships as quickly as possible. Therefore there was great necessity for me to get the equipment so that I could prepare the ship and. And moreover. tow and rope. as they were before. For those who owed it had not given back the equipment. to hand over the trireme and its equipment to the person who is going to become trierarch. when his term of ofﬁce expires. in primary sequence. there was at that time. among whom was Theophemos. so that it was not possible to buy them. so that it was necessary for the trierarchs to send out a rescue operation of triremes quickly. and the people who owed them had not given them back. And since it was not possible to buy them. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16C THE ACCUSATIVE ABSOLUTE 16C: 1 1. there was no supply of equipment for the ships in the dockyard. not in the subjunctive. 19 δέον Accusative absolute again. But although it was obligatory for Theophemos to hand over the equipment. there was not in the Piraeus an unlimited supply of sailcloth. when I was about to become a trierarch. having prepared it. For I happened to be holding the ofﬁce of trierarch. I received none of the equipment from him. and as trierarch I had to receive the equipment and the trireme from Theophemos. See GE p. 18 ἦν Back to the past tense. And the resolution orders us to get the equipment in whatever way we can so that we may prepare the ships as quickly as possible and send out the rescue mission. ἐξὸν ἡμῖν ἀπιέναι it being possible for us to go away since we can go away . Note that as the main verb is now in the past we are in historic (or secondary) sequence and so the verbs in the ἵνα clause which follows are in the optative mood. I went to Theophemos in order to get the equipment.Exercises for section 16C 215 15 ὃς ἂν μὴ ἀποδιδῷ Indeﬁnite clause: ‘whoever does not return them’. Since it was necessary for me to do this. great danger to the city because of the rebellion of the allies. Chairedemos proposes a resolution so that we who have been appointed as trierarchs may order and compel those who had been trierarchs (whoever had not given it back) to give back the equipment. for you know very well that it is necessary for someone who has been a trierarch. #265.
c. Then it is not possible for me to prepare the trireme. δέον τοὺς ἄνδρας ἐκδοῦναι τὰς θυγατέρας it being necessary for the men to give their daughters in marriage since the men/husbands must give their daughters in marriage 16C: 2 ὡς ἄριστος. εἶτα οὐκ ἐξόν μοι τὴν τριήρη παρασκευάζειν. οὐκ ἐξὸν ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ οὐδὲν πρίασθαι ὧν ἔδει. Chairedemos proposes a resolution.216 Revision exercises for section 16C 2. δέον ἡμᾶς παρασκευάζειν ὡς τάχιστα τὰς ναῦς. It is necessary for the one who owes it to the city to give back the equipment to the one who is about to become trierarch. I went to the Council. d. I went to Theophemos. δέον ὑμᾶς θεραπεύειν τὰς γυναῖκας it being necessary for you to look after the women since you must look after the women 3. ἐγὼ ὡς τὸν Θεόϕημον προσῆλθον. It was necessary for us to prepare the ships as quickly as possible. τοῖς παῖσιν ἐξὸν παίζειν it being possible for the children to play since the children are allowed to play 5. βέλτιστος ὡς ἐλάχιστος ὡς σαφέστατος ὡς σωφρονέστατος ὡς φοβερώτατος ὡς ἀδικώτατος ὡς μέγιστος ὡς κάκιστος. a. προσῆλθον πρὸς τὴν βουλήν. It was not possible to buy any of the things needed in the Piraeus. . γράϕει Χαιρέδημος ψήϕισμα. οἱ τριήραρχοι οὐκ ἐδύναντο παρασκευάζειν τὰς ναῦς. δόξαν/δοκοῦν μοι ποιῆσαι τοῦτο it seeming best to do this because I thought it best to do this 4. b. The trierarchs were not able to prepare the ships. χείριστος the best possible the least/smallest possible the clearest possible the most prudent possible the most frightening possible the most unjust possible the biggest/greatest possible the worst possible REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16C B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. δέον τὸν ὀϕείλοντα τῇ πόλει τὰ σκεύη παραδιδόναι τῷ τριηραρχήσοντι.
from somewhere else where Theophemos lived. 3 ὁπόταν ‘when(ever)’. For there is a resolution of the Boule to get the equipment in whatever way we can. 2 ἐκέλευoν αὐτὸν ϕράσαι ‘ordered him to tell’ (aorist inﬁnitive). 286. having taken as many witnesses as possible. Having found out. The woman came to take her. I went to the house of Theophemos to see him. going to Euergos. ὅπως σώσειαν αὑτούς . ἀπεκρίνατο … ὅτι … εἴη Two clauses in indirect speech in secondary sequence with the verb in the subordinate clause in the optative. #300. Therefore I made my request and delayed for some days so that Euergos might tell Theophemos. #265. 6–7 ἠρόμην … πότερον … εἴη. whenever the people who owe it do not return it. where the verb in the subordinate clause is indicative in primary sequence and optative in secondary sequence. 10 ἦλθον … ἵνα ἴδοιμι Purpose clause in secondary sequence: ‘so that I might see him’. the brother of Theophemos. 325. and when I asked. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16D PURPOSE CLAUSES 16D: 1 1. I asked him whether the property was shared or not. Euergos answered that the property was not shared and that his brother lived separately. I asked for the equipment and told him to tell Theophemos. therefore. #299. Page 198 1 Note genitive absolute followed by accusative absolute followed by aorist participle agreeing with the subject of the verb. I saw the men ﬂeeing with the intention of saving themselves. but Euergos did not give back the equipment. and p. ὁπότε + ἄν denotes an indeﬁnite clause. 323. Translation for 16D But since Theophemos was not there and it was not possible for me to see him. ἵνα λάβοι αὐτήν 2. secondary – optative. and taking an ofﬁcial from the board of ofﬁcials. 5 Note the use of the imperfect. In purpose clauses (and indeﬁnite clauses and fears for the future) the sequence of tenses is: primary – subjunctive. but kept abusing me. See GE p. The situation was continuing until the action in the next sentence.Exercises for section 16D 217 16D You have already met the idea of sequence of tenses in clauses in indirect speech introduced by ὅτι. So. See GE p.
ἵνα πείσαι αὐτήν 4. And indeed I was not the only one who acted in this way. μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς. ἵνα μάρτυρές μοι εἶεν … Purpose clause in secondary sequence. Where shall we go to give the food to the poor? ὅπως διδῶμεν REVISION EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16D D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. 11–13 ἐκέλευον … ἢ … ἢ … ‘I ordered him … either to … or to …’ 13 ληψοίμην Notice the future optative. I told the woman who answered to go after him. which ordered me to get the equipment in whatever way I could. 2 ὅπου ἂν νῦν γε τυγχάνῃ ὤν Primary sequence. 3 ὅπου ὢν τυγχάνοι Secondary sequence. and Theophemos kept refusing. ἦλθον πρὸς τὴν ϕίλου τινὸς οἰκίαν ἵνα πυθοίμην ὅπου οἰκοίη ὁ Θεόϕημος. the sequence being historic (secondary). ὦ βέλτιστε. here and later in this section. 325. Translation for 16E Having knocked at the door. 2. and the woman answered that ‘he was not inside. πρόσειμι πρὸς τὴν βουλὴν ἵνα ψήϕισμα γράϕωσιν. wherever he now happened to be’. I asked him for the register of the equipment and showed him the resolution of the Boule. 10 εἴ τινας ἴδοι Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. I asked where he was. οὐ δύναμαι ἀναγκάζειν αὐτὸν ταῦτα ποιῆσαι. . The man gave money to the woman in order to persuade her. 16E Notice GE p. after the woman had fetched him. 4. And when Theophemos arrived. ἆρα ϕοβῇ μὴ αὖθις πάσχῃς τι ὑπὸ τούτων τῶν πονηρῶν. representing a future indicative in direct speech. 5. in secondary sequence it has the optative without ἄν. 10–11 καλέσαντος δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ παρόντων μαρτύρων τῶν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ κληθέντων Genitive absolutes. #300 about indeﬁnite clauses in primary and secondary sequence. wherever he happened to be. 3. καίπερ τὸν Θεόϕημον δέoν ἀποδοῦναι τὰ σκεύη. but others of the trierarchs [did] too.218 Section 16E 3. Aristarchos was in the process of making his demands. whenever someone did not give back the equipment. Page 199 1–2 Note the use of the imperfect. Finding that he was not inside. Note that in primary sequence the indeﬁnite clause has subjunctive + ἄν.
. When(ever) I learn … ἐπειδὴ μάθοιμι… 5. before I did anything else.Revision exercises for section 16E 219 But when the resolution had been shown to him. i(i) Whenever he came in. κελεύω τὸν παῖδα καλέσαι τοὺς πολίτας. he used to see the woman sitting down. If you give me those things … εἴ μοι διδοίης ταῦτα… REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16E B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. ἵνα τὴν τριήρη παρασκευάζῃ. so that they might be witnesses for me of what had been said. (i) I asked the slave where his master was. Theophemos did not hand it over. a. so that they might be witnesses for me of what had been said. Who(ever) they order … ὅντινα κελεύοιεν… 4. Therefore. ἵνα μάρτυρές μοι ὦσι τῶν λεχθέντων. And when the boy had summoned them. I ordered my slave to summon the citizens from the road. he saw the woman sitting on the altar. 2. d. wherever he was. I said that I would take securities from him in accordance with the laws and the resolutions. if he could see any. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16E INDEFINITES IN SECONDARY SEQUENCE 16E: 1 1. οὐκ ἐπαύοντο ἑπόμενοι. or to return the equipment. c. They do not cease following so that they may learn what has happened. and when the witnesses summoned by him were present. I began to request Theophemos again either himself to follow me to the Boule. (ii) When he came in. (ii) I was asking the woman to fetch her master. (ii) The master ordered him to give back to the city whatever he happened to have. (i) I had already found out that he happened to be married. When(ever) I see him … ὁπότε ἴδοιμι αὐτόν… 3. If he does not do this … εἰ μὴ ποιοίη τοῦτο… 2. and the register had been requested. d. ἵνα τὰ γεγενημένα μάθοιεν. ἐϕοβούμην μὴ Εὔεργος οὐ δείξειε τὸ πρᾶγμα τῷ Θεοϕήμῳ. b. c. If not. I am afraid that Euergos may not explain the matter to Theophemos. βούλεται κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη. if he said that he did not owe the equipment. b. a. (i) The slave summoned all the citizens whom he could see from the road so that they could be witnesses. He wanted to collect the equipment so that he could prepare the trireme. I was telling the slave to summon the citizens.
Therefore I was ordered by the Boule to impeach him on the grounds that he was committing a crime and hindering the expedition. being annoyed at what I had suffered and seeing what state I had been reduced to by Theophemos.220 Section 16F (ii) The slave was ordered to summon any citizens he saw from the road to be witnesses e. defended myself. and I had been struck by him. And although it was possible for him to . gave back the city to the Aeginetans. Then when the judgment was passed in the Boule. For the Boule considered that it was not I who had been insulted but itself and the people and the law. wanted him to be convicted and ﬁned. And Theophemos took her away from me. Translation for 16F Since he was willing to do none of these things. And the Boule. For indeed the Boule knew very well that once Theophemos was impeached he would be convicted and ﬁned. ‘to be captured’ or ‘to be convicted’. made up of the perfect participle + the imperfect indicative of εἰμί: ‘all I had suffered’. the one who had gone to fetch him. And before going in. 329. 10 ἁλῶναι See GE p. #301. Theophemos was convicted and ﬁned. the securities were taken away by Theophemos. #302 for the principal parts of ἁλίσκομαι. For the door happened to be open (to have been opened). although he was ordered by me. Since. I had found out that he was not married. 8 πεπονθὼς ἦ This is the equivalent of the pluperfect indicative. (i) It seemed to us that each word we spoke about Love should be as beautiful as possible. This convention is further illustrated in Section 17. and I let the woman go. so that I might have a witness. 9 ἐπεπόνθη This is the usual form of the pluperfect indicative. See GE p. I started to lead away the woman who had been standing at the door. 328. γεγαμηκὼς εἴη This is the perfect optative. made up of the perfect participle + the optative of εἰμί. and when the members of the Boule found out that the city had been offended and that I had been wronged. 16F Page 200 2 ἑστηκυῖαν Perfect participle of ἵστημι: ‘standing’. having arrived in Aegina. having collected as many of them as he could. 5 ἐπεπύσμην What tense is this? It would have been a gross breach of good manners and of social conventions for a man to enter another’s house without invitation if that house contained a wife. As I went in. (ii) Lysander. I went to the Boule to show my bruises and to tell all that I had suffered while trying to fetch the equipment for the city. having called those present to witness. then. Theophemos struck me on the mouth with his ﬁst and I. but went into the house to get some security for the equipment.
Lead on then. APOLLODOROS . AR. Aristarchos. until the heat becomes gentler. #303. 330. if we like. and if I walk more. (This must be done if it seems good to you. Page 202 15 πῶς πρὸς σε διέκειτο ὁ Θεόϕημος. #304. AP. Now that we have got here. Let us stop then. ARISTARCHOS We must certainly do this if you want. although I had been wronged. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16F ἁλίσκομαι 16F: 1 1. let us remain until I recover from my weakness. 330–331. Would you lead on? By Hera. ἕως ἂν … γένηται Note the subjunctives. so that we can sit and rest. I shall ﬁnd myself in a state of great distress. 3. ‘let us cease’. 4. AP. διακεῖμαι + adverb describes someone’s attitude or state of mind. I. Do you see that very tall plane tree? AP. ἔγνω βάντες ἁλοίη βῆναι γνῷ 16G ἔβη γνόντες βαίη γνῶναι βῇ ἑάλω ἁλόντες γνοίη ἁλῶναι ἁλῷ Page 201 4 παυώμεθα See GE p. καθιζώμεθα. was moderate and reasonable and agreed to a ﬁne of twenty-ﬁve drachmas. and let us consider where we shall sit down. until I can recover myself from my weakness. AR. There is shade there and a slight breeze and grass to sit on. ‘until (ever) …’ 4–6 παυώμεθα. But why don’t we stop walking? For the heat is now stiﬂing. Let us go there then. ‘How was Theophemos disposed towards you? What was his attitude to you?’ κακῶς Answers πῶς in the previous sentence.Section 16G 221 be ﬁned ﬁve hundred drachmas. See GE pp. 15–16 τεκμαιρομένῳ Agrees with ἔμοιγε: ‘it seems to me inferring …’ Translation for 16G You were indeed moderate and reasonable about the things which Theophemos had done. Of course. ἕως ἄν + subjunctive. 5.) Let us stop therefore and sit in peace beside the Ilisos. 2. it is a beautiful spot.
222 Section 16H AR. ἀκούσωμεν μὴ ἀπίωμεν λαβώμεθα στῶμεν μὴ δῶμεν ἕως ἄν ‘UNTIL’ 16G: 2 1. as it seems to me judging from the evidence of your despondency. until everything has been told. Listen then. 4. won the impeachment case.) hand over the witnesses ἕως ἂν εὑρίσκω τὴν ναῦν until (such time as) I ﬁnd the ship 16H Page 202 1 ἐνενικήκη Tense? 2–3 Notice the use of the participles in the narrative. if nothing prevents you? Since it seems to me that I shall keep you here until you tell me everything. so that you may learn more clearly. But naturally nothing prevents me from going through the story. 2. 5. Why then do you not ﬁnish telling me the story. ἕως ἂν ὁρῶμεν τοὺς ἄνδρας until (such time as) we see the men ἕως ἂν ὑπισχνῆται ἀκούσεσθαι until (such time as) he promises to listen ἕως ἂν διδῶσι τὰ χρήματα until (such time as) they give the money ἕως ἂν παραλαμβάνητε τοὺς μάρτυρας until (such time as) you (pl. 3. . EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16G ‘LET US…’ (SUBJUNCTIVE) 16G: 1 1. They match the order of events: ἐνθυμούμενος … βουλόμενος … ἔλαχε … ϕάσκων … (the main verb is underlined). Aristarchos. 3. 5. What [happened] after that? How was Theophemos disposed to you? (What was his attitude to you?) Badly. 2. 6–8 More participles: παρασχόμενος … ὑποσχόμενος … ἐξηπάτησε … 9–10 Again: ζημιωθείς … προσελθὼν … ἐκέλευον … 11 ἀντὶ τοῦ καταδίκην ἀπολαβεῖν Here ἀντί + genitive is followed by the inﬁnitive used as a noun: ‘instead of accepting the ﬁne’. as you were saying. 4. But you.
I kept quiet. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16H SEQUENCE OF TENSES 16H: 1 φοβοῦνται μὴ αὐτοὑς ζημιώσῃ. Sentences 1. ἀκούω ἀκούσομαι If you speak. 2. declaring that I had begun the blows at the door. not many days later. ἐπανῆλθον πρὸς τὴν βουλήν. 3. εἴ σοι πείθοιμι πείσοιο ἂν σύ. Ι will listen. as they say. and promising that he would hand over [for torture] the body of the woman who had been standing at the door (which he has not done). 4. Euergos his brother and Mnesiboulos his cousin. I listen. ὁπότε οἱ τριήραρχοι καταλάβοιέν τινα μὴ ἀποδιδόντα τὰ σκεύη. 5. ἐνταῦθα μενοῦμεν ἕως ἂν ἐκ τῆς ἀσθενείας συλλέγωμεν ἡμᾶς αὐτούς. . 3. since I was innocent. having produced lying witnesses. 4. not fearing that the jurors would condemn me. τὸ ψήϕισμα ἐκέλευσε τοὺς τριηράρχους κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη ᾧ τρόπῳ ῥᾷστα δύναιντο. But Theophemos instead of collecting the ﬁne went to my farm. ἐκεῖ καθιζώμεθα ἕως ἂν ἠπιώτερον γένηται τὸ πνῖγος. They are afraid that he may punish them. I went to summon the witness. ἐφοβεῖτο μή τις ἐκφύγοι. 1. but this. ἐὰν εἴπῃ. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16F–H D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. When I had incurred a ﬁne in this way.Revision exercises for section 16F–H 223 Translation for 16H I had in fact won the impeachment case. wanting to be revenged. deceived the jurors. But Theophemos. ᾖα ἵνα εἰσαγγείλαιμι τὸν μάρτυρα. 2. If I were to persuade you. 5. who were persuaded to cast their vote for Theophemos. παυώμεθα πορευόμενοι καὶ καθιζώμεθα. was the start of the trouble. For I least of all expected that I would be convicted. πρὶν οἰκάδε ἐπανιέναιι. going to Theophemos I asked him to accompany me to the bank to collect the ﬁne. you would persuade me. For Theophemos at once took the ﬁne very much to heart and. He was afraid that anyone might escape. he brought a suit for assault against me.
for it is no longer my business to be trierarch. I collected as many of the citizens as I could as witnesses. ἐδείκνυον τὸ ψήϕισμα. Polykles answered that he could not care less what I said (that there was no concern to him of what I said). ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν προσελθὼν πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Θεοϕήμου οἰκίαν. and to pay me the expenses for the period which I had served as trierarch beyond my time. and the marines. so that. I told him to take over the ship from me as my successor. οἱ δὲ τριήραρχοι τῷ μὴ ἀποδίδοντι. I answered him: ‘As for the sailors and the marines. ὥστε ὁ μὲν Χαιρέδημος ψήϕισμα ἔγραψεν. corrupting the sailors and the marines. But when I made this challenge.224 Revision exercises for section 16F–H 2. when you ought to be doing the same as the other trierarchs. καὶ αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔνδον ὄντα καταλαβών. When I challenged him in this way. you who alone of the trierarchs have your own private equipment and pay a great deal of money to the sailors? You have become a teacher of bad habits in the army. take the trireme yourself and provide sailors and marines for yourself who will sail with you without receiving any money. τὴν βουλὴν ἔδει πράττειν τι ἵνα τριήρων βοήθειαν ὡς τάχιστα παρασκευάζοιμεν. and to pay me the expenses for the extra time that I had served. E – TEST EXERCISE 16 When this man arrived in Thasos. I went in immediately in front of the general and began to speak with him [i. ἐϕοβούμην μὴ τὰ σκεύη οὐκ ἀποδιδοίη. I could refute his objection at once. if you say they have been corrupted by me. Polykles]. I asked him to take over my ship from me. εἴ τινα εὕροιεν. he said: ‘Who could endure your madness and extravagance.’ When he said this. Having found Polykles there and the trierarchs and their successors and some others of the citizens. he answered that his joint-trierarch had not come to the ship: ‘I will not therefore take over the ship on my own. For I had written down all the expenses in detail.’ . Take the ship.’ When I said this.e. if he objected to anything. and I went to him in the agora in Thasos. Prose οὐκ ἐξὸν κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη. καὶ τῆς πολέως ἐν μεγάλῳ κινδύνῳ οὔσης. I wanted to calculate this with him in detail while witnesses of what had been spent were with me.
which were being pastured by the shepherd.e ‘having been freed’ (GE p. 336–339.Section Seventeen: Private justice – trouble down at the farm This continues the story begun in Section 16. Translation for 17A Theophemos then did not allow me to pay him the money. ἕως (‘until’) (ever) can introduce an indeﬁnite clause with. 17A Page 205 1–2 ἕως τὰ χρήματα παρέχοιμι See GE p. 336. Theophemos had taken not only the sheep but also everything that was 225 . secondary – optative pattern. before the exercise on it. #308). 10–11 εἰσελθόντες ἐπὶ τὴν γυναῖκά μου Notice the disgraceful intrusion into the women’s quarters. 341. 10 ἐκβληθείσης δὲ τῆς θύρας Genitive absolute. #307. ὅσα ἔτι ὑπόλοιπά μοι ἦν ‘all the furniture. Compare this with Hagnophilos’ punctilious attitude in 17B. There will be more about this after 17A. For he did not wait until I produced the money. An important item of grammar is the verb (ἀϕ)ἵημι (GE pp. This is the aorist passive participle. 336. Before I knew what had happened. look up (ἐκ) βάλλω in the list of irregular verbs on GE pp. See GE p. 436–442 #389. 11–12 πάντα τὰ σκεύη. See vocabulary. An indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. #307. ἕως ἅλοιεν. he took ﬁfty soft-ﬂeeced sheep of mine. in primary sequence. i. ἄν + subjunctive and. See also GE p. #308). but going off. 22 ἕως εἰσέλθοιεν ‘until they came in’. Can you recognise the verb it comes from? If not. ἐλευθέρα ἀϕειμένη: perfect passive participle. 12 ἃ βούλοιντο Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence: ‘whatever they wanted’. Much of the syntax introduced continues to illustrate the primary – subjunctive. ‘having been released free’. in secondary. as much as was still left to me’. optative without ἄν. Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. #309–310 Page 206 8 ᾖξαν This comes from the verb ᾄσσω ‘to dash’ or ‘to dart’. 15–16 Note the parts of ἀϕίημι. 338.
While they were having breakfast in the courtyard. since she had been my nurse). did not wait until they came in. and carried out all the furniture that was left to me in the house. And when the door had been broken down.g. she had lived with her husband. (You may prefer to leave this until you have ﬁnished reading the whole section. While the furniture was being seized by them. When you have learned it. Compare some of the tenses: Present Active Middle Participles τίθημι ἵημι τίθεμαι ἵεμαι τιθείς ἱείς Imperfect ἐτίθην ἵην ἐτιθέμην ἱέμην Future θήσω ἥσω θήσομαι ἥσομαι θήσων ἥσων Aorist ἔθηκα ἧκα ἐθέμην εἵμην θείς εἵς Aorist pass. these men charged in and found them and seized the furniture.226 Section 17A accompanying the herd. they went to the house and broke open the door that leads into the garden. But when her husband died. ἐτέθην εἵθην τεθείς ἑθείς It is worth taking a great deal of trouble to learn ἀϕίημι. who was returning a bronze water jar that had been borrowed from a friend and was very valuable. and to avoid confusing it with both εἰμί and εἶμι. and with her was my old nurse. Theophemos and Euergos went into the farm (I farm near the racecourse. try the following exercise. When all these things had been taken.) . as for example in the inﬁnitive ἀϕιέναι. 17A: 2. elderly now. before they entered the house. whereas parts of εἰμί and εἶμι will appear as (e. and they went off. But when the household slaves did not wait to be caught but escaped ﬁrst (anticipated them escaping). taking whatever they liked. but closed the tower before they charged it. εἰμί and εἶμι do not have rough breathings and ἵημι does. NB. my wife happened to be having breakfast with the children in the courtyard. and the shepherd along with them and then also a boy servant. and I have lived there since I was a youth). thus in compounds the difference can be clearly seen. It was obligatory for me to look after her. she came back to me. and ﬁrst of all they dashed at the household slaves. where they lodge) when they heard the tumult and the shouting. When she was freed by my father. they rushed in on my wife and children. Grammar ἵημι (stem ἑ) behaves exactly like τίθημι (stem θε) but it looks more complicated because its stem starts with a vowel instead of a consonant. since she was an old woman and there was no one to look after her. a kindly and loyal creature who was a freedwoman (for my father had freed her. the rest of the women servants (for they were in the tower.) ἀπεῖναι or ἀπιέναι. In addition to this.
δώσεις ἔθεντο ἐστάθη δεδώκασιν θείη ἱστάμενοι δοῦναι he gave put! they will set up ἀφιείη to place he is rising it is being set up having given (m. 7. to give/have given it will be placed to have been set up give! having put (f. ἔδει σε εὔχεσθαι ἕως σωθείης.pl. They were ﬁghting until they were victorious. 5. τεθήσεται 18. They are willing to run until they are unable to stand. 16. 2. You (s.) ought to have prayed until you were saved.pl. SHOOT’ 17A: 2 1. 3.) ἀφῆκε ἄφες ἀφήσουσιν ἀφιέναι ἀφίεται ἀφέντας he let go let go! they will let go to let go he is being released having released ἀφέσθαι ἀφήσεις ἀφεῖντο ἀφείθη ἀφείκασιν ἀφιέμενοι ἀφεῖναι ἀφεθήσεται ἀφεθῆναι ἀφοῦ ἀφεῖσαι to release (for oneself) you (s. ἔδωκε θές στήσουσιν διδοίη τιθέναι ἵσταται δόντας 8. 14. ἐμάχοντο ἕως νικῷεν. 12. LET GO. μένομεν ἕως ἂν ἔλθῃ. 2.) will give they placed it was set up they have given ἀφείη setting up (for oneself) m. σταθῆναι 19.pl. (ἀφ)ἵημι ‘RELEASE. βουλεύονται ἕως ἂν συγχωρήσωσιν.) will let go they let go he/it was released they have released letting go to release/have released he/it will be released to have been released let go! having released 17.acc. 11. They are debating until such time as they agree. δοῦ 20. 15. θεῖσαι . θῇ 9. 4. 3. δραμεῖν βούλονται ἕως ἂν στῆναι μὴ οἷοί τ’ ὦσιν. We are staying until he comes. 6. στήσασθαι 10. 4.Exercises for section 17A 227 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17A ἕως ‘until’ 17A: 1 1. 5.) ἀφῇ to set up (for oneself) you (s. 13.
and she knew that the money was at the bank because she had heard it from Aristarchos. See GE . with subjunctive + ἄν in primary. Hence it can mean ‘breast’. ‘the fold of a garment’. ‘lap’.) / will be set free / is being set free / was being set free) b. and optative without ἄν in secondary sequence. The Athenians released the slaves who had fought in that seabattle. 2–5 The words in parenthesis explain how Aristarchos’ wife knew the facts which she is speaking about. having been set free by my father. (is releasing / has released (perf. f.228 Section 17B EXERCISE FOR 17A B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. a.)) (being about to be set free / being about to be released (future passive participles f. cf. 342–343. She knew the sheep had been taken because a neighbour had told her. #313. act. Latin sinus. 342. (have released / are releasing / will release / were releasing) 17B Page 207 2 τετιμημένα Perfect passive participle from τιμάω. (having been set free / having been released (aor. It follows the normal pattern for indeﬁnite clauses. #311. See GE pp. The slave girl has been set free by my father. as a result …’ This expresses a result clause.)) d. pass. 13–14 οὕτω πονηροὶ ἦσαν ὥστε … ‘They were so wicked that …’ οὕτως … ὥστε …. διατίθημι + adverb is a common idiom. 9 εἰς τὸν κόλπον The basic meaning of κόλπος is ‘a curve’. The slave girl. 10–11 οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν γραῦν ὥστε … ‘They treated the old woman in such a way that …’. (was set free (aor. which here means ‘valued’ or ‘reckoned’./m.)) (while being set free / while being released (present passive participles f. My father released the slave girl. ‘so … that.) / was releasing / will release) c. ‘a bay in the coastline’. part./m. 10 ἀϕείλοντο What verb does this come from? Try ἀϕαιρέω./m. pass. married a man who had also been released by his master (perfect passive participles). Page 208 7 οὐ παύονται πρὶν ἂν λάβωσι For πρίν meaning ‘until’ see GE p.
he would have gone in). being in Anthemion’s farm.) ‘Therefore do not take the rest of the furniture before my husband returns with the ﬁne. See GE p. going into the other road. one of my neighbours. and was being throttled by them and her chest was bruised. in contrast with the unprincipled brothers.’ (For she had heard this from me. summoned by Anthemion. but. but also leading my son. told him to stand by. as if he were a household slave. 24–25 ἕως … εἶπεν ‘until he told them’. They were so shameless that they did not stop trying to strangle the old woman and beating her until she fell to the ground. Here ἕως is followed by the indicative because this is a deﬁnite time (not an indeﬁnite time). and seeing Hagnophilos passing. and then they took the cup from the fold of her dress. but he did not enter my house (for the master of the house was not present. his brother. Some of them called to the passers-by from their own roof-tops. if the master had been present.’ This represents an unfulﬁlled condition in past time (ἄν + aorist indicative). εἰσῆλθεν ἄν ‘If the master had been present he would have gone in. saying that the furniture was hers and was valued as part of her dowry. And they were going away not only taking my furniture.’ Although my wife said this. seeing her. The use of indicative shows that the result actually happened. #309. observes the conventions and will not enter Aristarchos’ house while he is absent. But the nurse. When the neighbours’ servants heard the noise and the shouting. But Theophemos and Euergos. εἴη The optative is used because this is indirect speech in secondary sequence. . #314–317. they did not stop until they had taken very many things. And she had scratches on her throat. παρόντος δὲ τοῦ κυρίου. took the cup which was lying beside her from which she had been drinking. he saw the furniture being carried out and Euergos and Theophemos coming out of my house. particularly as you also have the value of the ﬁne. My wife told them not to do this. but instead of the ‘if’ clause. met them and said that he was my son.Section 17B 229 pp. and others. but they carried out the furniture from the rest of the house.) ‘And the money is waiting for you at the bank. Translation for 17B So they did not get in there. when she saw them inside. until Hermogenes. 345–346. who is my neighbour. which are equal in value to the ﬁne. there is a genitive absolute. snatched it away and treated the old woman so badly that her arms and wrists were blood-stained when she was pinioned and dragged along by them. they saw my house was being plundered by them. so that they should not take it. And Hagnophilos came.’ (For one of the neighbours had knocked on the door and reported this. 341. and put it in the fold of her dress. 19–21 Notice that Hagnophilos. and said that ‘You have the ﬁfty sheep and the boy and the shepherd.
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17B B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. I had told my wife that the money was lying at the bank. 2.pl. The old woman was in a bad way because she had been beaten up. until he fell Used deﬁnitely.) διακείμενοι 3. Before I left my house. a. before falling πρίν + inﬁnitive. I was in the Piraeus while my house was being robbed. c. διατιθεῖτο optative διακέοιτο 4.n. Nos. should fall Used indeﬁnitely. said the neighbour. The woman asked Theophemos not to take the furniture until her husband returned. ἡ γραῦς κακῶς διέκειτο διὰ τὸ συγκοπῆναι. διάκειμαι ‘TREAT. διατιθέμενοι being treated (m. indicative shows it happened. 3. b. WHILE’ and πρίν ‘UNTIL’ 17B: 1 until he fell. 3 and 5 might change in poetry by dropping the ἄν. ‘But do not ask this either’. optative shows this must be in secondary sequence. The slave girls stayed in the tower until the men went away. until such time as we fall Indeﬁnite in primary sequence. 1.’ d. 4. ‘For these men are violent and will not cease plundering the house until they have taken everything away. διατίθημι. BE TREATED’ 17B: 2 1. therefore in the past. a. and I did not go home until the things that had happened were reported to me there.230 Revision exercises for section 17B EXERCISES FOR 17B ἕως ‘UNTIL. 2. . 5. διετίθετο he was treated διέκειτο 2. All the διατίθημι items have been treated as passive.) are being treated /be treated! διακεῖσθε 5 διατίθενται they are being treated διακεῖνται NB. διατίθεσθe you (pl. until such time as he falls Indeﬁnite in primary sequence. e. but could equally well be middle.
Section 17C 231 b. #300 for indeﬁnite clauses in secondary sequence. You will ﬁnd useful resemblances to Latin and to mathematical terms (pentagon. and the thing heard (the happenings) are in the accusative. ‘He heard the words of the woman. d. kilometre) as well as correspondence between the cardinal. like κακὰ ποιειν (53). 345–346. #318. Theophemos and Euergides treated the old woman in such a way that her wrists were blood-stained. The woman told Theophemos that the money was lying in the bank. The old woman put the cup.’ 6–8 ἐκέλευον δ᾿ αὐτὸν … ἀπολαμβάνειν … ἀκολουθεῖν … θεραπεύειν … εἰσάγειν … ἐκέλευον is followed by a series of inﬁnitives. octagon. c. which was lying beside her. ἡ γυνὴ εἶπε τῷ Θεοϕήμῳ ὅτι τὸ ἀργύριον κεῖται ἐπὶ τῇ τραπέζῃ. takes a double accusative: ‘to speak bad words [to] someone’. Note that αὑτῷ = ἑαυτῷ (the reﬂexive form) and so has a rough breathing. NB. 325. 342–343. 17 τὰ ἡρπασμένα What participle? What verb? Try ἁρπάζω. 4–5 καὶ ἀκούων τῆς γυναικὸς τὰ γενόμενα Remember that after ἀκούω the source of the sound (his wife) is in the genitive. in the fold of her dress. 346–347. decimal. ‘the having happened things’. 17C Page 209 1 τὰ γεγενημένα This is the neuter plural of the perfect participle of γίγνομαι. also μύριοι and myriads. Note that ὥστε + the indicative stresses that the result actually happened. 15–16 This might be the moment to learn the numerals at GE pp. ἡ γραῦς ἐνέθηκεν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τὸ κυμβίον ὅ παρέκειτο αὐτῇ. Θεόϕημος καὶ Eὔεργος οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν γραῦν ὥστε ὕϕαιμοι ἐγένοντο oἱ βραχίονες. Cf. hexagon. ‘ordered him to …’ 8 ὃν βούλοιντο Why is the optative mood used here? See GE p. 9 κακά με πολλὰ εἶπεν Note that κακὰ λέγειν. ‘to abuse someone’. See GE pp. 3 τὰ ἐκπεϕορημένα Perfect passive participle. #314–317 for the use of ὥστε + inﬁnitive to express a result clause: ‘in such a state that (as a result) she was in danger of her life’. ordinal and adverb forms. #313 for the relationship between διατίθημι and διακεῖμαι. Page 210 11 μεθ᾿ ἑτέρων ὁμοίων αὑτῷ ‘with others like himself’. 3–4 τὴν γραῦν οὕτω διακειμένην ὥστε … See GE pp. .
#389.436–442. It is always placed before ϕημί (rather than before the inﬁnitive). when these events were reported to me in the Piraeus by neighbours. one thousand. Grammar Don’t forget to learn the numerals. whatever had been in the tower on the day before and did not happen to be outside. While I was saying this and earnestly entreating him. The remaining furniture. causing delays and saying that he wanted to get witnesses himself. but Theophemos refused to give them back to me (said he would not give them back to me) .When he gave this answer. meaning ‘He refused …’ or ‘He denied …’ 20 εἰσεληλυθότα Can you recognise this? If not. a stonemason who was working on the monument near by. I made those present witnesses of this reply. and I asked him to give back the sheep and the slaves and the furniture which had been seized by him. look up the principal parts of ἔρχομαι. and I paid the ﬁne. in the presence of many witnesses. saying that Euergos had gone away again. I went to the country. a messenger came to me. taking witnesses. I was very angry and went to Theophemos on the next day at dawn in the city. said many bad things to me). If not. had been carried down by me because of our need. But this Euergos immediately set out from the city with others like himself to go to my farm. and. 23 οἴχοιτο Why is the optative used here? Because it is indirect speech in secondary sequence. 21 οὕτως ἐπλεονέκτει … ὥστε … A result clause is introduced: ‘was so grasping that…’ 22 ἐκτετεισμένης τῆς δίκης Genitive absolute.232 Section 17C 17–18 οὐκ ἔϕη ἀποδώσειν … ‘He said that he would not give back …’ Note the position of οὐ. but I was not now able to catch these men (for I did not arrive until they had gone). but seeing all the things that had been carried off from the house. But Theophemos was so grasping that he took the ﬁne and kept the sheep and the slaves and the furniture. and hearing from my wife what had happened. I told him ﬁrst to accept the ﬁne and to follow (me) to the bank. breaking open the door (which they had broken open on the previous day as well). went off taking my furniture. and the old woman in such a state that she was in danger of her life. GE pp. check ἐκτίνω in the vocabulary. the moment the ﬁne had been paid. But then Theophemos came along with reluctance. after carrying off the rest of the furniture from the house. then to look after the old woman whom they had beaten and to bring in whatever doctor they liked. Theophemos got angry and abused me vigorously (lit. three hundred and thirteen drachmas and two obols. Translation for 17C Well then. Meanwhile I was paying the money to Theophemos. Euergos. For I did not know that Euergos had gone to my house on that day. . You should be able to recognise the participle from the context. but I paid the ﬁne at once.
no θ). Those men were so abominable that they were (actually) not ashamed to rush in to my wife. coming into the shrine. 6 ἕκτῃ oὔσῃ ἡμέρᾳ Dative expressing a point of time: ‘on the sixth day’. 4–5 ἐβουλήθη. Those men were so abominable as not to be ashamed at going in to my wife. just as ὥστε + inﬁnitive is the commonest way to express result in Greek. ὥστε τύπτειν τὴν γυναῖκα και ἀϕελέσθαι ἀπ᾿ αὐτῆς τὸ κυμβίον. The fellow reached such a pitch of impiety that. Those men were so wicked that they (actually) beat the woman and took away the cup from her. d. b. They do everything so as not to pay the penalty. a. #314–317 suggest that ὥστε + inﬁnitive should be translated by ‘so as to’ and ὥστε + indicative by ‘so that’. ὥστε εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἱκέτην ἀϕελκύσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ βωμοῦ. while ὥστε + indicative states a matter of fact and therefore has negative οὐ. Note that GE pp. This may be useful for the exercise. which is the commonest way to express result in English. 350. second aorist passive (i. he (actually) dragged a suppliant away from the altar. ‘after …’ .e. ὥστε μὴ αἰσχυνέσθαι εἰς τὴν γυναῖκα εἰσιόντες. #324 for a list of deponent verbs which have their aorists in passive form. 17D Page 211 1 Note that ἔδει is past: ‘What then was I to do?’ or ‘What ought I to have done?’ 3–4 συνεκόπη Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. 1.Section 17D 233 EXERCISE FOR SECTION 17C RESULT CLAUSES B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX Note that ὥστε + inﬁnitive has negative μή. but in practice it will often sound more natural to translate ὥστε + inﬁnitive by ‘so that’. and the distinction between the ‘potential’ and the ‘actual’ result is a valid one. 345–346. ὥστε μὴ δίκην διδόναι. c. They are doing everything so that they do not (as a result) pay the penalty. ἐδυνήθην See GE p. The fellow reached such a pitch of impiety as to come into the shrine and drag a suppliant away from the altar. ὕστερον ἤ ‘later than …’. The men were wicked enough to beat the woman and take away the cup from her.
and that you do not bring a suit for murder before the king archon. #305. ‘because she would not give up the cup’. I brought in a doctor whom I had used for many years. 349. Translation for 17D What should I have done. εὐλαβήθητι μή … ‘take care lest …’ The construction is the same as after a verb of fearing. take care that you do not make a public denunciation of anyone by name. since the furniture had been carried off. and I told them all that had happened. See GE p. and take vengeance in any other way you like. #321. but your wife and children. bear the tragedy as easily as you can. 9 τό τε ὁρμηθῆναι αὐτούς … καὶ ἐλθεῖν τό is followed by two inﬁnitives used as nouns with the subject in the accusative: ‘the fact that they had charged … and that they had come …’ εἰς τοῦτο ἀσελγείας ἐλθεῖν ὥστε … ‘to reach such a pitch of depravity that …’ Literally ‘to reach this [point] of depravity that …’ See GE pp. my old nurse died. ὅ τι ποιητέον ‘what must be done’. 332. and to beat up the old woman for the sake of a cup. In addition to this I recalled the goodwill of the woman and that she had died because she would not give up the cup. and where should I have turned. But having puriﬁed yourself on behalf of your household and yourself. But when Theophemos was not willing and I could not persuade him. from what you say. I was at once very angry. 16 The case for prosecution could only be brought by a relation or the master of the deceased.234 Section 17D 7–8 ἵνα εἰδείην ‘so that I might know’. But yesterday. 12 διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀϕεῖναι Once again the inﬁnitive is used as a noun: ‘owing to the fact that she did not give up the cup’. #317. All he could do was to go through a ritual of puriﬁcation to free himself and his household from the pollution of the death. and the ﬁne had been paid? But then. on the sixth day after they had charged into the house. Having heard the story from me. and since other witnesses did not appear for you. For the woman is not one of your family. the ofﬁcers gave this advice: ‘Since you yourself were not present. and try to think up some other means of vengeance. #293 and p. and I went early (as I have said) to the ofﬁcers to ﬁnd out what should be done about this. 345–346. nor is she a slave. the fact that they had charged into the farm and reached such a pitch of depravity that they had not been ashamed to burst in on my wife and children. 15 εὐλαβήθητι Aorist passive imperative. if nothing else. Therefore Aristarchos could not legally bring a case against Theophemos and Euergos for her murder. The old woman was neither family nor slave. 316. See GE p.’ . and to carry off the furniture. Apollodoros. I ordered Theophemos to look after the old woman who had been beaten and to bring in whatever doctor he wished. Purpose clause in secondary sequence. the old woman was in danger of her life.
#327).) be written (pl. 3 οὐδ᾿ ἄν … ‘Nor would I dare to lie even if I knew well that …’ Here you need to understand ‘dare to lie’ repeated from the previous line. See GE p. ‘What am I to do?’. 351–352. even in retaliation. τράπωμαι.) 1.) let them be punished be taken (pl. #325. γράφητε 17D: 2 let him/her be set free (s. and correlatives (GE pp. ‘Where am I to turn?’ etc. What effect does it have? 7–8 The desire to inﬂict vengeance on one’s enemies was regarded as natural and proper by the majority of people in the ancient world. 4–5 οὐ γὰρ οὕτω τούτους μισῶ ὡς ἐμαυτὸν φιλῶ For the use of correlatives see GE pp. κολασθέντων 3. 7 δεινὸν ἂν εἴη Note the ἄν. φαθί 5. 351. γνώτω This section introduces two new pieces of syntax. λήφθητε 4. #328). 351.Section 17E 235 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17D MORE IMPERATIVES 17D: 1 1. στήτω 4. γένωμαι All these are deliberative subjunctives.) . (Socrates was unusual in taking the opposite view that it is never right to do wrong.’ 5 τί δρῶμεν Why is the subjunctive used here? 6 σκοπῶμεν ‘Let us consider’. γνῶτε 2. Make sure that you have digested it and fully understand it all. ἄν + optative expresses potential: ‘could’ or ‘would’. #325–327). ‘I do not hate them in such a way as I like myself.’ ‘I do not hate them as much as I like myself. and the second μή introduces the fear for the future with its verb in the subjunctive in primary sequence (optative in secondary): GE #292. Otherwise it brings in as much as it can of the syntax that you have learned in Sections 16 and 17. 351–352. βῆθι 17E 3. #328. 2–3 οὕτως … ὥστε … + inﬁnitive indicates result. Here ‘I do not know what to do with myself’ (GE p. τιμήθητι 5. and #293.) be honoured (s. μὴ φοβηθῇς μή … ‘Don’t be afraid lest …’ μή + aorist subjunctive expresses the prohibition. or Reference Grammar 404. 351. the deliberative subjunctive (GE p. λυθήτω 2. 2 χρῶμαι χράομαι + dative means ‘to use’ or ‘to treat someone’. Page 212 1 ποιήσω.
Apollodoros. AP. AP. vengeance was just as much a matter of honour for the man in the street as for the Homeric hero. Translation for 17E So be it. Come to my house tomorrow at dawn. For I do not dislike them as much as I like myself. What am I to do? Where am I to turn? What will become of me? For I do not know what to do with myself. AR. but it is frequently used to beg someone to do what you suggest: e. then. Consider then what we are to do. ἀναλάβωμεν What mood and why? οὐ κυνὶ πλανητέον ‘It ought not to be wandered by a dog. For it is raining. ἐὰν θεὸς ἐθέλῃ ‘If god is willing. please come (and don’t do otherwise). AR. so that we can take counsel about these very things. #282. See GE #298–299 or Reference Grammar #399. if God wills it.’ ἵνα βουλευσώμεθα Why the subjunctive? It is the verb in a purpose clause in primary sequence. You have the story. Reference Grammar p. #398. if you are not sure: GE #198–199. for sharing my enthusiasm. But let us do this later and resume our talk. καὶ μὴ ἄλλως ποιήσῃς Literally this means ‘Don’t do otherwise’. 304–305.g. my good friend. I am delighted by what you say. ARISTARCHOS . Let us be going. For indeed it would be a terrible thing for a good friend not to share his friends’ desire to be revenged on their enemies. χάριν εἴσομαι What tense of οἶδα is this? ποιώμεθα. ἀϕικοῦ What part of the verb is this? Revise aorist imperatives. by the Gods. 460. 317. For surely I would not be so foolish as to dare to lie to the jurors. ποίησον. But you act thus for me. Thus a friend could be expected to give all possible help in making plans for revenge.236 Section 17E 10 11 12 12–13 13 16 16–17 In general. APOLLODOROS Let us consider together. 457. Indeed I shall be grateful to you. and do not be afraid that I won’t share your enthusiasm. The idea comes from the opening of Menander’s Misoumenos.’ ‘Not even a dog should be wandering about. I will come to you tomorrow.’ For future conditions see GE pp. #402. So it is necessary for me most of all to help you in your perplexity. not even a dog should be wandering about now. and #206–207. my excellent friend. Let us do this. even if I knew that I would convict my enemies of doing wrong. and for conditions in general. #294 for verbal nouns expressing obligation. nor would I do so. See GE Reference Grammar p. and I agree that I must do nothing before I have consulted with you.’ See GE p. πρὶν ἂν συμβουλεύωμαι For πρίν meaning ‘until’ see GE #311–312 and compare this with indeﬁnite clauses in general. and. the Greek for ‘Do please come’ would be ‘Come and don’t do otherwise.
περιμένετε δή· οὐ γὰρ δεῖ ὑμᾶς ἀπελθεῖν πρὶν ἂν ἐπανελθῇ ὁ ἐμὸς ἀνήρ. 2. ‘μὴ τὰ σκεύη λάβητε’. It is quite possible. to use a subordinate clause instead of a participle. like most people. it seems (lit. as it seems). αἱ θεράπαιναι οὐκ ἔμειναν ἕως ἅλoιεν.Revision exercises for section 17 237 REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17 D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. then some men of that time were so astounded and listened with such delight that while singing they neglected food and drink and did not SOCRATES . But when the Muses were born and song appeared. my dear Phaedrus. What am I to do? It is clear that I must tell you. ἄγγελός τις προσελθὼν πρὸς τὸν Πειραιᾶ ἐπήγγειλεν ἐμοὶ τὰ γεγενημένα. πάντα λαβόντες ἀπῆλθον. For I really am unaware of it. ‘ἆρ’ οὐκ ἤδη πεντήκοντα ἔχετε πρόβατα. as it seems. ἔϕη. before the Muses existed. τὸν ἐμὸν υἱὸν ἦγον ἕως γείτων τις εἶπεν ὅτι υἱὸς οὐ δούλου ἀλλὰ πολίτου εἴη. τῇ δὲ ὑστεραίᾳ. certainly we have the time. For. they would rightly laugh at us. ἡ δὲ ἐμὴ γυνὴ ὀργισθεῖσα. at midday not talking but sleeping and being bewitched by them through idleness of thought. προσελθὼν πρὸς αὐτόν. 2. singing and talking to one another. πάντ᾿ ἀκούσας. 5. or to choose a different Greek word in some places. Sentences 1. ἐκινδύνευσα οὕτως ὀργισθῆναι ὥστε τὸν Θεόϕημον αὐτὸς παίειν. regarding us as slaves who sleep like sheep round the spring. although it is proper to call you a lover of music and literature. there is leisure. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα. ἐκέλευσα ἀκολουθεῖν ἐμοὶ ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν ἵνα τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἐνταῦθα κείμενον συλλάβῃ. SOC. 4. PHAEDRUS What is the gift? Don’t keep it a secret. 3. ἐγὼ δέ. And at the same time the cicadas seem to me to be watching us. But if they see us talking and sailing uncharmed past them as if they were the Sirens. It is said that once upon a time cicadas were men. TEST EXERCISE 17 Let us talk then. Prose There are a several alternative ways of translating the English into Greek. for example. If they were to see us. I am afraid that you may appear to be uncultured if you are ignorant of such matters. perhaps they would be pleased and grant us the gift which they have from the gods to give to men. ὠργίσθην ὅτι ὑβρισταὶ ὄντες οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν τίτθην ὥστε περὶ ψυχῆς ἐκινδύνευεν.’ οἱ δὲ οὐκ ἀκούσαντες τῆς γυναικὸς ταῦτα λεγούσης. οὕτως ὠλιγώρουν ὥστε εἰσελθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν ἐκϕορεῖν τὰ σκεύη. οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο ἐκϕοροῦντες τὰ σκεύη ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας πρὶν πάντα ἁρπάσειεν (ἁρπάζοιεν).
verbs.(ὥς). provides an essential list of irregular verbs and their principal parts (ultimately you should make it your goal to know all these by heart). and after that. notice that they were dying. Therefore. And from these men the race of cicadas later sprang. From now on you may ﬁnd it increasingly useful to use the Reference Grammar.238 Revision exercises for section 17 ΡΗ. # 390–391 # 392–394 # 396–406 . gives a summary of the main syntactical constructions. that they should need no food. receiving this gift from the Muses. they should tell them which of men honoured the Muses. We must indeed make conversation. pronouns. adjectives. give uses of ὡς. for many reasons we must have some conversation and we must not sleep in the middle of the day. but that without food or drink they should sing until they died. # 352–388 # 389 has tables of nouns. gives lists of prepositions and particles. going to the Muses. participles and inﬁnitives.
This refers to air and water. but the iambic rhythms also suggest that the myth may be based on a long established story which had been told often in verse. τοὺς δέ … τοῖς δέ … (ABBA) followed by ἃ μὲν γὰρ σμικρότητι ἤμπισχε … ἃ δὲ ηὖξε μεγέθει … 10 καὶ τἆλλα = καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ‘and he assigned the other qualities also …’ Translation for 18A There was once a time when gods existed but mortal creatures did not. νέμων Note the repetitions. 3 τῶν = ἐκείνων. It is likely that he is here imitating the style of the sophist Protagoras. though normal in Homer. 18A Page 216 1 The verb ‘to be’ is often used in the sense of ‘to exist’. νείμαντος. aorist. it is a fascinating passage which describes the creation of the world and the social necessity for man of possessing δίκη and αἰδώς (a sense of right and a moral awareness of others and their response to one’s actions). ὅσα πυρὶ καὶ γῇ κεράννυται ‘as many as are mixed with ﬁre and earth’. This is rare in Attic Greek. earth. perhaps in tragedy. into whose mouth he puts the speech. ‘fated’. Protagoras 320c–323a. and also that the aorist stem of νέμω is νειμ-. 6 ἐπίσκεψαι Can you recognise this? What kind of imperative is it? (2nd s. The introduction to this section in Reading Greek is important. 2 χρόνος εἱρμαρμένος ‘allotted’ in the sense of ‘allotted by destiny’. Here the article is used as a demonstrative pronoun. Whatever its origins. the gods formed them within the earth out of a mixture (having mixed) of earth and ﬁre and of the 239 . air. νέμει. When the appointed time came for these also to be born (time of birth). (Some Greek philosophers believed that all things were composed of four elements. ﬁre and water. The style is not typical of Plato. the other two elements. γῆς ἔνδoν ‘within the earth’.Section Eighteen: How Zeus gave justice to men This passage is reproduced unadapted from Plato.) 5–6 νεῖμαι.) 6–9 Note the careful patterning of the phrases: τοῖς μέν … τοὺς δέ ….
Translation for 18B When he had provided enough means of escape for them from mutual slaughter. Herodotus (3. Epimetheus asked Prometheus [to allow him] to do the distributing himself. ‘solid’. sufﬁcient to ward off the winter’s cold and capable of withstanding also the summer’s heat. subject has a singular verb. The root γεν-. ὥρας ‘hours’ or ‘seasons’. 3 Notice ἱκανοῖς μέν … δυνατοῖς δέ … and understand a repeat of ἀμῦναι in the second phrase.108) also points out that animals that are preyed on reproduce rapidly.e. ‘dermatitis’. And he shod them too. he devised some other power for their protection. 5 ἄλλοις ἄλλας ‘different foods for different creatures’. 2 στερεοῖς ‘thick’. ‘you review it’. Next he provided different sorts of food for them. ‘And when I have done it’. and the root ϕθορ as in διαϕθορά ‘destruction’. he began to distribute the powers. ‘pachyderm’. ‘epidermis’. πολυ-γονία These should be guessable. 8 ὀλιγο-γονία. for some grass from the earth. they ordered Prometheus and Epimetheus to equip them and assign powers suitable to each one. γονstands for ‘race’. he protected by that very quality. he contrived comfort against the seasons sent from Zeus. but to the weaker he gave speed. the same skins should serve as individual and natural coverings for each one. balancing everything in this way. And there were some to whom he gave the ﬂesh of other animals for their food. he gave some creatures strength without speed. ‘birth’. Steroids thicken your physique. 6–7 ἔστι δ᾿ οἷς ἔδωκεν … ‘and there were some to whom he gave …’ This use of ἔστι + relative pronoun is a fairly common idiom. stereophonic sound is ‘dense’ or ‘thick’. 18B Page 218 1 ἀλληλοϕθοριῶν This is made up of two words: ἀλλήλους which means ‘One another’. taking care that no species should be destroyed. Remember that a n. to whom he gave an unarmed nature. διαϕθείρω. and he assigned the other qualities also. What part of the verb is ἰοῦσιν? 4 τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ‘these same things (i. This is the subject of ὑπάρχοι. δέρμασιν Cf. Cf. while . pl. 7. and for some roots. ‘family’. clothing them with thick hair or tough skins. some he armed with weapons. These he made less fertile.240 Section 18B things that are compounded with ﬁre and earth. skins)’. some with hooves and some with tough and bloodless skin. ‘dermatology’. while for others. those whom he enlarged in size. and he planned that when they went to bed. he allotted winged ﬂight or an underground dwelling. εἰς εὐνὰς ἰοῦσιν ‘for them going to bed’. he said. In his distribution. for some fruit from the trees. Having thus persuaded him. To those on whom he bestowed smallness. And when they were ready to bring them to the light. He planned these things.
and so τὰ ἄλογα becomes the normal word for ‘beasts’. Man now has the skills to stay alive. 356. Page 220 13 ἐϕιλοτεχνείτην This is a dual. See GE pp. τέχνη covers both the skill of the craftsman and the creative genius of the artist. The dual can be used in verbs.Section 18C 241 those on whom they fed. 3 ἠπόρει ὅ τι χρήσαιτο This is a deliberative question in secondary sequence: ‘What am I to use?’ becomes ‘He was in doubt what he was to use.g. ‘in as much as’. since Epimetheus was not particularly brilliant. #330. he made more fertile. Hephaistos is the god of ﬁre and the master-craftsman. 8 τὴν ἔντεχνον σοϕίαν ἔντεχνον is a compound adjective and has only two terminations. The power of speech is what distinguishes man from beasts. thus it does. he did not notice that he had used up all the powers on the animals (he escaped his own notice having used up the powers). 2 τὰ ἄλογα ‘the speechless ones’. 9–10 Notice the contrast between τὴν περὶ τὸν βίον σοϕίαν and τὴν πολιτικήν. possibly ‘technical knowledge’ would suit the context best here. 18C Page 219 1 ἅτε + participle means ‘since’. But the human race was still left over for him. two hands. It is worth looking at the pattern of the duals. agree with σοϕίαν. Translation for 18C Now. a chariot team or. as here. #329. You will probably be able to recognise them when you meet them. #331–332. In addition.’ See GE p. καταναλώσας ἀναλίσκω (ἀναλωσ-) means ‘I spend’ or ‘I expend’. 356. e. It is difﬁcult to ﬁnd an adequate translation. in fact. usually when they are a pair. 356–358. but it is not essential to learn them by heart. 10 ταύτῃ ‘in this way’. and in nouns and adjectives. without any . Prometheus comes …’ 6–7 ἀπορίᾳ οὖν σχόμενος … ἥντινα σωτηρίαν … εὕρoι See note on line 3 above. See GE p. but has not yet acquired social skills which enable him to live in a community. a couple. ἀποροῦντι δὲ αὐτῷ ἔρχεται Προμηθεύς ‘to him being in doubt. Athene is the goddess of wisdom. when two people or things are the subject. 8–9 ἀμήχανον … γενέσθαι ‘for it was impossible for it (αὐτὴν = τὴν ἔντεχνον σοϕίαν) to be possessed (κτητήν) by anyone (τῳ = τινί) or to be useful (χρησίμην) without ﬁre’. and so this phrase encompasses both meanings. thus conserving the species (providing safety for the race). and so both their attributes are reﬂected in the phrase.
the house of Zeus – moreover. It can also mean ‘that which is rightly one’s portion’. which were divine prerogatives. so the story goes. and Prometheus no longer had permission to enter the acropolis. for that was in the keeping of Zeus. and cattle would make them like cattle. As a result of this man had the means of life. but it can mean ‘one’s portion in life’. they had to give up and then in their small groups they once again fell prey to wild beasts. thanks to Epimetheus. ‘at ﬁrst’. and already the appointed day had come on which man too had to emerge from the earth into the light. just like the body that each species possesses. stole from Hephaistos and Athene the gift of technical skill together with ﬁre – for without ﬁre it was impossible for anyone to possess or use this skill – and so he gave it to man. Prometheus came to inspect the work (the distribution) and he saw that the other creatures were well provided with everything. In this way man acquired skill to keep him alive. The μοῖρα referred to here is the skill of ﬁre and the technical skill to use it. . unshod. without a bed and without weapons. 7 δημιουργική Α δημιουργός is a craftsman (from δῆμος and ἔργον).’ 5–11 This is a most ingenious explanation of the need for social skills. but that man was naked. hence ‘one’s due’. Whenever they tried. Μοῖρα (personiﬁed) is the goddess of fate. ‘doom’. 9–10 ὅτ’ οὖν ἀθροισθεῖεν ‘whenever they gathered together’. 5 κατ᾽ ἀρχάς This means ‘in the beginning’. English ‘sporadically’. not ‘to think’. cf. hence ‘destiny’. 2 θεoὺς ἐνόμισε Here νομίζω means ‘to acknowledge’. but he did not have political skill. and he did not know what to do. the sentinels of Zeus were terrible. While he was still at a loss. had later on to stand trial for theft. man imagines gods in his own image: ‘But if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could draw and make works of art with their hands as men do. but Prometheus. σποράδην This is an adverb. ἅτε + participle expressing the cause. therefore. 6) points out. Men had to live in scattered groups because they had not the πολιτικὴ τέχνη to live peacefully and cooperatively in cities (or to organise an army). As Xenophanes (fr.242 Section 18D attributes. The verb in the optative shows that this is an indeﬁnite clause. he gave them to man. then horses would draw the images of their gods and make their bodies like horses. And so he secretly entered the house shared by Athene and Hephaistos in which they practised their art. 10 ἅτε οὐκ ἔχοντες ‘since they did not have’. being at a loss to ﬁnd any protection for man. 18D Page 221 1 μοίρας Here this simply means ‘portion’. Prometheus. and stealing Hephaistos’ art of working with ﬁre and the other art of Athene.
respect for others and their rights. it can range from abstract justice to a legal case or the penalty inﬂicted. they injured one another because they did not have political skills. but whenever they gathered in communities. ‘modesty’. Translation for 18D Since man had a share in the portion of the gods. something that actually took place. ﬁrst of all. an irregular verb. the main verb πέμπει is a ‘historic present’. They did indeed seek to come together and to protect themselves by founding cities. Notice the position of πᾶν at the end of the clause. 2 ἵν᾽ εἶεν … ‘so that they might be …’ A purpose clause in secondary sequence. It contains an element of fear – men behave well through fear of what others may think of them if they do not. 2 αἰδῶ τε καὶ δίκην Two immensely important words which have a wide range of meanings. and there were no cities. since they were in every way weaker than them. making it emphatic: ‘lest it might be destroyed totally’. and invented houses and clothes and shoes and bedding and food from the earth. 18E Page 222 1 δείσας This is in no way related to δεῖ. as you already know. In this passage the two words express the two qualities which make community living possible: respect for others and a sense of justice and the rule of law. Dodds in The Greeks and the Irrational discusses the nature of the ‘shame culture’. and secondly. although. he alone of living creatures believed in the gods and set to work to build altars and images of the gods. R. shows that this is an actual result. . because of his divine kinship. and it is everywhere apparent in Homer – the heroes must not ‘lose face’. See vocabulary. Thus provided for.Section 18E 243 10–11 ὥστε … διεϕθείροντο The verb in the indicative. the capacity to feel ashamed if you act wrongly to others. That means the present is used instead of the past to make the story more dramatic. men lived to begin with in scattered groups. E. he quickly discovered speech and names by his art. or private morality and public observance of the law. αἰδώς means ‘shame’. but the narrative is still about a past event and the verbs in the subordinate clauses still reﬂect a secondary sequence. hence. but is the aorist participle of δείδω. and the technical skill which was sufﬁcient help to them in getting food was not adequate for ﬁghting the beasts – for they did not yet have the political skill of which the art of war is a part. with the result that they scattered again and were again devoured. rather than the inﬁnitive. Therefore they were destroyed by the wild beasts. δίκη is here more abstract.
ὅταν μὲν … ᾖ λόγος ‘whenever the argument is concerned with …’ ὅταν δὲ … ἴωσιν A balancing and contrasting clause to the previous one. ἰδιώταις Often ἰδιώτης means ‘a private individual as opposed to one of a citizen group’. αὕτη. προσῆκον Accusative absolute. 320. at developing the potential for political skill.244 Section 18E 3 4 4 5 6 7 7–8 8–9 9–10 10 12–13 14 15 κόσμοι κόσμος is another important and wide-ranging word. ὡς νόσον πόλεως This is the law they must enforce. The accusative is used adverbially. p. ‘Am I to assign these (qualities) in this way?’ See GE p. νείμω Can you recognise what mood this is. i. In effect it means ‘the Athenians in particular’. and then ‘the thing that is ordered’. and why? It is not the future (νεμῶ). See Reference Grammar #402. Be careful not to confuse εἷς with εἰς. οἵ τε ἄλλοι καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι Literally this means ‘both the others and the Athenians’. You will see that δοίη is optative. the summing-up of the meaning of the myth. but it is the aorist subjunctive (aorist stem νειμ-). #296.e. used in a deliberative question. genitive. οὕτω δή Introduces the conclusion. He goes on to describe how Athenian education was aimed. and thus reﬂects secondary sequence. Here the sense is ‘order’.D. (Cf. The brutal extermination of those without the right qualities underlines the importance which Zeus attaches to them. ‘order’. but here it simply means ‘individuals’. 351. Protagoras rests his case. rather than οὐ. See GE p. ἐρωτᾷ Continuing use of the historic present. ‘the universe’ (‘the cosmos’) or the ‘world’ (‘cosmopolitan’). θῶ. τὸν μὴ δυνάμενον … κτείνειν. ὦ Σώκρατες. 460. It means ‘decoration’ (‘cosmetic’).E. τούτου αἰτία Q. δεσμοί These are ‘bonds’ or ‘fetters’. but in some cases it can be signiﬁcant. #325–326. . and the basic human qualities which all should share. κτείνειν Poetic. The normal prose use would be ἀποκτείνειν. nominative – nominative. genitive. which illustrates the difference between specialist knowledge and expertise. τίνα οὖν τρόπον ‘in what way’. νείμω Do you recognise the deliberative subjunctives? μετεχόντων Can you recognise this? ‘Let them all have a share …’ οὐ γὰρ ἂν γένοιντο πόλεις. εἰ ὀλίγοι αὐτῶν μετέχοιεν The optative mood of the verbs and presence of ἄν will tell you what sort of a condition this is. from earliest childhood. δεσμωτήριον ‘a prison’. makes the participle phrase indeﬁnite: ‘whoever is incapable of …’ rather than ‘the one who is not capable …’ Here the difference in meaning is slight. The use of μή. Notice how the meaning has deteriorated over the centuries into ‘idiot’.) Note once again the chiasmus (ABBA pattern) in πόλεων κόσμοι τε καὶ δεσμοὶ ϕιλίας. or Reference Grammar #395.
is the reason for this. or am I to assign them to all men?’ ‘To all men’. since they think it is proper for every man to have a share in this virtue or there would not be any cities. as you say – reasonably in my view – but whenever they seek advice on political wisdom. Socrates. sent Hermes to take to men the qualities of respect for others and a sense of justice so that there could be order in the cities and bonds of friendship uniting men.’ Thus it is for these reasons. that. they rightly listen to every man. and if anyone outside these few gives advice. believe that only a few are capable of giving advice. the Athenians. ‘and let all men have a share. That. fearing that our whole race would be destroyed. and the same is true of other experts. they do not tolerate it. Socrates.Section 18E 245 Translation for 18E Therefore Zeus. Hermes asked Zeus in what way he was to give justice and respect to men: ‘Am I to distribute these gifts in the same way as the skills have been allocated? They have been distributed in this way: one man having the skill of a doctor is sufﬁcient for many individuals (laymen). like other people. which must always follow the path of justice and moderation. whenever the debate is about skill in architecture or any other expertise. said Zeus. Am I then to give justice and respect to men in this way. And moreover lay it down as a law from me that if anyone is incapable of sharing in justice and respect he must be put to death as a plague to the city. . for there could never be cities if only a few people shared in these qualities as in the other arts.
you may want to look at GE pp. 11 μή τί oἱ κρεμάμενον … ‘lest anything having been hung over him might…’ 246 . 4 διέϕθαρτο Literally this means that ‘he had been destroyed’. oἱ ‘to him’. However. 2–3 ἐπέστη ὄνειρoς The dream is personiﬁed. You will ﬁnd that you get used to this quite quickly. 6 ἀπολέει Here the future of ἀπόλλυμι means something like ‘will lose’ rather than ‘will destroy’. 2 ἑωυτόν = ἑαυτόν. and thus attracts the vengeance of the gods. it ‘stood over him’. οὐδαμῇ ‘nowhere’. a brutal word for ‘handicapped’ (cf. ὀλβιώτατον Note the emphatic position. Perpetual happiness is the prerogative of the gods and not of man. #333–334 ‘The Dialect of Herodotus’. pp.Section Nineteen: The story of Adrastos This passage is reproduced unadapted from Herodotus. 5 ὦν = οὖν. and it is always easy to confuse it with ὤν ‘being’. Apart from the accent.34–45. Herodotus writes in the Ionic dialect (see Introduction). This is not punishment for an evil act. but punishment for ‘thinking more than mortal thoughts’. for all practical purposes. but it shows Croesus’ feeling that he had only one son. its position near the beginning of a sentence should help to distinguish it. and the vocabularies will help you as well. 225–226 of RGT and the beginning of the story. Note this carefully. You will meet it frequently. before you start. or ‘stood beside him’. Croesus commits an act of ‘hubris’ by exhibiting pride in his continuing happiness. as are many of the verbs. Histories 1. 19A Page 230 1 νέμεσις ‘retribution’. ‘written off’). 9–10 ἀκόντια δὲ καὶ δοράτια καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα πάντα Objects of both ἐκκομίσας and συνένησε. 359–360. 8 ἐωθότα δὲ στρατηγέειν μιν … Object of ἐξέπεμπε in the next line. 227–229. which is translated for you. The form is uncontracted. It is very important to read both the introduction on pp. μιν ‘him’.
7 ἐπίστιος = ἐϕέστιος. 19B Page 232 1 ἔχοντος … τὸν γάμον ‘(with) his (οἱ) son having his marriage in hand …’ ἀπικνέεται = ἀϕικνεῖται. and he also removed javelins and spears and all such weapons as men use in war from the men’s quarters and stacked them in the inner chambers. See GE p. but the other was far superior to his contemporaries in every way. it is the object of ἐπικυρῆσαι. Catharsis is the rite of puriﬁcation which the perpetrator of a crime (whether voluntarily or involuntarily committed) must undergo before he can cease to be regarded as polluted and return to normal life and relationships. And it was this Atys that the dream pointed out to Croesus that he would lose. Croesus had two sons. (Cf. overtook Croesus. 360. to make a reasonable guess. #335. ‘puriﬁcatory’. lest anything hanging over the boy might fall on him. ‘guest’. perhaps ‘gripped by disaster’. Croesus no longer sent him out on this sort of venture anywhere. 9 ἐμεωυτοῦ = ἐμαυτοῦ. he ﬁrst brought a woman in marriage for the boy. This means literally ‘by the hearth’. ἀέκων is the uncontracted form of ἄκων. but you can tell that the verb is past because of the ending. line 10. fearing the dream. 1–2 συμϕορῇ ἐχόμενος Literally ‘being held by disaster’. Thus ξένος can mean ‘stranger’. because he thought himself to be the happiest of all men. 6 ὁκόθεν = ὁπόθεν. is used here as a noun. Then when he woke up and took counsel with himself.) Once he had been accepted into the house. A suppliant would sit by the hearth and was under the protection of Zeus Epistios. 239. the relationship of guestfriendship would be established. 3 καθαρσίου The neuter of the adjective καθάρσιος. This is an accusative of respect. 5 ἐπυνθάνετο The imperfect tense suggests that Croesus ‘began the process of ﬁnding out’ or ‘wanted to ﬁnd out’. ἐών = ὤν ‘being’. οὐ καθαρὸς χεῖρας ‘not clean in respect of his hands’. of whom one was disabled (for he was deaf and dumb). also in the next line κόθεν = πόθεν. although he had been accustomed to command the Lydians in battle. his name was Atys. ἀμείβετο There is no augment. Straightaway a dream came to him when he was asleep which revealed to him the truth of the evils which were going to happen with regard to his son. great retribution from god. p.Section 19B 247 Translation for 19A After Solon had gone. and then. ‘host’ and ‘friend’. 19F. struck by an iron spear-head. .
a huge monster of a boar appeared. I am called Adrastos. and related to the royal family. 3 διαϕθείρεσκε The ending in -έσκω is ‘frequentative’. on the Mysian Mount Olympus.’at the dentist’s’. we cannot do so. begged him to cleanse him of his blood-guilt in accordance with the laws of the country. 12 ἐν ἡμετέρου ‘in [the house] of ours’. Cf. When Croesus had performed the customary rites. and the Mysians. a huge monster of a boar has appeared in our land. I am the son of Gordias. and I am here because I killed my own brother by accident. 11 τοῖσι ἰοῦσι ‘to those going’. 436–442. #389. did it no harm. the son of Midas. this creature used to destroy the Mysians’ crops. Page 234 10 οἱ ‘to him’. there arrived in Sardis a man who was beset by misfortune and whose hands were polluted (not pure). saying these words: ‘You. Cf. which is destroying our crops. ποιέεσκον later in the same line. Cf Section 5A line 6. p. Translation for 19C So he took up residence in the house of Croesus. This man. sir. 54: ‘τὸ χρῆμα τῶν νυκτῶν’.’ Croesus answered him in these words. It will be best for you (you will proﬁt most) if you bear this misfortune as lightly as possible. being a Phrygian by birth. And Croesus did cleanse him.’ 19C Page 233 2 ὑὸς χρῆμα μέγα Literally ‘a great thing of a boar’.248 Section 19C ἐξεληλαμένος From ἐξ-ελαύνω ἐλάω ἤλασα ἐλήλακα ἐλήλαμαι ἠλάθην. who are you and where in Phrygia do you come from? What man or woman did you kill?’ And he answered. Finally. Now therefore we ask you to send us your . and at this same period. No augment for either. 4 ἀπικόμενοι = ἀϕικόμενοι. he started to ask who he was and where he came from. coming to the house of Croesus. The process of puriﬁcation is very similar in Lydia and in Greece (among the Lydians and among the Hellenes). and shows that the action took place repeatedly. where you shall be in need of nothing while you remain in my house. Translation for 19B While his son was occupied with his wedding. ‘O King. Making forays from this mountain. often setting out against it. who were my suppliant. ‘You are the son of men who are my friends and you have come to friends. ‘at the doctor’s’. but were harmed by it. messengers from the Mysians spoke thus: ‘O King. See list of irregular verbs. coming to Croesus. Although we are eager to destroy it. GE pp. Dative plural of the participle. I have been driven out by my father and deprived of everything.
χρῆν … This is an unfulﬁlled condition.e. for χρῆν was felt to be virtually potential on its own. I shall send selected bands of Lydians and the whole pack of hounds and I shall order those who go to be as eager as possible to join in ridding your land of this creature. 361. Cf. 15 διεϕθαρμένον τὴν ἀκοήν ‘destroyed in respect of his hearing’. 7–8 Notice the crescendo of indignant questions. and in respect of which the dream has escaped your notice (which you have failed to observe in the dream)’. 6 τέοισι ὄμμασι τέοισι = τίσι: ‘with what eyes?’ How will he look to observers? What will people think of him? How will he appear in their eyes? 7 κοῖος = ποῖος. ‘Do not mention my son any more. 14 τυγχάνεις ἐών Here the meaning is ‘you really are’ rather than ‘you happen to be’. τὴν ἀκοήν is an accusative of respect. σϕι ‘to them’. i. 17 τό is both the object of μανθάνεις and accusative of respect with λέληθέ σε ‘there is something which you do not understand.’ This was his answer. 11 ὄψις ὀνείρoυ … ἐπιστᾶσα This echoes the ἐπέστη in Section 18A. 3–4 τὰ κάλλιστα … ἡμῖν ἦν … ϕοιτέοντας εὐδοκιμέειν Literally ‘the most glorious and noble deeds were once formerly to us (mine). but Croesus. Latin nego. he is newly married and this is what concerns him now. . spoke these words to them. remembering the words of the dream. ‘in consideration of’. going to wars and to hunts to win fame’.’ They made these requests. ϕοιτέοντας does not agree with ἡμῖν. ‘deaf’. Page 236 19–21 εἰ μὲν γὰρ … εἶπε … . as often. 12 πρός ‘with regard to’. so that we may rid our country of it. because it is seen as part of an accusative and inﬁnitive phrase which explains the ﬁrst statement. for I would not send him to you. 8 μέθες ‘Let me go. but. 13–14 εἴ κως … ‘if in some way …’ διακλέψαι ‘steal you (from death or Fate)’. 5 ἀποκληίσας ἔχεις Herodotus often uses a past tense made up of ἔχω + aorist participle. there is no ἄν used with χρῆν. ὀλιγοχρόνιον You will be able to guess this if you derive it from the two words you know. However.Section 19D 249 son and a selected band of young men and hounds.’ This is the aorist imperative from μεθίημι. 16 τoι = σοι. #336 for the meaning of οὔ ϕημι. 19D Page 234 2 οὐ ϕαμένου See GE p.
You say that the dream says that I will die by an iron spearhead. τευ = τινός. but what you do not understand and have failed to observe in respect of the dream. showing me your opinion about the dream. as it is. defeated by you. Cf. ‘odontology’. and I do not consider that he exists. the young man spoke thus to him: ‘Previously. 23 ἔστι τῇ ‘there is a way in which …’. Now to what eyes must I appear as I walk to and from the agora? (What must people think of me?) What sort of person shall I seem to the citizens.’ The young man answered with these words. So. it is not because I have noticed any cowardice or any other disagreeable trait in you that I do this. Since therefore our ﬁght is not against men. τοι = σοι. for the other one is deaf (disabled in respect of hearing). having heard what the Mysians were asking.250 Section 19E 20 ὀδόντος Cf. since you have had such a dream. it is the case that you conquer me. For you are in reality my only son.’ 19E Page 237 1 εἴπας This is the aorist participle formed from the ﬁrst aorist εἶπα which is the alternative to εἶπον. οἶκε = ἔοικε. Father. Translation for 19D Although the Mysians were contented with this. then. taking precautions to see if I can somehow steal you [from death] for as long as I live (for the period of my life). but because the apparition of a dream came to me in my sleep. ‘orthodontist’. or persuade me by reason that these things are better for me if done this way. Father. what sort of man to my new-wed wife? With what sort of husband will she seem to be living? You must therefore either let me go to the hunt. although you have noticed no cowardice or lack of spirit in me.’ Croesus answered. ‘somehow’. ‘someone’. ‘I forgive your protectiveness for me. ἢ ἄλλου τευ ὅ τι τούτῳ οἶκε ‘or of anything else which seems like to this’. . it is a weapon that is to kill me. I hastened this marriage of yours and I do not send you on this undertaking. and standing by me said that you would be short-lived.’ Croesus answered in these words: ‘My son. then you ought to be doing what you are doing. it was most honourable and noble for me to go to war and to the hunt to win glory. But now you have barred me from both these activities. ἔστι τις ‘there is a sort of person who …’. I change my mind and let you go to the hunt. Because of this dream. as far as I am concerned (for me). it is right that I should point out to you. what sort of iron spearhead does it have that you should fear? For if it had said to you that I would be killed by a boar’s tusk. and that you would perish by an iron spearhead. ‘My son. but what sort of hands does a boar have. Since Croesus was refusing to send his son to them. or something else like this. the son of Croesus went to him. let me go. But.
I gave you puriﬁcation when you had been stricken by an unpleasant misfortune (for which I do not blame you). ‘the wish’ – the inﬁnitive is used as a noun. Here the aorist passive form is used instead of the aorist middle. whom you command me to guard. it is right for you to go where you can distinguish yourself by your deeds. 19D line 5. providing for all your expenses. now therefore. ϕανέωσι Can you recognise this? ϕαίνω has a second aorist passive ἐϕάνην. return to you unharmed so far as depends on his guardian. and I have received you in my household. it is your birthright and besides you have the strength. since you are eager.’ 11–13 Notice the highly dramatic use of short phrases as the climax is reached: ‘I am ready to do this / your son / whom you order me to guard / unharmed / thanks to his guardian / expect to return to you. I am ready to do these things.Section 19E 251 3 ὑποδεξάμενος ἔχω Another example of this form of past tense. But now. In addition. I ask you to be the guardian of my son when he sets out for the hunt. lest any evil thieves appear to do you harm on the road. to return my generosity. Cf. Croesus sent for the Phrygian Adrastos. in an uncontracted form. ‘in other circumstances’. χρηστοῖσί με ἀμείβεσθαι ‘to repay me with good things’. 5 What does ὁρμωμένου agree with? 6 ἐπὶ δηλήσι = ἐπὶ δηλήσει ‘with a view to harm’. and for many reasons I would restrain myself. under other circumstances I would not go to such a contest. ἀποκληίσας ἔχεις. because you owe it to me. 8 ἄλλως ‘otherwise’. 7 ἀπολαμπρυνέαι For -έεαι. 2nd person sing. ‘Adrastos.’ Translation for 19E Having said this. of future tense. for it is not seemly for a man who has experienced such a disaster to join his peers who are more fortunate. 10 πάρα = πάρεστι ‘it is present’. ἔγωγε ἂν οὐκ ἤια ἄν + the past tense of εἶμι (‘I go’) make this an unfulﬁlled condition. Page 238 9 οἰκός = ἐοικός ‘likely’ or ‘ﬁtting’.’ Adrastos answered: ‘O King. This is the aorist subjunctive. and it is my duty to please you (for I owe it to you to return your generosity). and when he arrived he spoke to him like this. nor could I wish it. ἤια = ᾖα. τὸ βούλεσθαι = ‘the will’.’ . and you can expect to see your son. who ﬁrst did you a good turn. ἂν ἶσχον ἄν + the imperfect indicative continues the unfulﬁlled condition: ‘I would be holding myself back. 4 προποιήσαντος χρηστὰ ἐς σέ ‘having done good things for you previously’.
as with a defeated army. 12 τὸν ξεῖνον ϕονέα τοῦ παιδός The contrast is enhanced by the juxtaposition.) 8 συντεταραγμένος A very strong word. 13 ϕύλακα … πολεμιώτατον Here the antithesis is marked by placing the contrasting words at the beginning and the end of the clause. and is often associated with sacriﬁcial slaughter. Similarly. He is given no name and he dominates the coming passage. Croesus’ act and the bond of guest-friendship between them. ‘he struck the son of Croesus’ reminds us of the full signiﬁcance of the relationship with Croesus. 5–6 The emphasis is on the fulﬁlment of the prophecy. The killer and the killed. the attitude of surrender. illustrating the tragic consequences of his observance of the proper duties in each case. the one who had been cleansed of blood-guilt. clear phrases. This technique is used even more forcefully later in this passage. 6 ἀγγελέων Future participle expressing purpose. (You can tell it is future by the single λ and the -εω ending. Page 240 14–17 Again the short. then to the corpse and then to the solitary ﬁgure of the killer. 15 ἐπικατασϕάξαι σϕάζω means ‘to kill with a sword’. τυγχάνει The present tense is used for dramatic effect. called Adrastos’. Once again the inevitable progress of predestined events is made clear. Notice also the formal description of Adrastos as ‘the stranger. 10 πεπονθὼς εἴη The perfect optative is used because this is in indirect speech in secondary sequence: ‘bearing witness to the things which he had suffered’. and the succession of vivid impressions. καθάρσιος. 3 ἐζήτεον. so ‘overwhelmed’. and ﬁnally the quiet statement of utter despair. ἐσηκόντιζον Imperfect: ‘they began to …’ 5 ἁμαρτάνει. 13–14 The focus of attention moves from the Lydians (‘there they were’). The brief plain phrases leading inexorably to the disaster are deeply moving. ‘shattered’. under the auspices of Zeus Epistios he had taken him into his house and under the auspices of Zeus Hetairesios he had befriended him and sent out as guardian of his son the man who proved to be his murderer. The formal expression seems to give a ritual quality which emphasises the universal truth underlying the story and to make it more than the personal fate of individuals. Under the auspices of Zeus Katharsios he had puriﬁed the stranger. the plea for death with the brutal word ἐπικατασϕάξαι thrown into prominence as the ﬁrst word in its clause. This reminds us of Adrastos’ history. ‘distraught’.252 Section 19F 19F Page 239 2–5 Notice the succession of short clear phrases as the dramatic climax is reached. 2. . following behind. 9–13 Croesus calls on Zeus in three capacities. ἐπίστιος and ἑταιρήιος. ταράσσω means ‘to throw into confusion’. and its effect on Croesus.
he called in anger upon Zeus the Puriﬁer. and calling upon him as the god of friendship on the grounds that he had sent him as a guardian for his son and found him to be a most deadly enemy.’ . and. in contrast perhaps to the relentless force of destiny fulﬁlling the design of the gods.Then indeed he. But Croesus. When they arrived at Mount Olympus. since you condemn yourself to death. of all the men whom he knew. fulﬁlled the prophecy of the dream. but hit the son of Croesus. he begged him to slay him over the corpse. hearing this. but it was some god. they set off after this accompanied by the selected young men and the hounds. he said that life was no longer liveable for him.) Next. when all is quiet and the mourners have gone from the tomb. the one who had been ritually cleansed of murder. being hit by a spearhead. and how in addition to it he had destroyed the man who had cleansed him. and having found it and surrounded it they began to hurl javelins at it. even though he was in such personal distress. bearing witness to the things that he had suffered at the hands of the stranger.) Finally. he offered himself to Croesus. then our attention moves to Ἄδρηστος δέ … (Adrastos is now given his full formal name at this ﬁnal moment of the story. And standing before the body. ‘realising that. and the murderer followed behind. ϕονεὺς δέ … the repetition recalls the double tragedy. I have full justice from you. the man called Adrastos. they started to look for the boar. Cf. ἐπικατασϕάζει τῷ τύμβῳ ἑωυτόν. calling upon him as the god of the hearth because having received the stranger into his house he had unwittingly nurtured the murderer of his son. who prophesied to me long ago the events that would come to pass. And there the stranger. was even more grieved because he himself had cleansed of murder the man who had killed him. hurled his javelin at the boar. naming this same god. In his grief at this tragedy. and when he reached Sardis. speaking of his former disaster. Among mortals there can be pity. Euripides’ Hippolytus. he was βαρυσυμϕορώτατος’ (a most weighty and impressive word saved to the last to make it even more emphatic). 21–25 The climax opens quietly. Κροῖσος μέν … buries his son. and stretching out his hands. he told him about the ﬁght and the fate of his son. and someone ran to tell Croesus what had happened.Section 19F 253 17–21 The reaction of Croesus. and spoke thus to him: ‘Stranger. except in so far as you unintentionally did the deed. Translation for 19F When he had answered Croesus with these words. missed the boar. ὁ ϕονεὺς μέν … . overwhelmed by the death of his son. nobility and forgiveness. pitied Adrastos. 20 εἶς = εἶ ‘you are’. A digniﬁed and moving end. (Adrastos is the ‘destroyer’ of the man who puriﬁed him. and he called upon him as the god of the hearth and the god of friendship. the Lydians came bearing the corpse. After this. But Croesus. where the reconciliation of Theseus and his son contrasts with the unrelenting vengefulness of Aphrodite. You are not the one who is responsible for this tragedy. in the sense that by killing his son he has destroyed his life.
you can appreciate fully both the dramatic effect of the story and the varied artistry of Herodotus’ narrative technique. Note You may perhaps want to read through this whole section again. χρηστοῖς . killed himself upon the tomb.254 Exercise for section 19 Croesus then buried his son as was ﬁtting. regarding himself as the most accursed of all men whom he knew. ἕνεκα ἐγένου. But Adrastos. συμφορά πράττω. when it was quiet and the crowd of people had gone from the tomb (when it was quiet of people about the tomb). without having to struggle quite so hard to understand the Greek. the one who had been the killer of his own brother. ποιοῦμεν Περσῶν ταύταις. ἀπολεῖ. φυλάττω μόνος. so that. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 19 THE DIALECT OF HERODOTUS (a) (b) (c) (e) (f) (g) νεανίας. καλούμενος. and the destroyer of the man who had cleansed him. the son of Gordias the son of Midas.
4ff. 243–244. hollow or swift ship’? These were ‘formulas’. with Athene making her way to Phaeacia. RGT pp. See GE p. ‘thus’. 3 βῆ = ἔβη. Oral poets did not commit a poem to memory verbatim. ῥ’ = ῥά. This is known as ‘ring composition’ and is a common feature in Homer. #337 on some vital features of Homeric dialect and syntax. You will quickly come to recognise such phrases. ἔνθα Odysseus is sleeping under an olive bush. #349–352 ‘Homeric dialect – the main features’. partly in Greek and partly in translation. μιν = αὐτήν. 378–382. 362. with the ‘winedark sea’ (ἐπὶ οἴνοπα πόντον) and the ‘black. 255 . Make sure you read the excellent Introduction. having covered himself with leaves. ‘anemometer’ = ‘wind-measurer’. 362. and it is entirely apt. and GE pp. page 247 20 ἀνέμου Cf. #338–339 on Homeric hexameters and Greek metre. but they had in their minds a huge collection of formulaic phrases which ﬁtted neatly into a hexameter line and they could use these to tell the story. There is also the Reference Grammar pp. and notice GE p. The passage in English gives the earlier history of the Phaeacian people. -τλας is from τλάω ‘I endure’. and it is interesting to consider how Homer uses them. 20A Page 246 1 ὥς with an accent = οὕτως ‘so’. πολύτλας δῖος ’Oδυσσεύς A formulaic phrase.Section Twenty: Odysseus and Nausikaa Here you have the whole of Odyssey 6. An abbreviated form of ἄρα: ‘then’. and then returns to where it started. No augment. #337(a). 362–364. ‘anemone’ = ‘wind-ﬂower’. 21 στῆ = ἔστη. The absence of the augment is very common in Homer. Odysseus is often referred to by this description. πολύτλας: πολύ = ‘much’. thus ‘much-enduring’. Do you remember the rhapsode in Section 1H. Remember that this is poetry in the oral tradition. καθεῦδε = καθηῦδε.
and does not express purpose. as seen on the Athenian silver drachma. There is also a particle τοι which means ‘in fact’. 362. This is called ‘tmesis’ (‘cutting’). 29 τοι Here this probably means ‘in fact’. GE p. it means either ‘grey-eyed’ or owl-faced’. Present subjunctive. The preposition is ‘cut off’ from its verb. 362. and is not equivalent to σοι.256 Section 20A πρὸς … ἔειπεν ‘spoke to’. ‘look here’. 31 ἴομεν = ἴωμεν. You can see it is pluperfect because. not -σται. This is the ‘dative of the person concerned’. ἡ γλαύξ is ‘the owl’. and is frequently found with μήτηρ. although it has no augment. #337(d). 25 τί νύ σ’ ὧδε … Literally ‘How did your mother bear you thus lazy?’. ‘And you must provide others for those who …’ οἵ κέ σ’ ἄγωνται κε or κεν = ἄν. 27 ἵνα + indicative means ‘where’. 23 οἱ = αὐτῇ (GE p. Here it is almost certainly the pronoun: compare this example with 20B line 59. καλά Understand εἵματα from the previous line. but only the context will help you to decide between them. the bird of Athene. 32–33 ὄϕρα …ἐντύνεαι ὄϕρα + subjunctive/optative expresses purpose. Therefore this is an indeﬁnite clause. πλυνέουσαι Future participle expressing purpose. 362. The Phaeacians were famed for their nautical skills. 22 ναυσικλειτοῖο Genitive ending (GE p. ‘addressed’. . 28 τὰ δὲ τοῖσι The article is normally used for ‘them’ or ‘these’ in Homer instead of αὐτόν and οὗτος. ἕπομαι takes the dative. as GE says in the vocabulary for 19A). Here the verb is used with two accusatives. although in Homer an indeﬁnite is very close to a future: ‘those who will lead you’. ‘addressed her a word’. another ethic dative ‘as far as you are concerned’. GE p. #337(i)). See GE p. ἔσσεαι = ἔσει ‘you will be’. ‘How did your mother come to have such a lazy daughter?’ 26 τοι = σοι. κεχάριστο This is the pluperfect of χαρίζομαι (not the perfect. #350). 32 τοι = σοι. but it could be either in the context. γλαυκός = ‘gleaming’ or ‘grey-green’. This is a standard epithet for Athene. 33 τοι Here probably the particle ‘indeed’. 30 πότνια μήτηρ πότνια is a stock epithet for goddesses and great ladies. #337(j). Page 248 24 γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη Another formula. ἔην = ἦν. It is often translated ‘lady’. 362. it ends in -στο. It is usually the second word in the sentence. In poetry the preposition is often left out if it is used as the preﬁx to the verb. αὐτήν Agrees with σε (understood). where μοι is equivalent to τοι in this line. #337(k). ἀνθρώπους ἀναβαίνει Understand another ἀνά before ἀνθρώπους: ‘goes up among men’. ὤψ = ‘face’ or ‘eyes’. ‘let us go’. 280.
428–9) Translation for 20A So much-enduring. the grey-eyed Athene addressed her. making herself like the daughter of Dymas. Cf. 381.g. hurried to the bed of the girl. #198–199). Likening herself to her. 39 πολὺ κάλλιον Understand ἐστί. 42 Οὔλυμπόνδε The sufﬁx -δε means ‘towards’. 47 διεπέϕραδε Aorist of διαϕράζω. But come. who was of the same age as her and was very dear to her heart. godlike Odysseus slept there. ὥς with an accent = οὕτως ‘so’. Possessive dative. ἄμαξαν ‘wagon’ as in Section 6H. In between these repeated phrases there is a marvellous description of Olympus. and stood above her head and addressed her a word. ‘phrase’. It was copied by Lucretius in De rerum natura 3. or rain. e. for the washing-places are far from the city. and by Tennyson: Where falls not hail. Nor ever wind blows loudly. And it is much better for you yourself to go in this way than on foot. ‘thus’. and a father and lady mother rejoice. 40 ἀπὸ … εἰσί Tmesis again. ‘are distant from’. ‘where is the race to you yourself also’. ask your famous father before dawn to equip you with mules and a wagon to take the girdles. οἰκάδε. 41 ὣς εἰποῦσα ‘so speaking’. since you will not be a maiden much longer. #351(iv). For from these things indeed a good reputation spreads among men. (Idylls of the King 1.’ . but Athene went to the people and the city of the Phaeacian men … * * * She. the home of the gods. But let us go and do the washing as soon as dawn appears. how has your mother borne such a lazy [daughter as] you? The shining clothes are lying uncared for by you (as far as you are concerned) – and your wedding is near. 189–190. or any snow. ‘and they are your nation too’. ἐπότρυνον Aorist imperative (GE pp. 38 ῥήγεα σιγαλόεντα Cf.Section 20A 257 35 τοι = σοι. for already the noblest of all the Phaeacian men throughout the people are courting you – you are of the same race as them. 41–47 Ring composition again: (line 4) ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη … ἔνθ᾽ ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις (line 10). line 19 ἀκηδέα σιγαλόεντα. ‘where is your race too’. followed by a command. when you must wear ﬁne [clothes] yourself and provide others for those who will escort you. 36 ἄγ᾽ = ἄγε. famous for ships. like a breath of wind. ‘Nausikaa. 43 ἔμμεναι = εἶναι This is a common form of the inﬁnitive in Homer. so that you may get ready very quickly. the robes and the shining covers. ‘Come on’. 18–22. overcome by sleep and weariness. ἐϕοπλίσαι Aorist inﬁnitive of ἐϕοπλίζω. 37 ἡμιόνους ‘mules’ as in Section 8E. See GE p. and I will go with you as a helper.
in it the blessed gods enjoy themselves all their days. It was particularly valuable. ἁλι. Translation for 20B At once fair-throned dawn came and she woke fair-robed Nausikaa. 380 #350. ἴμεναι is a form of inﬁnitive. ‘in the purple’. 71 τοί = οἱ ‘they’. 19A line 19.is from the word meaning ‘salt’ or ‘sea’. 50 βῆ δ᾽ ἴμεναι Literally ‘she went to go’. hence ‘royal purple’. 66 αἴδετο ‘felt reticent about’. 60 σοὶ αὐτῷ ἔοικε This is followed by accusative + inﬁnitive: ‘it is right for you yourself to discuss plans (βουλὰς βουλεύειν) being among the foremost men (ἐόντα) having (ἔχοντα) clean clothes on your body’. θαλερὸν γάμον ‘fruitful marriage’. as daughter to father. cloudless. dear’. See GE p. τοκεῦσι ‘to her parents’. 54 βασιλῆας ‘chieftains’. 56 μάλ᾽ ἄγχι ‘very close’. line 308) when speaking to Odysseus. the grey-eyed Athene went away to Olympus. 53–54 τῷ δὲ … ξύμβλητο ‘She met him …’ ἐρχομένῳ agrees with τῷ. ‘Sea-purple’ because purple. when she had spoken to the girl. It means ‘she went’. ‘right up close’. There the grey-eyed one went. Cf. a very common idiom in Homer. Nausikaa was modest about her marriage. and a white radiance covers it. ἵν᾽ ἀγγείλειε ἵνα + optative expresses purpose in secondary sequence. 68 τευ = τινος. and τῷ δέ … in line 53.258 Section 20B So speaking. not ashamed. and then described more fully with ἡ μέν … in line 52. 57 πάππα ϕίλ’ This is informal: ‘Daddy. 55 ἵνα + indicative means ‘where’. where they say the safe seat of the gods is for ever. 53 ἠλάκατα στρωϕῶσ’ ἁλιπόρϕυρα ‘spinning the sea-purple wool’. 20B Page 250 48 μιν ‘her’. but a very clear sky spreads over it. It cannot be τοι = σοι. explained by Ναυσικάαν εὔπεπλον in the next line. ‘nobles’ (not ‘kings’). #351(iv). οὐκ ἂν δή μοι ἐϕοπλίσσειας A polite request: ‘Wouldn’t you provide me with …’ 59 τά = ἅ ‘which’. µοι Another ethic dative (dative of the person concerned). dye came from the murex (a shell-ﬁsh). 265. 52 σὺν ἀμϕιπόλοισι γυναιξίν Another formula which ﬁts the second half of the hexameter. itemised in the next line. at once she was amazed at the dream and she went through the palace to tell it to her parents. Note the accent. nor does snow come near. Nausikaa uses this same phrase (p. or crimson. 381. it is not shaken by winds. as often in Homer. 53 θύραζε = θύρασδε. almost certainly a stock epithet. See GE p. nor wet by showers. .
to discuss plans with clean clothes on your body. when you are with your nobles. 121 σϕίν ‘to them’. 173. but he realised all and replied: ‘I do not be grudge you mules. ἡγήσαιτο takes the dative and it is in the optative because it continues the purpose clause started in line 113. they all wish to go to the dance with newly washed clothes. but here he is more fortunate. The servants will equip for you a high well-wheeled wagon. ﬁtted with a canopy.’ So saying. ἔχουσι ἔχω often has the sense of ‘have (as their home)’.’ Almost ‘It was time to go home. If the inhabitants are ‘god-fearing’. #350. with her servant women. ἀλλά (as in line 110) means ‘but’. dirty. him she met going towards the door. She stood very close to him and addressed her dear father: ‘Daddy dear. 114 oἱ = ‘him’ (dative). i.’ 112 ἄλλ’ ἐνόησε Note the accent on ἄλλο: ‘planned something else’. I know. Remember the sophist in Section 6F ‘catching up the argument like a ball’. The preposition is omitted. 115 σϕαῖραν ‘sphere’. It is a possessive dative. spinning sea-purple wool. She found them indoors. 20C Page 252 110 ἔμελλε ‘She was going to return home. nor anything else. the breathing (ἀ) and the diaeresis (ϋ) show this.e. he ordered the servants and they obeyed. Perhaps ‘Oh dear me!’ 119–121 A most important consideration on arriving in a strange land. 380.’ So she spoke. ‘inhabit’. πόλιν ‘to the city’. so that I may take the lovely clothes to the river to wash them? They are lying there.Section 20C 259 her dear father and mother. two are married and three are thriving bachelors. they will respect the laws of hospitality and look after the stranger kindly. on his way to his distinguished counsellors to a council to which the Phaeacian nobles called him. won’t you get ready for me a high well-wheeled wagon. she (her mother) was sitting by the hearth. lines 33–39. = ‘loudly’. . child. Go. All these things are a concern to my mind. 113 ὡς + optative expresses purpose in secondary sequence. 117 ἐπὶ μακρόν Adverbial. See GE p. 119 τέων = τίνων. ἄϋσαν Three syllables. And it is ﬁtting for you yourself. Page 253 119 ὤ μοι ἐγώ Difﬁcult to translate naturally. βασίλεια Nominative and feminine. 123 νυμϕάων This recalls the simile likening Nausikaa to Artemis and her nymphs on p. Five dear sons have been born to you in the palace. for she was hesitant to mention fruitful marriage to her dear father. Odysseus had the same thoughts before he met the Cyclops.
129 ϕύλλων Goes with πτόρθον in the previous line.260 Section 20D 126 πειρήσομαι ἠδὲ ἴδωμαι These verbs are both subjunctives. 138 ἄλλυδις ἄλλη The whole phrase means ‘in different directions’ (as in GE). let me try and see for myself. . 133 ἑ = ‘him’. literally. ‘a different one in a different direction’. to the land of what people have I come this time? Are they violent. 132 ὀΐεσσιν Four syllables. as with a neuter plural subject. ‘Oh dear me. #350. 130 βῆ δ᾽ ἴμεν See note on 20B line 50 above. Godlike Odysseus awoke. ἠμέν … ἠδέ … ‘both … and …’ Translation for 20C But when she was about to go back home again. ‘gastric’. Cf. ‘his eyes’. The princess then threw a ball to a hand-maiden. of εἶμι. the aorist of ϕαίνομαι. a thick-skinned animal.’ 20D Page 254 128 κλάσε = ἔκλασε. is apt. γαστήρ Cf. Note that the verb (δαίεται) is singular. 130–134 Just as our attention was drawn to Nausikaa with a simile (Artemis and the nymphs). 380. οἱ is a possessive dative. and. that Odysseus should wake up and see the beautiful girl who would lead him to the city of the Phaeacian men. ‘a leafy branch’. Or am I now somewhere near men who speak with human voices? But come. The simile of the mountain lion. 136 περ = καίπερ. savage and not just. who inhabit the steep peaks of mountains and sources of rivers and grassy meadows. ὄσσε A dual (GE #331–332). and they shrieked loudly. 131 εἶσ’ = εἶσι: 3rd s. See GE p. then again the grey-eyed goddess Athene planned something else. ἐν probably belongs to δαίεται and is cut off by tmesis. considered in his heart and mind. Aorist of κλάζω without the augment. or are they hospitable and have a god-fearing mind? The female shriek of maidens surrounded me – of nymphs. note on 20C line 117 ἄϋσαν. ϕωτός Be careful not to confuse ϕώς ϕωτός ‘man’ and τὸ ϕῶς (ϕάος) ‘light’. it missed the handmaiden and fell into the deep eddy. sitting up. so at this point it is focused on Odysseus. Cf. accusative. ‘who goes’. driven down from the hills by hunger to raid the village animals. ‘pachyderm’. 137 ϕάνη = ἐϕάνη. 134 δόμον Here referring to the ‘pens’ where the sheep and cattle were kept. ‘let me …’ ἠδέ ‘and’. παχείῃ Cf. and he too is storm-tossed and driven by desperate necessity to come from the wild to seek help in a civilised community. Odysseus appears as savage and terrible as a lion to the girls. after yoking the mules and folding the ﬁne clothing. ‘gastritis’ etc.
as he thought about it.Section 20E 261 139 οἴη The feminine of οἶος ‘alone’. ‘Honeyed words’ is a frequent formula. though rained upon and blown upon. ‘crafty’) in line 148. It literally means Ί clasp your knees’ – the very thing that Odysseus has not done! θεός νύ τις ἦ βροτός ἐσσι. disﬁgured with brine. Literally ‘maintaining herself’. godlike Odysseus emerged from the bushes. He seemed terrible to them. for need was upon him. so ‘holding her ground’. 20E Page 256 149 γουνοῦμαι GE gives this as ‘beseech’. This shows the shrewdly calculating mind of Odysseus. for no man is going to offend or rape a goddess. At once he addressed to her a honeyed and cunning speech. Odysseus debated whether to take her knees and beseech the beautiful girl or simply with honeyed words at a distance to beseech her to show him the city and give him clothing. It seemed to him. and is picked up by κερδαλέον (‘subtle’. and they ran in different directions along the jutting shores. in case the girl should grow angry in her heart with him for taking her knees. Cf. Alcinous’ daughter alone remained. 252. ‘more advantageous’. holding her ground. for Athene put courage in her heart and removed the fear from her limbs. He went forward like a mountain-bred lion trusting in his strength. hunger orders him to go even into the densely-packed pens. 143 μειλιχίοισι GE gives this as ‘winning’. p. line 113. ‘soothing’. 145 κέρδιον ‘more proﬁtable’. to be better to beseech her with honeyed words from a distance. εὐώπιδα κούρην Another formulaic phrase. 147 μὴ … χολώσαιτο ‘lest she be angry’. Its basic root is μέλι ‘honey’. with his broad hand he broke a leafy branch from the thick-foliaged bush so that shielding (around) his body he could hide his male genitals. δείξειε is also an aorist optative. and his eyes burn. ‘to see if she would show him the city and give him clothes’. ‘Are you a god or a mortal?’ A splendid piece of ﬂattery and also of reassurance. Both are in an indirect question in secondary sequence. So Odysseus was going to meet the maidens with beautiful hair. 144 δοίη Aorist optative of δίδωμι. and ‘honeyed’ would be equally appropriate here. to make trial of the sheep. or goes after the wild deer. they are often employed by Odysseus. the arch-persuader. naked though he was. She stood and faced him. 141 σχομένη Middle participle of ἔχω. Do not confuse this with οἷος ‘such as’. but he attacks the oxen or sheep. 142 γούνων … λαβών Touching or clasping the knees was a sign of supplication. who goes on. . Translation for 20D Speaking thus.
and both Nausikaa and her parents hope at some time that Odysseus might perhaps remain and become her husband. It was there that Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis and in honour of this their father. The point of the comparison is the slender beauty of the palm and the awe it induces in the beholder. that she may be a mortal. γουνοῦμαι in line 8 at the start of the speech. after a singular antecedent θεός. It is also particularly suitable. Cf. . 170 χθιζός An adjective agreeing with the subject Odysseus. 158–159 The climax and another reference to Nausikaa’s marriage. lines 102–109. and brings us back in the ‘ring-composition’ structure to the starting-point of the simile. 151 Ἀρτέμιδι This recalls the simile on p. created the palm and the bay tree. of course. 172 νήσου ἀπ᾽ Ὠγυγίης This was the island of Calypso where Odysseus was detained for seven years. 168–169 δείδια … γούνων ἅψασθαι Another example of ring composition. a formulaic phrase. since Artemis is a virgin goddess. that he has been a person of some importance: line164 πολὺς δέ μοι ἕσπετο λαός. and the feminine participle εἰσοιχνεῦσαν ‘agrees’ with the neuter noun θάλος. 162–163 Note the order in which the ideas are presented: ‘in Delos once … such a … by the altar of Apollo … of a palm … the young shoot springing up … I saw’. Translate ‘yesterday’. Page 258 170–174 Now he speaks of his past sufferings and his foreboding for the future. λευσσόντων ‘agrees’ with σϕισι in line 155 ‘when they see …’. The construction follows the sense: ‘if you are one of the gods who’. 160–165 Note the transition from his admiration and awe at the beauty of Nausikaa to his own story and the ‘hint’ to her (mentioned in the introduction). Zeus. 155–157 There are more constructions here that go with the sense rather than with strict grammar. 152 εἶδός τε μέγεθός τε ϕυήν τ’… All these are accusatives of respect: ‘I liken you to Artemis in appearance. οἴνοπα πόντον ‘the wine-dark sea’. 167 δόρυ This refers to the palm. τοῖον agrees with ἔρνος. Odysseus has.262 Section 20E 150 θεός … τοί τοί is a plural relative pronoun. etc. 173 ὄϕρα … πάθω ὄϕρα + subjunctive expresses purpose: ‘so that I may suffer some trouble (κακόν) here as well (καί)’. where Nausikaa is likened to Artemis. 162 Delos was sacred to Apollo. also to explain to Nausikaa why he is not clasping her knees in the attitude of formal supplication. This is a recurring theme in the Phaeacia story. 252. Literally ‘yesterday’s’. …’ 153 εἰ δέ τίς ἐσσι βροτῶν … More ﬂattery and reassurance as Odysseus develops the second possibility.
so that I may suffer some evil here too. leads you home [as his wife]. princess. are you a god or a mortal? If you are a god. have pity. The sense suggests future. now a god has cast me up here. ‘may they grant’. ‘To you may the gods give all that you desire in your heart. I liken you most closely to Artemis. ἢ ὅθ’ ‘than when …’ 183 ὁμοϕρονέοντε. If you are one of the mortals who live upon earth. I had gone there. princess. ἀμϕιβαλέσθαι An explanatory inﬁnitive. I am astonished and I am terribly afraid to touch your knees. so. ‘I have not seen with my eyes such a one. But he in his heart is most blessed above [all] others who. I delighted in my heart for a long time. for surely the heart within them always warms very much with pleasure through you when they see such young beauty entering the dance. ‘This’ is explained in the next line. He means any old piece of material. Show me the city. daughter of great Zeus.’ 178 δεῖξον Aorist imperative of δείκνυμι. and thrice blessed are your brothers.’ παύσεσθαι = future middle inﬁnitive of παύω. awe holds me as I look. lady. ‘a rag to put round me’. for so long the waves and swift storms carried me always from the island of Ogygia. 181 ὀπάσειαν Another optative expressing a wish. I look at you in awe. and I do not know any other of the people who inhabit this city and land. 175 σε Governed by ἐς in the next line: ‘I came to you ﬁrst. than when in harmony of mind a man and woman share a home. neither man nor woman. . ‘than this’. in appearance. such as inhabit the broad heaven. stature and beauty.Section 20E 263 173–174 οὐ γὰρ ὀΐω παύσεσθαι ‘I do not think it will cease. 180 δοῖεν Optative for a wish. but hard grief has come upon me. on the twentieth day. and a large company followed me. 182 τοῦ Genitive of comparison. Translation for 20E ‘I beseech you by your knees. when I saw it. I saw such a young shoot of a date-palm growing up. near the altar of Apollo. thrice blessed are your father and lady mother. but the gods will accomplish even more before that. give me a rag to put round myself. after suffering many evils I have come to you ﬁrst. since no such shoot ever yet came up from the earth. after loading you with gifts. on that journey on which evil troubles were destined to befall me. But. for I do not think it will stop. if you had any wrapping for the clothes when you came here. and may they grant beautiful harmony: for there is nothing greater and better than this. ‘Yesterday. whatever they wrapped the washing in. I escaped from the wine-dark sea. a husband and a home. In Delos once. ‘may they give’. 174 τελέουσι In form this could be present or future. the subject is ἀνὴρ ἠδὲ γυνή. ῥάκος Very close to ‘rag’. In the same way as. ἔχητον These are both duals.
204–205 ἀπάνευθε. This is an epithet which is applied only to women. pres. but ‘there is not a mortal man living who …’ The accent on ἔσθ᾽ shows that it means ‘exists’ rather than ‘is’. see 218b) it is right (ἐπέοιχ᾽) for a poor suppliant (ἱκέτην ταλαπείριον) not to lack (μὴ δεύεσθαι is understood from οὐ δευήσεαι in the previous line) having met [someone]. The μοι is rather like our colloquial phrase ‘Will you do this for me?’ 200 ϕάσθ᾽ Here this is more like ‘consider’ than ‘say’. is ‘So you will lack neither clothing nor anything else which it is right for a poor suppliant [to have] when he has met [someone to help him]. ἦ δ᾽ ὅς in sections 7D and 7E (Plato. It is a compound adjective with only two terminations.. 9. so that the -ος ending can be feminine. The meaning. 191–193 A complicated clause. ῥά = ἄρα. Once again the religious requirement of hospitality is emphasised. 48. On Minoan frescos women are conventionally coloured white and men terracotta. starting with the previous line.43. lines 31–32.’ 198 ἦ ῥα A common formulaic phrase: ἦ = ‘she spoke’. and women who do not work in the ﬁelds and get sun-burned. You ﬁrst met these lines in Section 4C p.) clothing or anything else which (ὧν is genitive by relative attraction. 207 πρὸς Διός πρός here means ‘under the protection of’. 187–189 Nausikaa means that since Odysseus is sensible and intelligent he must accept whatever fate Zeus sends him. 3rd s. Nausikaa tells her maids to wash Odysseus.’ 20F Page 260 186 λευκώλενος ‘white-armed’. they themselves are greatly respected. . hence. beyond the reach of pirates and enemies and with their magic ships that need no helmsman to take them anywhere they wish to go. 210 λούσατε Note that this is active. Odysseus is described in the ﬁrst line of this book as πολύτλας. 199 στῆτέ μοι ‘stop. ἔσχατοι The Phaeacians live far away on the edge of the known world. 197 GE tells you that ἐκ governs τοῦ and that ἔχεται ἐκ means here ‘depend on’. 201 This is easy to mistranslate: – not ‘this is not a mortal man’. 190 τετλάμεν Inﬁnitive of τλάω. almost in a fairy-tale land.’ In grammatical detail: ‘You will not lack (+ gen. please’. διερός occurs in Homer only here and in Od. Euthydemos). 189 ἐθέλῃσιν = ἐθέλῃ. ‘On him the power and might of the Phaeacians depend. ἔμμεναι = εἶναι. Tradition has it that Phaeacia is the modern Corfu. subj.264 Section 20F they are a great grief to their enemies and a delight to their friends. It is therefore complimentary. ‘just as he pleases’. not to take him to a place where he can wash himself.’ 194 ἐρέω Future of λέγω. Cf.
226 ἀτρυγέτοιο A regular epithet for the sea. 224 νίζετο The verb takes two accusatives here. who would come to the land of Phaeacian men bringing slaughter. to each. you will not lack for clothing nor anything else which it is right for a poor suppliant [to have] when he has met [someone to help him]. for all strangers and beggars are under the protection of Zeus. on him the power and might of the Phaeacians depend. ἀνά can be treated in the same way. 219 ὤμοιϊν Dual – he has two shoulders. and you must doubtless endure them. nor does any other of mortals have dealings with us. We live far away in the loud-roaring sea. Olympian Zeus himself apportions happiness to mankind. Odysseus refuses their assistance because his body is in such a dreadful state after his hardships that he ‘is ashamed to be naked among maidens with well-ordered hair’. handmaidens.’ 20G Page 261 211 ἔσταν = ἔστησαν ‘they stopped’. The Phaeacians inhabit this city and land. but are in fact aorist subjunctives. The two verbs look like futures. 212 κάδ … εἷσαν Note κάδ = κατά. and so he has given you these things. I will show you the city and tell you the name of the people. . just as he pleases.Section 20G 265 Translation for 20F Then white-armed Nausikaa answered him in reply: ‘Stranger. They escorted Odysseus to a sheltered spot and sat him down there. where are you ﬂeeing after seeing a man? Surely you do not think this is one of the hostile men? That mortal man does not exist. to good and bad. I am the daughter of great-hearted Alcinous. and wash him in the river. handmaidens. since you have come to our city and land. But now. although the ordinary plural is used in lines 225 and 235. and gave orders to her handmaidens with pretty hair: ‘Stop.’ She spoke. 221 αἰδέομαι It was normal practice in the world of Homer for girl-slaves to bath male visitors. for we are very dear to the immortal gods. the root of ἕζω = ἕδος. Page 262 218–220 ὄϕρ᾽ … ἀπολούσομαι … χρίσομαι ὄϕρα + subjunctive expresses purpose. But this is some poor wanderer who has arrived here. nor will he ever be born. where there is shelter from the wind. ‘washed his body’ and ‘washed the brine’. But. the furthest [of peoples]. give the stranger meat and drink. whom we must now look after. since you seem to be neither an evil nor a foolish man. 214 πάρ = παρά Note the shortening of some prepositions to monosyllables – κάδ has just occurred and recurs in line 230. It means ‘unharvested’ and so ‘unharvestable’ and so ‘barren’. where we would have to say ‘washed the brine from his body’. and a gift is small but welcome.
and spoke to him aloud and addressed him in winged words. Once again the marriage theme. 231 ὑακινθίνῳ ἄνθει ὁμοίας Presumably thick. So even when I am there I will pray to you as a goddess. ‘on him’. But from the river godlike Odysseus washed from his body the brine which lay thick upon his back and . Then Nausicaa. For.266 Section 20G 228 ἕσσαθ᾽ First aorist middle of ἕννυμι: ‘he put on’. Then indeed godlike Odysseus said to the handmaidens: ‘Handmaidens. πόσις ‘husband’. high-thundering husband of Hera. 235 τῷ Indirect object. as Nausikaa daughter of great-hearted Alcinous ordered.’ Translation for 20G So she spoke. where Athene and Hephaistos are the gods who are the masters of the craftsman’s art. 232–234 In this simile Athene enhances the appearance of Odysseus as a skilled craftsman puts the ﬁnishing touches to a work of art. They sat Odysseus down in shelter. maiden. with the gods’ loveliness on her stood beside the pillar that supported the roof with its joinery. clustering curls are like the wild hyacinth petals. all the days of my life. For indeed ointment has been absent from my body for a long time. ‘whom … have taught all skill’. But I will not wash in front of you . grant me to reach my house and see my day of homecoming. and they told him to wash in the stream of the river. even so may Zeus. 244 αἲ γάρ = εἰ γάρ. saying: ‘Goodbye. 238 μετηύδα From μεταυδάω ‘I speak to’. The last we hear of her is in Book 8. and they went far off and told the girl. 233 δέδαεν Takes two objects. εἰ γάρ + optative expresses a wish. stand thus far off. for I am ashamed to be naked coming among maidens with lovely hair. and think of me sometimes when you are back at home. and gazed upon Odysseus with all her eyes and admired him. 248 πόσιν Here = ‘drink’. lines 457–468.’ So he spoke. 230 εἰσιδέειν An explanatory inﬁnitive. Nausikaa is to be disappointed. with ‘on his head and shoulders’ in apposition. 245 οἱ ἅδοι ‘and that it might be pleasing to him …’ ἅδοι is the aorist optative of ἁνδάνω. my life was your gift. next to him they put a cloak and a tunic as clothing and gave him moist olive-oil in a golden oil-jar. ‘greater to look upon’. stranger. where there is an underlying pathos when Odysseus speaks his last words to her the day before he leaves for Ithaca. so that I myself may wash the brine from my shoulders and anoint myself with olive-oil. You may remember the passage from Plato in Section 18.’ Then resourceful Odysseus spoke in turn and answered her: ‘Nausicaa. and they stood and encouraged each other. daughter of great-hearted Alkinoos. never to see her again. how I was the ﬁrst you owed your life to.
Section 20G 267 broad shoulders. daughter of Zeus. In the evening there is a banquet. he sat far off. Earlier he seemed to me to be wretched. handmaidens. the maiden watched him admiringly. In Book 7 Odysseus follows Nausikaa’s advice and. ‘Listen to me. white-armed handmaidens. after some debate.’ So she spoke. made him taller and broader to look upon. and put on the clothes which the unmarried girl provided for him. Not against the will of all the gods who inhabit Olympus has this man come among the godlike Phaeacians. lays gold on silver and completes graceful work. Then going along the seashore. like the hyacinth ﬂower. But when he had washed all and richly anointed himself. Then indeed she spoke to her beautiful-haired handmaidens. He is welcomed and. but now he is like the gods who inhabit the broad heaven. and put beside Odysseus meat and drink. Now read on in English to the end of Book 6. whom Hephaistos and Pallas Athene have taught all skill. and they readily heard and obeyed her. Then indeed much-enduring godlike Odysseus drank and ate greedily. because for a long time he had not tasted food. and Alcinous at last asks him who he is. Odysseus is moved to tears. Odysseus reveals his identity and starts to tell his story. with Athene’s help. given hospitality. On the next day (Book 8) the Phaeacians hold games at which Odysseus establishes his prowess. and that it might please him to remain here. so she poured on him grace. down from his head she sent bushy hair. and after the banquet the singer Demodocus tells the story of the wooden horse at Troy. As when a skilled craftsman. on his head and shoulders. give the stranger meat and drink. shining with beauty and grace. From his head he wiped the scum of the unharvested sea. so that I may say something. then Athene. Would that such a man might be called my husband dwelling here. he goes to the palace and appeals to the Queen. . But. In Books 9–12 he tells what has happened to him since he left Troy until the time he was washed up on the shore of the island of Calypso. In Book 13 he departs from Phaeacia and the story moves forward again to his return to Ithaca and all the problems which await him there.
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