An Independent Study Guide to

Reading Greek

First published in 1978 and now thoroughly revised, Reading Greek is a best-selling oneyear introductory course in ancient Greek for students of any age. It combines the best of modern and traditional language-learning techniques and is used in schools, summer schools and universities across the world. This Independent Study Guide is intended to help students who are learning Greek on their own or with only limited access to a teacher. It contains notes on the texts that appear in the Text and Vocabulary volume, translations of all the texts, answers to the exercises in the Grammar and Exercises volume and crossreferences to the relevant fifth-century background in The World of Athens. There are instructions on how to use the course and the Study Guide. The book will also be useful to students in schools, universities and summer schools who have to learn Greek rapidly.


An Independent Study Guide to

Reading Greek

UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press. First published in print format 2008 ISBN-13 978-0-511-39356-3 ISBN-13 978-0-521-69850-4 eBook (EBL) paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication. New York. or will remain. Madrid.cambridge. no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. New York www. Singapore. .org/9780521698504 © The Joint Association of Classical Teachers’ Greek Course 1995. Cape Town.CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge.cambridge. Cambridge CB2 Information on this title: www. Melbourne. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements. São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building. and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is. 2008 This publication is in copyright. accurate or appropriate.

Contents Authors’ note Author’s note on the revised edition Preface Abbreviations used in the text Grammatical Introduction Section One: The insurance scam Section Two: The glorious past Section Three: Athens and Sparta Section Four: Lawlessness in Athenian life Section Five: ‘Socrates corrupts the young’ Section Six Section Seven: Socrates and intellectual inquiry Section Eight: Aristophanes’ Birds Section Nine: Aristophanes’ Wasps Section Ten: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata Section Eleven: Aristophanes’ Akharnians Section Twelve: Neaira as slave Section Thirteen: Neaira as married woman Section Fourteen: Guarding a woman’s purity Section Fifteen: Alkestis in Euripides’ play Section Sixteen: Official justice: ships. state and individuals Section Seventeen: Private justice: trouble down at the farm Section Eighteen: How Zeus gave justice to men Section Nineteen: The story of Adrastos Section Twenty: Odysseus and Nausikaa page vi vii ix xi 1 3 20 30 42 57 71 84 101 113 137 149 158 180 200 208 211 225 239 246 255 v .

It is intended primarily for those who are learning Greek on their own. In particular they would like to thank Professor Malcolm Willcock who has saved them from innumerable errors by his meticulous proof-reading of the trial stages. They are also very grateful to him and to Professor Eric Handley for reading the page-proofs and to the copy-editor Susan Moore for all her skilled assistance. Jeannie Cohen Carol Handley James Morwood James Neville vi . However we hope that it may also prove useful to pupils in schools. The authors would like to express their gratitude for the helpful comments they have received from those who have used the Independent Study Guide in its trial stages. and from those fellow teachers who have read it with a critical eye. or with only limited access to a teacher. universities and summer schools who have to learn Greek rapidly and intensively.Authors’ note This study guide has been written by members of the JACT Greek Committee for use by those who are using the JACT course Reading Greek published by the Cambridge University Press.

in spite of the fact that much of the grammatical material in them is also explained in the new Grammar and Exercises volume of Reading Greek. Carol Handley vii . which gives the reader very much more information about the grammar and syntax of Greek and has added a great many more exercises to help consolidate learning and understanding. It was felt that different learners find different forms of explanations helpful.Author’s note on the revised edition A new edition of Reading Greek has been prepared. This revised edition of the Independent Study Guide contains answers to all the new exercises and all references are to the new edition of Reading Greek. The notes to help with the passages in Reading Greek Text are largely unchanged. I am extremely grateful to Anthony Bowen for his meticulous proof-reading and numerous suggested improvements. and so it is hoped that some duplication may prove to be an advantage rather than an irritant.


Then you look at the explanations of the grammar in GE. so that you get immediate practice in a new feature of language.Preface How to use this course You have three books: Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary (RGT) Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises (GE) Independent Study Guide to Reading Greek (ISG) In addition there is a CD Speaking Greek which illustrates pronunciation. You may also like to have The World of Athens (second edition 2008). Then you do the exercises for the section to make sure that you have understood the grammar. and will also allow you to check whether you have got everything right. They are designed to help you with the reading and to amplify the explanation of the grammar in GE. and a key to the exercises in GE. Since the ix . The Independent Study Guide (ISG) contains notes on translating the text of RGT. 2. were designed to be used together so that 1. RGT and GE. It is not essential to do all the exercises on morphology and syntax. You read the passage in RGT with the aid of the running vocabulary for the section. 3. you should always do the final ‘Test Exercise’ in each section. The translations of the text and the exercises will help you if you get stuck. However. The notes will give you some general advice at the start of a new section and some additional help as you read the text. Then you learn the grammar and the lists of ‘vocabulary to be learnt’ in GE. The first two books. they will refer you to relevant pages and paragraphs in GE and in RGT. You may want to do each section of the exercises as you study the grammar in GE. as it is an important check on your grasp of the section. but they will help you to practise the language and to make sure that you understand the grammar. and records readings from passages in RGT. which gives you background information about Athenian history and life. translations of the text. 4.

. It is always a good idea to re-read the text of a section after you have finished it. they are literal rather than elegant in style. but it will work just as well if you prefer the second. and then find out how they work. ISG assumes that you will be using the first procedure. It will also help you to absorb more of the very varied vocabulary which is used in Reading Greek to provide a greater range of interest and a wider experience of the language from an early stage. You will be surprised at how much more you remember if you do this. or whether you like to look at a new pattern of grammar and then see how it is used in the text. In the first section. It is a matter of personal choice whether you prefer to look out for new forms in reading.x Preface translations are there to help you to understand the Greek. Some people prefer to look at the explanations of the grammar in a new section before they embark on reading the text.

giving chapter and paragraph numbers. xi .Abbreviations used in the text ISG RGT GE WA = The Independent Study Guide = Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary = Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises = The World of Athens References with no prefix are to the text of this ISG.


in particular. If you have the Speaking Greek CD it is very helpful to listen to the first section. have become so much part of our English heritage that they look strange and unfamiliar in their ‘Greek’ form. ‘The sounds of Greek’. but the difficulty with this practice is that some words and names. Editors therefore have to make a decision whether to be consistently ‘Latin’ or consistently ‘Greek’. but ‘Akhilleus’ comes as a shock. we all recognise ‘Achilles’. this is not straightforward. Exercise 1 Try the exercise on the alphabet on GE p. as well as a description of the basic terms used to describe the grammar (GE pp. or whether to keep the familiar words in their ‘Latin’ form while treating the less familiar words in a ‘Greek’ way.Grammatical Introduction In the Introduction to Grammar and Exercises you will find the Greek alphabet and a guide to pronunciation (GE pp. at the same time. The latter course has been followed in this book. E.g. Exercise 2 The words in their Greek form (without accents) are: drama panthēr δραμα πανθηρ comma cōlon κομμα κωλον 1 . 3. 4–7 #1–7). 1–3). Reading and writing Look at the alphabet and the pronunciation guide in GE pages 1–3. For centuries it was common practice in English usage to turn all Greek spellings into their Latin equivalents. More recently it has been fashionable to keep to a spelling that is closer to the original Greek. In their English form the words will be: Byzantium (Busdantion) Dicaeopolis or Dikaiopolis Euboea or Euboia Zenothemis or Sdenothemis Hegestratus or Hegestratos Parthenon Chios (Khios) acropolis (akropolis) emporium (emporion) As you see.

ὁ Ἡγέστρατος is the subject. τὸν Ἡγέστρατον is the object. ὁ Ζηνόθεμις is the subject. or you will find that you are making avoidable mistakes in understanding Greek. ἡ γυνὴ is the subject. 3. This is something which we do not need to do in English. However. τὸν Ζηνόθεμιν is the object. 369–463. #340–406) and in Part C Language Surveys (GE pp. τοὺς ναύτας is the object. You will find more information about the Greek language in Part B of GE in the Reference Grammar (GE pp.2 Grammatical introduction crocus geranium hippopotamus ibis asbestos charactēr scēnē Periclēs Sophoclēs Euripidēs *Hippocratēs κροκος γερανιον ἱπποποταμος ἰβις ἀσβεστος χαρακτηρ σκηνη Περικλης Σοφοκλης Εὐριπιδης Ἱπποκρατης Sōcratēs Zeus Artemis *Hēraclēs asthma dyspepsia cinēma orchēstra mēlon iris Σωκρατης Ζευς Ἀρτεμις Ἡρακλης ἀσθμα δυσπεψια κινημα ὀρχηστρα μηλον ἰρις Case: Subject and object (pp. You will have to train yourself consciously to notice the endings. 465–495. and you should certainly not try to absorb it all at this stage. . most of this will be of future interest. 6–7. Hegestratos as subject will be Hegestratos as object will be Zenothemis as subject will be ὁ Ἡγέστρατος τὸν Ἡγέστρατον ὁ Ζηνόθεμις When you have studied the Grammatical introduction you will be aware that in reading Greek it is necessary to learn not only to interpret the new script. #7) 1. #408–454). but also to look closely at the endings of words. 2.

please see the Grammatical introduction GE 1–7 pp. Then try working out the translation of that first paragraph.Section One: The insurance scam Section 1A–G 1A Speaking Greek CD First. This is because in Greek (as in Latin) case-endings. and the Grammar for Section 1A–B #8–11. Then the ship sails to Euboea. ἐν Βυζαντίῳ) and that all the nouns appear with their articles (e.g. then look at GE pp. Grammar 1. as you see. read the English introduction at the beginning of Section 1A. You will find that several complete phrases are listed (e. (If these terms are not familiar to you. It should help you to get used to the script and the sound of the language. Finally. check with the translation suggested below. does not always have the same word order as English. 6).) 3 . Now listen to the whole of Section 1A as read on the Speaking Greek CD. #8–11. the rhapsode boards. Dikaiopolis gets on board.g. 8–12. Translation for 1A (ll. In Chios. Hegestratos goes into the ship. 4–7. This procedure is recommended for the whole of Section 1. 5. the ship sails to Athens and the Piraeus. You will find the answers to the exercises in this volume after our grammar and notes on 1A and 1B (p. And in Byzantium. Replay the first paragraph (lines 1–7). not word order. The ship sails to Chios. determine the functions of words in the sentence – the subject and object. and finally the captain and the sailors go into the ship. 1–7) The ship is in Byzantium. ὁ κυβερνήτης). then Sdenothemis goes into the ship. And in Euboea. with the aid of the running vocabulary on p. pausing at the end of every sentence and repeating the Greek aloud. If you are uncertain. Greek. NB. If you think you would prefer to find out about the grammar and how it works before you start reading.

Notice that Greek often includes a τε and καί to form a closely linked pair. to omit the ‘both’. . An acute accent on the last syllable usually changes to a grave when it is followed by another word. 5. Now move on to the second paragraph of 1A. βαίνουσι(ν) is 3rd person plural (‘they go’). it goes’). So you will see τὸ πλοῖον in the text. using the same method. 13). or is the last word in a clause. Then read it to yourself. and Sdenothemis looks towards the land. Dikaiopolis and the captain hear a noise. before trying to translate it. ἐν Eὐβοίᾳ). though in English this often seems strained. What does Sdenothemis see? Sdenothemis sees the acropolis and the Parthenon. Suddenly. 8–14) (continued) 3. but τό in the above table. τὸν Πειραιᾶ). Grammar 1. and it may seem more natural. 4. then the (ν) is added. she. What do Dikaiopolis and the captain see? Dikaiopolis and the captain see the acropolis and the Parthenon. Translation for 1A (ll. The preposition ἐν (‘in’) is followed by the dative (ἐν Χίῳ. It is a printing convention to change this grave back to an acute when the word is printed in isolation with no word following it. Then both Dikaiopolis and the captain look towards the land. Note slight variation in the verb-ending -ῶσι(ν) in ὁρῶσι(ν) (lines 11. Notice the various different forms of the definite article. The preposition πρός (‘towards’) in line 6 is followed by the accusative case (τὰς Ἀθήνας. it means (literally) ‘both … and’. 1B Using the same method as that recommended for Section 1A. listen to Section 1B on the CD. They can be tabulated as follows: Plural ἡ τήν τό τό οἱ (τούς) αἱ τάς (τά) (τά) Singular Nominative ὁ Accusative τόν (You may be puzzled by the change in accent. Notice again the flexibility of Greek word order: you will find that it is essential to concentrate upon word-endings and not word order to determine the structure. So the ship sails. 3. when translating. 2. If the -ουσι or -ῶσι ending is followed by a word beginning with a vowel.4 Section 1B 2.) Note also the change in verb-ending between βαίνει (line 2) and εἰσβαίνουσιν (line 3): βαίνει is 3rd person singular (‘he.

Dikaiopolis. Ο Zeus! How beautiful is the Parthenon. SDEN. Do you also see the dockyard? CAPT. Here the other person-endings of the present tense are introduced. Sdenothemis? SDEN. 15 μὴ ϕρόντιζε ‘Don’t worry!’ μὴ is the negative used with imperatives. But come over here and look. Translation for 1B Come over here. DIK. Note that καί can mean ‘and’. The sailors see the land and the rhapsode. Ο Zeus. by Zeus. (Lit. Hey! A noise. line 11 ὁρῶ καὶ ἐγώ. SDEN. EXERCISES Translate the following sentences: (p. The ship is at Byzantium. ‘also’ or ‘even’. 9) The rhapsode goes. Come over here and look. . Thus ὁ ψόϕος = ‘the noise’. C A P T A I N You are right. Do you hear? What is the noise? Do you also hear the noise. Yes. Now I too can see the acropolis. Often here it is used in phrases like ‘I too’. how beautiful is the dockyard. Cf. only the absence of the definite article. οὐ is used with statements. and [how] beautiful [is] the acropolis. 12 There is no indefinite article (‘a’. or ‘you too’. clearly. SDENOTHEMIS Grammar Verbs. Can you also see the acropolis? DIKAIOPOLIS Where is the acropolis? For I cannot see the acropolis.) Listen! A noise. #23–25 and are explained in 1E–F. CAPT. So you and I hear the noise. Don’t worry. You speak the truth. and [how] beautiful the Piraeus. and look. Sdenothemis. #12): the regular the variant -ω -ῶ -εις -ᾷς -ει -ᾷ -oμεν -ῶμεν -ετε -ᾶτε -ουσι(ν) -ῶσι(ν) Learn the regular ones first. captain. I too hear the noise again. You are right. Page 6 3 ἆρα καὶ σὺ τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ὁρᾷς. captain. but ψόϕος = ‘a noise’. No. SDΕN. Yes. For I see the dockyard and the Piraeus. 14. ‘He doesn’t worry’ would be οὐ ϕροντίζει.Section 1B 5 Notice that in Greek a semicolon is used as a question mark. which are logical variants. For again I hear the noise. are set out fully in GE pp. 19–20. Thus. Sdenothemis. ‘an’) in Greek. ‘Can you too see the Acropolis?’ καί means ‘also’ and σύ emphasises you. Do you not see the Parthenon? DIK. Note the pattern of endings (GE p. I hear nothing. The other endings. For I see the acropolis.

Unless you are planning to learn to use all accents. plural EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1A–B 1A–B: 1 the city the king the old men the triremes of [the] democracy for [the] Homer of the atoms by the skills 1. 10) feminine. accusative. neut. 4. singular masculine.. singular masculine. sing. genitive. eyes 6. breathing. dative. you need not remember this. 30. heads fem. #42). or n. fem. singular masculine. 7. ὁ καλὸς κυβερνήτης τὸ καλὸν πλοῖον τοῦ καλοῦ ἔργου τὰς καλὰς Ἀθήνας τοῖς καλοῖς ἀνθρώποις 6. 8. pl. 1C Now you will have more practice with the different persons of the verb. pl. nom.. democracy neut. sinew masc. 5. accusative. skeleton masc. accusative. 10. singular m. 10. sing. sing. 5. pl. 2. nerve. . genitive. 8. nom. stage fem. f. gen. nominative. plural feminine. dative. pl. This is because an acute accent on the last syllable of a word changes to grave when it is followed by another word (unless that word is an enclitic GE p. sing. nom/acc. τὴν καλὴν ἀκρόπολιν τὸν καλὸν Παρθενῶνα ταῖς καλαῖς βοαῖς τῷ καλῷ πλοίῳ τῇ καλῇ ἀκροπόλει Note that the accent on καλός has changed from acute in the table to grave καλὸς in the exercise. 9. 7. 9. 3. gasping masc. 3. 4. tragedy ADJECTIVES 1A–B: 2 1. gen. nom. dat.6 Section 1C Practice (p. acc. sing. acc. 2. sing. gen. acc.. masters fem. plural feminine. sponges neut. dat. plural feminine. Go on reading and listening to the CD.

but τι without an accent (see line 13) means ‘something’. The verb is particularly important here. 20. διὰ τί. Hegestratos is making the noise below. 1D In this section you will meet another contracted verb. CΑΡΤ. Why don’t we go down? Come on. For I see – Grammar In this section you met the remaining person-endings: 2nd person plural: βαίνετε (14) and imperative plural: ϕροντίζετε (1). καταβαίνουσι δὲ … Notice the word order. how beautiful are the merchant ships. Hegestratos? What [is] the noise? . But where is the noise [coming] from? From below. how beautiful are the markets. it is Hegestratos that the captain and the sailors see. And below. Dikaiopolis. Don’t worry. Listen. and don’t say ‘How beautiful are the markets.Section 1D 7 Notice the words for ‘where from’ πόθεν and ‘where to’ πoῖ. Dikaiopolis – Where are you going? Where are you going? Why don’t you stay. over here. The only way we can express this emphasis in English is to say something like ‘It is Hegestratos whom …’ 8 τί with an accent means ‘what?’. Translation for 1C SDENOTHEMIS CAPTAIN SDEN. friends.’ For we hear the noise clearly. I do not hear [it]. CΑΡΤ. You should have no difficulty in recognising the person from the ending (GE p. CAPTAIN Hey. you! What are you doing? But what are you doing. Page 10 1 καταβαίνει μὲν …. friends. #24). 3 Similarly notice that τὸν ‘Hγέστρατον is brought forward for emphasis. Do you also see the markets? AND DIKAIOPOLIS We also see them. But come over here and look. For I see the markets and the merchant ships.rather than an -α-. DIK. So what? Ο Poseidon. and down go both Dikaiopolis and the sailors. The same suffix -θεν as in πόθεν appears in κάτωθεν ‘from below’. so it is brought forward to the beginning of the phrase. But look over here. literally ‘on account of what?’. means ‘why?’ Translation for 1D So down goes the captain. Sdenothemis. SDEN. one with an -ε. For the noise [is] from below. friends? Don’t worry.

nor do I hear any noise. 4. I’m off.) don’t go in! (pl. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1C–D VERBS IN -ω 1C–D: 1 1.) are pursuing 6. The fellow is sinking the ship.8 Exercises for section 1C–D I am not doing anything. 3. 10. Ο Zeus! For Hegestratos is not telling the truth. HEGESTRATOS Grammar Notice again the way in which the pronouns can be used to emphasise the person in the verb-ending. don’t look! (pl.) look! (s. Ο dear. I have nothing. 7.) don’t hear we are looking they remain he/she does not flee you (s. 5. For Hegestratos has something in his right hand. sailors. 2. 4.) Sailors. For Hegestratos has an axe in his right hand. HE. 9.: τί πoιεῖς σύ. DIKAIOPOLIS Come over here and look. 7. and I’m throwing myself out of the ship. 3. What are you saying. 5. Dikaiopolis? Hegestratos is sinking the ship? But why don’t you catch the man. 8.)/ you (pl. he/she hears 9.) . 5.) are fleeing 6.) are going/ go! (pl.) go down! (pl. you (pl. help and pursue [him]. 8. 4.) flee!(pl. 9. they go 7. sailors? Over here.) are not looking 8. he/she/it remains 1C–D: 2 1. friend.g. you (s. captain.) listen! (s. DIK. over here. CAPT. 10. go! (s. captain. What have you in your right hand.)are going down you (pl. οὐδὲν ἔχω ἔγωγε.) are running away 10. CΑΡΤ. ἀκούουσι(ν) βλέπει διώκετε βαίνω οὐ μένουσι(ν) 6. CAPT. not me.)/ you (pl. pursue! (pl. φεύγει διώκουσι(ν) βλέπεις μένομεν οὐκ ἀκούει IMPERATIVES 1C–D: 3 1. Hegestratos. you (s. Hegestratos? HE. Help. e. 3. Don’t worry.). 2. 2. don’t wait! (s.

I am. help! ΗΕ. I’m running away. and they are dying badly. Oh dear! For now I see the sailors clearly. captain? The men are dying. SDENOTHEMIS HEGESTRATOS SDΕN. Sdenothemis. save yourself.You will find it easy to recognise the persons from the pattern of the endings. . HE. Hegestratos looks towards Sdenothemis. Help. They can never be the first word in a phrase. Sdenothemis remains above. For the sailors are coming up and are in pursuit. The important words are often brought forward to the beginning of the sentence or phrase. Sdenothemis – oh dear! SDEN. sailors. 1F Translation for 1F Hegestratos and Sdenothemis do not wait around but run away. and chase Hegestratos. and the captain unties the lifeboat. Notice the word order in this passage. -αω and -οω. C A P T A I N Don’t worry about it. Throw yourself into the sea. Translation for 1E Hegestratos flees from below. the sailors are chasing me. I’m dying – DIKAIOPOLIS Do you see those men. For the men throw themselves into the sea and look for the lifeboat. Hegestratos? Look. #23–25 sets this out and shows how the stem vowel contracts with the endings. and don’t wait around. We are dying. Don’t wait. For the men are bad. Dikaiopolis. Hegestratos? I can’t see the lifeboat. GE pp. SDENOTHEMIS HEGESTRATOS The main new point of grammar here is the conjugation of ‘contract’ verbs. but run away yourself as well. For the men are coming up here now. Come along. 19–21. and the sailors help. The sailors clearly see their flight from the ship. But what are you doing. Oh dear! Where is the lifeboat? Where is it. Where are you running away to? I’m escaping into the sea. Hegestratos. For the lifeboat is in the sea. The lifeboat drifts away from the ship. For the lifeboat is clearly drifting away from the ship. and throw yourself out of the ship. verbs ending in -εω. Sdenothemis towards the sailors.Section 1F 9 1E Page 12 1 ὁ μὲν ‘Hγέστρατος … oἱ δὲ ναῦται … The particles μέν and δέ are frequently used to make a contrast.

ποιεῖ ποιοῦσι(ν) δηλοῖς ὁρῶμεν ποιεῖ 1E–F: 3 1. ποιεῖ μὴ ποίει ὁρᾷ ὅρα μὴ βαῖνε . 8. you (s. 5.) he/she is doing/making he/she sees don’t show! (pl. stay (s. ἀσθενεῖ ἐλευθεροῦμεν ἐξαπατᾷ νοσῶ τιμᾶτε CONTRACT IMPERATIVES 1E–F: 4 1. 8. see! do/make! (s.) see he/she sees they see we are doing/making they show 6.) show you (s. ὁρῶσι(ν) ποιεῖ ποιεῖτε δηλῶ βοηθοῦσι(ν) 6. 5. 10. 4. 2. 9. 4. 4.) show he/she helps 1E–F: 2 1. μὴ μένετε δίωκε δηλοῦτε μὴ ἄκουε βοήθει 6. 8. 9.) 6. 7. 5. 2. 9. 2. 4. 10. τιμῶ γαμεῖς οἰκοῦσι(ν) σιγῶμεν ἀσεβεῖτε 6. 7. 3. 3. 3. 2.) go.10 Exercises for section 1E–F EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1E–F CONTRACT VERBS 1E–F: 1 1. you (s. 10. 5. 9. 3. 10.) you (pl. 3. 4.) make/do you (pl. 5. 7. Go! you (s. 9. 8. 2. 8. 10.) help you (s. 7.) are doing/making don’t show! he/she is showing 1E–F: 5 1. 7.

and are we safe as well? Why don’t I go down below and look around carefully? For I [am] the captain: so it [is] my job.Exercises for section 1G 11 1G Page 16 2 σῶοι δὲ καὶ ἡμεῖς Notice that the verb ‘to be’ is often left out in Greek if the meaning is clear. Greek will say ‘the father’ or ‘the safety’ if it is clear from the context that it means ‘his father’ or ‘our safety’. So we are not in danger. save us [bring us safely] into the harbour. ἀνθρώπων. ἔργων 3. Thus the Greeks would say ‘The men are lazy’. and you always save people from the sea. and our safety [depends] on me. And moreover the harbour is near by. Dikaiopolis. For we always make sacrifices to you. We say ‘Men are lazy’ or ‘Women are clever’. But Dikaiopolis remains above. ‘The women are clever. Be quiet. but Greek will use the article in this situation. We are now dying badly: for our ship is clearly sinking into the sea. ἔργῳ 6. 3 περι-σκοπῶ Compound verb. Ο Poseidon. When English speaks of a class of people it does not use the article. ἀνθρώποις. It means ‘to look (σκοπῶ) round’ (περι). CAPTAIN EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1G THE DECLENSIONS 1G: 1 1.) DIKAIOPOLIS Now. You will meet this repeatedly in this section. (The captain goes down and looks round.’ 16 σῶον μέν … σῶοι δέ … Note the contrast pointed by μέν and δέ. ἄνθρωπον 2. 9 τοὺς ἀνθρώπους Another of the differences in the way Greek uses the article. Our ship is safe and we also are safe.) CAPT. ἔργον . So our safety [is] assured. ἄνθρωποι 4. ἀνθρώπῳ. our lifeboat is clearly drifting away and our safety [is] not assured. 5 ἡ ἡμετέρα σωτηρία Notice that Greek normally uses only the definite article where we in English would often use the possessive adjective. ἀνθρώπῳ. or if the context is ambiguous. ἔργοις 5. (The captain comes up. ἔργῳ 8. The possessive is normally only used to stress ownership. Translation for 1G But is our ship safe. καί Here means ‘also’. ἀνθρώπους 7.

How many of the exercises you do will depend upon your own choice and interest. ἐστι(ν) 2. τῷ ἡμετέρῳ πλοίῳ 7. ἄνθρωπον acc. you should regard as essential. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου 4. The exercises on Word shape and Syntax are designed to help you absorb and retain particular features of the language. ἀνθρώπου gen. τῶν καλῶν ἐμπορίων 8. τοὺς ἡμετέρους ἀνθρώπους 1G: 4 5. if you feel you have grasped these aspects. 1. πρὸς τὸν λέμβον 6. 3. 2. εἰς τὸ πλοῖον 7. 5. however. πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους 8. 4. ἐστι(ν) 1. 5. τοῖς κακοῖς ἀνθρώποις 1. the more competent you will become. εἰς τὰ ἐμπόρια As you are advised in GE. 7. τὴν καλὴν γῆν 2. εἰς τὸν λέμβον 3. ποιεῖ MORE ADJECTIVES 1G: 3 4. pl. 8.12 Revision exercises 1G: 2 1. s. ὁρᾷ 5. in the markets into the ships in the work from the men from the market 6. ἀνθρώπων gen. The Test Exercises. s. PREPOSITIONS 1G: 5 4. if you have mastered all elements of the language . grammar and vocabulary. pl. ἐν τοῖς πλοίοις REVISION EXERCISES 5. τῶν κακῶν ἀνθρώπων 4. you should do the revision exercises only after completing work on text. ἀνθρώπους acc. They have been carefully designed so that. 3. τὰ καλὰ ἔργα 6. The more you do. τοῖς ἡμετέροις ἔργοις 3. from the ships towards the markets into the ship in the lifeboats towards the men 1G: 6 1. then you can omit these exercises or do them quickly. διώκουσι(ν) 3. 2. ἀνθρώποις dat. 10. ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου 2. pl. 9.

Revision exercises for section 1A–G 13 required so far (vocabulary. or if you make a mistake in your translation. βαίνετε I see pl. you will be able to do the Test Exercises without any looking up at all. ἀποχωρεῖς or go away! (pl. τῷ καλῷ ἐμπορίῳ d. καταβαίνει we come up s. ποιοῦσι(ν) he/she sees pl. οἱ ἄνθρωποι. τοῖς καλοῖς ἀνθρώποις e.) are worrying s. does pl.) go pl.) see s. τὰ πλοῖα. ὁ καλὸς ἄνθρωπος b. If you find you do have to look up a word or an ending. nautical I steer nautical.) s. .) are going away s.) pl. βοηθεῖτε 2. τὸν καλὸν ἄνθρωπον Notes on English into Greek Don’t worry about word order yet. τὸ νεώριον. But go on noticing how it works in Greek. to do with sailing I see/look into I run away. τῷ λέμβῳ. run from 1. worry (pl. φροντίζεις they go down s. φρόντιζε or you (pl. ἀποχώρει 3. τὰ καλὰ νεώρια c. ὁρᾷς or see! (pl. morphology and syntax). REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1A–G Note the advice on tackling these exercises in GE pp.) s. ὅρα you (pl. βλέπομεν he/she makes.) s. τοῖς ψόφοις. ὁρῶσι(ν) help! (s. maritime. ἀναβαίνω you (pl. 33–35 A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING I go I chase sea helmsman sailor I see I flee B – WORD SHAPE I go out I chase out belonging to the sea. a. you (s. the error or omission should alert you to the area needing further consolidation. τῶν ἀνθρώπων 4.

14 Revision exercises for section 1A–G If you used ἀνήρ ἀνδρ. and in the sea they die. ὁ ἄνθρωπος 4. E – TEST EXERCISE 1 A–G The ship departs from Euboea and sails towards the Piraeus. The sailors don’t see Hegestratos. while Sdenothemis remains above. Don’t wait around. Come over here and look. Then they go down. ὁ Ζηνόθεμις 3. ὁ ἄνθρωπος/ὁ ανὴρ (ἀπο)φεύγει πρὸς τὸ πλοῖον. μὴ (ἀπο)ϕεύγετε.for ‘man’ in 3 and 5. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. But Hegestratos remains below and is sinking the ship. I see. 4. The sailors come up from below. For he has an axe in his right hand. The sailors pursue Sdenothemis. The captain and Dikaiopolis are up above. It would be ὁ ανὴρ in 3. 3. ὁ Ἡγέστρατος οὐχ ὁρᾷ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/τοὺς ἄνδρας Can you not see the Acropolis? ἆρα ὁρᾷς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/τοὺς ἄνδρας καὶ σύ. ἔλθετε καὶ βοηθεῖτε. sailors. Sdenothemis is looking towards the land. you may have got it wrong. 2. But suddenly they hear the noise. The men are coming up. ὁ λέμβος 5. CAPTAIN DIKAIOPOLIS CΑΡΤ. Who is making the noise? Do you see. For the fellow has an axe. Hegestratos flees from below. C – SYNTAX Hegestratos sees the acropolis. τοὺς ἄνδρας in 5. You have not yet learned the pattern for this noun. Dikaiopolis saves the men. . Dikaiopolis? Yes. For Hegestratos is making the noise. The men escape into the sea. 2. διώκετε τὸν ἄνθρωπον/τὸν ἄνδρα. The men see the sailors clearly and throw themselves into the sea. The helmsman casts off the life-boats. although it has occurred in the Text. but help and chase the man. 1. They look towards the land and see both the dockyards and the Parthenon. τὸν Ἡγέστρατον. The men don’t see the life-boats. τοὺς ἀνθρώπους. 5. Sdenothemis goes into the ship. Don’t worry. oἱ ϕίλοι οὐ μένουσιν.

5 ὁμηρίζει Transliterate first. εἶ Another new person of the verb. i. Where are we. and I do not know where we are. So the captain says that they are sailing into the harbour. again reinforced by the inclusion of the pronoun. because of the night. He’s a rhapsode. C A P T A I N I know clearly. Note also the English explanation in introduction. rather like a medieval troubadour. παίζει πρός It means ‘makes fun of’. would mean ‘Who?’ or ‘What sailor?’ 3 λέγει ὅτι Remember ὅτι carefully: it is extremely common.e. ‘What’s that …?’ 19 μῶρος English ‘moron’ suggests the answer. See GE p. but pronoun σύ should help. νηί is irregular dative of ναῦς (line 28) meaning ‘ship’. There is on the ship a rhapsode. but a problem for translators. 9 οἶδα Yet another new form. and extensively used in this and subsequent sections. For the sailor does not clearly know where they are: for it is night. 4 ῥαψῳδός τις ‘a rhapsode’. ‘We are sailing in a black ship. RHAP. coming first. more poetically. See GE p.Section 1H 15 1H Page 18 1 λιμένα Check the English introduction above. which follows the word it agrees with. sailor. Translation for 1H So the captain steers the ship towards the harbour. 18 τί τὸ … Literally. 13 οἴνοπα πόντον A lovely phrase and frequent in Homer. Literally it means ‘wine-faced’ but it is usually rendered. τίς with an accent. without an accent. 36. The rhapsode is always quoting Homer. What’s the fellow saying? DIKAIOPOLIS It’s clear that the fellow is quoting Homer. and κοίλῃ ἐνὶ νηί Two more common Homeric phrases. 8 ἐσμεν New here.’ SAILOR . 17 ἐν νηὶ μελαίνῃ This is another common Homeric phrase. #44. We are sailing towards the harbour. captain? Do you know? For I do not clearly know. #44. The -ιζω ending in Greek verbs is like our ‘-ize/-ise’ ending. You are right. οἶσθα Also new. then see if you can identify the person. 1–2 ναύτης δέ τις This is the indefinite τις. as ‘wine-dark’. A sailor asks the captain where they are. my friend. but the ἡμεῖς indicates which person of the verb this is. For I see nothing. itinerant reciter of Homer. 21 ἐν νηὶ θοῇ. Dikaiopolis makes fun of the rhapsode like Socrates with his students. also explained by its pronoun σύ. though note that μῶρος is an adjective. 36. A rhapsode is a professional. RHAPSODE ‘We are sailing on the wine-dark sea.’ SAIL. Thus this might be translated ‘Homerise’. ‘What (is) the …?’.

so the whole Greek word means ‘uneducated’. a soldier. But I am not stupid: I know many things. 11 δήπου Like ‘of course’ in English. ‘in a hollow ship. 1I Page 20 1 εἰμί A new form.’ Do you hear. For Homer knows matters of war.g. What are you saying. δήπου is often heavily sarcastic in its meaning. 6 διότι ‘because’. No. i. 5 ἄριστος An aristocracy is rule by the ‘best’ people. I know much because Homer knows much. For the fellow does not know anything accurately. Here the effect is ludicrous. DIK.16 DIK. στρατηγός was so called because he was an army (στρατός) leader (ἄγω – ‘I lead’). although the original idea resulted in a new and valuable tool of reasoning. rhapsode. ‘asymmetrical’). ‘polemics’. This form of argument reflects some forms of Socratic and Platonic dialectic where an attempt is made to use words in as defined a way as numbers. tactical. I am not uneducated about Homer. 2 ἀπαίδευτος The prefix α. the business of the soldier. strategic – So you also know matters of strategy? . meaning ‘one’ (here = ‘one and the same’). person indicated by pronoun. and matters nautical. Similarly a στρατιώτης was a member of the army. Note the thrust of the rhapsode’s argument: he knew much about Homer – Homer knew much about everything – therefore he (the rhapsode) knew much about everything. It is clear that you are stupid. English ‘amoral’. παιδ. 1J Page 21 1 μία Feminine form of εἷς. sailors? Come here and listen. ‘In a swift ship’ we are sailing.e. rhapsode? What’s that ‘in a black ship’? For our ship isn’t often a negative one in Greek (cf. Translation for 1I–J RHAPSODE DIKAIOPOLIS RHAP. Section 1J RHAP. Be quiet. γιγνώσκω A new word (Latin cognosco). but is joking at us. It is clear that our rhapsode is stupid. and don’t know the root of the English word ‘p(a) edagogue’. hence στρατιωτικά refers to soldiering. 7–12 The various -ικος adjectives here correspond to many -ic/ical adjectives in English: e. DIK. For you do not know whether our ship is ‘black’ or ‘swift’ or ‘hollow’. but are joking at us. How do you know many things? It is clear that you are uneducated. ‘nautical’ and ‘strategic’ should help to establish the meaning of three. by Zeus.

SAILOR 17 RHAP. Dikaiopolis. εἰσί(ν) 4. For Homer is experienced in matters of strategy. and I also am experienced [in them].) know we are 6. Are then the skill of a rhapsode and the skill of a general one [and the same]? One [and the same] skill. ἐστί(ν) 5. Nevertheless it is sensible to learn them now and it is worth learning them very carefully. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1H–J IRREGULAR VERBS 1H–J: 1 1. The Greeks are always children. Grammar Note carefully the conjugation of both irregular verbs εἰμί and οἶδα (GE p. DIK. DIK. DIK. the best general of the Greeks. Yes. 2. RHAP. 3. he/she/it is we know you (pl. DIK. but he does not know precisely whether the ship is ‘black’ or ‘swift’ or ‘hollow’. RHAP. the plural forms of οἶδα have not. You will. Dikaiopolis. εἶ 3. 5. Of course. RHAP.) are you (s. ἴσασι(ν) 6. So the best general of the Greeks is a fool. RHAP. rhapsode? Yes. DIK. Dikaiopolis. in fact. the rhapsode is indeed a fool. #44): it is essential to know both thoroughly – and although most of εἰμί has appeared in the Text. the best general of the Greeks? Of course.Exercises for section 1H–J RHAP. 10.) are you (pl. 9. What do you say.) know they are I am they know 1H–J: 2 1. RHAP. of course. DIK. you (s. It is clear. 36. 8. 4. Dikaiopolis. The fellow is. Are you then. that you are Socratising and joking with me. DIK. So good rhapsodes are at the same time also good generals? Yes. Dikaiopolis. οἶδα 2. And you are the best rhapsode of the Greeks? Certainly. sailors? Is the rhapsode a fool or not? By Zeus. What? Are you then experienced in matters of strategy. meet them in Test Exercise 1H–J. οἶδε(ν) . For Socrates always jokes in this way at his students. 7. It’s my job. rhapsode.

5. You (s. οἶδα καὶ οὐκ οἶδα τά τε ναυτικὰ καὶ τὰ στρατηγικά. οἶδε(ν) 10. The rhapsode is a fool. come clear I am a Greek person I wait a general I go round I go (or come) round I make clear.) both exist and do not exist (are and are not). The rhapsode is a Greek. ἐσμέν τε καὶ ἴσμεν. You know much (many things).) know he/she is they know play! (s. reveal I am in Greek (adjective) I wait around I command (an army) B – WORD SHAPE 1.) are he/she knows you (s. The Greek is a rhapsode. 3. πολλὰ ἴσασιν. You (pl. ἐστέ 1. c. I go away I go. . you (pl. ἔστι καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν. 2. b. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1H–J A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. d. 5. ἐσμέν 8. 2. 3. οὐκ οἶδε τὰ στρατηγικά.) I am we know εἶ γιγνώσκουσι(ν) ἴστε εἰσί(ν) οἶδε(ν) παίζετε ἐσμέν οἶδα C – SYNTAX 1. ἐστί(ν) 1H–J: 3 9. We both know and see much.18 Revision exercises for section 1H–J 7. 4. 4. Rhapsodes (as a class of people*) are the best generals.) know about both seafaring and generalship. Do they know about both soldiering and generalship? 1H–J: 4 1. a.

What do you mean? (Lit. I also know the skills of a general. I am expert in many things. What are you saying?) For you are a rhapsode. however. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. It is clear that Dikaiopolis is teasing the rhapsode. Note: μῶρος δὲ μέν and μῶρος μὲν δέ are not permitted. Dikaiopolis teases the rhapsode. So they ask the captain where it is. δῆλόν ἐστιν ὅτι ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς πολλὰ γιγνώσκει. RHAP. (σὺ) οὐκ ἔμπειρος εἶ περὶ τὸ ἔργον. Likewise οὐ δέ εἰμι is not on: μέν and δέ do not follow negatives. E – TEST EXERCISE 1H–J So the ship sails towards the Piraeus. ἀλλὰ μῶρος μὲν οὔκ εἰμι. Do you not know that the good rhapsode is at the same time also a good general? No. . 5. Suddenly the rhapsode recites Homer.Revision exercises for section 1H–J 19 e. The captain is a rhapsode/A rhapsode is captain. πολλὰ δὲ γιγνώσκω. μέν and δέ are never used side by side. art. but foolish. 2. and English does not. 3. Do you not know that the man is always joking? ἆρ᾽ οὐκ οἶδεν ὅτι ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς ἀκριβῶς λέγει. ὁ ἄριστος στρατηγός ἐστι ῥαψῳδός. Do you know the business of a rhapsode. but I know that you are a fool. DIΚ. For you are the best rhapsode of the Greeks and expert in Homer. The captain says that the ship is near the harbour. f. rhapsode? Of course. Rhapsodes are the best generals. not a general. You are not skilled. It is clear that the man knows much about Homer. DIKAIOPOLIS RHAPSODE DIΚ. *This is where Greek uses the def. rhapsode. to denote a class of people. 4. but the sailors do not know where the ship is. The rhapsode is a captain. nor do you know anything accurately. On matters of strategy. you are not expert.

or does for his own advantage. 20 . Page 22 1 ἡ μὲν ναῦς The article shows this is nominative. try reading through the whole of the first page (aloud. for meaning. but you will be able to recognise what case they are in from the article used with them. and is very common. as in ὁ δὲ Δικαιόπολις. See GE p. #28–29). The active voice describes what the subject does to the object. 22–23. βραδέως The ending in -ως shows that this is an adverb (see GE pp. Then try translating the paragraph. #43. or you may just prefer to keep referring to GE pp. English ‘dialogue’ may help. 3 ἡδέως Part of speech? (English ‘hedonism’ may guide you to the meaning of this word. then back to ἀλλήλους = ‘each other’.) διαλέγονται Note the person ending. #52–54). 2A After reading the English introduction. #55–58) which you will eventually have to learn. 30. The middle describes what the subject does for (or to) himself. #52–53. 20. It is easy to recognise which person the ending indicates. You may want to make a chart of the present indicative middle and to add the new endings as you meet them. the verb can mean either ‘come’ or ‘go’. using the running vocabulary and the following notes for guidance if you need them. ἔρχεται New ending.Section Two: The glorious past In this section you will practise a third variant of the contracted verbs that you met in Section 1. The verbs you will meet in this section occur only in the middle and do not have an active voice. 43–46. You will also meet some more noun types (GE pp. You will add -οω verbs (GE p. 46–48. which person of the verb must it be? What should it mean? Sense demands a verb of motion – in fact. #24) to -αω and -εω ones. You will also meet a new pattern of verb in what is called the middle voice (GE pp. ἀλλήλους – leave blank for a moment. μέν warns you that there will be a contrast in the following clause or sentence marked by δέ. These are all in the active voice. 2 πρὸς ἀλλήλους πρὸς should be known. 44–45. if circumstances permit!). and it often does not have an object.

See GE p. ‘rhetoric’. See also the noun νίκην.= ‘through’. τόλμαν See note earlier (line 6). 23 ἡσυχάζετε Imperative. ‘Why doesn’t … ?’ You will see the same pattern in ‘διὰ τί οὐ λέγει…. the Greeks used ‘Medes’ and ‘Persians’ almost interchangeably. the phrase means ‘in the Persian Wars’. rather than ‘make the very beautiful story’. τολμῶσι = ‘dare’ (τολμάω and its noun τόλμα are much used later in this section). [is he] not?). Notice διὰ τί οὐ followed by a question mark. Μηδικοῖς being neuter plural. know much about Homer. CAPTAIN You. δι. Translation for 2A The ship goes slowly towards the Piraeus. νικῶσιν Here the verb is encountered for the first time. and why doesn’t he tell what happened in the Persian Wars and how the Greeks and Persians fought and what deeds they dared and how many fell?’ The rhapsode gladly relates the sea-battle. rhapsode. 9–11 The first three lines are mostly recapitulation of words/phrases occurring earlier. but notice that here it is not used like δεῦρο ἐλθέ. 11 ἄγε δή GE gives ‘come!’ for ἄγε. but more like English ‘Come on!’ – a spur to action and not necessarily an instruction to move.’ 4 διέρχεται Both elements have been met – the ἔρχεται = ‘come’/’go’. 5 τί γίγνεται The context should help. You therefore know much about rhetoric also (for Homer [is] rhetorical. it can also mean something like ‘settle down’ or ‘calm down’. 15 ἡμετέραν Possessive adjective. but note that as well as meaning ‘be silent’. GE gives ‘keep quiet’. ἡμεῖς indicates the person. 21 κάλλιστον ποίει τὸν λόγoν The word order shows that this means ‘make the/ your story very beautiful’. The ship is already going past Salamis and the captain says: ‘Why does the rhapsode not relate the sea-battle at Salamis.Section 2A 21 4–5 διὰ τί ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς οὐ διέρχεται…. therefore = ‘our’. ‘what happens’. ‘go’. ‘recount’. τὴν περὶ Σαλαμῖνα ναυμαχίαν This is a phrase within a phrase as is shown by the linking device connecting τήν with ναυμαχίαν. Come along then. 6 τίνα ἔργα τολμῶσι The context should help you towards the general sense of ‘what deeds they did’. 20 οὐδὲν ἴσμεν ἀκριβῶς ἡμεῖς oἱ ναῦται Notice the word order. hence ναυμαχία ‘sea-battle’. Page 23 12 ἐρχόμεθα The verb has occurred earlier in the sense ‘come’. 10 ῥητορικά Cf. derived from ἡμεῖς (‘we’). 49. come . ἐν τοῖς Μηδικοῖς (literally) ‘in the Medic (things)’. hence ‘go through’ as in ‘relate’. so the meaning is: ‘the around-Salamis sea-battle’. μάχη means ‘battle’ and ναῦς ‘ship’. Dikaiopolis and the sailors and the captain and the rhapsode are talking happily to each other. #62.

22 Section 2B over here and tell us the events at Salamis. Keep quiet then. 3 ἀποροῦσι A verb for which there is no direct English equivalent: it means ‘be in a state of not knowing what to do’. ‘quandary’. the ones of the Athenians’.’ ἀπορία The noun form of ἀπορέω (see above in line 3). rhapsode. and the sailors know nothing. But speak. #61. ὀλίγοι ‘small’. goddess of memory. Θεά ‘Goddess’. For you. etc. . the invocation of the Muse. and we are going slowly past Salamis towards Athens. line 9. announces at the very outset a central theme of the poem – the wrath of Achilles. the god-like king’: in the original it is Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος ‘of Achilles. ‘many’. here. This is not in the vocabulary for 2B. RHAPSODE Of course. So we gladly listen. an army. which dominates throughout and is finally resolved only in Book 24. and make your story very fine. See GE p. the very last book. my friend. 2B Page 24 1 These lines are adapted from the opening lines of the Iliad. A common enough occurrence – it’s surprising we have no verb for this. 9 εὔχονται ‘they pray’. because the invasion of Xerxes threatened the freedom of the Greeks. this. to help the poet in telling his story. so they may present a few problems. μῆνιν ‘wrath’ (acc. SAILORS Yes. 49. though it is in the Total Vocabulary. For there is the island of Salamis. in the Iliad. 4 στρατιά στρατηγός has been learnt (Section 1J). 8 θυσίας Also above. therefore we are not ἐν κινδύνῳ.). οὐλομένην ‘accursed’: in the Iliad. 1G. line 16: ‘We are safe. Tell us then the Persian Wars and the sea-battle at Salamis and our daring and victory. ϕοβοῦνται Another new verb: what are phobias? πολλή ‘much’. The Persians do not defeat us nor do they enslave us. ‘the ships. ‘large’. I always make my stories very fine. because the quarrel of Agamemnon and Achilles led to near-disaster for the Greeks. sailors. know clearly the events at Salamis. 5–6 αἱ νῆες αἱ τῶν Ἀθηναίων Notice the repeated αἱ which adds a description. 7 κίνδυνος You have not yet been asked to learn this word. but it occurred on p. We sailors know nothing accurately. στρατιά was what the στρατηγός led. Ξέρξου θείου βασιλῆος ‘of Xerxes. An oligarchy is rule by a few. and listen. ‘few’. ‘helplessness’. ἄειδε Imperative. viz. although nouns like ‘perplexity’. give the idea. 16. Tell us what happened in the Persian Wars and how the Greeks and foreigners fought and how many fell. ‘sing’. son of Peleus’.

the struggle of the free peoples of the West against the totalitarian regime of the East. 19 βεβαία … ἡ … σωτηρία Cf. so the accusative is the same as the nominative. ‘aggression’. And in the sea-battle. talks rubbish.Section 2C 23 10 ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας A crucial phrase for a crucial concept to the Greeks. 13 ὅσαι This means ‘How much/many …’ as used in exclamations. the destructive wrath of Xerxes the god-like king.’ So the foreigners slowly approach the city. line 18. Many [are] the Persian ships. Finally the Persians arrive and the Greeks fight. great their perplexity and great also their fear. Translation for 2B ‘Sing. Herodotus describes the Persian Wars in terms that often sound surprisingly familiar. ‘you don’t know anything’. τὸ πλῆθος This is a neuter noun (of a type you have not yet met). 18 ὕβριν Difficult because not exactly like the English usage of ‘hubris’. and the Athenians few. 12 τόλμα Not yet learnt. whereas ἐλευθερία is feminine. whereas English does not. 14 ἱκετεῖαι ‘supplications’. i. so that it is not ‘the Greeks’. 4 οὐκ οἶσθα οὐδέν Notice the reinforcing negative. 1G. goddess. 23. and this is the object.element should be familiar. how great the perplexities. while the Athenians are at a loss and are afraid. So thus the salvation of the Greeks becomes secure. here with the adverbial suffix -άκις or -κις it means ‘many times’. ἀγαθόν ‘good’ – but neuter gender. Great then [is] the danger of the Athenians. This is a common idiom in Greek: ‘freedom is a good thing’. line 6). 2C Page 26 1 οὐδὲν λέγει Literally ‘says nothing’. 11 πολλάκις The πολ. τῆς ἐλευθερίας = ‘freedom’. says nothing worth-while. The Athenians free Greece and save their country through their daring. ‘on behalf of’. For the Persian army [is] large. how many are the shouts. Note that Greek uses the article with ἐλευθερία because it is a general idea. ‘often’. For courage and daring always defeat aggression and superior numbers.e. Notice also that it is accusative singular and feminine. but ‘Greece’. but few the ships of the Athenians. . line 15). ὑπέρ = ‘for’. how many the supplications to the gods! Finally the Athenians defeat the Persian fleet and the Persians fall and they do not enslave the Athenians. 16 τὴν Ἑλλάδα Note the word order (the subject is after the verb). For freedom [is] a good thing. Great [is] the daring of the Greeks and their generals. Here the sense is ‘violence’. although the verb τολμάω has occurred (2A. they go quickly into their ships and fight for their freedom. So the Athenians sacrifice their sacrifices to the gods and pray much. and the accusative τόλμαν (ρ.

24 Section 2D 15 ὧδε Means ‘like this’. Matthew 16. ἕῳ is dative of a very irregular noun meaning ‘dawn’. Consider. when it refers to what is going to follow. while we Greeks keep quiet. When night comes. and note also ‘petrol’. But at dawn a shout arises (occurs) and when the trumpet echoes from the rocks. The captain says that the rhapsode is speaking rubbish. ‘where’ according to context. and you are telling us falsehoods. The Persian fleet arrives. your wives! Now [is] the struggle for everything!’ 2D Page 28 2 θεᾶται What one does in a θέατρον. and you don’t know anything. Be quiet then. Here it is used idiomatically to mean ‘this way and that’. ‘watches’. friend. go! Free your country. completely unadapted. viz. when it refers to what has gone before. My grandfather is a Salamis-fighter and he often tells me the events at Salamis truly. the Persian ships sail slowly this way and that. 3 ἀναχωροῦσιν Both elements have been met: χωρεῖ ‘go’. We are looking for the truth. 23 ἐκ … πετρῶν What is the meaning of the English name ‘Peter’? Cf. as in English ‘antagonist’. like you. RHAPSODE What are you saying? In what way am I not making my story very fine? CΑΡT. For you perhaps tell us a fine story. fear develops (occurs) at the same time in the foreigners. Persae 353–5. 21 ἅμα ἕῳ Perhaps needs some explanation: ἅμα is an adverb meaning ‘at the same time as’. friend. my grandfather [tells] the facts. here combined in the sense of ‘retreat’. CAPTAIN You are talking rubbish. For they now clearly hear the shout: ‘O Children of the Greeks. sailors. 22 σάλπιγξ ἠχεῖ Illustrated on RGT p. ἀνά ‘up’. ‘back water’. ‘there’. Translation for 2C The rhapsode is silent. But how do you know whether I am telling the truth or falsehoods? CΑΡT. RΗAP. The sailors settle down. but not falsely. For my grandfather tells the events at Salamis as follows. ‘when’. The phrase thus means ‘at dawn’. ἴτε An irregular imperative (corresponds with Latin ite) meaning ‘come!/go!’ ἀγών ‘struggle’. ‘petroleum’ ( =‘rock-oil’). οὕτως means ‘like this’. Listen. Page 27 20 ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα ἔνθα literally means ‘then’. 25 This is taken from Aeschylus. and stays near Salamis. So you do not make your story very fine. .18. 26. Then the captain also relates the events at Salamis. the fine deeds of the Greeks. and hear again. free your children.

10 τάξιν ‘arrangement’ – taxonomy is the classification. δεινόν ‘terrible’. and the rest of the Greeks also sail swiftly to the attack and move against the Persians. likewise ἐπέρχονται (line 1). 25 ϕεῦ Exclamation of despair or disgust. very terrible. some pursue the Persians. Metabolism is the change of food into energy. a ‘terrible lizard’ (σαῦρος). why are you still retreating? Do not be afraid of the Persians but go to the rescue and be bold.’ And I quickly sail to the attack and am no longer afraid. And of the Greeks. Translation for 2D CAPTAIN So the enemy ships approach quickly for a sea-battle (Xerxes the king is watching the sea-battle with pleasure). some … others …’ 22 μεταβολή Means ‘change’. ‘OΚ’. and others remain and fall. other ‘meta-’ compounds in English have a sense of ‘change’. ‘misanthrope’. So the Greeks become free through their courage. and a few English compounds beginning ‘mis-’ may help towards the meaning e. Suddenly there appears the phantom of a woman. compounds = ‘same’. and others capture their ships and their sailors.g. occurring in English ‘dinosaur’. And the Persians do not enslave the Athenians. or arrangement.Section 2D 25 4 ϕαίνεται … ϕάσμα ϕάσμα = ‘apparition’. I am afraid of the phantom. Now we are fighting in good order and in rank. e. 7–9 ἐπιπλέω ἐπι. so here ‘sail against’/ ‘attack’. English ‘phenomenon’ which is derived from ϕαίνομαι ‘I appear’. ἀκόσμως … ἀτάκτως Opposites of the previous two words. 23 ὁμονοοῦσιν The elements of the word may help. When the Athenians pursue the Persians. ὁμο. ‘metamorphosis’. Finally of the Persians. τῶν ‘Ελλήνων. But the phantom says: ‘Friends. . or ‘agree’. 9 κόσμῳ ‘order’ – with interesting derivations: cosmos = ‘ordered state of the universe’. cosmetic = ‘ordered state of the dress/face’.g. Clearly here the clause after ἀλλά is going to mean something contrasted with the clause before it. which has the same root as the verb νοέω. α.in compounds often has the sense of ‘against’. τοῦ πολέμου causal genitives. ‘nous’ has been adopted as a word for intelligence. And the other Greeks retreat. of organisms into named groups (ὄνομα = ‘a name’). similarly. In modern Greek ἐν τάξει means ‘in order’. and I back water. some flee. 12 oἱ μὲν … oἱ δέ … It means ‘Of the Persians. κοσμέω also means ‘I decorate’. So here it is ‘be like-minded’. In this way the gods punish the aggression of the Persians and save the city.being the regular Greek negative prefix. Xerxes also flees and no longer watches the sea-battle. while the foreigners are fighting in disarray and out of rank since they are not bold like us. ‘misogynist’. actually itself the Greek word for ‘mind’. μισοῦσιν Again English compounds may help – as well as the context.

go ( the singular endings. 9. Then there was agreement among the Greeks. 8. Feminine nouns: if you are doing English–Greek exercises. 12. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2A–D MIDDLE VERBS 2A–D: 1 he/she/it becomes/ happens/occurs 2. 9. alas for the Greeks. it is important to notice the differences between the different types of feminine noun. μὴ θεᾶσθε ἔρχονται οὐ φοβεῖται γίγνεσθε δουλοῦσθε φοβοῦμαι 7. we are enslaving 7. 13.) 2A–D: 2 1. 2. it is enough to remember the endings for the feminine of the definite article and the fact that nouns of the first declension may have either -α. 11. 10. 11. to be learnt before attempting the exercises.) and fight or you (pl. 10. alas for the war! Grammar Contracted verbs in -όω: there should be little difficulty in recognising the person of these verbs from the endings you already know. 51.)are going and fighting he/she/it is afraid he/she is enslaving he/she is watching you (s. (See GE pp. Perhaps the most important thing to notice is how -ο. 4. but hate each other because of the war. But the change in events is now great: for at that time the Greeks were friends with each other. Much more important are the middle verbs in GE pp.predominates throughout.) are afraid I am not watching he/she/it shows 1.26 Exercises for section 2A–D DIKAIOPOLIS You speak well.or -η. 6. #55–57. go (pl. Notice also the masculine nouns (1d #58) which are slightly different in some cases of the singular and the same as the feminines in the plural. they enslave 4. captain. 19–21 #23–25. 14. ἐρχόμεθα φοβοῦνται δουλοῦται θεᾶται οὐ γίγνονται ἔρχῃ . 8.) For recognition of the case of the noun. don’t fight! 6. 12. Now they no longer agree. while all the plurals are the same. Note also the extra vocabulary on p. 5. 3. and now there is hatred. they are fighting 5. 46–47. Now we know clearly and accurately about the Persian Wars. Alas. we are not going 3.

4. 3. 6. ἡ τόλμα 4. νεανιῶν ταῖς βοαῖς. τὴν τόλμαν 8. 5. 2. τῶν ἀποριῶν PREPOSITIONS 2A–D: 5 5. 6. because of the perplexity 10. from the armies 11. 3. νεανίας τὴν βοήν. alongside. θαλάτταις ἡ βοή. TYPES 1a. 1d 2A–D: 3 1. ἀπορία. 5. διὰ τὰς βοάς ἐκ τῶν πλοίων παρὰ τοὺς φίλους ἐπὶ τὴν στρατιάν διὰ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν 6. παρὰ τὰς θεάς διὰ τὰς ὁμολογίας ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους διὰ τὴν νίκην 2A–D: 7 1. 4. 4. 1b. because of the sea-battle 9. τὸν νεανίαν 1. ἐν τοῖς βαρβάροις ἐν τῇ ναυμαχίᾳ ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ εἰς τὴν γῆν ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ among the barbarians/foreigners in the sea-battle in the deed/task into the land in the Piraeus . νεανίαν τῶν βοῶν. οἱ ναῦται 6. 9. 2. 1c. 3. 2. νεανίας αἱ βοαί. τῇ βοῇ 7. ναυτῶν.Exercises for section 2A–D 27 NOUNS. θάλατται τοῖς ναύταις. νεανίᾳ 2A–D: 4 1. 10. 10. 3. ἀπορίαις. 8. ἀποριῶν. beside the man 12. θάλατταν τῷ ναύτῃ. 4. against the enemy 8. νεανίαις ὁ ναύτης. θάλαττα τοὺς ναύτας. 7. θαλαττῶν. 8. τῷ ναύτῃ 3. ἀπορίαν. 9. ἀπορίαι. 5. because of the war against the barbarians alongside the ship away from the friends because of the sailors alongside the Athenians 7. τὸν ναύτην. away from the Athenians 2A–D: 6 1. 7. τὰς βοάς 2. 2. 5.

expertise I work. τῷ ναύτῃ. wickedness the warrior. unconquerable the maker/creator/poet the warrior/fighter. lacking courage. μάχου 2. τὴν τόλμαν.) fear ϕοβεῖσθε they watch θεᾶται You (pl. I make war silence the army. the battle. ἡ καλλίστη βοή. τὴν νίκην. ἡ ἀπορία. friendship/love fear I tell lies we relate.) enslave. αἱ νῖκαι. carry out a task I am pleased. τὴν πολεμίαν βοήν. enslave! (pl. a friend I fear falsely B – WORD SHAPE the truth accuracy woman I shout experience. expert work. I campaign.) μάχῃ. I lack courage I love.) fight or fight! (pl. αἱ ἐμαὶ βοαί. folly I fight a sea-battle unconquered. unfightable stupidity.) θεᾷ or θεῶ he approaches προσέρχονται they fear ϕοβεῖται I fear φοβούμεθα they happen γίγνεται you attack ἐπέρχεσθε you (pl. τῶν ναυτῶν. ὁ ναύτης.) watch or watch! (pl.28 Revision exercises for section 2 REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2 A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING true accurately man a shout experienced. τῇ ἐμῇ ἀπορίᾳ. the soldier the daring man. τὰς βοάς. ταῖς καλαῖς νίκαις 1. go through διέρχομαι he/she fights μάχονται you (s. τὴν στρατιάν. pleasure evil. τοῖς κυβερνήταις. task pleasantly bad I fight stupid ship/I fight victory/I win I make/do/create war I am silent army I dare dear. δουλοῦ you (pl.) δουλοῖ. . 3.

οἱ ναῦται oἱ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ oἱ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ ναῦται e. Don’t retreat. 5. the Persians advance swiftly to battle. ὁ κυβερνήτης ἡδέως διέρχεται τὴν ἡμετέραν ναυμαχίαν. So in this way the Greeks become free through their courage. So they fight in good order and defeat the foreigners. ἡ στρατιὰ ἡ τῶν βαρβάρων ἡ τῶν βαρβάρων στρατιά c. τὰ ἔργα τὰ τῶν Περσῶν τὰ τῶν Περσῶν ἔργα b. τὸ πλοῖον τὸ τῶν πολεμίων τὸ τῶν πολεμίων πλοῖον The deeds of the Persians The army of the barbarians The shout in the harbour The sailors in the ship The ship of the enemy D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. but fight! μὴ ϕοβεῖσθε. E – TEST EXERCISE 2 So when the Persian army and fleet are approaching. 3. 4.Revision exercises for section 2 29 C – SYNTAX 1. We know that the Greek army is approaching. and. ἀλλὰ μάχεσθε καὶ ἐλεύθεροι γίγνεσθε. The best rhapsode always makes his stories very beautiful. and Xerxes also flees. friends. but are daring and attack the foreigners. ὦ ναῦται. Finally the Persian fleet arrives. the Athenians quickly embark on their ships and sail towards Salamis. 2. So the foreigners flee. τέλος οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι νικῶσιν. ἡ βοὴ ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι βοή d. but the Greeks are at a loss and are afraid. ἴστε ὅτι oἱ τῶν Περσῶν στρατηγοὶ ἀναχωροῦσιν. And when the day comes. Then both the Athenians and the rest of the Greeks keep quiet. oἱ δὲ τῶν Ἀθηναίων πολέμιοι πίπτουσιν. and the Persian generals are afraid. Finally they are no longer afraid. their ships sail slowly up and down. a. oἱ ναῦται πρὸς τὸν ῥαψῳδὸν διαλέγονται. Then the Athenians fight. when night comes. . The ship goes towards the sea-battle.

It is important to learn the stem to which the other case-endings are attached (as in Latin). its gender and its stem and any peculiarities as you meet it. Literally. + acc. πῦρ. as above. but ‘Bring us safely into the harbour’ sounds better. There are a number of variants which will be introduced gradually. It is not difficult to recognise the case if you are working from Greek into English. Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative various -α -ος -ι m. -α -α -ων -σι(ν) This covers most of the forms you are likely to encounter in this section. but attention now focuses on the ending of λιμένα. A simplified form of the patterns can be summarised as follows: s. but if you want to feel really confident and to cope with English into Greek. Notice that the indefinite τις. τόν indicates masculine accusative singular: the ending itself is -α.Section Three: Athens and Sparta 3A In this section you will meet the 3rd declension nouns formally. 10–11 Note the way that Greek echoes the interrogative πόθεν by its indirect form ὁπόθεν in reply to the question. Enter neuter plural (nom. both ending in -α (for neuter nouns in the nominative and accusative always have the same ending). pl. ‘Save us into the harbour’. which regularly follows its noun. 54–56. which may be entered in a grid for 3rd declension endings. 30 .) in grid. as above. 13 τὰ πυρά The article indicates neuter plural. you should learn each new noun. 2 λαμπάδα τινά Another accusative singular. -ες -ας -ων -σι(ν) neut. 15 σῷζε ἡμᾶς εἰς τὸν λιμένα Note the difference in usage in Greek and English. gives us ‘pyromaniac’. + f. ‘fire’. Note that 3rd declension nouns have a number of different forms in the nominative. #66–68. pl. See GE pp. 3 ἡ λαμπάς The article indicates that this is nominative singular. ‘pyrotechnics’ etc. Page 30 1 πρὸς τὸν λιμένα The phrase should be familiar. is also 3rd declension.

I know that well. But why are we hurrying? Is there some danger for us? [Yes]. (Looks towards Salamis. 64. but fire signals. τὰ πυρά is neuter plural (as above in line 13) b. #69) is used in the same way. followed by singular verb) from the line before. captain: I see a light on the island. by Zeus. SAIL. 20. So the captain asks where the light is from.Section 3B 31 τίς not interrogative. ending and may be entered on the grid. 23 σαϕῶς δηλοῖ The subject is τὰ πυρά (n. Don’t be afraid.) Ο Zeus! It is not a light you are seeing. What are you saying? Where is the light [coming] from? Where from? Look! (The captain also looks towards the island. SAILOR CAPT. You will see that in the latter case the article is also used: ‘this the din’. and the ship is already turning into the harbour. δηλοῖ is here a verb. he immediately hurries towards the harbour. 61. 3rd person singular (GE p. neuter plural subjects have a singular verb (GE p. hurry. CAPT. 26. pl. Dikaiopolis sees a light on Salamis. ἐκεῖνος ‘that’ (GE p. DIK. subj. No clause follows the ὅτι. DIK. #69. or you may prefer to look at GE pp. pl. Dikaiopolis. What are you saying? Do you say fire signals? Ο Zeus! Come along. #25). We are now approaching the harbour.) Look. We are in danger. CAPTAIN DIKAIOPOLIS CAPT.’ This is an idiom. hurry and get us safe into the harbour. #74 gives full forms). Translation for 3A Thus then the ship goes slowly towards the harbour. . But I am saving you. What do the fire signals show? They show clearly that enemy ships are coming against us. SAIL. or it can be used as a demonstrative adjective with a noun (οὗτος ὁ θόρυβος) to mean ‘this din’. #35) c. 21 τὰ πυρὰ δηλοῖ Notice that a. 30. but indefinite! The accent comes from enclitic ἐστιν (GE p. Come over here and look. #42b.) 20–21 εὖ οἶδα ὅτι ‘I know that well. although the -ες ending is also the regular nom. ‘They show clearly that …’ νῆες ναῦς is highly irregular (GE p. οὗτος can be used by itself as a pronoun to mean ‘this man’. 3B New in this section is the word οὗτος ‘this’: so you may wish to have an empty grid ready to fill in its forms as they occur. I am hurrying. We are hurrying because the fire signals show some danger. 60–61. When he sees the light. captain. DIK.

neighbour. this is a very common type of phrase. and this is one of them. (Runs out of his house. #63. Page 33 20 τροπωτῆρα … ὑπηρέσιον There is no point in trying to guess these! The former is an ‘oar-loop’. #73. 49. and nowhere [is there] order. Do you not see those fire signals? Look: it is clear that Salamis is in danger. what is this shouting? What is this the norm except in masc. 8–9 ἡ βοὴ ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι Notice the repeated article. someone with no authority. see the men. 63.e. And then I am going quickly to my ship. ‘the shout. the one in the harbour’. 14.not πολλ.32 Section 3B Page 32 1 oἱ ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ See GE p. This is the meaning given in the running vocabulary for 3B and is the meaning throughout this section. to secure the oar to the thole-pin (a pin fixed in the port-hole) and/or the rower’s wrist. neighbour. 23 παῖς This means ‘child’ or ‘boy’ but is frequently used with the meaning of ‘slave’ i. singular. singular the stem is πολ. 3 ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς There is just a small number of 2nd declension nouns which are feminine. where are you running to? PROT. Each member of the trireme’s crew kept his own. #73. the latter is a ‘cushion’ (usually tallowed underneath) to assist the rower in sliding backwards and forwards whilst rowing. PROTARCHOS (Runs homeward. like πολύς. ‘homewards’. his neighbour. Here the article is followed by a prepositional phrase instead of a noun. neighbour? Do you know? For great is the confusion. Translation for 3B When the people in the Piraeus see these fire signals. The full pattern is given in GE p. POL. Protarchos and Polos. ‘The [people] in the Piraeus’. The stem μεγαλ. note the use of the article as well. great the shouting in the harbour. and many men appear in the streets and watch the fire signals. and neuter nom. much confusion occurs in the in the rest of the cases. 63.) Tell me. But why don’t you come with me? POLOS . and many shouts. and neuter nom. Tell me. and acc. 8 μέγας ‘big’ (as in English ‘mega-’ compounds) has slight irregularities. See GE p.) Come over here. 15 Notice how ποῖ ‘where to’ is answered by οἴκαδε ‘to my home’. ταῦτα τὰ πυρά Neuter plural of οὗτος. For this danger is terrible and great. and acc. 1–2 πολύς … πολλαί Both are parts of πολύς ‘many’ (as in English ‘poly-’ compounds). and look over there. Notice that in the masc. For it is night. I am running home for my weapons.

POL. σωτῆρα οἱ ἄνδρες.) do nothing. τὸν ἄνδρα. σωτήρ 3A–B: 2 1.). 3. 5. I [can] see you (s. νύκτας. 3. τοῖς λιμέσι(ν) 6. Which of you (pl. παῖς. εἰς τοὺς λιμένας ἐπὶ τὸν γείτονα διὰ τὴν νύκτα ἐπὶ τοὺς παῖδας διὰ τὴν πατρίδα PERSONAL PRONOUNS 3A–B: 4 1. The wicked men defeat you (pl. 2.). πατρίς τοὺς ἄνδρας. but you cannot see me. Our safety is in your (pl. Then the men go towards the harbour. 33 Indeed I am coming with you. λιμένας. 7. friend. PROT. παῖδες. 8. Your (pl. παῖδας. τῆς πατρίδος 2. τῶν παίδων 3. but not us. παρὰ τὸν λιμένα εἰς τὴν πατρίδα ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας πρὸς τοὺς γείτονας διὰ τὸν παῖδα 6. νύκτα. 4. πατρίδα ὁ ἀνήρ. But where are you running to? I’m [going] home for my oar-loop and cushion. νύξ. τῷ ἀνδρί 3A–B: 3 5. 4. 9. Don’t chase us. λιμένα. but you (pl. 5.) are keeping quiet/doing nothing. γείτονες.) freedom is in my hands/ is in my power/ is my responsibility. γείτων. λιμένες. 7. So Polos brings out his oar-loop and cushion. λιμήν. πατρίδας ἡ λαμπάς. We are fighting. men. παῖδα.) or which of us is afraid of the men? 5. γείτονας. and Protarchos’ slave brings out his weapons and his torch. 8. σωτῆρας αἱ λαμπάδες. 4. ταῖς νυξί(ν) 8. τοῦ σωτῆρος 4. γείτονα. 6. 3. σωτῆρες τὰς λαμπάδας. 2.Exercises for section 3A–B POL. 6.) (hands). 7. not in ours. 10. But wait. For it is clear that we are going to a sea-battle. but watch us. 2. πατρίδες τὴν λαμπάδα. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3A–B THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS 3A–B: 1 1. τῇ λαμπάδι 1. . νύκτες. 8. We are dying. but you (s. τῶν γειτόνων 7.

c. a. b. c. πρὸς σέ 5. I educate.34 Revision exercises for section 3A–B 3A–B: 5 1. ἡμῶν 7. d. c. 2. d. uneducated apparent. commotion the danger I learn house weapons a child I appear manly. a man earth/work I know to there experienced I watch a din. ἐμὲ σέ 8. domestic hoplite (heavy-armed soldier) education. from there / thence without experience the spectacle. τὸν ἔμπειρον ἄνδρα τὴν κακὴν νύκτα τὸν σῶον παῖδα τὴν καλὴν πατρίδα ὁ ἀγαθὸς γείτων ἡ καλλίστη λαμπάς ὁ πολέμιος λιμήν ἡ ἐλευθέρα πατρίς τοῦ ἐμπείρου ἀνδρός τῆς κακῆς νυκτός τοῦ σώου παιδός τῆς καλῆς πατρίδος τῷ ἐμπείρῳ ἀνδρί τῇ καλλίστῃ λαμπάδι τῷ πολεμίῳ λιμένι τῇ ἐλευθέρᾳ πατρίδι . the theatre I create a disturbance I am in danger of. a. a. c. ἀπὸ ὑμῶν 6. brave farmer. b. ἐν ἡμῖν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3A–B A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. ἐν ἐμοί 4. without danger the student belonging to the house or family. d. b. obvious B – WORD SHAPE 1. a. b. d. the spectator. I farm I do not know there. ὑμεῖς ἡμεῖς 3. 3. ἡμᾶς 2.

32–33 Notice the order of the words and the ideas. 29 γεωργοί Compounded from γῆ ‘land’ and ἔργον ‘work’.e. οὐδὲ λαμβάνει οὐδένα … Notice that additional compound negatives simply strengthen the negative sense (GE p. ‘aristocracy’. 41 τριηράρχων The -αρχ. 21 τίνες οἱ λόγοι. ‘says one of you’. ‘not easily. 30 τὸ … ναυτικόν ‘the nautical thing’. the imagined interjection. ‘bureaucracy’ etc. which will be followed by μηδέ. 75. 24 κρατοῦσι κράτος is the Greek for ‘power’. 10–11 μὴ ποίει τοῦτο μηδὲ ϕοβοῦ … Notice that the negatives οὐ and οὐδέ are used in negative statements. but with difficulty and with much practice …’ 34–35 ϕησί τις ὑμῶν A typical rhetorical trick. from which we get our ‘-cracy’ words. 75. 17 οὐδεμία Feminine of οὐδείς (GE p. 2 ἄλλως δὲ οὐδαμῶς ‘otherwise nowise’ i. whereas μή. ταύτην Refers back to τέχνη.‘of a trireme’. ‘expertise at sea’. #86). Supply εἰσί. 26 Notice the contrast between ἐμπειρίαν τινά and οὐδεμίαν … ἐμπειρίαν. hence ‘farmer’ (note Virgil’s Georgics (farming matters) if that helps fix the meaning). ‘otherwise there’s no way [they can learn]’.e. is used in negative commands or prohibitions. Page 36 28 καὶ δὴ καί Often used at the end of a string of points as a final ‘clincher’: ‘and what’s more’. 17–18 οὐκ ἀϕικνεῖται Λακεδαιμόνιος οὐδείς. #86). hence ‘captain of a trireme’ or ‘trierarch’.Section 3C 35 C – SYNTAX the expert man the bad night the saved child the beautiful fatherland the good neighbour the most beautiful light/lamp the enemy harbour the free fatherland 3C Page 34 4 δεινὸς ὁ ἐν Σαλαμῖνι κίνδυνος Supply ἐστί. . τριηρ. ‘democracy’. i. 7–8 πτώσσει … ὥσπερ Ἀχαιὸς ὑϕ’ Ἕκτορι The sailor is ‘Homerising’.element means ‘ruler’.

but we. For those men take sailors and kill them. “do they not practise?” I reply “No. rhapsode. what are you doing? What fear takes hold of you? For you are the best general of the Greeks. nor killing anybody. one of you says.36 Section 3D Translation for 3C Meanwhile Dikaiopolis and the sailors are still talking to each other. ‘The one who orders’. my friend. Page 37 6 οἴκοι ‘at home’. how much confusion. Athenians. the Spartans do not easily learn nautical matters. rhapsode: but where is the man? For I cannot see that man. but it often makes the statement vague and tentative. DIK. how many warships. I know that well. and no other way. while they have no experience in nautical matters. But we too have some experience on land. Look. Tell me. and don’t be afraid of these Spartans. But no ship is arriving. I am. and it is clear that not one of the Spartans is arriving. those sailors are swarming into the harbour. Look. DIKAIOPOLIS 3D Page 36 2 θόρυβος γίγνεται πολύς Notice the word order.) This is the indefinite form of ποῦ ‘where’. And moreover.” ’ DIK. Cf. nor taking anybody. Great is the number both of ships and of trierarchs. “But the Spartans”. Nautical [expertise] is a skill: and this “skill” men learn through practice. SAIL. SAIL. like ‘I suppose’ in English. Listen then to what Pericles says in the ecclesia (assembly) about the war and about nautical matters: ‘Do not be afraid. we [have supremacy] at sea. Don’t do this. που (Without an accent. as they do other skills. οἴκοθεν ‘from home’. Ο Zeus! Terrible is the danger in Salamis and great. of the Spartans. . but with difficulty and with much practice. 3 κελευστής Derived from κελεύω. are preventing them. since we have supremacy at sea. we are already near the harbour. and οἴκαδε ‘to home’. What are the words? Tell me: for I do not remember. So don’t be afraid. how many men! Look! Like ants. Do you not remember the words of Pericles? RHAP. He’s afraid of the Spartans. It can mean ‘somewhere’. RHAPSODE What are you saying? Are the Spartans arriving? I am afraid of the Spartans. do you learn this skill. And now see the harbour! How many torches [there are]. SAILOR Look. For you know well that not easily. πολύς is delayed to the end to make it more emphatic. this rhapsode ‘is cowering’ in the ship ‘like an Achaean at Hector’s mercy’. For those men have supremacy on land. since they are farmers and not seafarers. translated in English above as ‘boatswain’ because he was the one who gave orders to the rowers.

BOATSWAIN POLOS . Come and look over there. BOA. 25 βάλλε εἰς κόρακας Literally. Page 38 29 Κυδαθηναιεύς A member of the deme (roughly ward/parish in Attica) Kydathenaion. boatswain. Boy! Boy! What are you doing? Is the boy asleep? Boy! Boy! BOY Who is it? Who is shouting? Why are you calling me? Who are you looking for? POL. But don’t sleep. Translation for 3D When Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode arrive on land. γε emphasises οὕτως. boatswain. trierarch: Salamis is in danger. But I’m sleeping soundly – POL. So Polos runs quickly towards the trierarch. Finally he arrives at the door. is the trierarch inside? Or isn’t he? BOY He is. and this man is shouting. Polos. οὕτως γε ‘[He] certainly [is] thus’. and that man is asleep at home. is calling you – me! TRI. ‘throw [yourself] to the crows’ – a colloquial Greek expression meaning ‘go to hell’. Tell me. from the deme Kydathenaion. i. Why don’t I knock on this door? Trierarch! Trierarch! I’m calling you! TRIERARCH Go to hell! But who’s knocking at the door? What’s this business? Who’s calling me? Who’s shouting? POL. Do you not see those fire signals? TRI. 21 ϕέρε. Near the ship is a boatswain. ‘or isn’t he?’ Greek will often add the alternative – and note the form of reply. why are you still waiting? Why don’t you call your master? For I am looking for him. BOY But it’s impossible.) Alas! Wait. POL. The men keep quiet and watch the spectacle. do something’. Polos. ὦ παῖ ϕέρε is like ἄγε and means ‘come on. What are you saying? Impossible? Go to hell! Don’t joke with me. there is much confusion going on. where is our trierarch? Clearly at home. boy. Alas! Terrible is the danger of the Athenians. POL.Section 3D 37 14 παῖ ‘Boy’ is being used in the sense of ‘slave’. presumably. The answer to questions is often given in the form of a positive statement: ‘Is he there?’ is more often answered by ‘He is there’ than by ‘Yes’. I’m coming quickly.e. and look for the trierarch and tell him about this danger in Salamis. from which Polos came – a normal method of identification. 19–20 ἢ οὐχ οὕτως. What are you saying? Are you joking with me? (He sees the fire signals on the island. Tell me. ‘or not thus?’ (literally). POL. Of course. Come along then. He’s asleep. POL. So hurry. Polos. The master is sleeping soundly.

ἐκεῖνοι οἱ λιμένες 2. It would be the normal practice to pour a libation and to say a prayer at the start of a voyage. 7. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3C–E ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS: οὗτος . cf.) Now call the time again. 8. in. out. In. and θυσίας θύομεν. out. and the trierarch also embarks. In. in. out. out’. the boat sails away. Our ship is sailing away. out. Translation for 3E Finally the sailors and the boatswain embark on the ships. TRIERARCH TRI. boatswain. In. And when he gives the order. out. (He pours the libation. men. Quickly now. this. 2. BOA.38 Section 3E 3E Page 39 6 ὠὸπ ὄπ Not meaningful words – just a sort of ‘in. out … Well done! Now I pour a libation to the gods and pray prayers. 10. boatswain. 16 κατακέλευε Compound indicates giving time to rowers – ‘Now call the time. Give the order. in. TRI. σπονδὴν σπένδω. in. Call the time. out. boatswain. (He prays his prayers. ἐκείνας τὰς λαμπάδας those harbours those lamps/lights . BOATSWAIN BOA. 7–8 τὰς εὐχὰς εὔχομαι Greek likes these repetitive phrases. τοῦτον τὸν λιμένα αὗται αἱ λαμπάδες οὗτος ὁ γείτων τούτους τοὺς παῖδας ταύτην τὴν πατρίδα τούτους τοὺς ἄνδρας τοῦτο τὸ ἔργον αὗται αἱ νύκτες οὗτοι οἱ σωτῆρες ταῦτα τὰ ὅπλα this harbour these torches/lights this neighbour these children this country these men this deed/task these nights these saviours these weapons 3C–E: 2 1. 4. 3. 6. that 3C–E: 1 1. 9. ἐκεῖνος .) Ο Lord Poseidon – for you are the best saviour of sailors and we often sacrifice our sacrifices to you for our safety – get us safely back to our country. 5. Well done.

7. 7. ἐκείνων τῶν παίδων τούτῳ. μέγας 3C–E: 4 1. 4. τούτου. 5. 2. ἐκείνῃ τῇ λαμπάδι τούτων. 8. μέγαν λιμένα 2. ἐκείναις ταῖς νυξίν τούτων. 10. 4. ἐκείνων τῶν ἔργων MANY. μεγάλας πατρίδας 6. 3. 6. ἐκείνῳ τῷ λιμένι τούτοις. 2. πολλοῦ καὶ μεγάλου λιμένος 2. 8. πολλῷ καὶ μεγάλῳ ἀνθρώπῳ 3. πολλῶν καὶ μεγάλων λόγων . πολλοὺς λιμένας πολλαὶ λαμπάδες πολλοὶ γείτονες πολὺς πόλεμος πολλὰ ὅπλα πολλὰς νύκτας πολλὴ ἀπορία many harbours many lights/lamps many neighbours much war many weapons many nights much perplexity 3C–E: 5 1. 3. 5. 6. 9. 5. ἐκείνης τῆς πατρίδος ταύταις. μέγας ἄνηρ 3C–E: 6 a big harbour a great light big neighbours a great deed large countries a big man 1. πολλῆς καὶ μεγάλης λαμπάδος 4.Exercises for section 3C–E 39 3. ἐκείνου τοῦ γείτονος ταύτῃ. 7. ἐκείνοις τοῖς ἀνδράσι ταύτης. μεγάλη λαμπάς 3. μέγα ἔργον 5. 4. GREAT: πολύς . 6. μεγάλοι γείτονες 4. ἐκεῖνον τὸν γείτονα ἐκεῖνοι οἱ παῖδες ἐκείνη ἡ πατρίς ἐκεῖνοι οἱ ἄνδρες ἐκεῖνος ὁ σωτήρ ἐκεῖναι αἱ νύκτες ἐκεῖνο τὸ ἔργον ἐκεῖνα τὰ πυρά that neighbour those children that country/fatherland those men that saviour those nights that deed/task those fire-signals 3C–E: 3 1.

ἡμέτερος ‘our’. a. πολλῇ καὶ μεγάλῃ ἀπορίᾳ IRREGULAR NOUNS 3C–E: 7 1. c. b. παρὰ τὰς ναῦς 3. (specifically in this chapter) ‘boatswain’. ἐκεῖσε ‘over there’. πρὸς τὸν Δία 5. ὑμέτερος ‘your’ (belonging to lots of you). ἔνδον ‘inside’.40 Revision exercises for section 3C–E 5. d. ἡμεῖς ‘we’. διὰ τὸν Δία 2. ἐπὶ τὰς ναῦς REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3C–E A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. σπονδή ‘libation’. 3. i. βοή ‘a shout’ + θέω ‘I run’ = ‘I run to the help of’. οὕτως ‘thus’. βοάω ‘I shout’. b. πολλοῖς καὶ μεγάλοις ἐργοῖς 6. κατακελεύω ‘I give the time’. βοηθέω ‘I help’. κελεύω ‘I order’.e. c. βοή ‘a shout’. σπένδω ‘I pour a libation’. ἐν ‘in’. εὔχομαι ‘I pray’. ὑμεῖς ‘you’ (pl. εἰς τὴν ναῦν 4. B – WORD SHAPE 1. οὗτος ‘this’. e.). κελευστής ‘orderer’. ἐμπειρία ‘experience’. 2. c. d. εὐχή ‘prayer’. τοῦτον τὸν ἄνδρα ταῦτα τὰ ἔργα ταύτην τὴν λαμπάδα τὰς βοὰς ταύτας τούτους τοὺς λιμένας οὗτος ὁ γείτων αὗται αἱ λαμπάδες τὰ πυρὰ ταῦτα ἡ πατρὶς αὕτη οὗτοι oἱ ἄνδρες μέγα τὸ ἔργον πολλὴν ἐμπειρίαν μέγαν λιμένα πολλὰ δεινά . ἔμπειρος ‘experienced’. a. b. d. a. ἐκεῖνος ‘that (there)’. e.

these harbours. So the captain looks quickly towards Salamis. this man. ἡ οὖν ναῦς πρὸς ἐκεῖνον τὸν λιμένα βραδέως πλεῖ. Great fear seizes the rhapsode. but this man [is stupid] about nothing. the sailor sees many strange things. 5. the men have much experience in naval matters. great is the deed. this lamp. ἐκεῖνος ὁ μῶρος ῥαψῳδὸς ϕοβεῖται τούτους τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους. For the boatswains are looking for the trierarchs. The captain knows well that it is not a light but the fire signals. these fire-signals. these deeds. For he fears the Spartans.Revision exercises for section 3C–E 41 C – SYNTAX 1. That man is stupid about many things. 4. ἐκεῖναι μὲν γὰρ ἔμπειροι περὶ πολλά. The men in the harbour watch the fire signals and run home for their weapons. these men. εἰς τὸν λιμένα (3) ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους (4) 2. 2. the captain steers towards a great harbour. these lamps. So when the ship arrives in the harbour. ἐπέρχονται (4) θεῶνται (4) 3. For great is the danger of the Athenians. Don’t you know whether those men are sailors or not? οὐχ οἶδα πότερον ἐκεῖνος (ὁ ἄνθρωπος/ἀνήρ) στρατηγός ἐστιν ἢ οὔ. αὕτη δὲ οὔ. but they are sleeping peacefully. Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode go towards the ships. πολλοὶ δὲ (ἄνθρωποι/ ἄνδρες) ϕαίνονται. λαμπάδα ὁρᾷ (1) θεῶνται τὰ πυρά (4. So he hurries into the harbour: for those fire signals reveal that the enemy are attacking the Athenians. these shouts. πολλαὶ δὲ αἱ βοαί. The sailors say that the Athenians are supreme at sea. this neighbour. and great the confusion of the men. and the Spartans by land. Then they offer their sacrifices and pour their libations and put out to sea. EXERCISE Note: there are many more possible answers 1. E – TEST EXERCISE 3C–E While this ship is sailing past the island. And the Spartans do not easily learn nautical technique. This good captain does not hear these shouts. Finally these trierarchs arrive at the harbour and get on board. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. this country. 3. For they know that the danger is great. 3. And it is clear that these ships are going to a sea-battle. Dikaiopolis sees a light on the island. μέγας μὲν γὰρ ὁ θόρυβος. 5) 4. 2. (a) μέγας (5) (b) ναυτικήν (9) τρέχουσιν (5) (c) δῆλον (11) .

8 Notice πρῶτον μὲν …. δαίμων English ‘demon’ is derived from this word. pl. 4 πρὸς τῶν θεῶν ‘by the gods’ – the case usage will be explained later. then re-phrase more idiomatically.Section Four: Lawlessness in Athenian life In this Section. It means the opposite of ‘divinely favoured’: some god is wishing evil upon you. #82). being a sailor. #66). ἔπειτα δέ …. the new grammatical material includes the use of participles – of the verb ‘to be’ in Sections A–B. a common pairing. See the map on page 38 of RGT. of active and middle verbs in Sections C–D. it is often best to translate literally first. 4A Page 42 1 ὅσον πλῆθος Once again the exclamatory use of ὅσος. 71. There are also more types of 3rd declension nouns. γεωργὸς ὤν ‘because/as/since I’m a farmer’. 3 πυράς τινας The meaning should be clear (cf. #77–80). #88).70–72. that you should observe carefully the way they are used and not move on from Section 4 until you are quite happy with all the usages of participles encountered in this Section. The endings are just the same as in the nouns like λιμήν. of another noun. 10–11 ναύτης ὤν ‘being a sailor’. you might begin with ‘he. likes Pericles’ before modifying to another clause – ‘because/as/since he is a sailor. When translating. but note that the Greek has no ‘bad’ implications – it is a neutral term meaning ‘god’. Participles are very widely used in Greek: this means. Here. 42 . which you have learned (see GE p. #78) so the two agree. however un-English it may seem. ‘divine spirit’. he likes Pericles’. in effect. Participles have a wide range of usages in Greek (see GE p. for example. τὰ πυρά in Section 3) but note that here we have the acc. adjectives and pronouns (see GE pp. πλῆθος is neuter (GE p. ‘What a great crowd … !’ 2 τὰ τείχη τεῖχος is another neuter noun of the 3rd declension like πλῆθος. ἡ πυρά ‘funeral pyre’. 54. 6 κακοδαίμων ‘ill-starred’ is perhaps the closest English can get to this idea. 11 Similarly. 73. This is the first example of the present participle. The Long Walls joined Athens to the Piraeus. 77–78. This is a 3rd declension adjective (see GE p.

case and gender show that it agrees with τὰς οἰκήσεις. 42. so which form? 30–31 κακοδαίμονα ὄντα. 19–20 τὰ δὲ πρόβατα … διαπεμπόμεθα So that’s what Dikaiopolis was doing over in Euboea way back in Section 1A! Page 44 21 πολλοὶ ὄντες Another form of the participle. 27 ὀλοϕύρομαι You may be able to deduce the meaning of this from the illustration on p. #87 for the full paradigm of the participle.T. The number. 77.element in the middle.’ See also Sophocles. and then understand κρατοῦσι in the next phrase.and the stem of the participle is -oντ-. See GE p. The verb ‘to be’ is often used in the sense of ‘to be alive’.Section 4A 43 Page 43 12–13 Note how μέν and δέ are used to point the contrast between ‘us’ and the Lacedaemonians.77. 23 οὔσας Use ὀλίγας to determine which form this is. could be defended. 41. the Long Walls and Piraeus. ‘It is men who make a city and not walls or ships with no men inside them. 25 οὖσα δεινή is here the clue to determining the form. The policy of Pericles explained here was that it was not safe to risk a major land battle against the Spartans. Thucydides 7. κακοδαίμονα … οὖσαν. Notice that the endings are almost the same as the adjectives. has already mentioned the plague which devastated Athens: νόσος generally means ‘disease’. This is the feminine form of the participle. . ‘to exist’. with the basic sense of ‘leave’. κακοδαίμονας ὄντας These show clearly the similarities and differences between the participle and the adjective. but that the stem of the adjectives is -oν. Deduce number. κρατοῦμεν As on p. as you will see in line 40 below.13–17). ‘my son who is no longer alive’. here specifically ‘the plague’. ‘we are superior/supreme’. RGT p. Note the adjective stem without a ‘τ’ and the participle stem with one. 49. and that the adjective does not have a separate feminine form whereas the participle does. 28 τὸν ἐμὸν υἱόν. O. 31 τοὺς ἐν τῇ πόλει ‘the people in the city’ (remember GE p. 29 οὖσαν Agreeing with τὴν ἐμὴν γυναῖκα. 56–7. οὐκέτ᾽ ὄντα ‘my son. 13 καταλείπετε Note the -λειπ. Also there is a separate feminine. no longer being’. The English introduction. while Athens waged war by sea (Thucydides 2. 24 νόσος Distinguish carefully from νήσος. 36 line 35. case and gender from πολλοί and enter in grid. therefore the countryside of Attica could not be defended and the advice was given to farmers to abandon their property and take refuge in Athens where the city. 15–16 πόλις … ἄνδρες Cf. #63).

3 νεκρός Cf. slowly. ‘I carry it. The city-people have the houses. also ill-starred. ἀσέβεια. since he is a persuasive orator. who am ill-starred. and bring your property into the city. 25 ὥσπερ πρόβατα Our idiom is ‘like flies’. but men. ‘necrophilia’. farmers. rhapsode. the crowd is unfortunate and the farmers in particular are unfortunate. Tell me. English ‘barometer’ etc. Why has the city such a great crowd. which is now the object of ϕέρω.’ So. and τοὺς ἀσεβεῖς (line 28) and τοὺς εὐσεβεῖς (line 28). For the sailor – DIK. ‘What violence/aggression!’ Similarly with ὢ τῆς ἀνομίας (15) and ὢ τῆς ἀσεβείας (16). it is terrible and destroys many men. the situation becomes difficult. You see the [people] in the city. being heavy. also ill-starred. cf. Dikaiopolis? Alas! What’s this? I see funeral pyres. and then also Pericles. 12 ὢ τῆς ὕβρεως The case is a genitive of exclamation. So leave your homes. and my own wife. in this way Pericles persuades us. When we – and there are many of us – arrive in the city. There you have the situation. The flocks we transport across to Euboea. by the gods. We bring in from the country our children and our wives and the rest of our property. It will be explained later – for the present. and we live first in the Long Walls. but the Spartans [have supremacy] on land. what’s the reason? Indeed it is clear that some evil god is punishing the city. and your land. For I am still lamenting my own son. You see the city. The plague also destroys my household. RHAP. For he says: ‘We have supremacy at sea. βαρὺν ὄντα This is accusative and refers to the νεκρός. I think Pericles [is] responsible. then in the temples. RHAPSODE 4B Page 45 2 βαρύς ‘heavy’. Do not worry.44 Section 4B Translation for 4A Heracles! What a lot of people! The walls seem full. English ‘necromancy’. The war is primarily responsible. DIKAIOPOLIS The city is indeed unfortunate. But I’m not a sailor but a farmer. who is no longer. After this the plague occurs. But Pericles [is] a very good general. You will not meet this type of 3rd declension adjective properly until Section 10. Since I’m a farmer. Page 46 21 σέβομαι Cf. many women. rhapsode.’ 11 ὦ ’νθρωπε = ὦ ἄνθρωπε. which are few. They are all from the same root. . You see me. who is no longer. many children. For a city is not dwellings or land. But it is clear that that man likes Pericles because he’s a sailor.

a pyre. though you are a mortal. because they are fine. Foul [man]! Are you hitting me.Μ. DIKAIOPOLIS What are you saying? You are carrying a corpse? Y. Don’t get in my way. neither fear of the gods nor the laws of men? Y. stop! You are dishonouring the gods. Do you not reverence the gods? Do you not honour the laws of man? Does nothing stop you. DIK. men are dying like flies in their homes and in the temples. and as it’s heavy. What are you saying? Corpses are falling upon corpses.Μ. ‘Man is the dream of a shadow’. Y. what’s this? Are you throwing a corpse onto that pyre? What irreverence! Stop – Y. Don’t get in my way.Μ.Section 4B 45 33 ἐϕήμεροι English ‘ephemeral’ helps. He no longer sees any point in trying to observe the old religion and morality.Μ. boy. The young man is depicted here as exhibiting the sort of moral deterioration which Thucydides describes as one of the effects of the plague (Thuc. But today I am burying my son. I’m carrying it slowly. And don’t talk to me about laws and aggressive behaviour. 2. Y. I honour Aphrodite particularly. DIK. throw the corpse onto this pyre. O L D M A N What’s this? What are these shouts? You there.M.53). she makes life happy. For this corpse is heavy. but note the literal meaning ‘lasting for one day’ (ἡμέρα ‘day’). by the gods. 39 ἡ θεός There is a noun ἡ θεά.Μ. Stop. I don’t care. 35 Pindar quotation. who were always pious? Now where is my brother. Come on. But what are you doing? Don’t do this. Translation for 4B Look. fellow. but θεός as a feminine form is more common. quickly! Wait. a citizen? What aggressive behaviour! Don’t hit [me]. and it is my pyre.M. boy. And do you speak to me of gods and laws? You fool – the gods either don’t exist or don’t care about us. The only deity he has any time for is Aphrodite. stop! Y. Since the goddess is beautiful and kindly. the most pious of men? Look. For I’m not afraid of punishment. Come here. . since the plague is destroying both the pious and the impious alike. old man. She is a beautiful and kindly goddess. O. But I don’t dishonour the gods. Where are my mother and father. what are you doing? Are you hitting a citizen? What lawlessness! Stop! Alas. So I’m turning to Aphrodite and pleasure. O. Don’t you know that men are short-lived? What are we? What are we not? YOUNG MAN SLAVE ‘Man is the dream of a shadow. wait and don’t hurry.’ O. master. a comment on the transience of human existence.Μ.Μ.

οὐδεμία σκεύη – εὔφρονα. and long for my own deme? For in the city there is nothing other than lawlessness and impiety and plague and a great quantity of corpses. οὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδέν 4A–B: 3 1. 2. 7. τις. 6. ταῖς πόλεσι(ν) TYPE 3 ADJECTIVES. εὔφρονας. τῷ πλήθει τοῖς ἄστεσι(ν) τῇ πόλει τοῦ πράγματος τῶν πρέσβεων 6. τοῦ πλήθους 9. 9. τάξεις ὁ πρέσβυς τὸ ἄστυ. οὐδέν πόλιν – εὔφρονα. 8. πόλεις. 3. τῷ πράγματι 10. τινά . πλήθη. πλῆθος.46 DIK. τάξεις 4A–B: 2 1. 4. τάξις αἱ οἰκήσεις. τάξιν τὰ ἄστη. τῷ ἄστει 7. οὐδέν οἰκήσεις – εὔφρονες. τις . 3. 10. 70–72. οἱ πρέσβεις τὴν οἴκησιν. τινες. πόλιν. 3. τι. 6. πρᾶγμα τὸν πρέσβυν ἡ οἴκησις. πόλις. 5. 2. τι. #81–86. πράγματα. εὔφρονας. 2. 70). rhapsode. 73–76. τινές. #77–80 and pp. πλῆθος – εὖφρον. οὐδεμίαν πρέσβεις – εὔφρονες. There is also some vocabulary to be learnt (p. τινάς τάξις – εὔφρων. τινάς ἄστυ – εὔφρον. 7. τι. that I hate the city because I am a farmer. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4A–B TYPE 3 NOUNS 4A–B: 1 1. τινά. 5. 5. 4. Grammar Grammar for this part of Section 4 is given at GE pp. τοῦ πρέσβεως 8. 4. Exercises for section 4A–B Are you surprised. σκεύη τοὺς πρέσβεις τὰς οἰκήσεις. πόλεις. before you try the exercises. Check that you know it and understand it.

ὤν 4A–B: 6 1. τινί. τινος. οὖσαν ὄν ὄντες ὤν οὖσαν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4A–B A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING Once again. Uneducated I die. ὄντες 7.g. 5. 2. οὐδενί πράγματος – εὔφρονος. but ποίημα is ‘a poem’. PRESENT PARTICIPLES 4A–B: 5 1. 3. 5. 2. τινί. summons . 4. οὖσαι 10. οὐδενός πόλει – εὔφρονι. 76–78. #87–88 before trying the next exercises. πλήθει – εὔφρονι. genesis revelation embarkation question search spectacle calling. 5. 1. mortal I become I reveal. ποίησις = ‘making poetry’. 6. whereas nouns which end in -μα describe a thing done: e. 3. 4. οὐδενί ἄστεσι – εὔφροσι(ν). death origin. οὐδενός πρέσβεων – εὐφρόνων.Revision exercises for section 4A–B 47 4A–B: 4 1. 2. 4. 3. Note that nouns which end in -σις normally express the doing of something. τινῶν τάξεως – εὔφρονος. τινός. do not be surprised if you cannot ‘deduce’ all the meanings. show I embark I ask I seek I watch I call education. ὄντας ὄντα ὄντα 6. τισι(ν) Check that you understand GE pp. lesson immortal. ὄντες οὖσα ὄντες. οὖσαν 9. ὄν 8.

κατὰ θάλατταν κρατοῦμεν. Come over here and tell [me]. though it is beautiful. The Athenians defeat by sea those men who are experienced on land. friend? Are you lamenting a son. friend. ὦ γυναῖκες … ἐγώ. 2. Λακεδαιμόνιον ὄντα καὶ κακοδαίμονα. honour the gods’ laws. … σέ. Why are you lamenting. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. μέγα ὄν. which are very good. ἀγαθὸν ὄν. the city is in much perplexity and the people are short-lived and ill-fated. since he is very good. d.48 Revision exercises for section 4A–B beautiful I am powerful I learn I make. e. I do not honour the city. 5. who is no more. τὸ πλῆθος. daring deed falsehood. ϕίλαι οὖσαι. 3. You seem to be ill-fated indeed. E – TEST EXERCISE 4A–B YOUNG MAN OLD MAN Y. power learning (the process). dishonoured recklessness. c. Y. σὺ γεωργὸς ὢν οἶσθα τοὺς νόμους. ἡ ἐμὴ γυνή. Since I am a mortal. μεγάλους ὄντας.Μ. This general. τίς ὢν σύ … . For I see the multitude of people are ill-fated. κακοδαίμων οὖσα. 4. . friend. κακὴν οὖσαν. οὐκ ἀτιμάζει τοὺς θεούς.) … ἡμεῖς ὀλίγοι ὄντες … ὑμᾶς πολλοὺς ὄντας. poetic art stratagem army. a. τὸ τῶν νεκρῶν πλῆθος. who are unlucky. ϕοβεῖται τὴν νόσον. οὐ ϕοβοῦμαι. For I am lamenting both my son. is not afraid of the Spartans who are hostile. learning (the thing learned) poem. ναῦται ὄντες.M. We have many problems because of the plague. I do not dishonour the gods. Ο. create general army quickly I honour I dare falsely B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX beauty strength. But what is the reason? How are the people dying? Because of the plague. do. b. and my daughter who is now a corpse. The people. Ἀθηναῖος ὢν καὶ εὐδαίμων. κακοδαίμων ὤν / οὖσα (masc. lie 1. or fem. or a daughter or a wife? I am doing this because I am ill-fated. who is ill-fated. corpses fall upon corpses and people die because they are ill-fated.Μ. expedition speed honour.

τίμα lines 13 and 14..Section 4C O. #87. ‘Are you unaware of the man running?’. #95). agrees with υἱόν οὖσαν line 4.. It is probably best to stick to the literal translation to begin with. The Greek usage is often not as strong as English ‘suffer’: here it’s almost ‘What’s the matter with him?’ 16 δῆλοί εἰσι διώκοντες δῆλοι is used personally here. #90 followed by the participles of contract verbs GE #91. 9 ἀποφεύγων τυγχάνει τυγχάνω is another verb that is normally accompanied by a participle (see GE p. ‘undergo’. you may like to make an empty grid in which to fill in the various cases as they occur. ὄντα lines 2 and 4. 52 (not the hat or sticks!). EXERCISE 1. ‘they are clear pursuing …’ You will probably want to translate as ‘it is clear that they are pursuing’. GE p. which is the nearest English phrase: it means to do something either intentionally or accidentally unnoticed by yourself or another. ἀτίμαζε. m. φίλε is vocative ἀπορίᾳ is dative 4C This section introduces the present participle of active verbs: as above (Sections A–B). ἔλθε εἰπέ line 1. κακοδαίμονας line 12 4. in place of δῆλον ὅτι.M. You can also see the present participle of παύω set out on GE pp. ‘Do you not notice the man running?’ 7 προστρέχοντα You can tell from the -οντα ending that it agrees with αὐτόν.. 10 ὁδοιπόρος Both elements have been met. The endings are exactly the same as those for the verb ‘to be’ which are set out in GE p. . τόλμα. 82–83.. s. 14 πάσχει GE gives as ‘suffer’. Literally. s. It means ‘to happen to be doing something’ or ‘to be really doing something’. ὁδός ‘road’ and πορεύομαι ‘I travel’. ἀσέβει. using as your example the verb παύω. agrees with θυγατέρα [nb. f. 86. sing. sing. there are more examples at lines 10 and 11] 2. 11 χλαμύδα This is the garment worn in the illustration on p. 86. ‘Or does the man escape your notice running?’ before trying to rephrase more idiomatically. 3. 77. κακοδαίμονες line 8 ἐφημέρους line 11. Page 48 6 λανθάνει A very awkward verb to translate as English has no direct equivalent. ‘experience’. but be resolute and honour the gods. 49 So do not dishonour the gods and do not commit irreverent acts against the city. The action that is ‘not noticed’ is expressed as a participle (in this case τρέχων). #95 gives ‘escape the notice of’. or ‘they are clearly pursuing’. The noun means ‘traveller’.

Page 49 35 δυστυχής The force of δυσ.50 Section 4C 18 ϕθάνει Another awkward verb to translate and another of the group in GE p. But the situation is strange. what’s the din? What are those shouts? What’s happening? RHAPSODE Look. English ‘dyslexia’. before turning your literal translation into acceptable English. καίπερ ‘although’ is always followed by a participle. this time as the object. ‘hard’ or ‘bad’. lines 207–208. ‘the fugitive’. No. Dikaiopolis. You speak rightly. GE gives as ‘anticipate X (acc. ‘dyspepsia’. 28 τὸν ϕεύγοντα As above. or ‘the fugitive’. 86. But perhaps he is a foreigner. 31–32 This quotation from Homer. by Zeus. But what’s this situation? A herald is approaching and – the Eleven and the public slaves. into that shrine! Quickly lead away the stranger. Tell me. ‘dystrophy’. rhapsode. as he’s a Spartan. DIK. S A T Y R O S Where is the Spartan fleeing to? Where is he? You there – do you know where the fugitive is? Or are you not aware of the man fleeing? RHAP. or of doing it before they can do it. Whoever is it? RHAP.) in -ing’: the basic sense is usually of doing something either before another can stop you. DIK. It’s clear that he’s turning in for sanctuary. 23 ὁ φεύγων Literally ‘the running away one’. Here the former is more likely: the fugitive escapes into the sanctuary before the Eleven can prevent him from doing so. Odyssey Book 6 can be found in its original context in RGT p. Dikaiopolis. Suddenly a man runs up to them. And now some men are approaching. Once again it helps if you translate it literally. But the man has anticipated the Eleven by running into the shrine. DIK.and often has the sense of ‘with difficulty’. What’s the matter with him. a man is running this compounds is the opposite of εὐ. Or do you not notice that the man has a cloak? RHAP. Clearly they are pursuing the man. I am aware of him. Translation for 4C Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode travel towards the city. Come here. But he is not a slave and he seems to be a traveller. Look! The man is running into the shrine of Heracles. as a suppliant. that he’s running into the shrine? RHAP. Cf. #95. Do you see the man? Or are you not aware of the man running this way? DIK. Perhaps he is a slave and happens to be running away. 260. But he’s in that shrine. DIKAIOPOLIS . slaves. For I see him running towards [us]. SAT.

and he anticipated you by running into the shrine. #97). ‘those who …’ περὶ Δία ἱκέσιον καὶ ξένιον Zeus was regarded as protecting suppliants as well as strangers and foreigners. ‘the man (obj. The middle participles are easily recognised. 13 ὦνδρες = ὦ ἄνδρες.) calling upon the gods’. #92–93) and the participles of the contracted verbs (GE p. like καλός καλή καλόν Page 50 2 καθίζεται … ἱκέτης ὤν Illustrated at RGT p.Section 4D DIK. 4D Now the middle participles are introduced (GE pp. ‘those who have …’ 21 καθορᾶτε This could be either indicative or imperative. 84–85.’ Don’t worry about that. herald. 21–22 τοὺς ἀσεβοῦντας As above in line 19. ἐπικαλοῦμαι is a contracted verb: the regular participle-ending is -όμενος. thinking that if they succeeded in obtaining Persian support they would be victorious. What lawlessness! Indeed the stranger appears to be unlucky.91. 52. 15 ἐπικαλούμενος The first example of a middle participle. he is sacrosanct. 51 RHAP. 84. and the oath is a characteristically Spartan one. 29 ναὶ τὼ σιώ GE translates as ‘by the two gods’ (σιώ is Doric dialect for θεώ). παύομαι gives παυόμενος παυομένη παυόμενον. Don’t drag away the fugitive. The two gods are the twins Castor and Pollux. we would say ‘the king’). and govern an object. 23 τὸν τοὺς θεοὺς ἐπικαλούμενον Notice that the participle can be itself an object. but such an event is recorded by Herodotus. 6. although he’s a Spartan. ‘All strangers are under the protection of Zeus. often this is best translated by a relative clause. both Athens and Sparta at different times asked Persia for help. which may help towards meaning. 87. Sparta’s later . ‘you see’ or ‘see!’ The context favours the latter. Because he’s a suppliant. HERALD DIK. #93) and one further type of 3rd declension noun (GE p. seen below in ὀλοφυρόμενος (18). 32 πρεσβευτής As an ambassador he would of course (as today) be regarded as having diplomatic immunity. The especial significance here is that throughout the Peloponnesian War. 19 τοὺς … ἔχοντας Article + participle ‘the ones having …’. Here the article is used to link the noun to the adjective μέγαν. 11 ἀπόκοπτε τὰς χεῖρας Sounds rather drastic. The stranger happens to be a suppliant. but lead the man away. slaves. In fact. 35–36 πρὸς βασιλέα τὸν μέγαν βασιλεύς (without the article) is regularly used of the King of Persia (contrast our usage: to emphasise.

Ο city. Page 51 43 νέμεσις μεγάλη The concept of divine retribution for wrongdoing is common in Greek Tragedy and in Herodotus (see Section 19 in RGT p. look down upon what I am suffering. 36–37 σὺ δὲ δῆλος εἶ φιλῶν τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους Literally ‘But you are clear loving the Lacedaemonians’. SAT. so εὐπορία means the opposite. Nemesis can fall upon the wrongdoer himself or upon any one of his descendants. Cf. fellow.) Oh gods.5). 49 Δυσνομία A personified variation of ἀνομία. STR. city! S A T Y R O S Drag away this man. Once again notice the personal use of δῆλος with the participle. Translation for 4D Look. do you see? What impiety! For the unfortunate stranger is sitting on the altar. and the opposite of Εὐνομία. rhapsode and doesn’t stop calling upon us. who have their daggers? STR. I call upon you.) But nevertheless. You. as a suppliant. men! DIK. Satyros. εὐπορία is the opposite of ἀπορία though here in a slightly different meaning from ‘perplexity’ which you met before. ‘abundance’. RHAPSODE (The rhapsode is silent. ‘visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons unto the third or fourth generation’ (Exodus 20. slaves. DIKAIOPOLIS . and don’t do anything. 50 In the second line of the quotation from Solon: (a) ἀποϕαίνει is active in form. hence ‘makes to appear’. SAT. Cut off his hands. εὐνομία is the opposite of ἀνομία. and finally speaks. STRANGER I call upon the gods – PUBLIC SLAVE But the stranger is holding on to the altar. (He does not stop calling upon the gods. agreeing with πάντα. Stop calling upon the gods. 230. (b) εὔκοσμα and ἄρτια are neuter plural. line 1 for one instance in the original context). Don’t you see those public slaves. drag the fellow away to the other Spartans.52 Section 4D success in securing Persian support undoubtedly contributed to her victory in the end. but the public slaves are dragging him away while the stranger is holding on to the altar and calling upon the gods. since he’s a Spartan. Dikaiopolis. Here it is assumed that the extreme ill-fortune of the stranger can only be explained by the belief that he is being punished for the wrongdoing of one of his forebears. ‘plenty’. and stop lamenting. The stranger is calling upon us. away from the altar. 47–48 εὐνομία and εὐπορία are contrasted with ἀνομία and ἀπορία. Look down upon those who are committing impiety against Zeus. god of suppliants and strangers. The public slaves drag away from the altar the man who is calling upon the gods. be quiet yourself too. or ‘you are clearly in favour of the Spartans’. ἀπορία can mean ‘shortage of provisions’. rhapsode. therefore transitive. ‘reveals’.

παυομένου 4. 85–86. παυόμενος 8. 87–88. But what’s the matter with our city? What’s happening? War seems to be a violent instructor. DIK. τρέχον. #89–93). Shut up then and stop bewailing the Spartan. παυομένων . τρέχουσαν. παυομένης 3. SAT. you are clearly being unjust towards men and impious towards the gods. τρέχοντα. Do you. and their various uses listed in GE pp. Surely great retribution from the gods is coming upon him because of his ancestors and the aggression of his ancestors. παυομένῳ 2. but in war there is lawlessness and shortage. DIK. παυόμενον 4C–D: 2 5. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4C–D MORE PRESENT PARTICIPLES 4C–D: 1 1. τρέχοντος. παυόμεναι 3. τρέχοντι. τρέχοντες. The public slaves drag the Spartan away towards the market-place. rhapsode. τρέχων. 53 DIK. and the useful notes (GE pp. παυόμενοι 6. τρέχων. παυόμενον 1. ‘So bad government brings very many evils to the city. #94. τρεχούσης. τρεχόντων. RHAP.Exercises for section 4C–D STR. #97). Notice also βασιλεύς (GE p. παυομένην 7. 87. τρέχοντας. For in peacetime these things do not happen. although he is an ambassador and a suppliant. For they are killing him.’ Grammar Check that you understand the participles (GE pp. It is clear that the gods hate the man. 82–85. But good government makes all appear well-ordered and perfect. Athenians. παυομένους 2. drag away those who flee into shrines? Do you kill those who turn aside for sanctuary? By the twain. But who is that stranger? He happens to be an ambassador – What are you saying? An ambassador? What lawlessness! Are you killing ambassadors? He is an ambassador and happens to be travelling towards the great King. #98–100) on elision and crasis. 95. including the forms for the contracted verbs. But you clearly love the Spartans. In peacetime there is good order and plenty in the city. SAT. τρέχουσαι. The stranger does not stop shouting and revealing what he is suffering at the hands of the Athenians. παυόμενος 4.

βοῶντας ELISION AND CRASIS 4C–D: 6 1.54 Revision exercises for section 4C–D 5. φεύγων. παυομένοις 6. f. 3. s. m. φεύγοντας τρέχοντα 4C–D: 5 1. acc. 8. τρέχουσι(ν). n. εἴμ’ Ὀδυσσεύς 1. τρεχούσῃ. of the doers to/for the women who are showing of the one who is afraid to/for the women who are doing to/for the one who sees to/for those who show 4. 3. 5. ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς 5. s. ἆρά εἰμι ἔμπειρος. nom. βαίνουσα 2. 4. ἀφ’ ἡμῶν 4C–D: 7 4./acc. nom. παίζων 3. 2. f. nom. ἐν δὲ ἀπορίᾳ 4. s. 1. 7. παυομένοις m. νῦν δὲ ἐπὶ οἰκίαν 2. παυομένῃ 4C–D: 3 7. f. acc m. τὸν θεώμενον τὰς ὁρώσας τοὺς ποιοῦντας αἱ δηλοῦσαι οἱ φοβούμενοι ἡ ποιοῦσα τὴν ὁρῶσαν τὸ δηλοῦν τοῖς θεωμένοις τῇ ὁρώσῃ τῶν ποιούντων ταῖς δηλούσαις τοῦ φοβουμένου ταῖς ποιούσαις τῷ ὁρῶντι τοῖς δηλοῦσι(ν) the one watching those/ the women seeing the ones doing the ones/the women showing those afraid the one/the woman doing the one/the woman seeing the one/it showing 4C–D: 4 to/for those watching to/for the woman who sees of those doing. 6. 5. 7. 8. ἆρ’ ὁρᾷς. f. 5. παυομένῳ 8. 6. pl. ἀλλὰ ἐγώ 3. acc. sacred thing reverence priest . acc. 2. κακός ἐστὶν ὁ πόλεμος 5. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4C–D A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1 impiety temple. τρέχουσι(ν). pl. τρέχοντι. 4. 3. nom. 1. pl. ὁ δ’ ἀνήρ 2. s.

pursuing him. outrage 1. ὁ ξένος οὐ παύεται ἡμᾶς ἐπικαλούμενος καὶ βοῶν. (The Lacedaemonian anticipates the pursuers running into the shrine. The man escaping does not escape my notice (i.) The herald does not stop hating the strangers and being afraid. The stranger is clearly suffering something dreadful. Don’t you see that the master has some gear? (Does the master escape your notice having some gear?) ἆρα λανθάνει σε ὁ δοῦλος τὸν ἱκέτην ἀϕέλκων. c. Who are fleeing? Do you see them fleeing? τοὺς ϕεύγοντας e. 3. 5. Who are lamenting? Where are the people who are lamenting? οἱ ὀλοϕυρόμενοι.Revision exercises for section 4C–D 55 a suppliant I hate stranger. ὁ δ’ ἀνὴρ δῆλός ἐστι πρεσβευτὴς ὢν καὶ ἀποϕεύγων τυγχάνει. ὁρῶμεν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/ἄνδρας τρέχοντας. I do not see any Spartan escaping. But you are clearly a suppliant and you happen to be lamenting the situation.) When the pursuers see him in the shrine. The pursuers arrive and ask the rhapsode where the stranger happens to be. although he is shouting and calling upon the gods. The stranger does not stop lamenting and revealing what he is suffering. ὁ γὰρ Λακεδαιμόνιος φθάνει τοὺς διώκοντας τρέχων εἰς τὸ ἱερόν. Why don’t they stop being afraid? ϕοβούμεναι. I am aware of the man who is escaping). ὁ ἀποϕεύγων d. So in this way lawlessness and impiety occur in the city of the Athenians. E – TEST EXERCISE 4C–D A stranger happens to be running into the shrine of Heracles. (Lit.e. but the rhapsode and Dikaiopolis keep quiet. host I happen/unlucky. guest. For the rhapsode is clearly aware that the stranger is running away. The stranger eludes his pursuers [by] running into the shrine which is nearby. τὸν τρέχοντα b. 4. Women (in general) are always afraid. Who is running? I do not see the man running. because some men are approaching quickly. as they are afraid of the Eleven. For it is clear that the stranger does not escape the rhapsode’s notice running away. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. they drag him away. a. unhappy offence B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX I beseech hated hospitality/I entertain chance I assault. (Does the slave escape your notice dragging away the suppliant?) For the ambassadors anticipate the public slaves (by) running away. 2. The king is running away and does not stop running away. I know who is escaping. ἀποτρέχων f. .

(c) 3rd s. (b) m. pl. (b) 3rd pl. 2. nom. s. . (d) 3rd pl. (c) n./acc. nom. (a) m. nom. pl. (d) m.56 Revision exercises for section 4C–D EXERCISE 1. s. (a) 3rd pl.

6 τὸ χρῆμα τῶν νυκτῶν Literally ‘the business of the nights’ – GE glosses χρῆμα here as ‘length’. #103. in which you will meet new tenses of the verb. and another table for εἰμί. by contrast. If you are not happy with the term imperfect. #102. #110. 53) + μανης (cf. and in 5C–D the future. it may be helpful to look at the explanation in GE p. ὀϕείλει The root cause of Strepsiades’ problem (see English note at top of page). Greek also has a perfect tense: this expresses a completed action in present time. ‘unfinished’. while ‘aorist’ means ‘undefined’. leaving room to the right of the table to enter imperfect endings as they occur. 4 ὕπνος Cf. ‘I have shut the door’.). and GE p. For example: ‘I was going’ indicates an event that was taking place and not necessarily completed (consider its likely context: ‘I was going to the shop when …’. Before beginning 5A you may find it helpful to write out the present tense (active and middle) of παύω. It is much less common than the aorist. where the ‘when’ clause is likely to explain why I never reached the shop). 93. so far the narrative has been confined to the present tense alone. English ‘hypnosis’ (and again note English at top of page). Note: In Section 6 you will met another past tense called the aorist. 92. The meaning of ‘imperfect’ in this context is ‘incomplete’. ‘I went’. In 5A–B the imperfect tense is introduced. 5A Page 54 2 χρήματα Illustrated at bottom of page 53. Or see GE p. and a list of the middle forms and εἰμί at the end of 5B. A checklist of the active forms appears at the end of the notes to 5A. 57 . English ‘mania’). and it is not introduced until Section 13E. ‘I have just come in’. 3 ἱππομανής Break it up into its constituent parts: ἱππος (illustrated p.Section Five: ‘Socrates corrupts the young’ This is a vital section. indicates a definitely completed action – but at an undefined time (yesterday / last week / ten years ago etc. 98.

Similarly ὀλίγον χρόνον means ‘for a short time’. 2nd s. 28 ἐπαυόμεθα Which person? Notice that the subject is delayed and the verb comes first for emphasis: ‘we never ceased…’. 23 ἦν Past tense of εἰμί – person? 24 ἐλάμβανε Compare ἐλάμβανεν (21). have the same ending. ἐλάμβανεν Identify the person of the verb by looking at the respective subjects (οὐδείς. See GE p. 18 ἐδίωκον Which person (oἱ χρῆσται is the subject)? You can confirm the formation by comparing ἐλάμβανον. 30 γάμους English ‘monogamy’. #105. 31–34 Note the contrast between rustic simplicity and urban extravagance – Aristophanes makes much more of this than the text here does. etc. 20–21 ἔσῳζεν. the 1st person s.58 Section 5A 12 δάκνει Here = ‘worry’. 25 ἤκουε This is what happens when the augment merges with a vowel. If you followed the suggestion above. which indicates that ἦ is the past tense of εἰμί. though note its literal meaning is ‘bite’. ‘picric acid’. 3rd s. παύω παύεις παύει ἔ -παυ -ον ἔ -παυ -ε(ν) . your present + imperfect table (active only) could look like this. #105. Interim check: the imperfect so far. Can you explain the variation? δι-ελέγετο First example of a middle imperfect – which person? Note that when the verb has a preposition as a prefix the augment is attached to the verb stem and not to the preposition. which is used later in this section. Note that πικρόν is brought forward to emphasise it. ‘polygamy’. 16 χθές ‘yesterday’. ‘for the whole night’. what would you deduce to be the 1st person singular of the imperfect of παύω? ὅλην τὴν νύκτα The accusative case without a preposition is used to express duration of time. ‘this son of mine here’. Using these indicators. 94. Cf. and the 3rd person pl. Note that in the imperfect. ε + α = η. should help with the meaning. καθεύδων (9) and καθεύδει (9) indicate that 1st person singular of the present indicative must be καθεύδω.as a prefix. 17 ἐκάθευδον First example of the normal imperfect. This is called the ‘augment’. Past tenses in Greek have ἐ. ὁ υἱός) and use the endings to form the corresponding person of παύω. πικρούς ‘bitter’. Note that the augment and the ending have been spaced so that you can see the stem clearly: 1st s. 95. See GE p. 13 τουτονί Adding the -ι to τοῦτον makes it even more demonstrative. Note that the person is indicated by ἐγώ. and then you have to wait until the end of the sentence to find out what we never ceased doing.

This expense already then was ruining me. even when a boy he kept dreaming of horses. And moreover even when sleeping the young man dreams of horses. fall (lit. But I am still sleepless and at a loss. For his son. then my creditors kept on pursuing me in my dreams and kept on exacting their due because of my son. ‘idle’. And while I was at a loss. ‘not working’ i. For I was sleeping for a short while. I am unfortunate and sleepless.(negative prefix) + ἔργoν. 5B Page 56 2 ἅπτε λυχνόν λυχνός is illustrated opposite. alas! Ο king Zeus! The length of the nights – how great it is! Day is not yet coming. 8 ἀργούς Compounded from ἀ. While I am sleepless. hold) me. So her son always listened and learnt about horses. Yes. And yesterday I was sleepless. For I owe much money because of this son of mine. I know that well. which should help with the meaning of this phrase. 2nd pl. and because I owe [much money] my creditors pursue me and are always exacting their due. But you. Alas unhappy me! Deep sleep does not yet come to (lit. 5 κλαῖε Literally ‘weep’. but for the whole night I was always escaping from these lawsuits. sleep deeply! For the debts. a vital commodity for the Athenians. ‘lazy’. always takes much money.e. my debts which are heavy worry me. It is still ruining me even now. but the father cannot sleep (lit. 3rd pl. Alas! Who was responsible? My wife [was] responsible. and this son of mine kept on taking lots of money because he was horse-mad. See! My son is sleeping deeply and does not cease sleeping. . nobody was saving me. and being a citywoman she started to bring in much expense. How sweet was the country life! Marriage – how bitter! For my wife happens to be from the city. Strepsiades intends to hit the slave. STREPSIADES Alas. certainly. 4 ἔλαιον ‘olive oil’. blaming him for the lack of oil – he should have filled the lamp. sleep does not hold the father). for almost the whole night. turn) onto my head. παύομεν παύετε παύουσι (ν) ἔ -παυ -ον Translation for 5A Strepsiades happens to be lamenting because he owes a lot of money. Alas! We never stopped arguing about the boy. Ο king Zeus! Why do you make marriages so bitter? For always my wife makes my life bitter. my wife and I: we were always arguing. being horse-mad. For she always used to take her son and talk to him about horses.Section 5B 59 1st pl. as you well know. But when I was sleeping. Now the son happens to be sleeping deeply. just as you are.

2nd pl. But why don’t I save myself and my son from our debts? Why don’t I look for some scheme. But what do I owe? Slave! Come here! Light the lamp. nor did they treat their masters badly. 10 ἦσαν The past tense of εἰμί – person? 11 τοὺς δεσπότας κακὰ ἐποίουν ποιῶ here seems to take two objects. παύομαι παύει παύεται παυόμεθα παύεσθε παύονται εἰμί εἶ ἐστί(ν) ἦ(ν) ἦν ἦμεν ἦσαν ἐ -παύ -ετο ἐ -παυ -όμεθα ἐσμέν ἐστέ ἐ -παύ -οντο εἰσί(ν) For other persons. 3rd pl. 92.60 Exercises for section 5A–B 9 οὐ πείθονται The middle of πείθω means ‘I obey’. 3. he/she was stopping I/they were carrying you (s. master? Look! There is no oil in the lamp. taking a direct object. ‘yourself’. 2nd s. 1st pl. How can I light the lamp. hurray! I have a plan! Now why don’t I stop this young man sleeping? EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5A–B THE IMPERFECT 5A–B: 1 1. For they were afraid of punishment. What are you saying? The lamp has no oil? Unhappy me! Come here and weep! How evil is the war! I no longer punish my slaves. see GE p. then the old men always used to punish their slaves. But when we were young. ἐπείθοντο Imperfect middle ending. So they were not idle. ἦμεν The past tense of εἰμί. Strepsiades. 2. 98. but were good and always obeyed. In fact. #110. save yourself! Hurray. What would be the corresponding formation for παύομαι? 14 ἐμαυτόν and σεαυτόν (line 17) are reflexive pronouns: ‘myself’. and put an end to these debts? Now. although they are idle. ἐφέροντο ἐλαμβάνου . ἡμεῖς indicates the person. For the war stops [me]. it does. because κακὰ ποιῶ (‘I do bad things’) was treated as a single idea. For I can’t see anything now. By now the tables for παύομαι and εἰμί should look like this: Ist s. but they do not obey. Translation for 5B STREPSIADES SLAVE STR. ‘I harm’. Alas for my troubles! For now we give orders. 3rd s. #102 and p. for it is deep night.) were taking ἐπαύετο ἐφερόμην.

I was. 8. learned 7. 9.) killed I/they drove away we were destroying you (pl. we hear they have you (pl. ἔπασχε(ν) 3. ἐκελεύετε 1. 5. they are fighting 9. I was calling to witness 10. 2. ἐκώλυον 5. 6. 2. he was lamenting . they were freeing you (s.) lament he owes they pray ἠκούομεν εἶχον ὠλοφύρεσθε ὤφειλε ηὔχοντο 5A–B: 3 1. 2. ἀπάγουσιν διαφθείρομεν εἰσφέρετε IMPERFECT OF CONTRACT VERBS AND VERB ‘TO BE’ 5A–B: 4 1. 4.) were bringing in καταβαίνει ἀποκτείνεις ἀπάγω. 12. 3. we were turning 11. ὠφείλομεν ADDITIONAL IMPERFECT PATTERNS 5A–B: 6 4. 3. 4. 6.) are punishing he found out. 3.) were seeming 12. 5.Exercises for section 5A–B 61 4. he was ceasing you were obeying they were conversing we are afraid they were they were showing 7. 5. he was afraid 8. 5. they were doing you (s. ἐτίμων 2.) were sacrificing ἐμανθανόμεθα ἐθύεσθε AUGMENTS 5A–B: 2 1. 5. he came down you (s. 11. 4. 4. 3. we were learning you (pl.) were showing you (s. 2. you (s. he was stopping we were honouring I was doing. he/she/it was I was freeing.) were owing he hears we were remaining he was doing 5A–B: 5 1. 10.

4. How bitter is marriage! For my wife always makes our marriage bitter. 2. e. For she always takes her son and talks to him about horses. but these men are still pursuing me. b. We are young and punish the house-slaves. ἐφοβεῖτο 3. For in this way the houseslaves become good. 5. ἦν … ἐπoίει. ἐπείθοντο 2. ἐβοᾶτε 7.62 Revision Exercises for section 5A–B 5A–B: 7 1. ἐδουλοῦντο 8. we were conversing διελεγόμην we were watching ἐθεώμην they were bringing in εἰσέϕερεν you (s. ἐκώλυε ἐπαύετο ἐπεκαλούμεθα ὤφειλες ἤκουον 6. Who is responsible? My wife. ἐκάθευδον … ἐδίωκον. 3. The slaves do not fear their masters nor do they obey them. διελέγεσθε 1. ἐφαινόμην 5. ἐφοβοῦντο … ἐπείθοντο.) used to obey ἐπείθεσθε they were afraid ἐϕοβεῖτο I was calling upon ἐπεκαλούμεθα I was stopping ἐπαύομεν he/she was ἦσαν you were afraid ἐϕοβεῖσθε he/she was watching ἐθεῶντο . c. ἐτίμων 9. a. d. ἦν … ἐλάμβανε … διελέγετο. ἐμαχόμεθα 5A–B: 8 4. I am sleeping. ἐποιεῖτο 10. διελέγοντο REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5A–B B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1.) owed ὠϕείλετε we were in ἐνῆ you (pl.) were watching ἐθεῶ you (s. ἦμεν … ἐκολάζομεν … ἐγίγνοντο. 2.

6 ϕιλήσω … παύσομαι 1st person singular of active and middle respectively. #114. but the sailor did not stop chasing. ‘obey!’ 10 πείσομαι Also future. See GE pp.) stopped the woman punishing the household slaves. 103–104.Section 5C 63 D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK The young man was shouting. Translation for 5C STREPSIADES PHEIDIPPIDES Pheidippides. We used to pray to the goddess. 102–103. In this section you will meet the future tense. You (s. 22 σώσει See note above on p. 12 πείσῃ 2nd s. Note the -σ. 5. ‘Will you obey?’ 13 Obediently. ἐβοῶμεν καὶ τοὺς δούλους (οἰκέτας) ἐπαύομεν διαλεγομένους. 2. See GE p. Note that verb-stems ending in dentals -τ/-δ/-θ/-ζ lose the final consonant of the stem before adding -σ. Pheidippidikins! What. 3. 20 λέξω Verbs with stems ending in -γ/-κ/-χ combine the final consonant of the stem with the -ς. (With ϕιλήσω. 4. 103. Page 58 1 Φειδιππίδιον Note the diminutive form – affectionate? 5 αὔριov ‘tomorrow’. ἡμεῖς μὲν ἐκελεύομεν. ϕιλήσεις there is an additional point to note: contracted verbs lengthen the vowel at the end of the stem before adding the same endings as uncontracted verbs. οἱ νεανίαι χρηστοὶ (ἀγαθοὶ) ἦσαν καὶ ἐπείθοντο. οἱ δὲ δοῦλοι (οἰκέται) ἡμᾶς κακὰ ἐποίουν.and regular endings.inserted between present stem and form -ξ-. this should alert you to what tense is coming next! ϕιλήσεις The first example of the future – note ending -σ-εις. 9 πείθου This is the middle imperative. 17 ἀκούσομαι Some verbs change from present active to future middle with no change in meaning. The farmers always used to honour the gods. although when this is merged with a consonant stem it is not always apparent. see GE pp. #115–116 6 τουτονί τὸν ἵππιον Pheidippides swears by Poseidon. 58 line 10. father? . but we did not make sacrifices. βαθέως ἐκάθευδον ἀλλ’ ὁ υἱὸς οὐκ ἐπαύετο βοῶν. god of horses (as well as god of the sea). Pheidippides changes his oath to swear by Dionysus. 5C 1. future middle of πείθω. #112–114. The sons owed much money. The point will be further developed later. In almost all verbs the distinguishing mark is a ‘-σ-’. ὁ πατὴρ ἀεὶ ἐκόλαζε τὸν υἱόν.

but I will [tell you]. I was listening and I am listening and I shall listen. PHEI. Don’t ever mention that horsey one. PHEI. earthenware ovens. son – for that one has the responsibility for my troubles – but listen and obey. do you love me? I [do]. For perhaps this idea will stop us somehow from our debts. 5 πνιγεύς Ilustrated on next page – these are bowl-shaped. Look. Tell [me].g. my son. Yes. PHEI. So speak then! What are you ordering? I shall order a small thing. I’m planning something big. father? What will you order? How will your idea save us? How shall we stop from our debts? You will do it? I will do it. STR. 13 λόγον Always a difficult word to translate. by Dionysus. #120 for a list of ‘important futures’. STR. Will you love me tomorrow? By Poseidon here. I am listening and obeying and I shall always obey. which corresponds to English ‘-ery’ suffix in e.64 STR. STR. I shall love you tomorrow and I shan’t stop ever. a very small thing. STR. Will you obey? I will obey. 9 μαθήσονται The future of μανθάνω (μαθ-). Section 5D Tell me. Socrates is depicted as having two ‘arguments’ in his . STR. Hence ϕροντιστήριον means ‘thinkery’. What were you telling me? I was telling you that I have an idea. For I have a plan and I am planning something. by Dionysus. god of horses. PHEI. PHEI. 6–7 Notice the implication that Socrates and his associates are well paid for their teaching – something which Socrates always vigorously denied. What is your idea? What have you in mind and what are you planning? Were you saying? No. Here perhaps ‘argument’ fits the meaning most closely. ‘I consider’ with the suffix -ηριον. See GE p. STR. PHEI. ‘brewery’ – the place where something is done. PHEI. Were you listening? Or weren’t you listening? Or am I speaking in vain? I’ll stop you sleeping. father. Don’t worry. 5D Page 60 1 οἰκίδιον The diminutive form of οἶκος/οἰκία. ἄνθρακες English ‘anthracite’ may help towards meaning: ‘coals’. PHEI. What is your plan. 105. and I don’t ever stop [loving you]. Some irregular verbs use the stem given in brackets to form the future. ‘bakery’. 3 ϕροντιστήριον An Aristophanic coinage. STR. constructed from ϕροντίζω ‘I think’. son.

here it is also derogatory. These men persuade their pupils. note on line 32). Verbs with a present stem ending in -λ-. See GE p. 104. ‘But you. which argues correctly. See GE p. ‘Won’t you obey?’ γενήσομαι The future of γίγνομαι (γεν-). again based on the bracketed stem. why don’t you go in (as) a student?’ διαϕθερεῖ One of only two examples in this section of a grammatical point that is easily overlooked (see GE p. #117). This is doubly confusing because εἶμι (‘I shall go’) is identical in spelling with εἰμί (‘I am’). which gives the meaning of ὠχρούς.and added -έω to form future (see GE p. but later acquiring pejorative overtones – hence the disgusted reaction from Pheidippides. but have a contracted future in -έω. #120. εἴσει. οἱ ἔνδον ‘those inside’. #117. Do you see this door and the house? I see it. 105. -μ-. Socates went unshod. 57 κόψω Notice how the -σ.(‘under’) -δητους (‘bound’): ‘unbound-under’ meant ‘shoeless’. Page 62 41 ἐκβαλῶ βάλλω has shortened the present stem to βαλ. the accent distinguishes the two when not prefixed. See GE form future.. and the ‘wrong’ argument. which. What is it. Inside live wise men. To be pale was a sign of spending too much time indoors. and speaking they persuade their pupils that the heaven is a bell-oven and this bell-oven is around us and we are the coals. εἴσεισι. εἴσιμεν The future of εἰσέρχομαι again (cf. ὠχρούς … ἀνυποδήτους Ochres are pale yellowish shades. ἄριστε ἀνθρώπων Strepsiades reverts to his wheedling. λήψονται The future of λαμβάνω (λαβ-).or -ρ.in the future can combine with a labial consonant stem (κοπ-) to produce -ψ-. 104. Translation for 5D STREPSIADES STR. and was hence a derogatory description for a man.Section 5D 65 16 18 23 24 27 28 29 32 34 35 36–38 ‘thinkery’ (in the original play these ‘arguments’ actually appear as characters): the ‘right’ not insert -σ. However. εἴσειμι The irregular future of εἰσέρχομαι. Father? This is the thinkery of wise souls. οὔκoυν πείσῃ. by verbal trickery etc. 103. based on the bracketed stem.104. ἀν-(negative) ὑπο. In addition. always teaching and . 50 γνώσομαι The future of γιγνώσκω (γνω-). PHEIDIPPIDES Look over here. #114. is again based on the bracketed stem but with the vowel lengthened. Hence Strepsiades’ interest in the latter argument. #117). σὺ δὲ διὰ τί οὐκ εἰσέρχῃ μαθητής. σοϕισταί Originally a neutral term for philosophers. -ν. can make the weaker argument appear the stronger. as a sign of poverty.

being a student. I won’t do this. PHEI. STR. Hey. hey. #125. receiving a lot of money. PHEI. For the unjust argument will put a stop to our debts.66 Section 5D PHEI. Grammar Do not neglect the very useful table of indefinites and interrogatives in GE p. PHEI. For I love horses. PHEI. STR. an old man and slow in exact arguments. And by Zeus no one of them will stop receiving much money from their pupils. I know. 110. What will you tell me? But as I was saying. And what’s more in lawsuits they will always defeat their opponents. Won’t you obey and do this? I won’t obey and I won’t do this. STR. STR. PHEI. I know: I myself will go into the thinkery and will become a pupil of the sophists and I will learn the unjust argument. What will I learn? The unjust argument. Which arguments do you mean. STR. But what do the men teach? What will young men learn. who will go in? Shall we go in together. I shall become pale. Yuck! Awful [people]. 102–103. Why don’t you go into the thinkery. PHEI. You mean the pale shoeless [people]. PHEI. Why don’t I knock at this door and shout? I’ll do this and I’ll knock at the door and shout. the just and the unjust. those inside have two arguments. Father? Which? I mean the just and unjust argument. learn philosophy? All the same I’ll go in. Who are these men? What is the name of the men? I do not know the name. I’ll go into the house. noble sophists. but I shall become the winner. Why do you not go in as a student? For this way we shall stop ourselves from our debts. STR. But if you won’t go in. PHEI. In this way I shall stop those creditors taking their money. STR. Then I’ll chase you out of the house and send you to hell! I’ll run away. I’m not going in today. 109. STR. the just one won’t. STR. [go] into the thinkery? By Poseidon. #112–114). PHEI. So learn: in this way the creditors will not recover any of these debts. But they are fine. At this point you may find it useful to revise the different formations of the future tense. PHEI. But how shall I. #127a. god of horses. You may find it . I won’t go in tomorrow and I won’t do so in any way. but not into the thinkery of the sophists. And learn to decline Σωκράτης in GE p. becoming [their] pupils? The pupils will learn arguments. STR. STR. wretched Socrates and Chaerephon. best of men? What are you saying? I. you and I? I won’t. not sophists. be quiet! Will you not listen? I will listen. The students will learn these arguments? [Yes]. by Zeus. What shall I do? Pheidippides will not win. before you go on (GE pp.

) will prevent κωλύουσι κελεύει πορευόμεθα παύῃ κωλύεις CONSONANT STEMS 5C–D: 2 1. γ. they will hinder he will order we shall travel you (s. ρ most –ιζω Contracted verbs παύω εὔχομαι κόπτω πείθω θαυμάζω διαϕθείρω νομίζω ποιέω τιμάω δηλόω Future παύσω εὔξομαι κόψω πείσω θαυμάσω διαϕθερῶ (έω) νομιῶ (έω) ποιήσω τιμήσω δηλώσω Aorist The future of contracted verbs has ordinary. -ει … .Exercises for section 5C–D 67 helpful to make a chart like this.) persuade εὔξονται τύψει ἡσυχάσεις τρεψόμεθα πείσεις . ϕ τ. ν. 2. but the stem vowel is lengthened. -εις.) will cease you (s. θ most ζ μ.) keep quiet we turn you (s. 2. not contracted. 5. 4. χ π. Present Vowel stems Consonant stems κ. 3. Irregular verbs μανθάνω λαμβάνω γιγνώσκω γίγνομαι μαθήσομαι λήψομαι γνώσομαι γενήσομαι EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5C–D THE FUTURE TENSE 5C–D: 1 1. 4. 3. leaving the third column free to add the first person of the aorist tense as you learn it in the next section. β. they pray he hits you (s. λ. endings: -ω. 5. δ.

4. 6. λήψονται 7. ἴασι(ν) 2. 2. ἔσεσθε 1. 3. μαθήσομαι 8. 9.) will know he will become. 8. ἰούσας. 12.) will do they will destroy we prevent he will converse he will consider I shall show 5C–D: 5 1.68 Exercises for section 5C–D CONTRACT VERBS 5C–D: 3 1. τιμήσω ποιήσετε IRREGULAR FUTURES 5C–D: 6 1. . you (s. 11. 2.) are knocking we shall pray you (s. 10. he will stop. he will love 3. they will go they will be I shall go you (s. ἰουσῶν. 5. they will set free ADDITIONAL FUTURE PATTERNS 5C–D: 4 νικῶμεν φιλεῖ κρατῶ (έω) ζητεῖτε ἐλευθεροῦσιν 1. you (pl. γνωσόμεθα 4.) will cease they will obey. κελεύσουσι(ν) πείσει πείσεται 4. 5. 2.) will seek 5. they will suffer they will persuade you (s. γενήσῃ 5. ἴμεν 10. 3. 9. 10. εἶσι(ν) 5C–D: 8 6. 5. ἔσεσθε 9. 12. it will happen he/she will go 5C–D: 7 1. he will take they will become we shall be you (pl. 4. πρὸς τὰς τριήρεις οὔσας. we shall defeat 2. 11. τῶν μητέρων οὐσῶν. ἔσται 3. 8. you (pl. 6.) were ordering 7. I shall hold power over 4.) will learn they will find out he/she/it will be 7. 3. 2.

b.Revision exercises for section 5C–D 69 3. 4. f. ἰόντος. . παύσονται Who are the wise men? ἔσονται D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ἰούσαις REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5C–D A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. κόψω … βοήσομαι Who wins the lawsuits? νικήσει The pupils do not stop learning. ἀκουσόμεθα I am wise. e. διδάξομεν The men receive much money. δέξονται We do not hear the words. The sophists will teach you tomorrow. oἱ νεανίαι τήμερον μαθήσονται τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. h. d. κελεύσει What are you saying. ἰόντα. sir? λέξεις We do not teach the teachers. τὸν Σωκράτη ὄντα. l. 2. i. 5. a. ἰόντες. The father orders his son. ἀπὸ τοῦ Περικλέους ὄντος. οἱ πατέρες ὄντες. g. ταῖς θυγατράσιν οὔσαις. 6. k. responsible/cause I blame I teach the teacher justice/ right just I do wrong I am unfortunate the pupil teaching. ὁ ἀγαθὸς υἱὸς ἀεὶ ϕιλήσει τὸν πατέρα. ϕιλήσει The idea saves us. this (man) does not defeat me. j. σώσει I knock at the door and shout. I shall never hate the gods. ἔσομαι … νικήσει The son does not love his father. instruction the contestant in a lawsuit the juror ignorant an idea the house belonging to the house or family a sophist to do with teaching unjust I judge to do with learning I think I live in unfortunate I learn mind/sense I consider a household slave a little house the household or house wise wisdom I understand philosophy I love B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. c.

SLAVE DIK. (d) present (d) n. But tell me: is Euripides in? He is not in and he is in. dear Euripides. οὖτος ὁ ἵππος οὐ παύσεται τρέχων. Who is this? Who won’t stop calling me? You there! Who was shouting? Who? I was shouting. (a) imperfect (a) m. s. EXERCISE 1. I won’t go away.70 Revision exercises for section 5C–D The sailors will not stop looking for the captain. E – TEST EXERCISE 5 DIKAIOPOLIS SLAVE DIK. nom. Dikaiopolis calling you. . I was speaking correctly/ the truth. nom. How beautifully he speaks! But now. boy. stop teasing me. acc. Why is it impossible? Call Euripides... His mind is collecting words and is not in. But it is impossible. nom. in having such a clever slave. ὁ μαθητὴς εἴσεισιν εἰς τὸν οἶκον/τὴν οἰκίαν. Euripides. boy.. but the man is in.. writing a tragedy. SLAVE DIK. SLAVE DIK. οἱ σοϕοὶ ἔσονται δίκαιοι. (b) imperfect (b) m. boy? How can a man be in and not in? It is clear that you are talking nonsense. come here. 5. The women will listen to the words. s. if you get the idea. (c) future (c) m.. s.. O thrice blessed Euripides. Slave. 4. by Zeus.. Don’t you hear? It’s me. The master will punish the slave. No. and call him. slave. How do you mean. from the deme of Cholleidae. 2. but I will knock on the door and call Euripides again. s. 3.

though in the experiment something slightly less monstrous is envisaged: ‘slippers’. but. 25–26 ὁπόσους … πόδας ‘how many of its own feet’.(augment). 71 . 54. ‘Who is the one knocking?’ Note the use of the participle. as it is a past tense. like the imperfect. 35 ἐμβάδας Illustrated below. κόψω What tense? 12 τίς ὁ κόπτων. and is here used in its basic sense of ‘bite’. You will find that in most cases the aorist adds a sigma before the ending. Note ἐ. #128–138. Page 64 17 ἐπαυσάμην Which person do you think this is? Cf. Again. perhaps. ἐπαυόμην. note also that π + ς = ψ. 19 μόνοι ‘alone’. just like the future. δάκνει has occurred at the beginning of the section 5A (p. (b) -σε in the ending. ‘monarchy’. ἐβόησεν The first examples of the aorist. just as in the future. please refer back to the note at the beginning of Section 5). and ὀϕρύς is ‘an eyebrow’. Cf. ἐ(augment). 6A Page 63 3 ἔκοψε. 10 ποιήσω. Note ἐ. line 12). 115–118. how many ‘flea-feet’? 30–31 πρῶτον μὲν … εἶτα … τέλος δέ … Three stages of the experiment. ἐβόησα 1st person singular (as ἐγώ indicates). The contracted verb lengthens the stem vowel before adding the ending. ‘monopoly’.(augment). ‘monoplane’ etc. the scholiast (ancient commentator) informs us that Chaerephon had shaggy eyebrows and that Socrates was bald.e. and the lengthening of the stem vowel. -σα (person-ending).(as for imperfect). i. ἐπαύσατο The first example of the middle aorist. To explain the humour of the situation. Note (a) the augment ἐ.Section Six In this section the aorist tense is introduced (if you are uncertain of terminology. -σας (person-ending). You may want to look at GE pp. ὦ ᾽γαθέ = ὦ ἀγαθέ. 22 ψύλλα … ὀϕρύν There is no point in trying to guess here! ψύλλα is ‘a flea’. -σατο (person-ending). 6 τίς ὢν σὺ τούτο ἐποίησας Literally ‘You being who did this?’ or ‘Who are you that you did this?’ (2nd singular aorist indicated by σύ). it will also have an augment. 5 ἔκοψα.


Section 6A

40 ἐποίησαν Resumption of aorist endings. ἐ- (augment) and -σαν (person-ending). 42 ὡς ἔλεγον ‘as I was saying’. Notice the difference between the imperfect tense and the aorists which follow, ‘they made the wax warm etc.’

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46–47 If the apparent lack of connection here is confusing, it is designed to convey the ignorance of Strepsiades. ‘Knowing the flea’s leap’ = ‘being educated’, and if he’s educated, then he’s sure to win his lawsuits.
Translation for 6A

Strepsiades knocks at the door and shouts Boy! Young boy! S T U D E N T Go to hell. Who knocked at the door? Who shouted? STR. I knocked at the door and I shouted. STU. Who are you that you did that? Some ignoramus, I know well. STR. Strepsiades, from the deme Kikynna. STU. Go to hell, again. STR. Alas! What shall I do? Well, I’ll knock again. (He knocks at the door again.) STU. Who’s that knocking? Why did this fellow not stop knocking, when I told him to? Why are you knocking again? What do you have in mind? You’ve knocked away my thought [by] doing that. STR. But I’ve just stopped, my dear fellow. For you told me to. Don’t throw me out, although I’m a rustic and ignorant. But what was your thought? Tell me. STU. It isn’t right. Only the students learn these thoughts of the sophists. STR. Tell me then. For I have come to the thinkery as a student of the sophists. STU. I will tell you. A flea bites Chaerephon’s eyebrow. When it jumps onto Socrates’ head, the men converse as follows. SOCRATES Look, Chaerephon. The flea does not escape my notice being worthy of an Olympic crown. But tell [me], how many of its own feet did the flea leap? CHAEREPHON I do not know, Socrates. But why don’t we measure the distance? SOC. How shall we measure it, Chaerephon? CHA. Look. First I take some wax, then I make the wax warm. Finally I put the flea’s feet into the wax. SOC. What then? CHA. Now the wax is becoming cold. Look, Socrates: for the flea has slippers. SOC. But what are you doing now? CHA. Now I am loosing the slippers. Look! STR. Ο king Zeus! Oh the wisdom of the men! But tell me, whatever did the men do, student? STU. You don’t escape my notice being a rustic, Strepsiades, not knowing anything. But as I was saying, first they made the wax warm. Then they put the flea’s feet into the wax. Finally they loosed the slippers and measured – of course – the distance.

Section 6B


Ο king Zeus! The men appear to be wise. Why then do we marvel at that [famous] Thales? Indeed I shall easily escape justice. For I shall know the flea’s leap. Open, open the door!

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1 θηρία GE gives ‘beasts’ – perhaps ‘monsters’ conveys the sense better. 4 οἱ … βλέποντες As before: article + participles = relative clause. 5 τὰ κατὰ γῆς As before: a very common idiom, using neuter plural of article + adjective/adjectival phrase. Literally ‘the things beneath the earth’. Here something like ‘subterranean phenomena’ might convey the meaning. 6 Strepsiades, of course, takes the words at face value: ‘They must be looking for truffles.’ 7 πρωκτός If the students are bent double, what is pointing towards the heavens? 12 ἀστρονομία Possibly in the original production represented by some elaborate instrument. Likewise γεωμετρία (14). 15 The explanation of the original meaning of ‘geometry’, from γῆ ‘land’ and μετρέω ‘measure’. 19 περίοδος Both elements are known, ὁδός ‘journey’, περί ‘round’, hence the meaning ‘map’. 23 A stock joke in comedy was that Athens was litigation mad. Hence, to Strepsiades’ over-literal mind, a map couldn’t represent Athens without depicting a lawcourt and jurors. 30–31 Another over-literal interpretation: on the map Sparta looks too close, so Strepsiades suggests moving it further away. 35 κρεμάθρας See stage directions (line 34). 36 αὐτός ‘Himself’, ‘The Master’.
Translation for 6B


Heracles! What are these monsters? Hey you! Why are you amazed? Why did you yell again? Are you amazed at these students? Yes, by Zeus, I am amazed. But what are these ones doing, who are looking into the ground? These are investigating subterranean phenomena. Then they are looking for truffles. Don’t worry about it any more, monsters: I know where there are some lovely big ones. But who’s this? Why is his bottom looking towards the sky? Because his bottom is studying astronomy. Look! What’s this? Tell me! This is astronomy. And what’s this?


Exercises for section 6A–B

Geometry. And what use is this? Tell [me]! With this we measure the land. This is a map of the world. Do you see? This is Athens. What are you saying? I don’t believe [you]: I don’t see any one of the jurors sitting. Where is my deme? It’s here. Do you see Euboea? I see [it]. But where does Sparta happen to be? Where? Here. Alas! Go away, go away! How near us Sparta is. But why don’t you drag this away from us a very long way? Impossible. By Zeus, you’ll regret it. But tell me, who’s this who is in the basket? Himself. Who’s Himself? Socrates.

At this point your chart should look like this:
Present Vowel stems Consonant stems κ, γ, χ π, β, ϕ τ, δ, θ most ζ μ, ν, λ, ρ most -ιζω Contracted verbs παύω εὔχομαι κόπτω πείθω θαυμάζω διαϕθείρω νομίζω ποιέω δηλόω τιμάω Future παύσω εὔξομαι κόψω πείσω θαυμάσω διαϕθερῶ (έω) νομιῶ (έω) ποιήσω δηλώσω τιμήσω Aorist ἔπαυσα ηὐξάμην ἔκοψα ἔπεισα ἐθαύμασα διέϕθειρα ἐνόμισα ἐποίησα ἐδήλωσα ἐτίμησα

Note once again that the aorist of contracted verbs has ‘ordinary’ endings -α, -ας, -ε … You will meet the aorists of the irregular verbs in the next section. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6A–B

1. 2.

ἔθυσε(ν) ἐκέλευσε(ν)

he sacrificed he ordered

ἔθυσαν ἐκέλευσαν

they sacrificed they ordered

Exercises for section 6A–B


3. ἐκώλυσε(ν) 4. ἔλυσε(ν)
6A–B: 2

he hindered he set free

ἐκώλυσαν ἔλυσαν

they hindered they set free

1. you (pl.) pray 2. they hit 3. he keeps quiet 4. we turn 5. I persuade
6A–B: 3

ηὔξασθε ἔτυψαν ἡσύχασε(ν) ἐτρεψάμεθα ἔπεισα

1. we defeated 2. he loved 3. I held power over 4. you (pl.) sought 5. they set free
6A–B: 4

νικῶμεν φιλεῖ κρατῶ (έω) ζητεῖτε ἐλευθεροῦσι(ν)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

ἤκουσε(ν) ἤκουσαν ἀνεχώρησε(ν) ἀνεχώρησαν ἠτίμασε(ν) ἠτίμασαν ἔβλεψε(ν) ἔβλεψαν ἐβόησε(ν) ἐβόησαν ἐδέξατο ἐδέξαντο ἐλύσατο ἐλύσαντο

he heard they heard he retreated they retreated he dishonoured they dishonoured he looked they looked he shouted they shouted he received they received he ransomed they set free

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

ἐδίδαξε(ν) ἐδίδαξαν ἐθαύμασε(ν) ἐθαύμασαν ἔθυσε(ν) ἔθυσαν ἐνίκησε(ν) ἐνίκησαν ἐθεάσατο ἐθεάσαντο ἐτρέψατο ἐτρέψαντο ἔκοψε(ν) ἔκοψαν ἐχώρησε(ν) ἐχώρησαν

he taught they taught he marvelled they marvelled he sacrificed they sacrificed he defeated they won he watched they watched he turned they turned he knocked they knocked he went they went

6A–B: 5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ἠκούσαμεν ἐδέξαντο ἀνεχώρησας ἐδίωξε(ν) ἐκόλασαν

6. ἐβόησατε 7. ἐνόμισε(ν) 8. ἐδήλωσα 9. ἔμειναν 10. διέφθειραν


Revision exercises for section 6A–B



a. Who is knocking at the door? ἔκοψε(ν) b. Who is going into the thinkery? ἐχώρησε(ν) c. But I knock again and do not stop knocking. ἔκοψα, ἐπαυσάμην d. I will tell you. ἔλεξα, εἶπον e. Finally we shall release the slipper. ἐλύσαμεν f. Why do we admire that Thales? ἐθαυμάσαμεν 2. a. The flea leaps onto Socrates’ head. ἐπήδησεν b. But how will you measure, Chaerephon? ἐμέτρησας c. Finally we measure the distance. ἐμετρήσαμεν d. These are seeking things below the ground and do not stop seeking. ἐζήτησαν, ἐπαύσαντο e. What does the matter reveal, Socrates? ἐδήλωσε(ν) 3. a. αὐδάω they spoke f. ὠθέω I pushed b. ἐλπίζω you (s.) hoped g. ἐρωτάω they asked c. ὁμολογέω you (pl.) agreed h. οἰκέω I lived, dwelt d. ἡγέομαι I considered, led i. ἀσπάζομαι they greeted e. ἄρχομαι they began j. ἐκπέμπω he sent out 4.
imperfect ἐκέλευον ἐκώλυον ἐπαυόμην ἔβλεπον ἔκοπτον ἔκρυπτον ἐδεχόμην ἐδίωκον ἔπραττον ἠτίμαζον ἐκόλαζον ἔσπευδον διέφθειρον ἔμενον ἠπόρουν ἐδήλουν ἐμίσουν ἐνίκων future κελεύσω κωλύσω παύσομαι βλέψω κόψω κρύψω δέξομαι διώξω πράξω ἀτιμάσω κολάσω σπεύσω διαφθερέω μενέω ἀπορήσω δηλώσω μισήσω νικήσω aorist ἐκέλευσα ἐκώλυσα ἐπαυσάμην ἔβλεψα ἔκοψα ἔκρυψα ἐδεξάμην ἐδίωξα ἔπραξα ἠτίμασα ἐκόλασα ἔσπευσα διέφθειρα ἔμεινα ἠπόρησα ἐδήλωσα ἐμίσησα ἐνίκησα

present κελεύω κωλύω παύομαι βλέπω κόπτω κρύπτω δέχομαι διώκω πράττω ἀτιμάζω κολάζω σπεύδω διαφθείρω μένω ἀπορέω δηλόω μισέω νικάω

Page 68 2 ἐλθέ You have met this already (in fact.g. 4. three of the most irregular past stems have been introduced). 5. ‘slept’). again as in English. This is the sort you have just learned. but the imperfect uses the present stem. 124–126.Section 6C 77 D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ἐπαύσαντο βλέποντες τοὺς ἵππους. ‘walked’). ὁ δίκαιος. Second aorist. The suppliant did not respect/honour the goddess. Don’t they know that you did this job easily? ἆρ’ οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅτι σὺ/ὑμεῖς ἡδέως ταύτην τὴν γνώμην ἐδέξω/ἐδέξασθε. ‘How did you hear me that I am wise?’ or ‘How did you hear that I was wise?’ . ἐλθ. Even though they were wicked. ‘walk’.is the second aorist stem of ἔρχομαι. #144–146. ἐθαύμασε τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. ‘short-lived’. Literally.g. The aorist tense in Greek is formed in one of two ways: 1. Here Socrates uses it for comic effect. 3. ὁ σοϕιστὴς οὐκ ἔπεισε τοὺς σοϕοὺς νεανίας. the neighbours did not punish the young man. 8 εἰπέ εἰπ. The woman looked for her son. 2. ‘sleep’.is the second aorist stem of λέγω. most verbs have either a first or a second aorist: they are not alternative forms for the same verb. First aorist. 6C New in this section is the second aorist. καίπερ σοϕὸς ὤν. ἦλθες 2nd singular of the second aorist. 2. Note that. while the aorist has its own stem which is always different from the present stem. 6 ὦ ἐϕήμερε ἐϕήμερος has been met in section 4A (p. 46. She stopped looking at the stranger. line 33) with the meaning ‘ephemeral’. The endings are the same as those for the imperfect. As you meet them. see GE pp. make a list of these verbs with their principal parts (present. which has an augment at the beginning of the word and suffix at the end – compare English ‘regular’ past tenses adding ‘-d’ or ‘-ed’ to the present stem (e. and aorist). ὁ γεωργὸς ἐβόησε καὶ ἔκοψε τὴν θύραν. which still has the augment but it is added to a stem changed in some way – compare English ‘irregular’ past tenses (e. Notice the word order in πῶς δ’ ἤκουσάς με ὡς σοϕός εἰμι. future.


Section 6C

11–16 The content is repeated from earlier in the chapter, but note the presence of second aorists – ἔδακε (second aorist of δάκνω), ἤρου (second aorist of ἐρωτάω), ἐλάβετε (second aorist of λαμβάνω), ἐγένετο (second aorist of γίγνομαι), and ἔθετε (aorist of τίθημι, a verb which you have not yet learned in detail). 18 εἶδον ἰδ- is the second aorist stem of ὁράω. 19–20 πόθεν ὢν τυγχάνεις ‘Where do you happen to come from?’ 27 ἐξευρίσκεις εὑρίσκω has perfect tense ηὕρηκα, familiar from Archimedes’ cry on discovering the principle of displacement. Second aorist stem εὑρ- is met in the next line. 29–30 ἔμαθον, ἔτυχε Second aorists respectively of μανθάνω, τυγχάνω.
Translation for 6C

The student goes away. Strepsiades calls Socrates.


Socrates! Dear little Socrates! Come here! Who called? Who forced his way into the thinkery of the sophists? I shouted, Strepsiades from the deme Kikynna. But I didn’t force my way into the thinkery. Why call’st thou me, Ο creature of the day? For what purpose have you come? I have come as a student into the thinkery. For I have already heard that you are wise. Tell me, who said that? How did you hear that I was wise? One of the students said this. What did the student say? Tell [me]. The student said that a flea bit Chaerephon’s eyebrow. Then it jumped onto your head. You asked Chaerephon how many of its own feet the flea leapt. You measured it thus: first you took the flea and put it into warm wax. When the wax became cold, the flea had Persian slippers. Then you measured the distance. I have never seen anything so wise. You have never seen anything so wise? But where do you actually come from? Kikynna. You did not escape my notice being a rustic, and ignorant. Don’t blame me. But tell me, what are you doing in that basket, Socrates? I am walking on air and contemplating the sun. Why are you doing that from a basket and not from the ground? What are you discovering or learning, being in a basket? I never discovered meteoric phenomena nor learnt anything, looking from the ground. For the earth happened to prevent thought.

Section 6D



The second part of your verb chart should now look like this:
Irregular verbs present μανθάνω λαμβάνω γίγνομαι future μαθήσομαι λήψομαι γενήσομαι aorist ἔμαθον ἔλαβον ἐγενόμην

and you should also have added:
ἔρχομαι ὁράω εὑρίσκω εἶμι ὄψομαι εὑρήσω ἦλθον εἶδον ηὗρον

Remember to add other verbs with second aorists to the list as you meet them.

This section contains mainly further practice in second aorist stems: these have been given in vocabularies so (it is hoped) they should pose few problems.

Page 70
3–5 4 6 7 10–12 12 πάσχεις … ἔπαθον The question–answer format may help to link these two. ἔλαθον Second aorist of λανθάνω, cf. λαμβάνω, ἔλαβον. λήψονται Irregular future of λαμβάνω. ἕτερον ‘one of two’. Cf. line 8 πότερον ‘which of two?’ τί δράσω ‘What shall I do?’ is answered by ὅ τι; ‘What?’ κατακλίνηθι An irregular imperative form. The -κλιν- (Latin clin-) stem may guide you towards the meaning ‘lie down’ (‘recline’), and the noun κλίνη is anticipated in the stage directions ‘couch’. λήσω Irregular future of λανθάνω. ἔχεις τι ‘Do you have something?’ meaning ‘Have you an idea/suggestion?’, but the literal translation is probably better to lead into the vulgarity which follows. γυναῖκα ϕαρμακίδα ‘a woman sorceress’, a ‘witch’ in the sense of a woman with supernatural powers. In ancient Greece the months were lunar, and interest was due at the start of the month when the moon rose. Thus no moon = no month = no interest due. In the original, Socrates is more impressed with Strepsiades’ reasoning than the abrupt termination to this chapter would suggest.
Translation for 6D

20 28 38 38–43

But, Socratikins, why don’t you come down? For I have come into the thinkery because, owing much money, I am in debt.


Exercises for section 6C–D



But how did you become a debtor? How do you suffer this? I escaped my own notice having a horse-mad son. So I became a debtor. And I suffered this through horse-fever and my son. For my creditors always exact justice, and unless I do something they will always exact [justice]. So teach me one of your arguments. One of my arguments? Which do you mean? The greater or the lesser? I mean the unjust one, the lesser, the one stopping debts. For this argument will win lawsuits, the greater won’t. What shall I do? What? First lie down on the couch. Then think out some way out of your affairs. Alas for me! The bedbugs will exact their penalty today. You there, what are you doing? Aren’t you thinking? I? [Yes] by Poseidon. And what did you think? Whether I shall escape the bedbugs, which are biting me terribly. You are talking rubbish. But the fellow’s silent. What’s he doing? (He addresses Strepsiades.) You there, are you asleep? By Apollo, I am not. Do you have something? By Zeus, I haven’t. Nothing at all? I have my penis in my right hand. To hell with you! Don’t joke, fellow. Socratikins! What, old man? I have an idea. Tell [me] your idea. I shall take a witch woman and I shall steal the moon by night. What are you saying? You will steal the moon? Tell [me] – how is this useful? How? Listen. The creditors lend money by the month. So I will steal the moon. The moon will no longer rise. How then will the creditors take their money? To hell with you! You are a peasant and ignorant. I will not teach you any longer, since you are ignorant. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6C–D

1. εἶπε(ν), εἶπον 2. ἔλαβε(ν), ἔλαβον 3. ἔμαθε(ν), ἔμαθον 4. ἦλθε(ν), ἦλθον

he, they spoke he, they took he, they learned he, they went

Revision exercises for section 6C–D


5. ἐγένετο, ἐγένοντο 6. ἔδραμε(ν), ἔδραμον 7. ηὗρε(ν), ηὗρον 8. εἶδε(ν), εἶδον 9. ἔτυχε(ν), ἔτυχον 10. ἔσχε(ν), ἔσχον
6C–D: 2

he, they became he, they ran he, they found he, they saw he, they happened to… he, they had

1. 2. 3. 4.

ἐγένοντο εἴδομεν ηὗρες ἔλαβε(ν)

5. 6. 7. 8.

ἤλθετε εἶπες ἔμαθον ἔδραμον



βιασα- ἐβιασάμην κλεψα- ἔκλεψα θαυμασα- ἐθαύμασα διδαξα- ἐδίδαξα δεξα- ἐδεξάμην ϕιλησα- ἐϕίλησα δηλωσα- ἐδήλωσα 2. μαθ- ἔμαθον ἐλθ- ἦλθον ἐξευρ- ἐξηῦρον διελθ- διῆλθον 3. I saw (ὁράω) I said (λέγω) I escaped notice (λανθάνω) I found (εὑρίσκω) I learned (μανθάνω) I went (ἔρχομαι) I became (γίγνομαι) I suffered (πάσχω)



The sailors said that the captain had finally learned the truth. ὁ μαθητὴς εἶπεν ὅτι ἐξηῦρεν ὁπόσον ἐστὶ/ἦν τὸ χωρίον. 2. The young men happen to be suffering terribly. ὁ γεωργὸς ἔτυχεν ἀμαθὴς ὤν. 3. The suppliants ran into the temple/shrine. ὁ γέρων ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὴν πόλιν.


Summary exercises for section 6

4. 5.

The women saw the moon. ὁ πατὴρ ἄδικος ἐγένετο. You (pl.) took the money because of your debts. οὐκ ἔλαθές με ἄγροικος ὤν.




impossible power I am able I force forceful force I do drama I am amazed amazing wonder horse-mad I am mad madness horse horsey horsemanship I steal thief theft All in the right-hand column are diminutives. old man little old man child baby door little door house little house father daddy Socrates Socratikins Pheidippides Pheidippidikins

wonderful horseman


When the Persian army and fleet approach (προσῆλθον), the Athenians quickly embark (εἰσέβαινον) on their ships and sail (ἔπλευσαν) towards Salamis. Then the Athenians and the other Greeks keep quiet (ἡσύχαζον). Finally the Persian fleet arrives (ἀϕίκετο) and when night comes (ἐγένετο), the ships sail (ἔπλευσαν) slowly this way and that. And when day comes (ἐγένετο), the Persians approach (προσῆλθον) quickly for a sea-battle, the Greeks are at a loss (ἠπόρησαν) and afraid (ἐϕοβοῦντο). Finally they are no longer afraid (ἐϕοβοῦντο) but are daring (ἐτόλμων) and advance (ἐπῆλθον) against the barbarians. So they fight (ἐμάχοντο) in good order and defeat (ἐνίκησαν) the barbarians. And Xerxes also flees (ἔϕυγε). In this way the Greeks become (ἐγένοντο) free through their courage.

γέρων δέ τις καὶ ὁ υἱός, νεανίας ὤν, διελέγοντο περὶ χρημάτων. ὁ δὲ νεανίας ἔτυχεν ὀϕείλων πολλὰ χρήματα. καὶ διὰ ταῦτα, οἱ χρῆσται οὐκ ἐπαύοντο διώκοντες τὸν πατέρα. ὁ δὲ πατὴρ οὐκ ἐκόλαζε τὸν υἱόν (ἡ γὰρ μήτηρ ἔπαυεν αὐτὸν κολάζοντα) ἀλλὰ διενοεῖτο μηχανήν/γνώμην δεινήν τινα. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ πατὴρ ἔπεισε τὸν υἱόν, ὁ νεανίας πειθόμενος ἦλθε πρὸς τοὺς σοϕιστὰς καὶ πολλὰ ἔμαθεν. οἱ γὰρ σοϕισταὶ ἀεὶ ἔπειθον αὐτόν, καὶ πολλὰ καὶ σοϕὰ

E – TEST EXERCISE 6 A young man happened to owe much money because of his horse-fever. καὶ οὐκ ἐπαύετο παίζων πρὸς τὸν πατέρα. I will persuade and teach our son. ὁ γὰρ νεανίας οὐκ ἐϕίλει τὸν πατέρα. and the sophists taught him much. As you are ignorant and a yokel. Finally the young man went into the thinkery of the sophists and became a student. 2.Summary exercises for section 6 83 ἐδίδασκον καὶ πολλὰ χρήματα ἐδέχοντο. ἄγροικον ὄντα. the creditors pursued him and did not stop exacting their dues. acc. ἀλλὰ ἐπεὶ ὁ υἱὸς ἐπανῆλθεν οἴκαδε. and we shall escape our creditors. τέλος δὲ ὁ γέρων ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν. except you? Now what shall I do? How shall I stop our debts? You are responsible. αὕτη ἡ γνώμη οὐκ ἔπαυε τὰ χρέα τὰ τοῦ πατρός. FATHER MOTHER You. the mother did not stop the young man. but since I am from the city he loves me particularly. except you? Who made our son horse-mad. ἀλλὰ ἐμίσει. For who took our son and talked to him about horses. So. He saw and heard many wise things. EXERCISE 1. 3. But don’t worry about it. pl. οὗτος οὖν ὁ υἱὸς μανθάνων ταχέως τὸν δίκαιον καὶ τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. nor did their son stop being horse-mad. (a) vocative (b) imperfect (e) aorist (b) f. s. wife. Hurrah hurrah! For now the creditors will not get their money any longer. nom. and by persuading [him] I will stop [him] from his horse-madness. the young man does not love you or obey you. which is stronger. while the father was always defending the lawsuits of his creditors. husband. ἀεὶ τὰς δίκας ἐνίκα. . (a) aorist (d) present (g) aorist (a) m. For my son will win the lawsuits through the unjust argument. For I have an idea. When the son learnt the just and the unjust argument. s. So the father and mother converse. appear to be responsible for my troubles. acc. (b) genitive (c) imperfect (f) future (c) m. But [despite] teaching and persuading. the father said: FA.

Section Seven: Socrates and intellectual inquiry This is another very important section which introduces some more extremely valuable grammar: infinitives in 7A (GE pp. But once you adapt. εἰδέναι. In the first (7A–C). almost colloquial style. ἐγένοντο Tense? 6 ϕανοῦμαι Tense? ὅτι οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἢ τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγειν βούλομαι ‘that I want to speak nothing other than the truth’. which are only slightly adapted from the original. reflecting a technical philosophical argument. and then in 7D the aorist participle is introduced (GE pp. and in the third (7G–H) you will meet the narrative style that Herodotus uses in his History. In the second (7D–F) you will meet the typical style of the Platonic dialogue. You will find the style of these passages. 135. 10 ἀνάγκη ἐστί … See GE p. #150–152). you will find some rhetorical features mixed with a discursive. 8 εἰδέναι Learn carefully to distinguish the three infinitives εἶναι. rather different from the style you have met before. 4 διέβαλον. 3 οὐ βουλόμεθα διαβάλλειν σε ‘we don’t want to slander you’: βούλομαι + the infinitive – a very common pattern. 135. 134–135. #162–166). ἰέναι. You may find that it takes you a little while to get used to these changes of style and at first the Greek may seem more difficult. #153. GE p. although it is literally the indefinite form of ποῦ ‘where?’ 84 . 7A–C Plato: Apology 20c–23b 7A Page 74 1 ἐρωτῶσιν οὖν τινες ‘some people ask. taken from Plato’s version of Socrates’ defence at his trial (see Introduction). therefore …’: a typical rhetorical device which allows the speaker to pose the question which he wants to answer. 11 που The particle means something like ‘I suppose’. 142–145. Make sure that you read the ‘Introduction’ to each passage so that you understand the context. #152. you will enjoy the variation and will have acquired a new skill.

Accusative of duration of time. 14–15 τί οὖv ποιεῖv με δεῖ ‘What is it necessary for me to do? ‘What must I do?’ 17 ᾔει What verb does this come from? See vocabulary and GE pp. indeed. 10 ᾤμην Tense? Verb? The vocabulary will tell you.’ ἐπειρώμην ‘I tried’: the imperfect of πειράομαι. then.138–139. I want to bring the god at Delphi. You know Chaerephon. For perhaps Socrates is the wisest of men. οὐκ ὤν ‘He thought he was wise.Section 7B 85 14 σοϕώτερος ἤ … ‘wiser than …’ See GE p. ὦvδρες = ὦ ἄvδρες. not being. And indeed it is necessary for the god to speak the truth. though. he asked whether there is anyone wiser than Socrates. This is a frequent plea by orators who are battling to be heard. and the Pythia answered that no one is wiser. and explain to us. Translation for 7A Some people therefore are asking ‘But. Do you want to know what this wisdom is? As witness. What then must I do? It is clear that I must go to Delphi and consult the oracle. in reality. but you must be assured (know well) that I wish to speak nothing but the truth. why are these men slandering you? What do they have in mind? From where do these slanders arise and this reputation of yours? Speak.’ So Chaerephon went to Delphi and he obtained this oracle in the presence of the god. gentlemen! For. I know well. ‘He thought he was wise. We might say ‘who was a politician’. Lit. For there is great necessity for the god to speak the truth. . σοϕώτατος ‘wisest’. 9 πολιτικόν τινα ὄντα Agrees with τοῦτον τὸν σοϕόν and refers to him. For the god at Delphi will bear witness to my wisdom. gentlemen of Athens. For we do not want to slander you. He was my companion from childhood.: ‘I turned myself towards’. For. And know well that I do not want to joke with you. Listen then.136–138. Socrates. #155–160 for comparison of adjectives. ἠπόρουν What verb? What tense? ἐτραπόμην Second aorist middle of τρέπω. I happen to have this reputation on account of some kind of wisdom.’ Therefore I want to explain to you and tell you why these men slandered me and from where the slanders and this reputation arose. I suppose. #161. 7B Page 76 1–2 λέγει … λέγων You may want to translate this as ‘What does the god mean when he says?’ 5 πολὺν μὲν χρόνον ‘for a long time’. But I want to know if anyone is wiser than Socrates. And Chaerephon once reasoned thus to himself. he was not. ‘That Socrates is wise. for perhaps I shall appear to be joking.’ Note the use of the participle. Do not make a din. and you know how impetuous Chaerephon was about everything. ἔδοξέ γε σοϕὸς εἶναι. 18 μὴ θορυβεῖτε The jurors are reacting unfavourably.

12–13 οὗτος δοκεῖ τι εἰδέναι. I reasoned in this way to myself: ‘What does the god wish to say? For I know that I am not wise. . See p. For after the politicians. and then I turned to a search [to find out] whether the god was speaking the truth or not. εἰδώς -οτος This is the participle of οἶδα. like the prophets and soothsayers.’ Therefore I spoke with this wise man. For this man thinks that he knows something. And when I tried to show him that he considered himself to be wise. οὐδὲν εἰδώς ‘this man thinks he knows something. for it is not lawful for him. considered himself to be wise. though when he wasn’t’. at the same time. though he was not. through their poetry. though he knows nothing’. said that I was the wisest. those who thought that they knew something were more foolish. and they thought they were the wisest of men. as I thought. For indeed they say many beautiful things. the poets thought that they had knowledge. though he was not. but I. note on 6C line 8. but they do not know what these words mean. though I know nothing. though he knew nothing. Apollo.’ This is a very common pattern of word order in Greek. It is necessary for the god to speak nothing but the truth.’ And for a long time I was at a loss to know what he meant. line 11. if you are stuck. he and many of those present began to hate me.’ From there. 16 ᾖα Cf. For I did not want to be in doubt about the oracle. who was a politician. And I am ashamed to tell the truth. οὐκ ὄντα ‘to show him that he thought he was wise. though they had none.86 Section 7B 10–11 ἀποϕαίνειν αὐτὸν δοκοῦντα σοϕὸν εἶναι. 11 πολλοὶ τῶν παρόντων ‘many of those present’. After this. 23 ἀπῇα What verb? What tense? Translation for 7B When I heard this. as I thought. though they were not. For the poets do not make up their poems by wisdom. Cf. So I went away from there thinking that I was wiser than the poets. but by instinct and inspiration. lines 10 and 11. So. For I wanted to test the oracle and to show that ‘You. note on 7A line 17. while those who thought they knew nothing were wiser. though he knows nothing. And. line 13. And the man. 77. I went to the others who thought that they knew something. As a result of this (from this) that man and others of those present hated me. gentlemen. but nevertheless I must tell it. Cf. 21–22 τοὺς δὲ λόγους τούτους οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅ τι νοοῦσιν ‘they do not know these words what they mean’ – ‘they do not know what these words mean. I reasoned that ‘I am wiser than this man. I went to another wise man and he too thought that he knew something. ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄλλους τοὺς δοκοῦντάς τι εἰδέναι Cf. What then does the god mean when he says that I am the wisest and that no one is wiser? It cannot be that he is lying. I went to the poets. to myself. but this man is wiser. Therefore I went to a wise man (at least he thought he was wise). do not think that I know anything. which can be difficult for speakers of English. And. by the dog.

Grammar Do not forget to learn εἶναι. #152 and the past tense of εἶμι ‘I shall go’.’ But I want to ask ‘How does Socrates corrupt the young men? What does he do or what does he teach to corrupt them?’ And they have nothing to say. For young men are arrogant and very much enjoy examining their elders. like the other sophists.Section 7C 87 7C Page 78 4 τοιοῦτον πάθος ἐϕαίνοντο οἱ ποιηταί πάσχοντες ‘such an experience the poets seemed to be suffering’. εἰδέναι. 17 κατάδηλοι ‘obvious’ – the prefix κατα. #159. But. and what they actually know. #161. as I thought. 9–10 εὑρίσκουσι πολὺ πλήθος τῶν δοκούντων μέν τι εἰδέναι. 13–14 ἔχουσι μὲν οὐδὲν λέγειν ἐκεῖνοι ‘they have nothing to say’. gentlemen of Athens. that they have been revealed as thinking that they know something. Such was the experience which both the poets and the craftsmen were clearly experiencing. they discover a great number of those who consider that they know something. Translation for 7C Finally I went to the craftsmen (artists). εἰδότων δ’ ὀλίγα ἢ οὐδέν ‘They find a large number of those who …’ Note μέν … δέ making the contrast between what people think they know. arose the slanders against me. they know nothing. moreover. those who think that they know something become angry and say that ‘Socrates is a most disgraceful person and corrupts the young men. . 135. GE p. to tell the truth. From this search. the young men. ἰέναι. And. as I think. though they were not. knowing many things the craftsmen were wiser than I.139. 137. And. in fact. For they do not wish. as a result of this. they considered that because of their skill/art they were the wisest in many other respects. but not wishing to seem to be at a loss. GE p.sometimes simply adds emphasis. GE p. which are serious. ‘they can say nothing’. as I think. enjoy listening to my words and often try to examine others in the way that I do. when. Therefore. and my reputation. For I knew that I knew nothing and that the craftsmen knew many beautiful things. in the course of examining them. they say that. Note also the irregular comparative forms. Therefore. τοιοῦτον πάθος is the object of πάσχοντες: ‘such was the experience they seemed to be experiencing’. Socrates teaches ‘the things in the air and the things beneath the earth’ and ‘not to believe in the gods’ and ‘to make the weaker argument the stronger’. but know little or nothing. who are wealthy and have most leisure.

8. δεῖ με. πολεμιωτάτῳ ναύτῃ to. 9. ὑμᾶς παρεῖναι 6. ἀρίστης θεᾶς of the better. most hostile sailor τοὺς βεβαιοτέρους. most beautiful city ἡ δηλoτέρα. 5. παρεῖναι νομίζειν ἰέναι κλέπτειν ἀπιέναι βιάζεσθαι 13. τόν πολεμιώτερον. most hostile sailor 2. 11. φαίνονται διαβάλλειν 5. best goddess 1. βούλονται πιστεύειν 3. φαίνεται νομίζειν 4. πολεμιώτατον ναύτην the more hostile. κάλλιστον ἄστυ the more beautiful. βεβαιοτάτους λιμένας the safer. 6. θαυμάζειν πείθεσθαι δέχεσθαι ποιεῖν μανθάνειν λαμβάνειν 7A–C: 2 1. 8. 12. 6. for the more hostile. safest harbours τὴν ἀμείνονα. 4.88 Exercises for section 7A–C EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7A–C PRESENT INFINITIVE 7A–C: 1 1. most obvious lawlessness 7A–C: 4 τῷ πολεμιωτέρῳ. δηλοτάτη ἀνομία the clearer. ἀνάγκη ἐστὶν ἀπιέναι 8. τὸν Σωκράτη δεῖ διδάσκειν 7. . most ships (αἱ technically makes this ‘the great majority of’. βεβαιοτάτων λιμένων of the safer. κάκιστας γυναῖκας the more wicked. 4. greatest kings τὰς κακίονας. safest harbours 3. 17. τῆς ἀμείνονος. 3. βούλομαι ἰέναι 2. best goddess αἱ πλείονες. 5. 2. διαβάλλειν εὑρίσκειν πειρᾶσθαι εἰδέναι δηλοῦν λογίζεσθαι 7. ἀρίστην θεάν the better. μέγιστοι βασιλῆς the greater. the worst women τὸ κάλλιον. τῶν βεβαιοτέρων. ἡμᾶς. 14. 7. 3. 15. 2. 10. πλεῖσται νῆες more ships. ὑμῖν ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ μανθάνειν COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE OF ADJECTIVES 7A–C: 3 1. 16. ‘the huge majority of’) οἱ μείζονες. 18.

ᾖτε 10. e. c. 2. The wise men seem to know something. greatest kings 5. τῇ κακίονι. λέγειv 6. as I see it. ἦμεν 9. 1. εἰσί(ν) 8. is not trying to corrupt the young men. Σωκράτης. καὶ πολλάκις ἐπειρᾶτο Σωκράτης δηλοῦν τὸν θεὸν οὐ τἀληθῆ λέγοντα. . διαϕθείρειν 2. although they do not. You must tell the truth. ᾖμεν ἦμεν ἴασι(ν) ἐστί(ν) ᾔει εἶσι(ν) 7. oἱ σοϕοὶ δοκοῦσί τι εἰδέναι. τοῦ καλλίονος. δοκεῖν 8. ὡς ἐγὼ οἶμαι. most beautiful city. διαλέγεσθαι 10. a. 5. ἐσμέν 12. Σωκράτης ἐβούλετο εὑρίσκειν πότερον τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγει ὁ ἐν Δελϕοῖς θεὸς ἢ οὔ. ἀλλ᾽ εἶναι. for the worse. ἀνάγκη ἦν Σωκράτη ἰέναι πρὸς τοὺς σοϕοὺς καὶ διαλέγεσθαι περὶ σοϕίας. 4.Revision exercises for section 7A–C 89 τοῖς μείζοσι. ᾔεισθα 11. It was necessary for Socrates to go to the wise men and talk about wisdom [with them]. οὐ πειρᾶται διαϕθείρειν τοὺς νέους. PAST OF εἶμι I SHALL GO 7A–C: 5 4. but to be the best. ἀποϕαίνειν 9. worst woman 6. d. δεῖ ὑμᾶς τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγειν. καλλίστου ἄστεως of the more beautiful. 1. Socrates. b. καὶ μὴ διαβάλλειν Σωκράτη. μεγίστοις βασιλεῦσι to. for the greater. εἶναι 5. ἦσαν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7A–C B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1a. 6. and not slander Socrates. ἰέναι 4. 3. διαβάλλειν 7. εἰδέναι 1b. And Socrates often tried to show that the god was not telling the truth. κακίστῃ γυναικί to. Socrates wanted to discover whether the god in Delphi was telling the truth or not. oὐ βουλόμεθα δοκεῖν ἄριστοι. We do not want to seem the best. οὐκ εἰδότες. f. εὑρίσκειν 3.

δεῖ σε ἐξετάζειν ἐμὲ καὶ ἀκριβῶς σκοπεῖν. We know that the king wanted to punish the herald. Kleinias. οἶσθα/ἴστε ὅτι ἐβούλου/ἐβουλόμεθα διαβάλλειν ἐμέ. The women are trying to watch the play. masc.. ἀκούσας δέ … ‘Listen then. and having listened …’ . πειρῶμαι εὑρίσκειν ὅπως οἱ ποιηταὶ τὴν σοϕίαν ἀποϕαίνουσιν. GE pp. and the aorist participle. or not?’ 7 ἦ δ᾽ ὅς ‘he said’ Page 80 8 εἶεv ‘so be it’. 5. The farmers must go to the city. although you are a teacher. aor. #162–166. ἔδει με πρὸς τοὺς ποιητὰς ἰέναι. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν ἐδόκουν τοὺς νέους διαϕθείρειν. part. We must make sacrifices and pray to the gods. ‘or not?’ In Platonic dialogue most questions are asked in the form ‘Is X true.142. 17 ἀκούσας Nom. ἀγαθός ἀμείνων ἄριστος βέβαιος βεβαιότερος βεβαιότατος δεινός δεινότερος δεινότατος κακός κακίων κάκιστος καλός καλλίων κάλλιστος μέγας μείζων μέγιστος μῶρος μωρότερος μωρότατος πολέμιος πολεμιώτερος πολεμιώτατος πολύς πλείων πλεῖστος ϕίλος ϕίλτερος ϕίλτατος χρήσιμος χρησιμώτερος χρησιμώτατος D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. act. Another very common feature of dialogue style. 7D Page 79 5 ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ ‘I said’ these phrases only occur in direct speech and are very common in Platonic dialogue 6 ἢ οὔ.90 Section 7D 2. 7D–F Plato: Euthydemos 275–277c Here you meet the dialogue style of Plato. GE p. ὦ Kλεινία. καίπερ οὐδὲν εἰδώς. 3. Note the ‘echo’ effect: ἄκουε οὖν. Note that the aorist participle is formed from the aorist stem. 2. 4. ‘well all right then’. 142–145. You seem to be stupid. s. #162.

Kleinias. ᾖστε What verb does this come from? See vocab. Kleinias. γελάσας δέ … Cf.’ And Euthydemos said: ‘Listen then.’ ‘But’.’ And Euthydemos said: ‘Tell me then. Translation for 7D Yesterday I went to the Lyceum. lines 17 and 23. I. For I enjoy answering. Kleinias happened to answer that the people who learn are the clever people. Kriton. #167. Socrates. 11 πάνυ γε ‘certainly’. and answer when you have listened. have a reputation for turning people to philosophy and virtue or not?’ ‘We certainly seem to. . ‘Then you must turn this young man to philosophy and virtue. and I found Euthydemos and Dionysodoros conversing with many others. I said: ‘Do you.’ I did not answer. He is young. the clever or the ignorant?’ And the young man – for it really was a big question – was at a loss. ‘are they … or …?’ … ἠπόρησεν.Section 7E 91 18 21 23 27 ἀποκρινοῦμαι Tense? Cf. and they always question him closely while he is speaking and answering. said: ‘Don’t worry.’ Kleinias said: ‘I will do this and answer. But why don’t you question the young man closely. turning men to philosophy. I said. Dionysodoros. Therefore. thus ἀ-μαθεῖς. ᾖσμεν Cf.’ And at this moment Dionysodoros laughed and with a laugh said: ‘Indeed I know very well that Euthydemos will defeat him in discussion. I said. For it is by speaking and questioning that a sophist turns his students to virtue. Socrates’. They call him Kleinias. and GE p. Euthydemos. ἀμαθεῖς You can work out the meaning from μανθάνω and then make it negative with ἀ-. enjoys answering. seeing him blush. but answer boldly. ἀποκρίνομαι. he said. and question me. And you know that both these men have a good reputation. which people learn. and don’t be afraid. asking questions and discussing.146. For his friends often go to him. line 6. πότεροι … ἤ … A double question. For while Dionysodoros was saying this. Speak then. And being at a loss he looked at me and blushed. talking here in front of us?’ Euthydemos immediately answered boldly: ‘We are certainly willing to talk here. But the young man must answer. … ἐγέλασεν. ἀπορήσας δ᾽ … Cf. ‘So be it’. 7E Page 81 3 6 7 10 ὡμολόγει ‘he agreed’. ‘the fact is that.. wanting to hear their arguments. line 17. ὁμολογέω is another common word in Plato.

146. when you were pupils you knew nothing. the past tense of οἶδα (see GE p. Kleinias? Let’s suppose the teacher speaks some words. but being ignorant you were learning?’ The young man agreed. indeed. as you believe. mid. 4–5 πότεροι … ἤ … ‘are they … or …?’: a double question. the clever or the ignorant?’ ‘The clever. 7 ἄρα Climax again. #167). And Dionysodoros at once caught up the argument. part… . ‘And when you were pupils. making a din and laughing at the same time. ‘I said’ (GE pp. Translation for 7E And Euthydemos said: ‘But who teaches those who learn. and ϕημί. ὥσπερ σϕαῖραν ‘just like a ball’.’ said Kleinias. ‘And when the teacher was teaching you as children.’ 7F Page 82 2 ἐπῄνεσαν From ἐπ-αινέω. ἔϕην ‘I say’. and you did not answer well just now. immediately praised this cleverness. The students. were you pupils?’ He agreed they were. were you ignorant?’ ‘Certainly. Kleinias. laughing vigorously and making a din. falling into perplexity. Who learns these words.’ ‘So then. he said: ‘What then. but not the clever. when you knew nothing?’ ‘No. . said Kleinias. praised this cleverness. Translation for 7F So said Euthydemos. mid. you knew nothing yet?’ ‘No. the teacher. having received it. and. 146–147. 2–3 ἐξεδέξατo … ἐκδεξάμενος δὲ … Aor. we were certainly not clever since we knew nothing’. σϕαῖρα = ‘sphere’. or someone else?’ He agreed that the teacher teaches those who learn. #168). ‘Then it is the clever who learn. if you were not clever.92 Section 7F 12 ἄρα This particle shows that you are reaching the climax of the argument – see also in line 14. like a ball. aor. but not the ignorant.’ At this point the students. ‘Therefore. indic… . ‘Then it is the ignorant who learn. by Zeus! For since we were pupils we knew nothing.’ ‘Were you then clever. Grammar Do not forget to learn ᾔδη. But we. were silent.

9. 5. f. pl. 7. 1. nom. 2. 8. φησίν 9. 2. pl. 10. 5. Achilles burned with passion. 3. 5. ἴσμεν 2. nom. acc. βλέπω δηλόω πείθω βοάω τρέπομαι 7D–F: 2 1.Revision exercises for section 7D–F 93 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7D–F AORIST PARTICIPLES 7D–F: 1 1. acc. ποιήσας βοηθήσας ἀπορήσας 4. 8. acc. 2. 7. m. 4. 4. m. s. δεξάμενος βιασάμενος λογισάμενος μαχεσάμενος ἀποκρινάμενος . ᾖδη I knew. 3. 4. ᾔδει 4. m. Achilles burned with passion. m. ἔφασαν 3. 5. 10. f. ἔφατε 10. nom. m. s. 3. m. 9. pl. s. nom. acc. παύω λύω ζητέω ζητέω δέχομαι 6. 10. οἶσθα 6. f. 4. 2. βιασάμενοι κολάσαντας μισήσασα δουλωσαμένους δεξαμένη 7D–F: 3 (a) With one look at Penthesilea. nom. m. pl. nom. φαμέν 5. 6. ᾔδη 8. βλέψασαν θαυμάσας τρεψάμενον διωξάσας ποιήσαντες 6. ᾔδεσαν. 7. 8. 3. s. 1. ἐλευθερώσας τολμήσας θεασάμενος βλέψας φροντίσας ῥίψας σώσας παυσάμενος 6. ἔφη 7. (b) While he gazed at Penthesilea. and φημί I say 7D–F: 4 1. s. ᾖσαν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7D–F B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. pl. 9.

where did you go.’ I said.᾽ Having stolen the money the young man shouted loudly. and I shall reply.’ ‘Consider then. c. 5. With a glance at me.’ ‘The truth. ἀπορήσας ὁ μαθητὴς ἐπειρᾶτο ϕεύγειν.’ I said. and I. ‘εὐθύς αὐτούς. but not bad ones?’ I agreed. πρὸς ἐμὲ βλέψας.’ (lit.’ he said.’ said Socrates.’ said Socrates. ἀποροῦντες βλέψας ἀκούσαντες γελῶν ἐκδεξαμένη ἀποκρινόμενος D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1.’ I said. ‘So did you have to go to the doctor. being more skilled than the others. E – TEST EXERCISE 7D–F ‘You. ὁ σοϕιστής. ὡμολόγησεν. or not? Answer. a.’ ‘You seem to speak well. make your objection. ‘So should we praise and honour good opinions. The students said in answer that lawlessness is not just. ἐπαινέσας αὐτοὺς ‘προτρέπετε’. ‘and if you have anything to object. f. does he seem to you to speak the truth) in saying this. ‘Come then. for my part. Socrates. it was necessary) I said. ‘So we shouldn’t praise and respect the opinions of the many about the plague. 2. and to no one else?’ ‘I did. Socrates. b. shall obey. ‘and my friends went there too. ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ. hearing the argument.’ ‘The doctor seemed to be most skilled. d.’ I said. ὁ διδάσκαλος ἀποκρινόμενος εἶπεν ὅτι ἀρετή τις ἐστὶv ἡ ϕιλοσοϕία.’ I said. ‘question [me] carefully. Do we agree so or not?’ ‘We do by Zeus. ‘when the plague fell upon the city and destroyed it.’ said Socrates. then. the woman was silent. For the doctor knew about the plague. The suppliants hurried to the shrine and prayed to the gods. 3. but that of any skilled doctor who happens to be [available]. ὁ Διονυσόδωρος γελῶν/γελάσας τὸν λόγον ἐξεδέξατο. e.’ ‘Well then. ‘does a philosopher who says that we must not praise all the opinions of men speak the truth? What do you say? Do you think he is speaking the truth (lit. ‘as I think. to your friends or to the doctor?’ ‘I went to the doctor. 4. .94 Revision exercises for section 7D–F 3. laughed.

with a series of participles leading on to the final event in the main verb. #172–173. they fought them’. ἔλαβον. pl. see GE p. (d) nom.. GE pp. 7D lines 17 and 23 and 7F lines 2–3. / pres. second aorist εἷλον. The second aorist participle has the same endings as the present participle. There are other uses and meanings (GE pp. stem ἑλ-. part. (a) present indicative (c) imperfect indicative (a) acc. 6 ἀποκτείνασαι Cf. 13 γνόντες From γιγνώσκω. acc. ἰδοῦσα. (f) s. pl. ἰδόν. 8–9 ἀϕικόμεναι … ἀποβᾶσαι Remember that the Amazons are feminine. the aorist participle is γνοῦς γνόντος. / aor. 153–155. participle of περίειμι ‘I survive’. 12 ἀνελόντες What verb is this from? ἀν-αιρέω. Cf. ἀπέκτειναν line 5. part. for where in English we would write ‘they attacked them and fought them’.Section 7G 95 EXERCISE 1. masc. aor. Page 84 5 ἰδοῦσαι εἶδov (second aorist of ὁράω) drops the augment to give the stem ἰδ-. part. λαβόντες δ’ αὐτάς Note the ‘echo’ effect. #169–171: e. ἔπεσον). Aorist participles are frequent. 153. . λαμβάνων present participle. ἐξ αὐτῶν ‘from them’.110–116. (e) m. Note: participle … participle … main verb. fem. 10–12 Note the structure: οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι / οὐ γιγνώσκοντες τὴν ϕωνὴν / καὶ ἄνδρας νομίζοντες τὰς Ἀμαζόνας / ἐμπεσόντες καὶ μαχεσάμενοι / τοὺς νεκροὺς ἀνεῖλον (subject / pres. #174–176) which will be gradually introduced. 2. 7G–H Herodotus: Histories 4. and aor. the Amazons Now we change to Herodotus and the narrative style. but has the aorist stem. 7G Page 83 1 εἰσπεσόντες Nom. part. 2 αὐτάς ‘them’. but the syntax will usually follow the sequence of events.g. of εἰσπίπτω (second aor. 2–3 τὰς ἐκ τῆς μάχης περιούσας περιούσας agrees with τὰς Ἀμαζόνας and is the acc. / main verb). therefore the participle is ἰδών. (c) acc. λαβών aorist participle. part. the Greeks preferred to have only one main verb and to say ‘having attacked them. (b) future indicative (d) imperfect indicative (b) acc. 151–152. You will often find that the sentences are longer. second aorist ἔγνων.

and taking the horses they laid waste the land of the Scythians. Seeing the men fleeing. Be careful to distinguish between αὐτόν ‘him’ and ἑαυτόν (or αὑτόν) reflexive ‘himself’. on taking up the corpses. they did not worry about them any longer. Having discovered this. killed [them]. but to follow and to make camp near the Amazons. So. But the Scythians. and thinking the Amazons were men. then. In this way. they found a herd of horses. the young men of themselves). having killed the men. they captured the Amazons who survived the battle. attacked and having fought a battle (lit. they went away in three ships. they discovered that they were women. ἕπεσθαι Note the rough breathing. arrive at their native land. See GE pp. and so. So the Amazons gave chase. coming near. They did not. the young men followed [them] and made camp. not knowing the language. αὐτός ‘himself’. they sent their own young men to them. lines 4 and 5 ‘they did the same thing themselves also’. Thus. For while they were on the sea they did not guard the Amazons.96 Section 7H 14 τοὺς ἑαυτῶν νεανίσκους ‘their own young men’ (lit. having learned that the men were not hostile. Dative of time when. And having defeated them. #172–176 for the different uses of αὐτός. emphatic. 8 ἐποίουν τὸ αὐτὸ καὶ αὐτοί Cf. having attacked and fought) took up the corpses. and the men fled. Finally having arrived at the land of the Scythians and having disembarked from the ships. 15 εἵποντο What verb? What had they been told to do? 16 ἀπῆλθον … ἀπελθοῦσαι The pattern as before. αὐτός preceded by the article always means ‘the same’. ἄξει What tense? What verb? 5 τῇ δ’ ὑστεραίᾳ ‘on the next day’. And first the Amazons went away. then. And having captured them. 7H Page 86 3 εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ χωρίον ‘to the same place’. however. the Amazons became quiet. It is from ἕπομαι ‘I follow’. but to have children by them. they defeated them in the battle. . And the Amazons. 153–155. but on going away they saw the men following. 4 τὸ αὐτό ‘the same thing’. seeing that the men were not guarding [them]. But the Amazons were not experienced in seafaring. they sailed where the wind carried [them]. agrees with the subject: ‘coming himself …’ 6 τὴν Ἀμαζόνα αὐτήν ‘the Amazon herself’ (emphatic). ordering them not to fight. and not wanting to kill [them] any more. Translation for 7G When the Greeks came upon the Amazons and were fighting them.

and then come back and live with us.from οἰκέω. αὐτός / ἑαυτόν / ὁ αὐτός.e. they convinced the young men. and having arrived at the place. went away. GE p. After this the Scythians and the Amazons began to live together. but the women learned that of the Scythians. #177. but by means of a sign she ordered the young man to come to the same place on the next day and to bring another young man. But the rest of the young men. live there?’ And the young men obeyed these things too. So the Amazons said to them: ‘But a great fear holds us. .’ Having said these things.’ But they said to this: ‘We cannot live with your women. therefore the stem is οἰκ. 14–15 οὐ γὰρ oἱ αὐτοὶ οἵ τε ἡμέτεροι νόμοι καὶ oἱ τῶν Σκυθῶν ‘For our customs and the Scythians’ customs are not the same (oἱ αὐτοί). augmented or). on coming himself to the same place. For we cannot live in this region. For we use bows and arrows and ride horses. 156. But your women do none of these things. on finding the Amazons and having had intercourse with them. And she was not able to speak [his language]. giving a sign that she herself would do the same thing and would bring another Amazon. but do women’s tasks. So having got up and left. why don’t we get up and go off from this land and. For our customs and the Scythians’ customs are not the same. Grammar Don’t forget to learn δύναμαι. At last the young men said to them: ‘We have parents and possessions. The men could not learn the language of the Amazons. -ῳ. 153–155. and make sure that you understand GE pp. on obtaining their portion of the possessions. and we have not learned women’s tasks. they inhabited it. on learning what had happened. But if you want to have us as your wives. So the young men. Why. But if you want to have us as your wives.preposition. crossing the river Tanais. And the young man went away and told this to the others. came back again to the Amazons. did the same thing themselves also. and on the next day. bringing another young man. #172–176.’ 18–19 δεῖ ὑμᾶς There are two sets of actions which they must perform: (i) ἐλθόντας … μέρος and (ii) καὶ ἔπειτα … ἡμῶν. you must go to your parents and obtain [your] portion of the possessions. having laid waste the land. try taking it apart: συν. The two young men. don’t we go away to our people? We shall have you as our wives and no others.= ε + οι (i. And the Amazon did not prevent [him]. immediately had intercourse with her. Translation for 7H So then a young man.Section 7H 97 9 συνῴκουν If you cannot identify it. staying in the wagons and not using bows and arrows or riding horses. on coming across an Amazon who was alone. then. he found the Amazon herself who had brought another Amazon.

4. The young man saw the Amazon and went towards her. αὐτοὶ ἀφίκοντο 6. ηὗρον εὑρών εἶδov ἰδών 8. I saw the man himself 4. οἱ αὐτοὶ νόμοι 8. ἰδών . 3. τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτήν 7. I myself saw the man himself 7G–H: 4 5. τοὺς ἐλθόντας 3. ἡ ἑλοῦσα 1. ἔλαβεν αὐτόν 5. 2. τὰς ἀφικομένας 7. ἆρ’ εἶδες αὐτάς; 3. 5. I saw the man 2. I myself saw the same man 6. τὸ πεσόν 8. τοῦ λαβόντος ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS: αὐτός-ή-όν 7G–H: 3 1. καταλαβοῦσαι c. ἔλαβον λαβών ἔμαθον μαθών 7. τῷ εὑρόντι 8. τὸν λαβόντα 2. αἱ ἰδοῦσαι 7G–H: 2 5. τοῖς γενομένοις 7. οἱ γενόμενοι 6. The Amazons came across the young men and conversed with them. 1. εἷλov ἑλών ἀϕικόμην ἀϕικόμενος 9. 2. He himself saw him (someone else) 8. 3. τῷ μαθόντι τῆς τυχούσης ταῖς δραμούσαις τοῦ ἀφικομένου 5. a. 2. αὐτὴ ἦλθεν 4. ἀπελθόντες b.98 Revision exercises for section 7G–H EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7G–H SECOND AORIST PARTICIPLES 7G–H: 1 1. τὴν μαθοῦσαν 4. 4. He himself did the same thing 1. εἶδεν αὐτό REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7G–H B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. τὸν αὐτὸν ἄνδρα 2. ἔπεσον πεσών ἦλθον ἐλθών The young men went away and said these things to the rest. ἐγένομην γενόμενος 6. I myself saw the same man 7. I saw him 3. τῇ εἰπούσῃ/λεξάσῃ 6.

necessary. the destruction I am able. αὐτός h. necessity. The Scythians.Summary exercises for section 7 99 3. seeing the old man. were amazed. Saying this/with these words. 2. force/power I praise. oἱ νεανίαι δύνανται διαλέγεσθαι πρὸς ἐκείνας τὰς γυναῖκας. the agreement I try. I compel I laugh. the crossing I destroy. powerful. ἀϕικόμενοι f. the women stopped worrying. αὐτούς D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK The women. 3. εὑρόντες e. The young men came closer and pitched camp. Having become pupils. the young men wanted to learn. ταῦτα εἰποῦσαι αἱ γυναῖκες ἔπεισαν τοὺς νεανίας. ὁ αὐτός c. the sailor laughed εὑρόντες ταύτας τὰς γυναῖκας. οἱ ἄνδρες ἀνελόντες τοὺς τῶν γυναικῶν νεκροὺς ἀπῆλθον. the attempt I guard. 1. αὐτή d. oἱ νεανίαι ἐθαύμασαν. The Scythians find the Amazons and come closer. On discovering the men. περὶ τὰ αὐτά g. unguarded . τὴν αὐτήν e. having picked up the corpses and found them to be women. the praise a possession. the guard (person). went away. ϕίλοι γενόμενοι. ἀvελόντες. SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7 A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. laughter. αὐτούς b. αὐτούς τοὺς νεανίας i. αὐτάς. μαθόντες a. the (act of) possessing I reason. αὐτός f. διὰ δὲ ταῦτα oἱ νεανίαι πρὸς τὰς οἰκίας ἐπανελθόντες τὰ κτήματα ἔλαβον. 4. the guard (act of guarding). I possess. the reasoning I agree. 5. laughable I cross. After this the boy ran into the house and looked for his father. d.

The Amazons. but to go closer and become friends. So the others obeyed. δοκέω I seem. ‘τὴν γὰρ ὑμετέραν γῆν’. ἀλλὰ ἔδει τούς τε νεανίας καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας διὰ τὸν ποταμὸν διαβαίνειν καὶ ἄλλην τινὰ χώραν οἰκεῖν. So they ordered their young men never to fight. ‘For’. ϕάσμα apparition. For our customs and those of the Scythians are not the same. and becoming friendly [with her]. argument. if they came on any Amazons.’ E – TEST EXERCISE 7 Some Amazons arrived in the land of the Scythians and disembarked from their boats. ϕαίνομαι I appear. 2. ‘we cannot live with your women. The Scythians defeated them in battle. and falling on the land they laid it waste. οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι αὐτὰς νικήσαντές τε καὶ περὶ αὐτῶν γνόντες ϕίλοι γίγνεσθαι ἐβούλοντο. (a) aorist (e) present (a) imperfect (b) aorist (f) aorist (b) aorist (c) present (c) imperfect (d) aorist (d) aorist . ἀϕικόμεναι δὲ καὶ ἵππους εὑροῦσαι πρὸς τοὺς Σκύθας ἐμαχέσαντο. wanted to have children by them. ἐπειδὴ ἀϕικόμεναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐμαχεσάμεθα. EXERCISE 1.’ So. νέος young. Then a Scythian. οἰκέω I live. no longer worried about them. σοϕία wisdom. and taking up their corpses and finding them to be women. μάχη battle. But the Amazons did not wish to go back to the mass of the Scythians. δόξα reputation D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK αἱ δ’ Ἀμαζόνες τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἀποκτείνασαι πρὸς τὴν τῶν Σκυθῶν γῆν ἀϕίκοντο. μάχομαι I fight. νεανίας young man. λόγος word. διαβάλλω I slander. σοϕός wise. and. on seeing them following close by but not fighting. ἀλήθεια truth. οἰκία house. ἀληθής true. οἱ οὖν νεάνιαι πλησίον ἑπόμενοι οὐκ ἐμαχέσαντο. taking their possessions and crossing the river. λογίζομαι I reason. to become friends. and they sent them towards the Amazons. they found a land near by and lived in it. advised the others to do the same. ‘οὐ βουλόμεθα οἰκεῖν. coming across an Amazon who was on her own.100 Summary exercises for section 7 2. ἡδέως with pleasure. τέλος δὲ ϕίλοι γενόμενοι συνῴκησαν ἀλλήλοις. they said. ἔϕασαν αἱ Ἀμαζόνες. ἥδομαι I have pleasure. διαβολή slander. αἱ δ᾽ Ἀμαζόνες ταῦτα ἰδοῦσαι αὐταὶ ἡσύχαζον. and eventually the Scythians and the Amazons began to live together. ἀποϕαίνω I reveal.

is deeply serious. and to an episode based on another play of Aristophanes. You have already met it frequently. however amusingly expressed. #95. where he escapes into fantasy from the bitter realities of life in Athens during the Peloponnesian War. 23 ποῖ δὴ καὶ πόθεν. Page 91 11 τίς ὢν σύ … Note the idiomatic use of the participle. 8A Page 90 1 Look for the subject and the two aorist participles before you go on to the main verb. you should be able to recognise the verb. The genitive is used because he takes hold of part of his tunic (not the whole thing). the ‘being’ verb does not. #181–182) as well as the optative mood (GE pp. #178–179) and the main uses are listed (GE pp. κατιδών If you remove the prefix. This is called a partitive genitive. 86. 160–161. You will need to supply verbs in English. 4 ἀπιόντα Remember the difference between ὤν (‘being’) and ἰών (‘going’). 165–167. κατ-. You will also meet other forms of the comparative (GE pp. 21 φθάνω + participle ‘to do something before someone else’. καθ-. but now all forms of it are laid out (GE pp. 3–4 καθορᾷ …. 20 περιμενοῦμεν Tense? Cf. but the meaning should be clear. 104. 8 λαμβάνεται τοῦ ἱματίου He takes hold of his tunic.Section Eight: Aristophanes’ Birds Now we return to Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode. ‘Who are you to take hold of…?’ 13 τυγχάνω + participle ‘happen to be …’ 19 ὑμῶν ἕνεκα ἕνεκα follows the word it governs. #117. 167–169. περιμένομεν: which is future and which is present and how can you tell? See GE p. The social comment. #180). See GE p. This section introduces the genitive case formally. 163–165. The ‘going’ verb has an iota. #183–186). 101 . ἰδ is the stem of the second aorist εἶδoν.

κύριος is a word with a wide range of meanings. Cf. But wait! DIK. 6A line 4 βάλλ᾿ εἰς κόρακας. πράττω and πρᾶγμα.102 Section 8A 25 κυρία ἐκκλησία There was a ‘sovereign’ assembly once a month unless additional emergency ones were needed. Who are you. And Euelpides the son of Polemarchos sees him going away with the rhapsode towards the market-place. Here he is. SLAVE . DIK. called the optative (GE pp. We will wait. and the word is also used in the New Testament for Jesus Christ. DIK. He gets there before Peisetairos and taking Dikaiopolis’ hand he greets him. Joke! Cf. goes away through the crowd of citizens towards the agora with the rhapsode. I am the slave of Euelpides. #183–186). but you may want to start making a chart to fill in. 29 ἀνιστάμεθα See GE p. SL. I was the cause of the shouting. Wait. #187. 167–169. Do you not see him. The optative + ἄν means ‘could’ or ‘would’. The head of the family is ὁ κύριος. wait! DIKAIOPOLIS What shout is that? Who is responsible for that shout? The slave runs up and grabs his tunic. all of which are concerned with authority or power. I am a slave. 30 λέγοιτ᾿ ἄν This is a new mood. the son of Polemarchus. he is coming up behind. greets you. Page 92 27–28 μῶν εἰς κόρακας. Having seen them. Translation for 8A Dikaiopolis. 32 λέγοιμι ἄν And another. Peisetairos. 31 ἂν ἀκούοιμι Another one. running through the crowd of people? And a friend of his is following with him. having observed the lawlessness of the Eleven and having heard the words of the suppliant. 170. my good fellow? SL. But whose slave are you? Who sent you? SL. But where is he? SL. Euelpides runs up. the son of Stilbonides. Thus Euelpides’ slave approaches Dikaiopolis and shouts. or ‘trouble-free’. ἀπράγμονα ἀ-πράγμων = ‘not busy’ or more often ‘not meddlesome’. Don’t try to learn it now. For Euelpides. holding a basket in his the ending. It is clear that he is running after you. It is the opposite of πολυπράγμων ‘meddling’. DIK. You can usually recognise it easily because of -οι. It is called the potential optative. Dikaiopolis. and why are you holding my tunic. he sends his slave to them. as he comes up. and he happened to send me.

we shall settle in a peaceful city. my friend. From the Piraeus. are you leaving?’ 13 τοιοῦτον τὸ πάθος πάθος is a neuter noun 3c. 8B Page 94 1 μείζονα Comparative. ϕροντιστήριον. 166. and I am on my way to the assembly. For Athens is the wealthiest. Note that there are two ways of saying more … than …: GE pp. 16 κατεψηϕίσαντο ψηϕίζομαι means ‘I vote’. Athens is clearly the greatest. He is certainly the best guide.Section 8B EUELPIDES 103 Greetings. καταψηϕίζομαι means ‘I condemn’. and wanting what. where Strepsiades cannot believe that it is Athens on the map because there are no jurors sitting. ἀποκρίνομαι. in the name of Zeus. and we are following it. my friends? Please tell me. 137. DIK. But why do you want to carry that crow on your wrist? EU. I do not mean that. 20 οἱ μὲν γὰρ τέττιγες … For the Athenian love of litigation see also Section 6B lines 23–24. #180(e). I will tell you. 13–14 εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον Note the -ηριον ending which denotes a place where an activity takes place. There is no greater city than this one. It will be a sovereign assembly today. See GE pp. Cf. For. with a crow on his wrist. but where on earth are you going with that crow? Could it be that you are going to the crows? PEISETAIROS Of course! We are leaving the country. RHAPSODE Are you looking for a wealthier city than this one? EU. It is easily recognisable. Meanwhile Peisetairos comes up. #158 and GE p. #182. This crow is guiding us. Translation for 8B Are you looking for a greater city than Athens? No. 9 τί παθόντες Aorist participle of πάσχω. For who can lead us to the crows better than a crow? DIK. #154–160 for more forms. But why do you want to leave like this. for I would be very glad to know the reason. Greetings to you too. 30 ἀποκρινοῦμαι What is the tense? Cf. Literally ‘having experienced what. our fatherland. second aor. 136–138. We are looking for a peaceful place. as is the superlative which follows in the next line. ἀποψηϕίζομαι means ‘I acquit’. see GE p. We shall go there. DIK. my dear Dikaiopolis. There is no city wealthier than this one. 4 εὐδαιμονεστέραν This is another form of the comparative. τοιοῦτον = ‘such’. DIKAIOPOLIS EUELPIDES . where are you going and where have you come from? DIK. by Zeus. and when we get there. 164. ἔπαθον. Peisetairos. EU. DIK.

because of the false testimony of the witnesses. I do. DIK. Why are you silent? You will not say? They do not pity them. βελτίους Not what it seems at first glance – see GE p. but the jurors condemned us. 23 γνούς Aorist participle of γιγνώσκω. you know it well. The land is full of their audacity. but the Athenians sing all the time in their lawsuits. What sort of misfortune? What had you done. Peisetairos here and I have had a terrible experience. like the orators. even though we were innocent. and he was re-elected the following year. my friends. Tell me then.104 DIK. χείρους What case is it? βελτίους What case is it? κλοπήν Pericles was suspended from his office of strategos and ordered to submit his accounts for inspection. Do the orators show pity for the people? Do they pity them or not? Tell me. or what wrong did you do so that you suffered this misfortune? EU. but they will destroy the city. For the crickets sing for a little while in the branches. and should not perhaps be taken too seriously. The war drags on. #181. PEI. So great was the misfortune we suffered when we entered the lawcourts. RΗAP. But the remark was made by a slave in comedy. I will answer for you. Why not? PEI. from the second aorist ἔγνων. but the people are full of distress. love the city and I shall never cease to love the city. we do not hate the city itself. . For we find the affairs of the city hard to bear. or what is it that you want that makes you leave the city? EU. Section 8C What then? What do you have in mind? Do you perhaps hate the city? PEISETAIROS No. You are doing this with reason. DIK. what are you saying? Do you really think that the orators love the city? DIK. Dikaiopolis. since you give a just account of the lawcourt and the jurors. by Zeus. 8C Page 96 3–4 13 15 16 οἴκοι μέν … ἐν δὲ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ … Note the contrast. But how do the orators show their love for the people? Consider. His conviction was largely a political move. 21 τὸ ἀγαθόν Plato’s lectures on ‘The Good’ were said to be the ultimate in obscurity. the assembly is full of it and the lawcourts are full of it. I am not surprised that you are setting off to find another city. and so we want to go away. We did nothing and we did no wrong. everywhere there is lamentation and funeral pyres because of the plague: everywhere there are corpses. especially the lawcourts. They were found to be five talents adrift and he was convicted. there is much lawlessness. For I. 166. Dikaiopolis. And it is with reason that I shall not do this. what happened to you.

Don’t mock me. Who will save the city? A man who loves the city will save it and not destroy it. But what is the good. But who will save the city. worse. DIK. What do you mean. rhapsode? For I don’t know what it is that is the good [of the city]. so they say. 34 ἄλλο τι πλήν … ‘anything else but …’ 42–44 Note ἄν + optative repeatedly. You don’t know what ‘the good’ is? But on the ship you seemed to be some sort of a philosopher. 48–49 Two lines from the Homeric Hymn to Demeter 216–217. you must seek the good of the city. 25–26 οἱ μέν … οἱ δέ … ‘some … others …’ 27–30 A rather touching personal view. Some think that it is virtue. but when they became better. rhapsode! For the philosophers search. they condemned him for theft. therefore. He did it. as I hear. What must we do? RHAP. Odyssey 1. RHAP. and others think DIKAIOPOLIS . by Zeus! PEI. and a glimpse of the pre-war Athens. knowing their jargon. Did Pericles do this or not? RΗAP. 32 ἂν βουλοίμην ἄν + optative again – ‘could’. since the orators seem to be worth nothing? Perhaps the people themselves? E U E L P I D E S Ο Herakles. When Pericles began to speak in the assembly. were the Athenians worse. But we know clearly. For the good citizen makes the others better. but no one can discover it. for ‘the good’. because of him. R H A P S O D E But if Pericles – DIK. and when he died were they better? RHAP. Peisetairos. as you say. The vocabulary should give you all the help you need. ‘would’. 156. DIK. I know it well. Page 97 46 A quotation from Homer. DIK. PEISETAIROS But the good citizen makes the citizens better instead of worse. Translation for 8C You seem to speak the truth. don’t say that! For the people are most skilled at home. but absolute idiots in the assembly. you and I. Don’t speak of Pericles! RΗAP. 33 εἶμι (not εἰμί) ‘I shall go’. Dikaiopolis.267. It shows Aristophanes’ sympathy with ‘honest country folk’. You speak the truth. my friend? Pericles seemed to be the best of them all. PEI. ἀναπείσω What verb does this come from? Try πείθω. and it is clear that he was a villain. It is probable that they were. that at first Pericles was well thought of when the Athenians were. #177.Section 8C 105 25 δύναται GE p.

wine and pleasure. I think these men are stupid. perplexity and plague and fitting out ships. wealth. courage τῆς ἀνομίας. feasts. Come on now. It is peace. Farewell! RHAP. For the yoke lies upon our necks. but I would like to. citizen 2. health. I do not know if anyone else wants to make a treaty and to live at peace. τῶν ποιητῶν τοῦ σοφιστοῦ. They have found it in the fields. a sophist 8A–C: 3 τοῦ πολίτου. 3. 5. τῶν σοφιστῶν 1. friends. τῶν συγγενῶν τοῦ Περικλέους . myself. But how shall I alone persuade the people? What shall I say or shout or order. 2. Socrates 3. Dikaiopolis. But the farmers know what is good. τῶν ἀγορῶν τῆς ἐκκλησίας. Pericles τῆς τριήρους. τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν τῆς μάχης. τῶν φωνῶν τῆς ἀρετῆς. poet 4. 7. + PEI. nor would I want to flee from my own country. 4. but they do not know. kinsman 4. ‘We men must endure the gifts of the gods.’ EXERCISES FOR SECTION 8 THE GENITIVE CASE 8A–C: 1 1. τῶν εἰρηνῶν τῆς ἀγορᾶς. τῶν ἀνομιῶν τῆς εἰρήνης. if I am going to make a treaty? But I shall go. off to the assembly! EU. I wouldn’t hurry off to the assembly. Yet we are setting off for a place that is peaceful. children. relations. τῶν τριηρῶν τοῦ Σωκράτους τοῦ συγγενοῦς. Don’t they know that the poet spoke truly who said ‘These matters lie in the lap of the gods’ For we must accept the gifts of the gods with resignation. food. but peace is full of weddings. though grieving. ready to shout and abuse anyone who speaks about anything else except peace. lawlessness peace market-place assembly battle voice virtue. τῶν πολιτῶν τοῦ δικαστοῦ. τῶν μαχῶν τῆς φωνῆς. τῶν ἀρετῶν 8A–C: 2 1. juror 3. both the bad and the better.106 Exercises for section 8 that it is justice. 6. For war is full of events. I wouldn’t do that. τῶν δικαστῶν τοῦ ποιητοῦ. trireme 2. relation.

τῶν ποταμῶν τοῦ νεανίσκου. wall 8A–C: 7 τοῦ πάθους. 2. τοῦ μεγίστου. object god woman τοῦ πράγματος. 3. τῶν ποδῶν τῆς φροντίδος. τοῦ ὑμετέρου. 10. food a philosopher the people lawcourt time river young man heaven. τῶν φιλοσόφων τοῦ δήμου. τῆς ἀξίας. 4. τῶν πολλῶν τούτου τοῦ. τῆς πολλῆς. thing. 8. τῆς μεγίστης. 2. τῶν ὑμετέρων τοῦ μεγίστου. 6. τῶν νεανίσκων τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. τῶν ἀξίων ἐκείνου τοῦ. τῶν χαλεπῶν τοῦ ὑμετέρου. suffering 2. τούτων τῶν 1. τῶν χρόνων τοῦ ποταμοῦ. ταύτης τῆς. τῶν σίτων τοῦ φιλοσόφου. 4. number. 7. 7.Exercises for section 8 107 8A–C: 4 1. τοῦ χαλεποῦ. τῶν αὐτῶν τοῦ χαλεποῦ. τῆς βελτίστης. 8. τῆς ἑτοίμης. 5. ἐκείνου τοῦ. τῆς δεξιᾶς. τῶν δεξιῶν τοῦ ἑτοίμου. worthy that right ready himself difficult your (pl. crowd 3.) 11. τῶν φροντίδων τοῦ χρήματος. best 10. τῶν μεγίστων τοῦ βελτίστου. τῶν δήμων τοῦ δικαστηρίου. τῶν δαιμόνων τῆς γυναικός. 3. τοῦ σοῦ. τοῦ δεξιοῦ. 3. 8.) greatest 9. τῶν ἑτοίμων τοῦ αὐτοῦ. τῶν γυναικῶν . ἐκείνων τῶν τοῦ δεξιοῦ. 5. 9. 7. 2. τῶν κηρύκων τοῦ κτήματος. 5. your (s. ἐκείνης τῆς. τούτου τοῦ. sky τοῦ σίτου. 6. τῶν γερόντων τοῦ ποδός. τῶν χρημάτων τοῦ δαίμονος. τῆς σῆς. this 8A–C: 6 τοῦ ἀξίου. τῶν οὐρανῶν 8A–C: 5 1. τοῦ πολλοῦ. τῶν πληθῶν τοῦ τείχους. τοῦ ἑτοίμου. τῶν πραγμάτων τοῦ κήρυκος. τῶν τειχῶν 1. τῶν κτημάτων τοῦ ῥήτορος. τῶν δικαστηρίων τοῦ χρόνου. τοῦ αὐτοῦ. τῶν ῥητόρων τοῦ γέροντος. τῆς αὐτῆς. τῶν βελτίστων τοῦ σοῦ. τοῦ ἀξίου. 4. τῶν σῶν τοῦ πολλοῦ. τῶν παθῶν τοῦ πλήθους. affair herald possession speaker old man foot thought thing. τῆς χαλεπῆς. τῆς ὑμετέρας. much 12. 6. τοῦ βελτίστου.


Exercises for section 8

8A–C: 8

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

ill-fated going being better having set free worse someone

κακοδαίμονος, κακοδαίμονος, κακοδαιμόνων ἰόντος, ἰούσης, ἰόντος, ἰόντων ὄντος, οὔσης, ὄντος, ὄντων βελτίονος, βελτίονος, βελτιόνων λύσαντος, λυσάσης, λύσαντος, λυσάντων χείρονος, χείρονος, χειρόνων τινός, τινός, τινῶν

8A–C: 9

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Zeus I ship king you eyebrow old woman

τοῦ Διός ἐμοῦ, μου, ἡμῶν τῆς νεώς, τῶν νεῶν τοῦ βασιλέως, τῶν βασιλέων σοῦ, σου, ὑμῶν τῆς ὀφρύος, τῶν ὀφρύων τῆς γραός, τῶν γραῶν

8A–C: 10

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

juror child, slave sun dwelling possession plan temple, shrine city

τοῦ δικαστοῦ, τῶν δικαστῶν τοῦ παιδός, τῶν παίδων τοῦ ἡλίου, τῶν ἡλίων τῆς οἰκήσεως, τῶν οἰκήσεων τοῦ κτήματος, τῶν κτημάτων τῆς διανοίας, τῶν διανοιῶν τοῦ ἱεροῦ, τῶν ἱερῶν τοῦ ἄστεως, τῶν ἄστεων

8A–C: 11

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

μετὰ τοῦ Σωκράτους ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας διὰ τοῦ πλήθους ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου καταδικάζω τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀκούω τῆς γυναικός λαμβάνομαι τοῦ πολίτου

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

ἄξιος τῆς ἀρετῆς αἴτιος τῆς ἀνομίας μετὰ τοῦ κήρυκος διὰ τοῦ ποταμοῦ περὶ τοῦ νόμου ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀθηνῶν ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας


1. τὸν βελτίονα, βελτίω ναύτην 2. τοὺς βελτίονας, βελτίους λιμένας

the better sailor the better harbours

Exercises for section 8


3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

τὴν βελτίονα, βελτίω θεάν αἱ βελτίονες, βελτίους νῆες οἱ βελτίονες, βελτίους γεωργοί τὰς βελτίονας, βελτίους γυναῖκας τὸ βέλτιον ἄστυ τὰ βελτίονα, βελτίω πλοῖα

the better goddess the better ships. the better farmers the better women the better city the better ships


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ὁ εὐδαιμονέστερος, εὐδαιμονέστατος ναύτης the more fortunate, most fortunate sailor τὸ κακοδαιμονέστερον, κακοδαιμονέστατον ἄστυ the more unfortunate, most unfortunate city τὴν εὐφρονεστέραν, εὐφρονεστάτην θεάν the more gracious, most gracious goddess τὰς κακοδαιμονεστέρας, κακοδαιμονεστάτας γυναῖκας the more unlucky, most unlucky women ἡ εὐδαιμονεστέρα, εὐδαιμονεστάτη νῆσος the more fortunate, most fortunate island τοὺς κακοδαιμονεστέρους, κακοδαιμονεστάτους διδασκάλους the more unfortunate, most unfortunate teachers


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

they find he/she examines we reckon he/she becomes you (s.) marvel

εὑρίσκουσιν ἐξετάζει λογιζόμεθα γίγνεται θαυμάζεις

εὑρίσκοιεν ἐξετάζοι λογιζοίμεθα γίγνοιτο θαυμάζοις

8A–C: 15

1. you (s.) love 2. they intend 3. he conquers 4. he/she tries 5. they dare
ἄν + OPTATIVE 8A–C: 16

φιλεῖς διανοοῦνται νικᾷ πειρᾶται τολμῶσιν

φιλοίης διανοοῖντο νικῴη πειρῷτο τολμῷεν

1. φέροιεν ἄν 2. διαλεγοίμεθα ἄν 3. σκοποίη ἄν

4. 5. 6.

πέμποιμι ἄν δέχοιο ἄν ἀδικοῖεν ἄν


Summary exercises for section 8

7. ὁρῷη ἄν 8. πείθοιτε ἄν
ἀνίσταμαι, I LEAVE, EMIGRATE 8A–C: 17

9. φυλάττοιμεν ἄν 10. πείθοιντο ἄν

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

you (s.) leave he/she is able leaving (n.m.s.) to be able you (pl.) leave, leave!

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

they are able being able he/she leaves we are able to leave



I wrong I stand up worthy people/I am powerful leader I am powerful I send citizen difficult hand

the wrongdoing the awakening, resurrection important the power of the people the leadership most powerful the procession constitution I am difficult/angry I set my hand to something, I try

I engage in government

political/to do with the city


1. A Β



But who is responsible for this war and this perplexity? (τούτου τοῦ πολέμου, ταύτης τῆς ἀπορίας) The orators are responsible for this matter, I know it well. For the city is full of noise and shouting because of the war and the boldness of the orators. For who does not know about their boldness? (τούτου τοῦ πράγματος, θορύβου, βοῆς, τῶν ῥητόρων, τῆς τόλμης, αὐτῶν) But I don’t think the orators are responsible for these matters, but [I consider them] the best of men. For they always fight for the people and the city, as they themselves say. (τούτων τῶν πραγμάτων, ἀνθρώπων, τοῦ πλήθους, τῆς πόλεως) Yes. But they tell lies. For the mass of these men is bad and no one is worse than an orator. For the orators seize the assembly and the

Summary exercises for section 8


lawcourt, (τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν, ῥήτορος, τῆς ἐκκλησίας, τοῦ δικαστηρίου) 2. 1. μένοις ἄν You could wait 5. ἀποκρίνοιο ἄν You could answer 2. λέγοιμι ἄν I might speak 6. κελεύοις ἄν You would order 3. βουλοίμεθα ἄν We would like to 7. παυοίμην ἄν I could stop 4. πείθοισθε ἄν You would obey 8. ϕέροιμεν ἄν We would carry 3. a. i(i) The foreigner sits on the altar. (ἐπί + gen.) (ii) The ship goes towards the enemy. (ἐπί + acc.) b. (i) I shall go tomorrow into the agora with my friends. (μετά + gen.) (ii) After this I shall go back home. (μετά + acc.) c. (i) The ship sails past the island. (παρά + acc.) (ii) The sophist receives much money from the pupils. (παρά + gen.) d. (i) The slave ran towards us, forcing his way through the crowd. (διά + gen.) (ii) My wife is afraid of the city because of the plague. (διά + acc.) 4. 1. Διονυσόδωρος καλλίων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 2. Διονυσόδωρος μείζων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 3. Διονυσόδωρος κακοδαιμονέστερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 4. Διονυσόδωρος εὐϕρονέστερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 5. Διονυσόδωρος ἀμείνων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 6. Διονυσόδωρος μωρότερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 7. Διονυσόδωρος σοϕώτερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος

1. 1. The herald’s son listens to the speaker. ὁ παῖς ὁ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς τῆς τοῦ ῥαψῳδοῦ χειρὸς λαμβάνεται. 2. Who is responsible for this lawlessness, which is so dreadful? τίς ἐστιν αἴτιος ἐκείνων τῶν βοῶν, μεγίστων οὐσῶν; 3. Since we are Athenians we are worth much. σοϕιστὴς ὤν, οὐδενὸς ἄξιος εἶ. 4. Why do you say that no one is wiser than Socrates? διὰ τί οἱ ῥήτορες πλουσιώτεροί εἰσιν ἢ τὸ τῆς πόλεως πλῆθος/[no ἢ] τοῦ τῆς πόλεως πλῆθος; εἰπέ μοι. 5. We made our way through the city of the Lacedemonians. πολλὰ κακὰ παθόντες πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας ἐμαχεσάμεθα ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας.


Summary exercises for section 8

2. ἰδού, ὁρῶ γὰρ παῖδά τινα πρὸς ἡμᾶς προστρέχοντα. τίνος εἶ σὺ παῖς; παῖς ὢν τυγχάνω τοῦ Eὐελπίδου, τοῦ σοῦ ϕίλου. εἴποις ἂν ὅτι βούλῃ, καὶ τί βουλόμενος πρὸς ἐμὲ προσέδραμες; ΔΟΥ. ὅ τι; εἴποιμι ἄν. δεῖ γὰρ ἐμέ, ὡς ἐκέλευσεν ὁ Eὐελπίδης, κελεύειν ὑμᾶς μένειν. ΔΙΚ. μενῶ οὖν. χαίρετε, ὦ Eὐελπίδη καὶ Πεισέταιρε. τί βουλόμενοι ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἀπέρχεσθε; ποῖ διανοεῖσθε ἀπιέναι; ΠΕΙΣΕΤΑΙΡΟΣ πρὸς πόλιν τινὰ νέαν καὶ χρησιμωτέραν δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἀπελθεῖν.


A slave, going through the crowd of citizens, ran towards Dikaiopolis and, taking hold of his hand, asked him to wait. Then those who had sent the slave, Euelpides and Peisetairos, who were friends of Dikaiopolis, came towards Dikaiopolis and greeted him. He, however, since he did not know what their object was in leaving the city, asked them where they intended to go and for what reason. They answered that they had to look for Cloud-Cuckooland, and, when they had found it, to live there. Dikaiopolis thought that Athens was the most prosperous, and that no city was better than Athens. So at first he could not understand why they were leaving, then having heard about the dikasts and the lawcourt and the politicians, he agreed. For the dikasts seemed to be wronging the good men, and the politicians (as it seemed) were actually destroying the people and not pitying them. So Dikaiopolis’ friends went away. But he, finding the affairs of the city and the people hard to bear and thinking that peace was best, decided to make a treaty in the assembly. But the rhapsode, who thought that the men were ignorant and stupid, did not himself want to accompany him, but went away alone.

1. 2.

(a) aorist (e) aorist (a) genitive (e) genitive

(b) aorist (f) present (b) genitive (f) accusative

(c) present (g) present (c) accusative

(d) aorist (h) present (d) nominative

being many indeed’. 22 καταλέξω From καταλέγω. Notice the predominance of ι: in -ᾳ -ῃ -ῳ -ι -ει in the singular in -αις -οις -σι in the plural The various uses of the dative are well described in GE pp. What tense? Translation for 9A In front of the house are two slaves. What part of the verb is οὖσιν? Can you recognise it? It is the dative plural of the participle ὢν οὖσα ὄν. γιγνώσκω (GE p. ‘wanting what. #209). the infinitive is εἰδέναι.Section Nine: Aristophanes’ Wasps This is a long section with a lively story which introduces several important items of grammar. #189–190). They first converse with each other. 176–177. None of this is difficult. 17 ἐμπεσεῖται Future of ἐμπίπτω – πίπτω πεσοῦμαι ἔπεσον. 187–189. SOSIAS Hey you.180. what is the matter with you? (what are you suffering?) Hey you. 113 . and the principal parts of common and very irregular verbs (GE p. (Note that the neuter is τουτί ταυτί. ‘These spectators here’. ‘you will be the death of me’. #195–197). do you … ?’ ἀπολεῖς με … ‘you will destroy me’. The future of ἀπόλλυμι. πολλοῖς δὴ οὖσιν ‘Tell the spectators. 9A Page 100 10 τί βουλόμενος As before. Xanthias. #190 (e)). The meaning is the same as if βοῶ had been written. the aorist imperative (GE pp. 20 οὑτοιί οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο + ι is even more demonstrative. #211). 18 τυγχάνεις εἰδώς εἰδώς -ότος is the participle of οἶδα. 179–180. the dative case (GE pp. #103) where the forms of the dative are set out. τοῖς θεαταῖς. what is the matter with you? I’m talking to you. 201. 11 βοῇ χρῶμαι χράομαι (‘I use’) takes the dative (GE p. then with the spectators.) 20–21 κάτειπε…. but it pays to learn the new grammar carefully after each section in which it is introduced. Before you start you may like to look at the table (GE pp. 176–180. #190. #198–200). the aorist infinitive (GE pp. 189–191. 202.

SOS. what does this man say? He in answering us thinks that the old man is ‘a lover of dice’. Section 9B XΑΝ.’ 4 τῷ δὲ δεσπότῃ Possessive dative. What would you like to say to me? I’d like to say to you that a great evil will befall you. But what are you suffering? I’m sleeping with pleasure. But the master has a very old father. and unlucky. and it’s for your sake that I’m shouting. ἐπιθόμην is the second aorist. what happens to be the name of this illness? You answer us asking. see GE p. who are many. spectators. XAN. since he knew that he was more wicked than the others in the city. ‘You answer us asking. 180. Don’t you happen to know what sort of beast we are guarding? I certainly think I know. ΧAN. Translation for 9B XANTHIAS SOSIAS That is our master there. a pun on the name of Philoxenos. . 18 ϕιλόξενος … Φιλόξενος This is the joke we have been working up to. unlucky Xanthias. with all the words beginning ϕιλ-. For the master will kill you. I’m talking to you. All right. What’s the shouting? To whom are you speaking. So don’t sleep. ‘We obeyed him ordering. #209. SOS. But I say to the man that it is clear that he is speaking nonsense. 9B Page 101 1 ἐκεινοσί Compare οὑτοιί (line 20). XAN. #190 (b). For the master’s father has a certain illness. None the less ‘love-’ is the beginning of this evil. For the master fell into perplexity about his father. The master ordered us to guard his father. ill-favoured man that you are. 201. and responsible for many evils. SOS. 5 κελεύοντι ἐπιθόμεθα πείθομαι takes the dative. You’re sleeping? But I would like to say something to you. But these spectators here don’t know. Can’t you see him sleeping? So this is our master here. who is sleeping above peacefully. Sosias? Wanting what do you shout thus? You will destroy me by shouting. having asked. So tell the story of the play to the spectators.’ 6 ἐνέπεσεν For the principal parts of πίπτω see 9A line 17.’ 16 οὗτος δέ μοι ἐρομένῳ ἀποκρίνεται ‘This man answers me. 9 ὑμεῖς δ’ ἀποκρίνεσθε ἡμῖν ἐρωτῶσιν Note the dative plural of the participle agreeing with ἡμῖν.114 XANTHIAS SOS. and we obeyed his orders. I’ll tell the large number of spectators the story of our play. ‘That is our master there. Come now. ἔγνω What is it? Aorist of γιγνώσκω γνώσομαι ἔγνων: see GE p. answering such things.’ Note the aorist participle ἐρόμενος from ἐρωτάω ἐρωτήσω ἠρόμην. So I ask you.

For I shall tell you. #389). Indeed. ‘during the day and during the night’. look up εὑρίσκω in the list of irregular verbs (GE pp. that he thinks the father is ‘a lover of sacrifices’ or ‘a lover of strangers’. the old man loves something. SOS.Section 9C XAN. but this man. 8–9 ἐπεὶ τὸν πατέρα ἔμαθεν ϕιληλιαστὴν ὄντα ‘When he learned that his father was ϕιληλιαστής’. 436–442.’ So we are guarding this man. 4–5 τῆς μὲν ἡμέρας … τῆς δέ νυκτός Genitive of the time within which. the illness of the old man. be silent now. 115 Yes. He is a lover of being a juror in the court of the Eliaia. XAN. But what does this man say? This man answers me. Verbs of knowing and perceiving are often followed by a participle. old fellow. on seeing and approaching. 12 παύσῃ Can you recognise this? (2nd person singular future indicative middle. By the dog. like no man. Was it just to take his mind off being a juror. he is not a lover of strangers (philoxenos). having asked. For he is always being a juror and loves the lawcourt. sitting in the lawcourt during the day and dreaming of cases during the night. 2 ἐμπεσοῦσα What verb does this come from? What is it? Try the aorist participle of πίπτω. You will find this very helpful when you need to hunt for an unfamiliar form or if you are not quite sure which verb it comes from. or does Aristophanes say this simply for the ridiculous picture of him sitting in court banging his tambourine? 15 ἐμπεσών What is it? It should be familiar by now! If not see 9A line 17. ὑμῖν ἐν ἀπορίᾳ οὖσι Note that οὖσι agrees with ὑμῖν ‘you being in perplexity’. having shut him in with these bars which are . lovers write on a door ‘Demos is beautiful’. #191 for time phrases. and learn the principal parts of πίπτω.’ 14 ἐκορυβάντιζεν We do not know why he enrolled his father as a Korybant. 181. 13 ὁ δὲ πατήρ ‘But his father did not obey him (αὐτῷ) persuading (ἀναπείθοντι) him not to go out. at any rate. spectators. ‘learned his father being …’ The rest of the story will explain why his father’s mania was such a bad thing.) πείσῃ Can you recognise this? It comes from πείθω. if you want to know what the illness is that has befallen the father. 9C Page 102 1 ἐξευρήσετε What tense? What verb? If you do not know. See GE p. being in perplexity. Indeed. writes alongside near by ‘Kemos (a voting funnel) is beautiful. since Philoxenos. is a homosexual. Translation for 9C XANTHIAS You will never find [it] out.

What need? In theory my father is quiet. 8 ἐντυχών τυγχάνω takes the dative in the sense of ‘finding’. 9D Page 104 6 τίσι Dative plural of τίς. But to whom is the man speaking? XAN. are you asleep? XANTHIAS Oh dear. Sosias. will destroy [us]. having gone into the oven. first he tried to persuade him not to go out of the house. finding the illness hard to bear.116 Section 9D many and big. ‘happening upon’. on happening upon us sleeping. ‘as it seems to me’. in the lawcourt? Won’t you stop being a juror in the Eliaia court? Won’t you obey your son?’ But the father didn’t obey him persuading [him] not to go out. he said. but more like …’ 22 oὐδενὶ … ἤ … ‘He seems to me to be more like to no one than Philokleon. was a juror. Then the son introduced the father into the Korybantic rites. as it seems to me at any rate. 20 καπνῷ ἐξιόντι οὐχ ὅμοιος εἶ ὅμοιος takes the dative (‘like to’): ‘You are not like smoke coming out. ‘do you always judge cases. I’m smoke coming out. He seems to me too to be saying something. having fallen [headlong] into the lawcourt. whatever noise is the chimney making? Out of the chimney comes Philokleon. while the name of this son is Bdelykleon. But now. but is already standing and shouting. ‘To whom is the man speaking?’ 7 ὡς ἐμοί δοκεῖ This is the impersonal use of δοκεῖ. BDELYKLEON . 11 λόγῳ μέν … ἔργῳ δέ … ‘in word … in deed …’.) Xanthias and Sosias. SOS. master? ΒDΕL. my father. but in practice he wants to go out. having shut him inside. Father. You. And our master. ‘meeting with’. But wanting what are you standing up/what need makes you stand up. Bdelykleon is saying something to us. Lord Poseidon. as it seems to me. And my father always uses audacity when he wants to go out. SOS. drum and all. The master is no longer sleeping. ‘in theory … in practice …’ a very frequent contrast. saying such things: ‘Why’. who are you? PHILOKLEON Me. poor me! SOSIAS What is it? XAN. we have been guarding him with these nets. The name of the old man is Philokleon. But the father. From that time. For when his son learned that his father was a lover of being a juror in the lawcourt of the Eliaia.’ Translation for 9D (Shouts to the slaves from the roof. is seeking a hole with great zeal. Xanthias.

ἔξαγε Note the prefixes. 86. but I am coming out. not at all. 15 ἄμεινον ἢ σύ Both this phrase and σοῦ ἄμεινον in the next line have the same meaning. look for some other scheme. 180. ‘lithograph’. BDELYKLEON By Poseidon. You want to sell the mule. Translation for 9E But open the door. #95. ΒDΕL. Page 106 25 Οὖτις Odysseus also tricked the Cyclops by telling him that his name was Οὖτις ‘Nobody’. but he was not ‘the son of runaway horse’! 31 γιγνώσκω γάρ σε πάντων πονηρότατον ὄντα ‘I know you are (participle) the most wicked of all men. What do you think. Xanthias? XANTHIAS It seems so to me too. PHILOKLEON . PHIL. ΒDΕL. But it is the first of the month today.) 27 Ἰθακήσιος Odysseus came from Ithaka. as it seems to me. By Zeus. This man is preparing a great mischief. ΒDEL. XAN. Here now. never at all. bring out …’ 20–21 εἰ μὴ φέρεις Ὀδυσσέα τινά ‘If you are not carrying an Odysseus’. ‘going in. See GE p. 37 ἐνέπεσε What tense? What verb? Try πίπτω. 41 ϕθήσεται The future of ϕθάνω. 17 εἰσιών. What do you think. 9E Page 105 6 νουµηνία The first day of the month was market day.’ 35 λίθων From λίθος we get ‘monolith’. 12 αὐτοῖς τοῖς κανθηλίοις ‘pack-saddle and all’. 11 τὸν ἡμίονον The ‘half-donkey’ is a mule. since I want to sell the mule in the market-place. but I [could do it] better than you. 117 Smoke? But you are not like smoke coming out. offspring of a horse and a donkey. PHIL. master. Well. ‘megalith’. PHIL. ΒDEL. I could do this better than you. #190 (h). as it seems to me at any rate. go in and lead out the mule. No. The picture of Odysseus escaping from the Cyclops under a ram should make the reference clear. pack-saddle and all. pack-saddle and all? But I could do this. PHIL. by Zeus.Section 9E ΒDΕL. For the meaning of ϕθάνω and of λανθάνω + participle see GE p. etc. (See Homer. Father. Xanthias? He seems to me to be more like to no one than Philokleon. but more like Philokleon. Odyssey 9 for the story.

ταῖς ὁμονοίαις 8. shoo back! (He pursues the father with the net. Where. τοῖς κυβερνήταις τῷ σοφιστῇ. as it seems to me at any rate. ΒDEL. nor will he escape our notice by running away. ΧΑΝ. SOS. why don’t we sleep for a little while? EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9A–E DATIVE CASE 9A–E: 1 1. Nobody? From which country are you? An Ithakan. ταῖς θεαῖς 6. the son of runaway horse. Ο most foul man. ΒDΕL. freedom τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ. You. sea τῇ θαλάττῃ. But he will anticipate us by escaping. Alas poor me! What is this? From wherever did the clod of earth fall on me? Look. ταῖς νίκαις 7. Who is the mule carrying? Who are you. push many of the stones towards the door with your hands. ταῖς ἀπορίαις 3. ταῖς ἐλευθερίαις 4. spectator 2. captain 4. ταῖς θαλάτταις 2. Exercises for section 9A–E SOSIAS ΒDΕL. perplexity τῇ ἀπορίᾳ. daring τῇ τόλμῃ. master. at any rate. shoo. PHIL. all urgency. Alas wretched me! For it does not escape my notice that my father is becoming a sparrow. τοῖς θεαταῖς τῷ ποιητῇ. ΒDΕL. τοῖς σοφισταῖς 1. where is my net? Shoo. Drag him from beneath.) Come now. mule. relation τῇ τριήρει. push the mule and yourself into the house with. ταῖς τόλμαις 1. Since we have shut him in. You then. sophist 9A–E: 3 τῷ θεατῇ. Father. The man is becoming a sparrow.118 ΒDEL. ταῖς σωτηρίαις 9A–E: 2 5. victory τῇ νίκῃ. fellow? Nobody by Zeus. and the old man will not again give trouble to us who have shut him in and are guarding him. SOS. harmony τῇ ὁμονοίᾳ. For my father is most like Odysseus. Sosias. safety τῇ σωτηρίᾳ. But suffering what are you groaning. What is this affair? Why are you groaning. ταῖς τριήρεσιν τῷ Σωκράτει τῷ συγγενεῖ. τοῖς συγγενέσιν . But. Socrates 3. goddess τῇ θεᾷ. I know you are the most wicked of all men. τοῖς ποιήταῖς τῷ κυβερνήτῃ. if you are not carrying an Odysseus? But by Zeus it is carrying this certain someone underneath. poet 3. PHIL. trireme 2. mule? Is it because today we are going to sell you? But don’t groan any longer.

τῷ μεγίστῳ τοῖς μεγίστοις. 2. τοῖς σοῖς τῷ πολλῷ. τοιούτῳ τοιούτοις. τῷ σώῳ τοῖς σώοις. ταῖς μιαραῖς. τῇ πονηρᾷ. 4. 6. ταῖς δήλαις. 7. τοῖς δράμασιν τῷ ἄνακτι. 5. ταῖς πονηραῖς. τοῖς λόγοις τῷ θεῷ. τῷ πονηρῷ. 8. τοιούτοις 9A–E: 6 1. ἐκείναις ταῖς. ἐκείνοις τοῖς. τοῖς πλοίοις τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ. τούτοις τοῖς τοιούτῳ. crowd. τοῖς πάθεσιν τῷ πλήθει. τοῖς μεγίστοις τῷ δήλῳ. 7. τοῖς πλήθεσιν τῷ τείχει. τοῖς μιαροῖς. 4. τοῖς ἄναξιν . τῇ δήλῃ. τοῖς δήλοις τῷ σῷ. ταῖς σώαις. 3.) 10. τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τῷ δικαστηρίῳ. τοῖς δικαστηρίοις τῷ χρόνῳ. much 11. τοῖς θεοῖς 9A–E: 5 1. τοῖς κακοῖς τῷ σώῳ. τῷ δήλῳ τοῖς δήλοις. ταῖς ὁμοίαις. ἐκείνοις τοῖς τῷ μιαρῷ. τοῖς ἡμιόνοις τῷ πλοίῳ. ταῖς σαῖς. ἐκείνῃ τῇ. 3. τοῖς πονηροῖς ἐκείνῳ τῷ. τῷ πολλῷ τοῖς πολλοῖς. τῇ κακῇ. 2. ἐκείνῳ τῷ. τοῖς πονηροῖς. ταῖς πολλαῖς. mass 3. suffering 2.Exercises for section 9A–E 119 9A–E: 4 1. τῇ σώᾳ. wall 9A–E: 7 τῷ πάθει. 5. τῇ πολλῇ. τούτῳ τῷ τούτοις τοῖς. 8. τοῖς σοῖς. τοῖς πολλοῖς τούτῳ τῷ. ταῖς κακαῖς. τοις μιαροῖς τῷ ὁμοίῳ. your (s. play 2. mule ship man lawcourt time friend word god τῷ ἡμιόνῳ. ταύτῃ τῇ. τοῖς χρόνοις τῷ φίλῳ. τῷ ὁμοίῳ τοῖς ὁμοίοις. 12. 6. τοιαύτῃ. wicked that disgraceful like bad safe greatest clear 9. τῇ μεγίστῃ. τοῖς τείχεσιν 1. this such τῷ πονηρῷ. τῇ σῇ. τῷ μιαρῷ. drama. τῇ ὁμοίᾳ. τοῖς φίλοις τῷ λόγῳ. τῷ σῷ. τοιαύταις. τοῖς ὁμοίοις τῷ κακῷ. lord. king τῷ δράματι. τῇ μιαρᾷ. ταῖς μεγίσταις. ταύταις ταῖς. τῷ κακῷ τοῖς κακοῖς. τοῖς σώοις τῷ μεγίστῳ.

θύσαντι. 5. εὐδαίμοσιν τινί. better 2. 3. ταῖς γυναιξίν 9A–E: 8 1. ταῖς ὀφρύσιν τῇ γραί. name thing. θυσᾶσι.) money neighbour lamp. 5. 10. ἰοῦσιν ὄντι. δοκεῖ τῷ Σωκράτει ἕπομαι ὑμῖν ἐντυχάνω τῷ βασιλεῖ ἐν ταῖς ναυσί(ν) δοκεῖ ἡμῖν πρὸς τοῖς θεαταῖς 7. ἰοῦσιν᾽ ἰούσαις. σὺν ἡμῖν χρῶμαι σοί ἕπομαι αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ πλήθει ἐπὶ τῇ νίκῃ λόγῳ μὲν … ἔργῳ δέ . shrine city τῷ δικαστῇ. Zeus I ship king you (s. 7. ταῖς γραυσίν 9A–E: 10 1. τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν σοί. 5. σοι. (pl. 6. being 4. going 3. having sacrificed 5. 9. 4. ἀμείνοσιν ἰόντι. ταῖς νυξίν τῇ πατρίδι. torch night fatherland leader. 2. 7. ταῖς ναυσίν τῷ βασιλεῖ. 9. ἡμῖν τῃ νηί. fortunate 6. 5. 3. οὔσῃ. 6. οὖσιν. 3. guide woman τῷ ὀνόματι. ταῖς οἰκήσεσιν τῇ κτήματι.) eyebrow old woman τῷ Διί ἐμοί. 12. τοῖς γείτοσιν τῇ λαμπάδι. θυσάσῃ. 4. 11. ὄντι. τοῖς ποταμοῖς τῇ οἰκήσει. τοῖς ἱεροῖς τῷ ἄστει. slave river dwelling possession battle temple. 6. ἰόντι. 10. οὔσαις. τοῖς κτήμασιν τῇ μάχη. οὖσιν θύσαντι. τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν τῇ γυναικί. τισίν 1. 8. μοι. 2. τοῖς παισίν τῷ ποταμῷ. 4. ἰούσῃ. τοῖς χρήμασιν τῷ γείτονι. τοῖς ὀνόμασιν τῷ χρήματι. 2. 7. ὑμῖν τῇ ὀφρρύι. someone 9A–E: 9 ἀμείνονι. τοῖς δικασταῖς τῷ παιδί. 8. 6. ταῖς μάχαις τῷ ἱερῷ. 4. θυσάσαις. juror boy. 8. ταῖς πατρίσιν τῷ ἡγεμόνι.120 Exercises for section 9A–E 3. τοῖς ἄστεσιν 9A–E: 11 1. ταῖς λαμπάσιν τῇ νυκτί. θυσᾶσιν εὐδαίμονι.

Revision exercises for section 9A–E 121 TIME PHRASES 9A–E: 12 1. ἠρώτησεν ἐροῦσι(ν) δύναιντο ἄν ἠρόμεθα. I shall go within two days. 3. 4. We went away in the night. 3. 2. Α great evil will befall you. 5. 5. He is my father. 2.) try to persuade me with this argument? τούτοις τοῖς λόγοις 10. This woman’s plan is dangerous/terrible. τῷ κελεύοντι 8. 3. ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ 7. 4. The sailors happened to be on the ships. χαλεπῶς οἴσουσι καθίζοντες ἐν τῷ δικαστήριῳ. . We shout loudly (use great shouts). On the next day the son chased his father back into the house with the big nets. He met the man on the first day. ἀνισταῖτο ἄν ἤρετο. ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν. μεγάλῃ βοῇ 6. ἠρώτησαν δύναιτο ἄν ἐροῦμεν ἔλαθεν 6. 8. since you are accursed. Why do you (pl. In theory no one in the city is better than your father. λήσει ἤροντο. Tell the spectator the plot of the play with full (all) enthusiasm. τοῖς θεαταῖς 5. τὸ ὄνομα τούτῳ τῷ θεατῇ ἐστι Φιλόξενος. λέγει ὑμῖν καὶ τοῖς θεαταῖς. He was shouting all night. τῷ μεγάλῳ δικτύῳ D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS 9A–E: 13 1. ἠρωτήσαμεν REVISION EXERCISES FOR 9A–E B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. ὑμῖν. 10. ἡμῖν 2. They are speaking to us and our children/slaves. What is the name of the king? τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν 9. We must obey those who give orders. κακοδαίμοσιν οὔσιν 3. He was bringing the man on to the ship with the help of the sailors. 9. a very wicked man. 2. The suppliant stayed in the shrine for two days. 7. but in fact no one is worse. 4.

5. λαβεῖν What is it? Try the principal parts of λαμβάνω. καλοῖς λόγοις ἔπεισαν τὸν δῆμον οἱ ῥήτορες. PHILOKLEON What’s this? But you will destroy me. 3 λήσεις The future of λανθάνω. He is destroying Socrates with a wicked slander. since today you will be able to be a juror. Most relevant here is ‘episcopal’. #211. 187–189. and obey me. You must stay here. a process) and obey me [now] (aorist infinitive denotes a single event). The participle has not. γενέσθαι What is this? What are the principal parts of γίγνομαι? 19 ἐξευρεῖν What is it? Try the principal parts of εὑρίσκω. ‘You must (χρή) stay here (present infinitive = all the time. 28 ποιῆσαι ποιέω ποιήσω ἐποίησα. Father. Translation for 9F Bdelykleon speaks to the father. I shall not allow you to go out to the courtroom any longer. PHIL. Cf. ἐνέκλεισα τὸν πατέρα πολλοῖς δούλοις χρώμενος. 47 ἐσθίειν Another very irregular verb: ἐσθίω ἔδομαι ἔφαγον ‘I eat’. the various English ‘-scope’ words. Father. nor will you escape my notice by trying to go out. δυνήσῃ The future of δύναμαι: ‘you will be able’. Listen. 11 μοι … ἐνθάδε μένοντι Note the agreement: ‘How will it be possible for me remaining here to be a juror?’ ‘How will it be possible … if I stay here?’ Page 108 16 παύσασθαι First aorist infinitive middle. I stole the money with (using) my right hand. #195–197. 40 ἐξήνεγκον For the principal parts of φέρω see GE p. Remember that the infinitive does not have an augment. 17 κατάσκοπον κατά. from ἐπίσκοπος an ‘overseer’ or a ‘bishop’ in Christian Greek. Therefore aorist infinitive active. Here the aorist is used to emphasise the aspect. For aorist infinitives see GE pp.122 Section 9F 4. Father. But nevertheless I want to be a juror. 5 οὐκ ἐάσας What is this? Compare it with εἴασας. 7 πιθέσθαι Aorist infinitive from ἐπιθόμην (second aorist of πείθομαι). σκοπέω. 202. 25 λήψῃ What tense? What person? What verb? Try the future of λαμβάνω. Remember that the aorist indicative has an augment. ΒDΕL. not allowing me to go out. BDELYKLEON . ΒDΕL. Get up.’ 10 δικάσαι First aorist infinitive active from δικάζω. 9F Page 107 2 ἐάσω The future of ἐάω ‘I allow’.

ΒDΕL. For at last I have brought out the things of the lawcourt. but the son goes into the house. But you have not yet said this. By Zeus. and having discovered them to exact justice. and check that you can recognise the aorist infinitives active and middle. . I shall bring everything out. and you are clever at sleeping. 189. See GE p. Indeed. PHIL. Note this form of the aorist imperative active in -σον. being clever at eating. but are responsible for many bad things. near the fire there is some lentil soup for you. And it will be possible for you being a spy to discover these evils today. Hurrah. although sitting in the lawcourt. And by Zeus I shall eat it. with all eagerness. For I shall come quickly bringing the things of the lawcourt in my hands. I think at any rate that I have brought everything. PHIL. You speak well. ΒDΕL. For you convince me with your words. ΒDΕL. The old man waits around. Grammar Make sure that you have learned the principal parts of the irregular verbs you have met in this section before you go on further. For the speeches of the prosecutors are long. have you brought out everything? [Yes] by Zeus. ΒDΕL. ΒDEL. as it seems to me. Come then. on coming out. hurrah! For it will be possible for me to eat the lentil-soup while I am judging. Look. Wouldn’t you like to reveal the matter? You will get it from me. ΒDΕL. PHIL. Look. Hold on now. And I have brought out this fire. from where I shall be able to get the pay. So you must become a spy of the affairs which happen in the house. at least. #198. carries the things of the lawcourt in his hands with difficulty. 123 PHIL.Section 9G PHIL. ΒDEL. PHIL. but you know well that the slaves do not want to stop doing wrong. But how will it be possible for me to be a juror if I stay here? There will be a courtroom for you in your own house and you will be able to judge the members of the household. ΒDEL. After a short while Bdelykleon. and to force the household slaves to cease from their evils and become better? I certainly would like to. PHIL. What do you say? But in what way and about what? About many things. For you have many household slaves. So wouldn’t you like to do this. But wanting what have you brought out the cockerel? What? The cock will be able to wake you up with its voice. And you would be willing to do this? I would do this. 9G Page 110 4 ἄκουσον What is it? 2nd person singular of the aorist imperative.

what is it? Except the water clock. know it well. I must look for the voting-urns and place my vote. the 2nd person singular second aorist middle imperative from ἐπιθόμην. PHIL. Father? Tell me. 17 παῦσαι 2nd person singular of the aorist imperative middle of παύω. Don’t call the case. Translation for 9G BDELYKLEON PHILOKLEON ΒDEL. Well. ἀλλ’ ἐμοὶ πιθοῦ καὶ ἄκουσον. since I happen to have these cups. ΒDΕL. Father. though without the augment. I am calling the first case. one for guilty and one for innocent. but listen. εἶμι and οἶδα. Where is the water clock? Bring it to me. 191. all right. child. ΒDEL. 12 μὴ ἄπιθι μηδαμῶς. Look. Note all the other aorist imperatives that follow. 34 κατηγορεῖτε The κατά. speak. know that well. ‘prosecute’. but the context will almost always make the meaning clear. Does everything please you. The 2nd persons plural are much easier to recognise than the 2nd persons singular. Therefore sit down. I’m listening. PHIL. you.prefix suggests ‘I speak against’. Father. ΒDΕL. PHIL. 32 παῦσαι See the note on line 17 above. Hey. Page 111 24 ἡ κλεψύδρα The water clock was used to measure the time allowed for the prosecution speech and the defence speech. PHIL. BDEL. Jurors placed their pebbles in one or the other. What do you say? Go on. The spelling is exactly the same as the aorist infinitive active παῦσαι from ἔπαυσα. because they are like the 2nd person plural of the aorist indicative. Father. 11 κάδων ἕνεκα There were two voting-urns. So don’t go away. But. 14 ἔασον The -σον ending again from the aorist imperative of ἐάω. The old man begins to run out. Where are the voting-urns? For I cannot place the vote without voting-urns. ‘accuse’. (Again begins to run out. Everything does indeed please me. but obey me and listen. #201 for the imperatives of εἰμί. Fine! For everything of the lawcourt is here – except – Speak. λέξον Another aorist imperative. ΒDΕL. PHIL. where are you hurrying? I’m running out because of the urns. Note πιθοῦ. Look! (He shows his father’s chamber-pot.) . PHIL. father. child.) Stop running out.124 Section 9G 5 ἴθι See GE p. ΒDEL. But let [me]. Don’t go away in any way. ὦ πάτερ More imperatives.

stay (pl. 6. aor. 12. prosecute. 8. 8.Exercises for section 9F–G 125 Speak. Listen. aor. seek (s. 12. 10. 10. to judge to see to begin to become to go to lead. 2. to learn to run out to begin to lead out to make. drive aorist aorist present aorist aorist present AORIST IMPERATIVES AND MORE PRESENT IMPERATIVES 9F–G: 3 1.) let go. and obey me. and after praying. to make. learn (pl. 9. 4. Grammar Make sure that you know these forms of the imperative before you go on to the next section. 5. 6. 11.) 4. aor.) obey (s. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9F–G AORIST INFINITIVES 9F–G: 1 1.) 2. Sit down. become (s.) receive (s. 8. Father. aor. aor. slaves.) 7. 11. 2. aor) 5. then.) 6. do to conquer to speak to set free to learn to run aorist present present aorist present aorist 7. 4. what is this? Do you not think that this chamber-pot is an excellent water clock? Everything is now here. speak (s. You pray to all the gods. 3. aor. and stop worrying. 7. and bring out the fire. 9.) .) stop (pl. After bringing out the fire all the slaves go away. aor. pres. pres. while those present pray to the gods. 10. stop (s. do to wrong (someone) to consider to guard to turn towards to sacrifice μαθεῖν ἐκδραμεῖν ἄρξασθαι ἐξαγαγεῖν ποιήσασθαι ἀδικῆσαι νομίσαι φυλάξαι προτρέψαι θῦσαι 9F–G: 2 1. aor.) 3.) find (pl. loose (s. 3. aor. 5. speak (s. 9.

7. all you women are going It was possible for you all to bear everything Everyone be brilliant at selling. flee (pl. 6. know.ALL.. 3. know All of you women. voc. nom. 5. 1. aor. aor) 5. nom. or ἤνεγκα ἐνέγκαι 4. bring (s. run away. 11. Be.) and carry all the equipment REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9F–G B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX ἐπαυσάμην παύσασθαι ἤκουσα ἀκοῦσαι ἐποίησα ποιῆσαι ἠδίκησα ἀδικῆσαι εἶπoν εἰπεῖν ἤνεγκον ἐνεγκεῖν ἐγενόμην γενέσθαι ἔμαθον μαθεῖν ἔλαβον λαβεῖν ἀϕικόμην ἀϕικέσθαι εἶδoν ἰδεῖν ἐπιθόμην πιθέσθαι ἔπεσον πεσεῖν 2. voc. 4. nom.. nom. look. πᾶς παντ.) 1. EVERY 9F–G: 5 1. 9. pres. WHOLE. 2. voc.. 4. voc. 12. nom.) . voc. be (s.. voc. 7. go!. voc.) 6. pres. pres. 3.126 Revision exercises for section 9F–G VOCATIVES 9F–G: 4 1..) 3. arrive (pl.. 9. nom. aor. 6... 2. 8. 10.. 10. 5. see (s.) 2.. 8. voc. voc voc. show (s. (Only the accent shows it is imperative) All of you leave and do not remain but go It will be possible for all to leave Everybody come and carry everything It is not possible for me to carry all these things Get up and go (s) Go (pl.

The son did not allow his father to go out to the lawcourt.. we must stay here and fight. I learn many things. It is possible for me to listen to the orators. κατηγορεῖν 5. How shall I persuade you. I want to be a juror in the house. be afraid (pl. ἐξέσται πᾶσιν ὑμῖν πωλεῖν τοὺς ἡμιόνους. which we have to translate as ‘let him/her …’ or as ‘let them …’ See GE pp. Why aren’t you willing to bring out Philokleon.. mule? ἐξενεγκεῖν 8. #206–207 for the full paradigm. look (s. 2. He himself wants to keep taking the whole fee from his son. It is permissible for Philokleon to prosecute. but I do not understand everything. go (s. pres) 10. The 3rd person endings of the imperative are easy to recognise: Active Singular Plural -έτω -όντων -άτω -άντων Middle -έσθω -έσθων -άσθω -άσθων . τί βουλόμενος ἐξέδραμες;’ ‘ὅ τι; τὰ πάντα. aor) 1. δικάσαι δικάζειν 2. boys/slaves. 4. but my son does not allow me to be a juror here. μαθεῖν 10.) 8.. You (s. λαμβάνειν 11. λαβεῖν. ὦ πάτερ. 7. I shall not allow him to reach the lawcourt. aor. to listen to all the speeches? ἀκοῦσαι 7. ἐξενέγκετε τὰ πυρά/τάς λαμπάδας. We must all go out into the market-place.Section 9H 127 3.’ 9H This section introduces the 3rd person of the imperative. γενέσθαι 9. What must you do? ποιῆσαι 4. 5. They must learn the words of the play. cease (s.) must become a juror in the house. father. φαγεῖν D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. Look at the ships. 3. δεῖ σε μένειν ἐνθάδε και δικάζειν. General. ἀφικνεῖσθαι 12. πάντα πάρεστιν ἐνθάδε πλὴν τοῦ πυρός.’ ‘εἰπέ μοι.. 197–199. It is possible for me both to take the whole reward here and eat it. ἐξιέναι 3. ‘Tell me. pres) 9. ὦ παῖδες. what did you want when you knocked on the door?’ ‘What did I want? The master. ἐλθεῖν 6.

11–12 ἐξαπατήσειν µ’ ἐλπίζεις ἐλπίζω is normally followed by a future indicative: ‘You hope to deceive me. ‘the criminal’. like μονο-ϕαγίστατον. . This usually means ‘to take’ (middle ‘to choose’). This is part of the evidence for the pronunciation of vowel sounds in the fifth century BC. 3 ὁ ϕεύγων ‘the defendant’. having heard them. and do not confuse it with ὅτι ‘that’. ὁ διώκων ‘the prosecutor’ in line 11. 5 ἀκούσατε ‘Listen to …’ This must be imperative because there is no augment. Note that αἰτοῦντι agrees with μοι. 31 ὡς ὄντα … ‘as being …’ ‘on the grounds that he is …’ κυνῶν … ἄνδρα An intentional absurdity. Compare ἠκούσατε ‘you heard’. and sheep say βῆ βῆ. ἔργῳ δέ … Note the contrast. 25 οὐ παρεῖχέ μοι αἰτοῦντι ‘did not give it to me asking’. Who is the defendant? Let him come forward. τóτε ‘then’. 40 κατάβηθι ‘get down’.128 Section 9H But it is easy to confuse the active endings -όντων and -άντων with the genitive plural of the present and aorist active participles which are the same in spelling. The dog is called ‘Grabber’. aorist imperative of βαίνω is βῆθι.e. The two infinitives are governed by δεῖ. let him come in and make haste. 23 οὗτος ὁ ἀδικήσας ‘the one having done wrong’. 19 ἀναβῆναι Aorist infinitive of ἀναβαίνω. 35 προσιόντων πάντες What is προσιόντων? What makes sense in the context? See introduction to 9H. 29–30 δεῖ σε … ‘You must hear them both. There is probably a topical reference here to a case which Kleon. 27 ἑλεῖν αἱρέω αἱρήσω εἶλoν. Page 114 18 ἀναβάς This is the aorist participle. may have been intending to bring against a man called Lakhes.e. Note the principal parts βαίνω βήσομαι ἔβην. Once again only the context will help you. ἀδικήσας is the aorist participle of ἀδικέω. 3 εἰσίτω and προσίτω Note the 3rd s. and ἀκούσαντα is accusative agreeing with σε. imperative of εἶμι ‘I go’. Grabber. ᾔτησα From αἰτέω αἰτήσω ᾔτησα ‘I ask’. 7 Λάβης From λαμβάνω. 8D line 11. Cf. 24 ὅτε ‘When’. but in the context of a lawcourt it will usually mean ‘to convict’. ‘because’.’ σε is accusative after δεῖ.’ 14 Dogs say αὖ αὖ. and. on that basis (οὕτω) cast your vote. the politician. Cf. Note that the 2nd s. Cf.and the superlative ending. thief). 16 ‘This seems to me to be another Labes (i. i. Page 112 1.and ϕαγ. Translation for 9H BDELYKLEON PHILOKLEON If any juror happens to be outside.’ λόγῳ μέν…. Note μονο.

For the defendant has done wrong by eating up the cheese on his own. τοσαύτης διαβολῆς ‘such a great slander’. as it seems to me. Hurrah. Ο foul one here. And when I asked for a share. the cup. and convict him. Let all the witnesses of Labes come in. This one seems to me to be another Labes. dog. DOG PHIL. But where is the prosecutor. ΒDEL. he did not give [it] to me asking. I shall stop prosecuting. runs away. . But the dog. For it is possible. Let him come forward. dog. But this one at least is not able. make the speech for the defence. the cooking-pot. come up and prosecute. the cheese-grater. ΒDΕL. good fellow. ὦνδρες = ὦ ἄνδρες ‘gentlemen’. the dog from the deme of Kydathenaion? Come. For I intend to make the speech for the defence. ΧAN. Judge. Come. men of the jury. not wanting to come up. I know it. PHIL. 3 γιγνώσκω αὐτὸν … γιγνώσκω is followed by accusative and participle.Section 9I 129 ΒDΕL. For he doesn’t know how to speak. who is a dog. Suffering what are you silent? You should speak. For this dog. Be quiet. 9I Page 116 2 This is a typical beginning for a speech in a lawcourt. father. sit down. But I. and I shall listen to the prosecution while eating. PHIL. For at last the dog has come up. dog. For it cries out. Come. Punish him. the matter is clear. by the gods. the one who has done wrong. Woof woof! He is here. The defendant. and all the other equipment. will eat all the lentil soup. You have heard the charge. ΒDΕL. and convict him. For you must hear both. But you. and indeed you must make the speech for the defence. So I must cast my vote. But you hope to deceive me. And indeed the defendant Labes here is present. DOG ΒDEL. since he is moreover much the most selfish eater of all dogs. PHIL. obey me and don’t prejudge. comes forward. but in deed himself also a thief. Now I for my part shall call in the witnesses. DOG ΒDΕL. But. Dog of the deme Kydathenaion has indicted dog Labes of the deme Aixone for theft. and having heard on that basis place your vote. escaped my notice by going off alone and eating all the cheese. I know that you are a thief. Get down. dog. who is in word innocent. Do not confuse τοσοῦτος ‘so great’ with τοιοῦτος ‘of such a kind’. at the same time as judging. come up. as I know well about legal matters. and good at eating all the cheese. Listen now to the charge.

30 ποῦ τὰ παιδία. ask and plead weeping. having stolen it. It was normal. Father. So I must convict him as a thief. PHIL. cheese-grater. judge another case as well. PHIL. I beg you. The better the sheep are guarded. For I know that he is good and chases the wolves.suggests stealth. So what is the use. And when he steals nothing. For he does not know how to play the lyre. BDELYKLEON . Come up. pity those who suffer evil things. Listen. and the more cheese. did you grate the cheese for both the dogs? She says that she grated it all for both. It was normal practice in an Athenian lawcourt to parade the children of the defendant. PHILOKLEON No. of course. but he is the best of all the dogs now [alive]. As most cheese was made of sheep’s milk. forgive him. and indeed expected. But the other dog only guards the house. puppies. 10 ὑϕαιρεῖται The prefix ὑϕ. and speak loudly. and having convicted him. pity him. or even. rather this one seems to me to be a thief and worthy of death. But. For this Labes never stays in the house. Answer clearly. beginning the defence. and acquit him. wretched ones. since he is able to guard many sheep. the children are. The middle of αἱρέω means ‘to take for oneself’. For you happened to be guarding the cheese. What use? For he also guards the door. BDEL. gentlemen. Translation for 9I Bdelykleon speaks. ΒDΕL. This is a character reference. 12 κιθαρίζειν γὰρ οὐκ ἐπίσταται Literally ‘he does not know how to play the lyre’. In this case. 9 ‘Able to guard many sheep’. good fellow. It is difficult. The cheese-grater comes up. Come. to reply on behalf of a dog who has met with such a great slander. For by staying here he hopes to steal the food from the others. weeping to arouse the pity of the jurors. he bites. in the Athenian courts to smear your opponent’s character and to build up your own. By Zeus. By Zeus. who has suffered evil things.130 Section 9I 7 ἑλεῖν … ἑλόντα … From αἱρέω meaning ‘convict’. Arghh! Whatever evil is this? An evil surrounds me. PHIL. to the witnesses. ‘he has not had a good education’. but goes out of the house looking for food. this is not a completely irrelevant characteristic. if he steals the cheese and. and the speaker persuades me with his words. my good fellow. but none the less I shall speak. ΒDEL. Where are the children? Come up. But if he stole the cheese. but I know she is lying. the more milk. eats it up? ΒDΕL. See RGT 9H line 27. The meaning is ‘he is not educated’.

ΒDΕL. I shall get down. then? PHIL. PHIL. 7 βελτίω = βελτίονα. so he has to blame the lentil soup. (Speaks to himself. This voting-pebble is in here. (So taking him round a big walkabout. PHIL. this ‘get down’ deceives many very much. get down. let me take you round this way. 33 πείσομαι Can be the future of either πάσχω or πείθομαι. For I do not know how to play the lyre. How then have we contested? PHILOKLEON . 131 Get down. get down. PHIL. Place the voting-pebble. This has the same meaning as ἄκων ‘unwillingly’ (line 34). Is this the nearer? ΒDEL. It is difficult for me to know. 22 ἠγωνισάμεθα. For I burst into tears as I ate this lentil soup.) PHIL. 14 περίπατον Cf. by putting the voting-pebble in the further voting-urn. he walks to the further voting-urn first. get down. Come now. #211. ἀνίστασο 2nd persons. Here it is almost in the sense of ‘to settle a contest’. ΒDΕL. The context will give you the right meaning here. Father. 9J Page 118 2 ἀπεδάκρυσα Philokleon cannot bear to admit that he could pity a defendant. 202. they find him guilty. See ἀγωνίζομαι. put it into the further voting-urn. This is it. 21 οὐχ ἑκών ‘not willingly’.Section 9J PHIL. and acquit (him). Translation for 9J Go to hell.) Hurrah! I have deceived him. It must have disagreed with him. 27 ἔπαιρε σεαυτόν ‘Lift yourself up’ from αἴρω ἀρῶ ἦρα ‘I raise’. But none the less I shall get down. ΒDEL. For Philokleon has acquitted the dog unwillingly. then when he has got down. BDELYKLEON The dog is acquitted. How bad (not good) I consider the lentil soup. Taking this voting-pebble in your hand. Daddy dear. imperative of ἀνίσταμαι. ‘peripatetic’. No indeed. See GE p. turn to better things. Did you recognise this form of the comparative? τά should have provided a useful clue. ΒDΕL. 9 ὑστέρῳ Juries filed past two urns: the one they came to first (the earlier or nearer) was for condemnation and the next (the later or further) for acquittal. Come. For the jurors order the defendant to get down. And yet.

Father. let everyone carry the man out. 6. where is water? Lift yourself up. let them turn 9H–J: 2 1. 6. FUTURE INFINITIVES 9H–J: 3 1. let him/her/it begin 10. 3. ΒDΕL. 10. let him/her carry 8. PHIL. be victorious (pl. Don’t worry. Labes. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9H–J THIRD PERSON IMPERATIVES 9H–J: 1 1. let them leave and let them not remain/ let them leave without waiting. 5. 3. 2. let every one arrive. forgive me. put all these things here. But did I acquit the man who was the defendant with the voting-pebble? What do I suffer? Whatever shall I suffer? But. 4. PHIL. but stand up.) 7. Exercises for section 9H–J I intend to reveal [it]. 2. 5. It is possible to see everything in the house. Then I am nothing. has he really been acquitted? You will destroy me with the word. let it be impossible to find these things in the harbour. let him/her know. Now tell me that. let them release 9. 4. 7. 8. 2. BDΕL. You have been acquitted. my good fellow. κελεύσειν κωλύσειν ζητήσειν πείσεσθαι δέξεσθαι ἐξαπατήσειν to be about to order to be about to hinder to be about to seek to be about to obey to be about to receive to be about to deceive . let him/her/it be. [Yes] by Zeus. 3. 5.132 ΒDEL. Father. because I did that by placing my voting-pebble involuntarily and not convicting. stand up. let him/her/it go. let him/her learn everything. 4. PHIL. What are you suffering? Alas. Ο much-honoured gods. 9. let him/her hear let them retreat let him/her converse let him/her learn let them be silent 6.

Present: Aorist: . nom. σπεύδειν. ὀϕείλειν. inf. βιάσεσθαι IRREGULAR PRINCIPAL PARTS 9H–J: 4 to be about to defend oneself to be about to accuse to be about to write/ indict to be about to use force 1. δέξαι. ἔβης REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9H–J B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX πλεῖν. s. m. imperative pl.) ὁράω λαθών escape notice (aor.) αἱρέω ἰδών see (aor. γενέσθαι. 2. ἀϕικέσθαι. inf. nom. 4. imperative pl. μαθήσεσθαι. ἐπαινέσας -ασα -αν βάλε. part.) γίγνομαι ἐρόμενος ask (aor. διώξειν. κωλῦσαι. ἔπαθον 9. 3. ἐλθεῖν.) μανθάνω γένεσθε become (aor. ὑπισχνεῖται ἀπιέναι 8. part. κατηγορήσειν 9. λήψεσθαι. μαχέσασθαι.) λανθάνω ἐλθέ go (aor. ἔσεσθαι. part.) λανθάνω λάβετε take (aor.Revision exercises for section 9H–J 133 7. ὀλοϕυρεῖσθαι. παύσεσθαι. s. κρατῆσαι. εἷλετο 11. masc. pl. ἐπαινέσαι.) λαμβάνω ἑλεῖν take (aor.) ἀποθνῄσκω γενήσεσθαι become (fut. part. s. αἱρήσω ἐπίστανται πείθειν ἐλπίζει αἱρήσεσθαι εἷλον ἔβη πείσονται 7. παύσας -ασα -αν 3. παῦσαι. κωλύσας -ασα -αν ἐπαίνεσον. 6. βιάσασθαι Future: ϕροντιεῖν. imperative s. βοηθῆσαι. inf. m. δράσας -ασα -αν ἐλθέ. indic. ἔπεισαν 10. δέξασθαι. inf. δέξεσθαι.) γίγνομαι δραμεῖν run (aor. γενόμενος -η -ον κώλυσον. δρᾶσαι.) λαμβάνω ἀπέθανε die (aor. 5. ἐλθών -οῦσα -όν γενοῦ.) ἐρωτάω μαθόντες learn (aor. m. βαλών -οῦσα -όν παῦσον. nom. nom. δεξάμενος -η -ον δρᾶσον.) τρέχω 1. βαλεῖν. εἷλεν 12. γράψεσθαι 10.) ἔρχομαι λήψεσθαι take (fut. ἀποχωρεῖν. 3 s. ποιήσειν. inf. 2. λήσειν escape notice (fut. ἀπολογήσεσθαι 8.

) fall (aor.) be (pres. inf. He expects/hopes to pursue/prosecute the wicked citizen. masc. οὐδέποτε γὰρ ἐπαύσατο βουλόμενος δικάζειν ἐν τοῖς δικαστηρίοις.) have/hold (aor. dat. 5. fut. part. This woman intends to listen to the stranger.) go (impf. part.) fall (fut. Let the children play.) happen (aor. masc. s./neut. ὁ κλέπτης ὑϕελέσθω τὸ μέρος τὸ τούτου τοῦ κυνός. εἰσελθόντων οἱ κύνες.) know (past indic.) know (pres.) find (fut.) throw (aor. ὁ διώκων ἀρχέσθω κατηγορεῖν.) ϕέρω τυγχάνω ϕέρω εἰμί εἶμι οἶδα εἶμι βάλλω οἶδα εὑρίσκω πίπτω ἔχω πίπτω ἔχω D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ὁ δὲ . pl. gen. inf. inf. γέρων ὤν. imperative pl. dat. fem. ἐλπίζω τοὺς ϕεύγοντας καλῶς ἀπολογήσεσθαι./neut. I bear witness I name wretchedness 1.134 Summary exercises for section 9 οἴσει τυχούσῃ ἐνέγκατε εἶναι ἰόντος ᾔδεσαν ᾔεισθα βαλεῖν εἰδότες εὑρήσειν πεσόντι σχές πεσοῦμεν ἕξειν will carry (3 s. οὗτος ὁ δικαστὴς τὸν θάνατον μέλλει καταδικάσειν τοῦ κυνός. masc. 3 pl. part. 4. part. s. s. inf. dat. imperative s. τῷ δὲ γέροντι Φιλοκλέων. masc.indic. SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9 A – WORDS I take I write down I hope I know how to witness name wretched D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK I destroy letter hope knowledge.) go (fut. νεανίᾳ τινὶ ἦν πατήρ. 2 s./neut. part. understanding evidence. Let the suppliants pray to the gods.) carry (aor. nom.) have (fut. τὸ δ’ ὄνομα τῷ μὲν νεανίᾳ ἦν Bδελυκλέων. 2 Let the herald enter the city. s. 3. ὁ δὲ γέρων ἐτύγχανεν ἔχων νόσον τινὰ δεινήν.

Summary exercises for section 9


νεανίας ἐπειρᾶτο αὐτὸν πεῖσαι μὴ δικάζειν, ὁ δὲ γέρων αὐτῷ οὐκ ἐπείθετο καίπερ πολλὰ πείθοντι. τέλος δὲ ὁ μὲν νεανίας αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἐνέκλεισεν, ὁ δὲ ἀπορῶν ἐπειρᾶτο φεύγειν, πολλοῖς λόγοις χρώμενος. ἀλλὰ οὐκ ἐδύνατο λαθεῖν τοὺς δούλους τοὺς τὴν οἰκίαν φυλάττοντας. 2. ΒΔΕΛYΚΛΕΩΝ ἄκουσον γάρ, ὦ πάτερ, καὶ ἐμοὶ πιθοῦ. οὐ γάρ ἐάσω σε λιπόντα τὴν οἰκίαν ἐν τῷ δικαστηρίῳ δικάζειν. ΦΙΛΟΚΛΕΩΝ ἀλλὰ διὰ τί οὐκ ἐάσεις ἐμέ; ἐλπίζω γὰρ σέ μοι πάντα λέξειν. ΒΔΕΛ. διότι πονηρότατος εἶ τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. ΦΙΛ. τί οὖν ἐάσεις με ποιεῖν; τί μέλλεις ποιήσειν; ΒΔΕΛ. ἔξεσται σοι δικάζειν ἐνθάδε ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ. ταῦτα δὲ βούλοιο ἂν ποιῆσαι; ΦΙΛ. βουλοίμην ἂν ἔγωγε. εἰπέ μοι ταχέως, τί δεῖ με ποιεῖν; ΒΔΕΛ. μεῖνον ἐνθάδε. ἐξοίσω γὰρ τὰ τοῦ δικαστηρίου. (ἐκφέρει μὲν τὰ σκεύη. τὸ δὲ δικαστήριον ποιεῖται.) προσελθέτω ὁ ἀντίδικος. ἡ δὲ δίκη ἀρχέσθω. ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ κατήγορος; δεῦρο ἐλθέ, ὦ κύον, καὶ κατηγόρησον. ἀνάβηθι καὶ εἰπέ. λέγε ἡμῖν τίς καὶ τί βουλόμενος τὴν γραφὴν ἐγράψατο. ὦ πάτερ, ἐλπίζω σε προσέξειν τὸν νοῦν. ΦΙΛ. μὴ φρόντιζε. ἄγε δή, ὦ κύον, εἰπὲ δή.




Come, all [my] friends, come. For I hear you singing, but am not able to sing myself. What shall I do? For these men are guarding me, although I want to come with you to the lawcourt and make some trouble. But, Ο Zeus, stop giving me troubles and become my friend and pity my suffering. Save me, Ο Zeus. Either make me suddenly into smoke, or indeed make me a stone, on which they count the votes. Lord, dare to save me. Who is it who is shutting you in? Speak, we beg you. My son, know it well. But don’t shout. For he’s actually to be asleep here in front. Why isn’t it possible for you to come along with us and listen to the prosecutors and those defending themselves? Men, my son doesn’t allow me to pass judgement or to do anything bad. But look for some device, I beg you. For I intend to hear both the prosecutors and the defendants today. We can’t save you, friend. For all the members of your family are guarding you, and it is not possible for you to escape. Therefore I must pray to the gods, in hope of escaping. May the gods hear, then, and help. Ο lord Lykos, neighbouring hero – for you love the lawcourt – pity me and save me in my perplexity. You too, slaves, run and shout and tell Kleon this and order him to come. For Bdelykleon says that it is necessary not to pass judgement on cases. So let Kleon come and become a saviour to the old man.


Summary exercises for section 9


1. 2.

(a) 2nd s., aor. (e) 2nd pl., pres. (a) voc. (e) voc.

(b) 2nd s., aor. (f) 3rd pl., pres. (b) acc. (f) dat.

(c) 2nd s., aor. (g) 2nd s., aor (c) voc.

(d) 2nd pl., pres. (h) 3rd s., aor (d) nom.

Section Ten: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata

We now embark on one of Aristophanes’ most famous and delightful plays. With its female lead (though played by a man, of course), it brings back women into the text, alive and very decidedly kicking. The grammatical input here is challenging, consisting of the aorist optative active and middle (GE pp. 210–211, #212), δίδωμι (GE pp. 212–214, #214), ἀμελής and γλυκύς (GE pp. 214–215, #215) and the relative pronoun (GE pp. 216–219, # 216–219). It is worth mastering this material very thoroughly. δίδωμι, of which GE says comfortingly that ‘there is little here that is difficult to recognise’, is the valuable gateway to a family of verbs which end in -μι.

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1 ἥ Your first relative pronoun: feminine because it goes with Lysistrata, nominative because it is the subject of the verb in its clause. 3 καταλύσασαι What part of the verb is this? Women are the subject of the sentence. 5 ἴδοιμι From ὁράω. The second aorist is εἶδον, the aorist stem is ἰδ- and this is the aorist optative. 6–7 καὶ Κλεονίκη … κἀμοί = καὶ ἐμοί; what does καί mean in both these phrases? 8 οὔσαις What part of the verb? It’s a participle, and we are still talking about women. οἵ What gender, what case? Why? See GE p. 216, #216. Note that in the nominative case m.s., f.s., and pl. the relative pronoun has an accent, whereas the article has none. 11 ἀναγκάσειν What infinitive? Cf. ἀναγκάζειν. 12 λέξον Aorist imperative from λέγω. ἔλεξα is an alternative form for the aorist. ἐκεῖνο ὅ Literally ‘that which’. 15 τῶν ἀϕροδισίων Cf. Aphrodite, the goddess of sex, and ‘aphrodisiac’. 16 οὕς You have now met seven forms of the relative pronoun. Learn it (GE p. 216, #216). 19 ποιήσαιμι We now meet the first aorist optative. Note that -σαι- is a characteristic element of this. Contrast with -οι- in the present optative (and in


Section 10A

the second aorist optative – see GE pp. 210–211, #212 and cf. ἴδοιμι in line 5 on this page). Don’t overlook the ἄν. ἑρπέτω What part of the verb is this? See GE pp. 197–198, #206–207. 20 κέλευσον If you cannot recognise this, see GE p. 189, #198 . 21 ἐθελήσαιμι 1st person singular aorist optative. Note the ἄν. μᾶλλον … ἤ ‘rather than …’ 25 ποιήσειας Which part of the aorist optative is this? (GE p. 210, #212).

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27 ποιήσειε Which part of the aorist optative is this? 29–30 συμψηϕίσαιο, σώσαιμεν Look at the aorist optatives active and middle of παύω (GE pp. 210–212, #212) and learn them. Note that the endings of the second aorist optative are identical with those of the present optative. 31 ναὶ τὼ σιώ This is a particularly Spartan oath. ‘The Two’ are Castor and Pollux, the divine brothers of Helen of Troy, who were born in Sparta to Leda in an egg, as the result of her liaison with Zeus in the guise of a swan.
Translation for 10A

Lysistrata, who is an Athenian woman, comes forward and speaks. Do you hope, women, to bring the war to an end with me? For you know well that once we have brought the war to an end we shall see peace again. MYRRHINE (Myrrhine, who is a friend of Lysistrata, agrees.) By the gods, I would gladly see peace after bringing the war to an end. KLEONIKE (Kleonike, who is another friend, also agrees.) To me also it seems a good idea to bring the war to an end. But how is this possible for us, women that we are? Do you have some plan? For it is necessary that the men, who fight the battles, should bring the war to an end and make a treaty. LYS. Let me speak. For one mustn’t keep silent. But, women, if we are going to force the men to make peace, we must refrain from … ΜYR. From what? What is the plan? Say what you have in mind. LYS. So will you do what I order? ΜYR. We shall do everything you tell us to. LYS. Then we must refrain from sex. All the women, after hearing the words which Lysistrata says, begin to go away. LYS. Where are you going? Why are you weeping? Will you or won’t you do what I order? Or what do you intend? ΜYR. I couldn’t do what you say, Lysistrata; instead let the war take its course. KLE. By Zeus, I won’t either; instead let the war take its course. Order me to go through fire. I would be willing to do that rather than to refrain from sex. For nothing is like sex, my dear Lysistrata. I won’t do it – no way. LYS. What about you then? Would you do what I tell you?

Section 10B



I too would be willing to go through fire. No, by Zeus, I would not do it. Oh how totally lascivious is all of our sex! Will no one do what I propose? But, my dear Spartan, would you vote with me? For if so, we might still save the whole business. By the two gods, it’s difficult for us to sleep without sex. But we must bring the war to an end and have peace. I would vote with you. Ο you my dearest friend and the only true woman among them. Then if these things seem good to you, they seem a good idea to us too.

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2 πεῖσαι What part of the verb? GE pp. 187–188, #195–196. Triremes and the silver to finance them were the basis of Athenian naval power. 5–6 αὐτῷ τῷ ἀργυρίῳ ‘with silver and all’. The Athenian reserves of silver were kept in the treasury on the Acropolis. 9 τῆς θεοῦ Don’t worry about the apparently masculine ending of θεοῦ. The word θεός can refer either to a god or to a goddess. 16 ὡς ‘to’, ‘towards’, normally only with persons. 21 ἔγνω The paradigm for this aorist (of γιγνώσκω) is in GE p. 201, #209. Learn it. 22 ᾤμωξε Take the augment out of this (so that ω becomes ο) and put the iota subscript back above the line (οἰ-). You should then be able to identify the word. 24 γνῶναι The aorist infinitive of γιγνώσκω, GE p. 201, #209. 27 συνοικεῖς This is the normal word for a man and woman living together in marriage.
Translation for 10B

So we shall persuade our husbands and force them to make peace. In what way will you be able to persuade your men, who have the triremes and the silver? By money or gifts or by doing what? LYSISTRATA Oh, but we have prepared this well too, because today we shall take the Acropolis, by seeming to be sacrificing. Having taken it we shall guard it, money and all. Suddenly Lampito hears a shout and, having heard it, she speaks to Lysistrata. LAM. Who shouted? Who was responsible for the shout? LYS. This is what I was talking about. For the old women, who had to take the Acropolis of the goddess, now hold it. But, Lampito, you go off home and put affairs among you [Spartans] in good order, while we go into the Acropolis, which the old women have just taken, and guard it. Lampito, going away, walks along the road which leads to Sparta, while the other women go into the Acropolis and guard it. Suddenly Lysistrata shouts having spotted a man who is approaching. LYS. Oh, oh, women! Come here to me quickly. KLEONIKE What is it? Tell me, what is the shout?

18 ἐκ-κάλεσον ‘call out’. whose wife I am.140 LYS. Learn GE pp. Look. he laments. a man. 13–14 oἱ θεοί. and as he approaches. . Look. #131. LYS. 26 The gift of an apple could be an erotic token. It’s clear. Lysistrata. 7 ἀνὴρ δῆτα ‘Indeed I am a man.) Who is this man who has forced his way through the guards without our noticing? It’s me. οἷς εὔχομαι … ‘the gods to whom I pray …’ δώσουσι ‘will grant’. 22 εὐξαμένῳ Agrees with μοι: ‘to me having prayed’. By Zeus. Section 10C I see a man approaching. MYR. 30 νὴ τὴν Ἀϕροδίτην Who else would she swear by? Page 125 54 οἷον τὸ τεκεῖν ‘What it is to be a mother!’. I’ll join you in tricking him by waiting here after sending away the old women whose job it is to guard the Acropolis. Oh. aorist imperative from ἐκ-καλέω. For he is Kinesias.’ Kinesias confirms the obvious. so Kinesias’ condition would be clear for all to see. KINESIAS LYSISTRATA KIN. MYR. Remember the reflexive ἑαυτόν or αὑτόν. 27 τοῦτ᾽ ἂν διδοίην You should be able to work out that this is an optative and to guess what verb it comes from. what discomfort tortures me! (Speaking from the wall. Does Kleonike speak the truth? Have you recognised the man? For to me as well you seem to recognise the man. literally ‘What a thing it is to bear a child!’ Translation for 10C The old women go away while Kinesias arrives. Speak. that Myrrhine has recognised him. I do recognise him. δίδωμι now makes many appearances. Presumably Kinesias’ problem was a massive erection. 10C Page 124 2 σπασμός GE gives ‘discomfort’. It’s your job now to trick and love and not to love this man who you live with. Does any one of you recognise the man who is approaching? MYRRHINE My god! KLE. Myrrhine. For after seeing him and recognising him she cried ‘My god!’ LYS. 134–136. poor me. Comic actors wore a padded costume with a large phallus attached. LYS. I shall do these things. 12 πρὸς ἑαυτὸν λέγων ‘speaking to himself’.

Well then. my dear lady. unlucky as I am. Who are you. LYS. when some discussion concerning men arose.) LYS. KIN. What it is to be a mother. Yes. For we too know your name well. but listen to our baby at any rate. she says. Then go and call her.Section 10C LYS. ΜYR. why are you doing this? Come down with all haste and come here. Don’t go away. Oh by the gods.) KIN. [Yes] by Aphrodite. LYS. MYRRHINE (Inside. which a servant carries. with whom she lives. even yesterday. Perhaps the gods. LYS. will grant that I can see my wife.) It’s clear that I must. Hello. A guard. KIN. My god! (Speaking to himself.) Don’t you call me to him. won’t you call mummy? BABY Mummy mummy mummy. Taking an apple. I’ll give you something. to whom I give this. Come down then. KIN. Won’t you get the hell out of here then? KIN. pray to all the gods.’ KIN. Her husband. to whom I am praying. 141 Are you a man? KIN. I won’t. So what I have I give you. grant that I may see my wife. Quickly. You there. In that case I do pity it.) You there. for the sake of our baby. Indeed. ‘I consider Kinesias the best of all. call her. What then? Will you give me something? KIN. ‘How gladly would I give this to Kinesias. (He speaks to the baby. . ΜYR. (He gives what he has in his hand to Lysistrata. (Speaking to himself. KIN. By Zeus. KIN. I have this. By Zeus.) Ο all you gods. Myrrhine baby. Kinesias of the deme Paionis. Lysistrata. LYS. a man. your wife said.) Hurrah! Because I’ve prayed. who are chucking me out? LYS. dearest Kinesias. am I the man to whom Myrrhine wants to give apples? LYS. which is unwashed? ΜYR. So you. I must go down. (She goes down from the wall.) By the gods. I’ll go away instead.’ KIN. what’s up with you? Don’t you pity the baby. (The man prays. (Again he addresses Lysistrata. Who are you? KIN. call Myrrhine out here now. For you are always on your wife’s lips. the gods have granted that I can see Myrrhine. For I don’t want to go down. I’ll go down and call her for you.

and don’t stretch out your hand to me. as in the next line. I won’t go home. 19 κατακλίνῃ Notice also κλινίδιον ‘bed’. KIN. ‘incline’. MYRRHINE KINESIAS MYR.) Oh what good luck! It’s clear that my wife loves me. KIN. You love me? So why don’t you lie down? You silly fellow. I’ll kiss you. τοιαύταις ‘by such women’. (She goes out. 11 πιθομένη Second aorist participle middle from πείθω.142 Section 10D 10D Page 126 3ff. obeying such women? Stop. coming down and reaching the gate. γλυκύς and ἀμελής are used frequently. he speaks. who is carrying the baby. how unlucky you appear to be because of your father. KIN. I find fault with your father since he’s uncaring. you vilest of men. Won’t you come back home? By Zeus. For γλυκύς cf. ‘having obeyed’. Child. Will you do this? Why won’t you lie down with me for a short time? No. so won’t you lie down? But where should one do this? For first I must bring a little couch. Translation for 10D Myrrhine. ‘glucose’. Your mother is sweet too.) What is it that you want. goes off home. Learn these adjectives either now or at the end of this section (GE p. #215). but you do not have a sweet father. MYR. but an uncaring one. 15 βαδιῇ (What part of the verb is this?). Not at all. since it is possible for us to lie down on the ground. that you do these things. Come. MYR. The servant. . ὡς here means ‘that’. Look. And yet I won’t say that I don’t love you. But do you call your husband uncaring? For there’s no one more uncaring than you and no one more unlucky than me. By Apollo. KIN. Manes. or ‘having been persuaded by’. 215. speaks to the baby. MYR. My child. 13 παῦσαι The context will tell you whether this is aorist imperative middle or aorist infinitive active. take the baby home. This one is middle. βαδιοῦμαι. how sweet you are. (Stretching out his hand to his wife. Many -ιζω verbs have futures of this type. ‘recline’. in front of the baby? [You’re right] by Zeus. MYR. KIN. For your mother’s kiss is sweet. the men must cease from the war and make a treaty. Cf. the baby is out of the way. KIN. Before I do. MYR. you bad woman. I shan’t allow you to lie down on the ground despite the state you’re in. 20 ἐρῶ ‘I shall say’.

The verb διατρίβω means ‘I wear away something’. goddess of chastity. ταχύ The neuter (singular or plural) of the adjective is often used in place of the adverb. Translation for 10E MYRRHINE KINESIAS ΜYR. 53 ψηϕιεῖ From ψηϕίζομαι. By Zeus. ΜΥR. Present followed by future. ‘waste time’ and thus ‘delay’. who first …’ 52 νὴ τὴν Ἄρτεμιν An ominous change of oath from the goddess of love to the virgin huntress. so ‘Never mind’. Myrrhine returns bringing a little couch. ‘quickly’.) Look.e. Perhaps translate ‘Forget it!’ κάκιστ᾽ ἀπόλοιτο There is no ἄν with this optative. an imperative of ἀμελέω.) Stand up. 35 ἡ ἄνθρωπος This is a derogatory expression here. You should now be able to recognise the tense. There. as many as I need’ (δέομαι takes the genitive). . But I don’t need one. and ὦ ϕίλτατε should help you to recognise the person. And yet I must bring a mattress. I’m undressing. 55 ψηϕιοῦμαι See above. jump up. so it must express a wish. τί πείσομαι. 19 Literally ‘Now I have all things. ‘Now I’ve got everything I want. hence ‘I spend time’. a mattress. 50 ἔα From ἐάω ‘I allow’ or ‘let pass’. 57–58 τί πάσχω. ‘May he perish most wretchedly. Why don’t you lie down? And indeed I’m undressing. KIN. (After kissing her husband she goes out again. 46 διατριβῆς ‘delay’. (She goes out again.’ 32 ἀμέλει This is. but I need one. Look. Let me kiss you instead. What kind of mattress? Don’t bother just for me. but it comes to be used as if it were an adverb: ‘of course’. strictly speaking. She returns bringing a pillow. Page 129 40 μυριῶ Future of μυρίζω. She comes back very quickly bringing a mattress. And yet you don’t have a pillow.Section 10E 143 10E Page 127 11 προσκεϕάλαιον How does this word come to mean ‘pillow’? Page 128 17 ἀνίστασο ‘stand up’. i.

ἀπόσχοιντο . σώσειεν ποιοῖεν. But lie down and don’t bring me anything. Who shall I screw now? Alas! I’m the unluckiest man alive. not me. (Suddenly she stops undressing. KIN. Poor me. KIN.) You don’t have a blanket. Everything? Come here then. ΜYR. #219 to master two further forms of the relative pronoun. my dearest husband. what am I suffering? What shall I suffer? Oh dear. What’s going on here? The wife’s gone off and left me. The myrrh which you have given me is not pleasant. MYR. Look. ποιήσειαν ἀπέχοιντο. may I die [if I cheat you]. I’ve brought the myrrh from Rhodes. (She goes out. Hang on. KIN. I’m undoing my shoes at any rate. Myrrhine runs away. will you vote to make a treaty? I’ll vote. my dear lady. ὅσπερ and ὅστις. For I’m coming back quickly. Stretch out your hand and take what I shall give you and anoint yourself. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 10 AORIST OPTATIVE 10: 1 1. But take care not to cheat me over the treaty which we recently discussed. MYR. I don’t need one. By Zeus. Exercises for section 10 ΜYR. Shall I anoint you with myrrh? By Apollo. But. Of course you’ll do this. By Aphrodite. I’ll do this. Now I’ll love you. but it doesn’t smell of marriage. 3. MYR.) The creature will kill me with her blankets. Myrrhine returns bringing a blanket.144 KIN. Notice that both parts of ὅστις decline. but I want to screw you. I shall do this. By Zeus. KIN. KIN. ΜYR. You have met them a few times. Myrrhine baby. by Artemis. 219. I’ve now got everything I need. KIN. 2. ΜYR. KIN. For it smells of delay. the wife will destroy me. Now I’m untying my sash. May the man who first made myrrh die very horribly. he saved they make/do they refrained from σῴζοι. ΜYR. Grammar Now learn GE p. Good. Let it be. Oh dear. KIN.

βραχεῖς ἀληθοῦς. ὧντινων. δώσεται 3. ἅστινας οἵ. 3. 6. καταλύσειεν συνοικοῖμεν. βραχέα ἀληθέσι. ἅττα ὧν. ὅστις οὕς. you were giving he/she gives he/she gave to give (aor. ἔδοτε ἀμελής and γλυκύς 10: 4 6. δώσεσθαι 1. δοῖτο 10. pres. 7. ψηφισαίμην παυοίμεθα. 6. 6. ἔδοτο 2. ἅς. φύγοιμι δίδωμι 10: 2 1. βραχεῖς ἀληθῶν. 3. οὕστινας ἧς. ἧστινος αἷς. συνοικήσαιμεν ψηφιζοίμην. 9. 8. 2. ἅ. τοὺς ἀμελεῖς.) 10. οὕστινας. 4. ἀληθεῖς. μέμψαιτο φεύγοιμι. γλυκέσιν ἀμφοτέροις οἱ ἀμελεῖς.) will give 9. 7. γλυκεῖς φύλακας τῆς ἀμελοῦς. γλυκέα παίδια τοῖς ἀμελέσι. γλυκέων υἱέων 7. βραχέσι ἀληθεῖς. οἵτινες οὕς. δούς 8. 3. ἅστινας. βραχέων THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 10: 5 1. to give (pres. giving (f.) giving (m. part. παυσαίμεθα ἀναγκάζοις. 8. participle) 8. ἀναγκάσειας μέμφοιτο. 2. they were giving 10: 3 1. ὅτων . δώσομαι 7. 4. he finishes we lived together I voted we cease you compelled he blamed I flee καταλύοι. δοίη 4. αἷστισι(ν) ἅς.s.) 6. 5. δώσετε 9. you (s. 4. pres. 5. s. 5. γλυκεῖς μάρτυρες τῶν ἀμελῶν. δότε. 5. 2. δώσουσι 5. βραχείας ἀληθῆ.Exercises for section 10 145 4. who whom whose to whom whom who (those) whom whose ὅς. give! 7. γλυκείας μητρός τὰ ἀμελῆ. 10.

ὃς ἀνήρ ἐστι Μυρρίνης. ὅτῳ 5. contrive I am zealous. b. I bribe eager. haste I live with a wall it concerns I give back the gift. Kinesias goes to the Acropolis. b. Mother. αἱ γυναῖκες. uncaring I give a gift a scheme zeal. important giving in return. d. ὅτων 3. ἐθελήσαιμεν I could not do this.146 Revision exercises for section 10 9. what 10. The men do not in any way want to end the war. Κινησίας. bribe I plan. ὧν. ὅτων 4. παυσαίμην We should like to make a truce with great eagerness. The women are on the Acropolis. ὅτων REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 10 A –WORDS 1. ποιήσαιμι I could see the city. ἅ. the man went away. προσαγορεύσαις I would gladly give up the war. ὧντινων. ὧν. ἅτινα. ᾧ. βαδίζει πρὸς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν. repayment (antidote) B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. what 10: 6 ὅ. βοῶσιν. Kinesias is the husband of Myrrhine. ὅτι ἅ. c. You could speak to me. serious. busy a living together. a. ᾗ. d. ἅτινα. e. c. 2. ἅττα ὅ. ὧντινων. b. 3. ᾗτινι 2. ὅτι. marriage I fortify the act of giving (dose) I give a present. Myrrhine? δίδως Suddenly giving (aorist participle) the woman the money which she demanded. δούς a. . ὧν. ἅττα 1. The women are shouting. e. ἴδοιμι Will you give me what you have? δώσεις He was giving the money to the woman. c. a. αἵ εἰσιν ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλει. ἐδίδoυ Why are you not willing to give me what I ask for? διδόναι Why are you giving me this apple. The men are fighting the battles. ὧντινων. ᾧτινι.

ἀμελεῖς ὄντες. oἱ ἄνδρες. oἳ τὰς μάχας μάχονται. ΛYΣ. καταλῦσαι τὸν πόλεμον. αἳ γυναῖκές ἐσμεν (γυναιξὶν οὔσαις). D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. τὸν πόλεμον καταλυσάσας. h. 2.Revision exercises for section 10 147 d. καὶ πίθεσθε. The old women hold the Acropolis. ἀλλὰ πῶς (τίνι τρόπῳ) ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν. οὐδεμίᾳ σπουδῇ ϕυλάττουσιν. ἄπιθι δῆτα πρὸς τὴν Λακεδαίμονα. ποῦ αἱ γρᾶες ὧν τὸ ἔργον ἐστὶ ϕυλάττειν τὰ χρήματα. e. ἐγὼ οὖν συμψηϕιοῦμαί σοι. καὶ πείσομεν τοὺς ἄνδρας. ἀλλ᾽. αἱ γρᾶες ἔχουσι τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ἃς ἐγὼ ἰδεῖν δύναμαι. γυναιξὶν οὔσαις. ΛYΣ. 3. j. οὗτοι οἱ ϕύλακες. δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰρήνην ἄγειν ἣ αἰτία ἐστὶ πολλῶν καλῶν. Where are the old women? It is their task to guard the money. εὐθὺς δ’ ἄπειμι. ΛΑΜ. ΓYΝΑΙΚΕΣ ποιήσαιμεν ἄν. ποῦ ἐστι Κινησίας οὗ Μυρρίνη ἐστὶν ἡ γυνή. ὧν τὸ ἔργoν ἐστὶ μάχεσθαι. τοῦτο ποιεῖν. The women want to hear the words. ἰδού. οὐκ ἐθέλoυσιν οὐδαμῶς τὸν πόλεμον καταλῦσαι. δεῖ τοίνυν ἡμᾶς ἀπέχεσθαι πάσας τῶν ἀϕροδισίων. What is this? What do you want to say? τί ἐστι τοῦτο ὃ ἐθέλεις λέγειν. αἱ γυναῖκες ἐθέλoυσιν ἀκούειν τοὺς λόγους οὓς λέγει Λυσιστράτη. 4. ΛYΣ. ὦ ϕίλη Λαμπιτώ. σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι. καὶ πεῖσον τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους. ΓYΝΗ κἀγὼ δὴ ἐθελήσαιμ᾽ ἄν. Peace is the cause of many good things. Lysistrata speaks the words. δοκεῖ ἡμῖν. ΛYΣ. f. 1. We must keep peace. ἣν ἐν νῷ ἔχω. ΛΑΜ. δός μοι τὴν χεῖρα. ΜYΡΡΙΝΗ οὐ ποιήσω τοῦτο οὐδαμῶς. ΛYΣΙΣΤΡΑΤΗ . I can see the old women. ἆρα γιγνώσκεις τὸν ἄνδρα ὃς προσέρχεται. αἱ γρᾶες μηχανὴν μηχανῶνται ᾗπερ τὰ τείχη λήψονται. ἆρα ποιησαιτ᾽ ἂν ἃ κελεύω. ἆρ᾽ ἐστὶν ἥτις ποιήσει ἃ κελεύω. νὴ Δία. Where is Kinesias? Myrrhine is his wife. χαλεπὴ οὖσα τυγχάνει ἡ μηχανὴ. ΚΛΕΟΝΙΚΗ οὐδ᾽ ἐγώ. ΛYΣ. εἰπέ μοι ἃ ἐν νῷ ἔχεις. παυσάσας τοὺς ἄνδρας οἳ τὰς μάχας μάχονται. ἆρα αἱ γυναῖκες ἀϕέξονται τῶν δώρων ἃ oἱ ἄνδρες δώσουσιν αὐταῖς. i. g. ἀκούετε οὖν τοὺς λόγους οὓς λέγω. Do you recognise the man? The man is approaching. ποιεῖν ἃ ἐθέλομεν. 2. 5. ΛΑΜΠΙΤΩ ἀλλὰ δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰρήνην ἄγειν. δεῖ ἡμᾶς. ἆρ᾽ οὐδεὶς ἀναγκάσει τοὺς ἄνδρας παύεσθαι τοῦ πολέμου.

and I have just come from Sparta about peace. LYS. What is this thing of yours which you have got in your hands? LAC. I am really suffering severely. Why then don’t we call Lysistrata.148 Revision exercises for section 10 F – TEST EXERCISE 10 Where is the Athenian Council? I would like to report something new. I would gladly tell you. All of you. make a treaty and end the war. But what is happening in Lacedaemonia? Could you say? LAC. And then let each one take his own wife and go off home. and end the war. which they themselves will tell us to make. I am a herald. when instead of this it is possible for you (lit. by the twin gods! Who could tell us where Lysistrata is? ATH. LAC. having heard what we were saying. & ATH. I know what you mean. there is no need for us to call her. who came back from Athens and persuaded the women to refrain from sex. therefore. Therefore. ‘to whom it is possible …’) to see peace and to be friends and allies? LAC. It is a Spartan code-staff. ATH. ATHENIAN Who are you who come here to the wall. I am a woman. Listen to the words which I speak. For a great evil has befallen us. walking with such great eagerness? LAC. coming. who alone could make a treaty for us? For we too have suffered this evil. and Lampito is responsible. you who have the same altars and the same sacrifices? Why do you destroy Greek men and cities. ATH. but I have sense. we must obey the women and make the truce. And how are you getting on? You are suffering severely. LACEDAEMONIAN . And yet we ask for no other gift than to be able to make love. Oh. ATH. Yes. for here she is herself. by the twin gods. LYSISTRATA Come. and why do you not cease from your nastiness. men. Why are you fighting now in this way. by the twin gods. LAC. from what you say. ATH.

ἀ-θάνατος. 149 . each tribe having a spell of providing these presidents. 11A Page 132 1 κυρία ἐκκλησία See RGT p. #220). GE p. If you now check with the vocabulary or a dictionary. Compound adjectives (e. 5 σχοινίον A rope with vermilion dye was swept across the agora to push people towards the Pnyx (the hill on which the ecclesia was held).e. 228. which are the same as the middle. the genitive absolute (GE p. 231. Section 8A line 25 and the map on RGT p. It holds out a tantalising vision of peace. Aristophanes’ comedy Akharnians tells us much about Athenian politics and the feelings of the countrymen of Attica cooped up inside the city during the Peloponnesian War. εὐ-δόκιμος) mostly fall into this category. ἥκω. #221 will be useful. could be fined for arriving late. #225) and the optative of ϕημί (GE p. 227. and therefore touched by the rope. You learn the present and imperfect tenses passive (GE pp. 230–231. ἐρῆμος Why no feminine ending? It’s a two-termination adjective. remove the ς from the ξ and you will be left with three possibilities. 226–227. οὑτοσί. The ten tribes between them subdivided the year into ten parts. The Assembly itself was proclaimed by a trumpet call. as well as a number of other adjectives. #222). It involved the sacrifice of a pig. it has no separate feminine ending. Cf.g. 91. 229–230. #227). 2 ἡ Πνὺξ αὑτηί αὑτηί is the extra demonstrative form. ἥξουσιν This is a future tense.Section Eleven: Aristophanes’ Akharnians There is relatively little grammatical input in this section. 13 ἐντὸς τοῦ καθάρματος A purification ceremony was held before each meeting of the βουλή and the ἐκκλησία. i. you will find ἥκω ‘I come’. To find out what the present stem is. 10 The Prytaneis: ‘presidents’ acting as chairmen for the meetings of the assembly. 92. ἥγω or ἥχω. any citizen arriving with vermilion dye. comparative adverbs (GE pp. #226. See GE pp. The concept of the passive will present no problem to Latinists. οὑτοιί See note on line 2 about the extra demonstrative.

150 Section 11A 14 παρελθόντων … πάντων The genitive absolute – see GE pp. but he complains that the prytaneis are not granting him his travel expenses. So don’t listen to this man unless he speaks about war. but an immortal whom the gods have ordered to make a treaty with the Spartans. but the herald doesn’t answer. Who wishes to speak? AMP (Again he addresses the herald. But I always come into the assembly and sit down first. ‘when all had come forward’. The Athenians praise this and raise a clamour.) Come forward to the front. Who are you? AMP. and on my own I look out to the country. 32 ἀπαγόντων … αὐτῶν ‘them leading him away’. No. Don’t worry too much about this construction. i. Amphitheos.e. AMPHITHEOS Has anyone spoken yet? Amphitheos waits. HER. HERALD (He makes a proclamation. Not a man? AMP. i. The prytaneis will come in late. 18 μένοντος … Ἀμϕιθέου Another genitive absolute – ‘Amphitheos remaining’. that I am well disposed to the people. This is precisely what I was saying. The men in the agora are talking to each other as they run from the rope all over the place. But here are the prytaneis coming in late. ‘since Amphitheos stays there’.) I do. Come forward inside the purified place. HER. loving peace but hating the city and longing for my own deme. I know it well. I don’t have the travelling expenses which I need. So I hope to receive the travelling expenses … A SPEAKER Know well. suddenly someone called Amphitheos addresses the herald. 31 oἱ τοξόται ‘the bowmen’: these were Scythian mercenaries. As Amphitheos waits he continues his proclamation. It occurs mainly in stage directions in this section and is thoroughly revised in Section 12. Athenians. i. ‘as they lead him away’. For the prytaneis don’t give them to me. gentlemen. But since I’m an immortal. Translation for 11A DIKAIOPOLIS But what’s this? For I know that the sovereign assembly is going to be held today. #222–223 – ‘all having come forward’. 26 Amphitheos claims to be a god. who obeyed the orders of the state executives. hired by the state. 228–229.e.e. All those present come forward to the front. HER. But nobody thinks how peace will happen. One of their duties was keeping order in the ἐκκλησία. . But the Pnyx here is empty. When all have come forward.

170. 151 DIK. ἀπόλοιντο in line 4). 33 πρεσβεύεσθε. 28. HER. ἐξαπατώμενος. Learn GE p. GE p. I won’t. διαϕθειρόμενος These are passive participles: the first one means ‘being persuaded’. meaning ‘by’ when it is a person. 25 μοι This is an ethic dative. HER. . sometimes called the dative of the person concerned. You could translate it ‘please tell me’. 22 ἐξισταμένοις What verb?: Hint: -στα-. ἀλλ᾽ εἰρήνην ἄξω (future of ἄγω). 231.Section 11B HER. As they are leading him off. 13ff. θωπευόμενος. χρηματίζετε Indicative or imperative? 36 δεῖται + genitive = ‘needs’. Dikaiopolis becomes angry. or with the dative when it is a thing. 6–7 πειθόμενος. you wrong the assembly by leading off the man who was going to make a treaty for us. the opposite of ἕκοντες. 23ff. By Apollo. and participle (twice) ἐμαυτὸν … ὄντα. 14 ἄκοντες ‘unwilling’.’ The verbs are passives. 5 ἀδικουμένοις Passive participle: ‘being wronged’. DIK. ἐκδικάζετε. and οὐκ ἀναγκαζόμενον … ποιεῖν ἃ μὴ ἐθέλω. τοῦ Δικαιοπόλεως δόντος Note the aorist participles of δίδωμι. 4 ‘For we are always being deceived and wronged and ruined by them. 31 δούς. ἀπολλύμενοι Present passive participle of ἀπόλλυμι: ‘being destroyed by …’ The datives here mean ‘by’ (dative of instrument). but you do business about peace. A further statement of Pericles’ policy at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. #187. then the main clause ἐγὼ … οὐ πολεμήσω. This is quite a complicated looking sentence. What verb? Note that there is no ἄν with the optative and therefore this is a wish. but the structure is clear: γνούς (a participle. ‘realising’) followed by acc. Prytaneis. Write out this sentence in English with the verbs in the active beginning with ‘For they …’ At this stage all passives are used with ὑπό + gen. #227. The ambassadors from the king. What do the others mean? 10 ϕαίη Optative of ϕημί. then a genitive absolute τῶν ἄλλων πολεμούντων.(cf. 12 ἔστω ‘so be it’. 11B Page 134 1 ὄλοιντο Note the stem ὀλ. Shut up and sit down. Archers! The archers come in and lead off Amphitheos.

their lack of provisions and the plague. being destroyed by the way they live. Amphitheos goes away. come here.’ Perhaps this man might answer ‘But aren’t you free? So don’t worry at all. But what can we do when we are always being wronged by them in this way? For the people seem to enjoy being persuaded by the speakers and being flattered and cheated and ruined by their words. angry old men eager to go on with the war because their vineyards are being burnt by the Spartans. nor great numbers nor great size.’ All right. then make judgements. But the city needs neither triremes nor dockyards if it is going to be happy. For in this city nobody is ever forced by anyone to do what he doesn’t want.’ But I answer.) You take these eight drachmas and make a treaty with the Spartans for just me and my children. where is Amphitheos? AMPHITHEOS Here I am. For what do we farmers not suffer at their hands? For we are always being deceived and wronged and ruined by them. For the man who says ‘I am well disposed to the crowd’ is always honoured by the people. I consider utterly free the horses and the mules in the city. while the others are making war.152 Section 11C Translation for 11B Death to all the Athenians who praise and obey what the prytaneis say. But perhaps someone may say. (Giving to Amphitheos eight drachmas. I myself shall not make war but shall live in peace. Amphitheos. DIK. Realising that I am free and not being forced by anyone to do what I don’t want to. either about the people or the speakers or the war or the written or unwritten laws. . If they want to be deceived and persuaded and flattered by the speakers. ‘So what? The people are free and rule themselves and are not ruled by any other. then do business about the war and about ways of raising money and about making laws and about allies and about triremes and about dockyards and about sacrifices. without peace. so be it. But please. ‘And yet the sailors have power in the assembly while the farmers are forced against their will to live in the city. who as they go along the roads love to bump into the travellers who don’t get out of their way. He is being hotly pursued by Akharnians. but the good man who gives good advice is never honoured by them. DIKAIOPOLIS 11C Amphitheos is now back from Sparta. then. After Dikaiopolis has given him the travelling expenses. You deal with ambassadors. and the worst death of all to those speakers who flatter the people and always deceive them.

we often have to supply a word (e. Page 137 26 The Rural Dionysia was a festival held in winter. DIK. ‘You foulest of creatures. But they were following me and shouting. For I must flee and escape from the Akharnians. in the genitive absolute construction. DIK. Though Dikaiopolis has said this.Section 11C 153 Page 136 2 Δικαιοπόλεως δὲ ταῦτα εἰπόντος Genitive absolute. In Akharnians Dikaiopolis emerges from his house leading his family in a mini-procession of the Rural Dionysia. ‘when’. AMP. 229–230.g. 9–10 λίθους δὲ λαβόντων αὐτῶν See note above. i. Dikaiopolis tastes it. It smells too – very pungently of ambassadors to the cities. all shouted. Those old men. Let them shout. Translation for 11C But here’s Amphitheos back from Sparta. are you bringing a treaty when the Spartans have destroyed our land?’ And they took up stones. 23 ὀξύτατα Superlative adverb. And when they took up stones. the moment they spotted me bringing the treaty. Note how. DIK. AMP. ‘although’) in English and create a clause. Amphitheos keeps running. I was hurrying here bringing a treaty for you. ‘the Spartans having destroyed our land’. (Giving him another sample. Here are three samples. DIK. What’s up? AMP.) Yuk! AMP.) You take this ten-year treaty instead and taste it. then. Amphitheos. AMPHITHEOS Not yet. I’ll say. being fighters at the battle of Marathon.e. What English word should we supply here? 11 βοώντων GE #206–207. It doesn’t please me because it smells of equipping of ships. (After Amphitheos has given it him. #225. What is it? DIK. Greetings. ‘most sharply’. Dikaiopolis. ‘although the Spartans have wrecked our land’. GE pp. ‘when Dikaiopolis had said this …’ 9 Genitive absolute. ‘since’. The central feature was a procession bearing a phallus to promote the fertility of the autumn-sown crops. But are you bringing the treaty? AMP. Learn the comparative and superlative adverbs. But here is a thirty-year peace by both land and sea. I ran away. (He gives him one sample. But I didn’t evade the Akharnians. DIKAIOPOLIS .) This is for five years. Take it and taste.

bidding a long farewell to the Akharnians.B. I was guarded by the guards. κηρύττεται ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος. it was carried out by the men. 5. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. 6. ἐφυλαττόμην ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων.) are/were being loved ἄρχονται. πείθονται τοῖς λόγοις. 2. by the guards. ἐδίδοτο he is/was being given ἀναγκάζομαι.) are/were being honoured δίδοται. while instruments are translated by the dative alone. ἠλευθερούμεθα we are/were being freed τιμᾶσθε. 5. by the men. There are a number of possible answers in this exercise. ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων. ἐδιώκοντο they are/were being pursued ἐξαγόμεθα. without a preposition. Exercises for section 11 AMP. ἐξηγόμεθα we are/were being driven out 1. it is announced by the herald. 3. ἐκωλυόμεθα ὑπὸ τοῦ διδασκάλου. ἐκηρύττετο it is/was being announced φιλῇ. by the wall. but the important thing is that agents (people) are in the genitive with ὑπό. ἤρχοντο they are/were being ruled ἐλευθερούμεθα. Ο festival of Dionysos. (Seeing the Akharnians approaching. 3. 11: 2 κηρύττεται. 4.) And I’ll run away from the Akharnians. Ceasing from war and its evils I intend to go in and celebrate the country Dionysia. ἡμῶν φυγόντων εἰς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν τῶν ῥητόρων ἀκουσάντων τῶν λόγων . ἐτιμᾶσθε you (pl. they were loved by the herald. 2. 6. GENITIVE ABSOLUTE 11: 3 1. 2. this smells of ambrosia and nectar. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν.154 DIK. They are persuaded by the arguments. ἠναγκαζόμην I am/was being compelled καταλύεται. with the words. by the truth N. I’ll choose this with the greatest pleasure. 7. ἐφιλοῦ you (s. 10. τῇ ἀληθείᾳ. ἐφιλοῦντο ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 11 THE PASSIVE 11: 1 1. κατελύετο it is/was being ended διώκονται. τοῖς λόγοις. ἐξεφέρετο ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. 4. we were prevented by the teacher. 8. 9. τῷ τείχει. by the men.

The gifts/bribery persuaded the people. ἐπείθετο τοῖς δώροις ὁ δῆμος. The speeches of the politicians were unjust to / wronged the assembly. The woman gave me the money. g. b. for 10A) perception willing the prytaneion (the building in which the prytaneis lodged during their term of office. i. oἱ χρηστοὶ τιμῶνται ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου. ἀδικεῖται ἡ πόλις ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. δούσης μοι τὸ ἀργύριον τῆς γυναικός. ἡμεῖς πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐπορευόμεθα. The people honour good men.Revision exercises for section 11 155 3. ταῖς μηχαναῖς ταῖς τῶν γυναικῶν ἠναγκάζοντο oἱ ἄνδρες σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι. Lysistrata compels us to make peace. b. a. The walls used to guard the city. j. . 2. 8. The schemes of the women compelled the men to make a truce. and I went away. The orators/politicians wrong the city. ἡ ἐκκλησία ἠδικεῖτο τοῖς λόγοις τοῖς τῶν ῥητόρων. The men went away. 5. The politician deceives the people. oἱ πολῖται πείθονται ὑϕ᾽ ὑμῶν εἰρήνην ἄγειν. We flatter the assembly with our words/speeches. ἀναγκαζόμεθα σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῆς Λυσιστράτης. σοῦ δόντος ἡμῖν τὰ σῖτα τῶν δούλων ἐλευθερουμένων τῶν σοφιστῶν τοὺς νεανίσκους διδαξάντων λαβόντων τῶν Περσῶν τὰς ναῦς ἐλθόντος ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν τοῦ δώρου διδομένου τῇ γυναικί REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 11 A – WORDS 1. 4. d. c.) B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. e. ἐξαπατᾶται ὑπὸ τοῦ ῥήτορος ὁ δῆμος. ἡ πόλις ἐϕυλάττετο τοῖς τείχεσιν. a. ἡ ἐκκλησία θωπεύεται τοῖς ἡμετέροις λόγοις. 7. 6. I perceive unwilling the prytanis (see vocab. You persuade the citizens to maintain peace. h. f. but we went on towards the city. It was called the tholos. ἀπῆλθον. ἀπελθόντων τῶν ἀνδρῶν.

οὐδεὶς ἑκὼν χρηματιεῖ οὔτε περὶ τούτων οὔτε περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης. The Akharnians picked up (aorist) stones. 2. τῆς πόλεως ἀδικουμένης ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. The assembly was discussing/doing business about the war but Dikaiopolis did not care. ἡσυχίαν ἄξομεν. τοῦ κήρυκος κηρύττοντος. τῶν ἄλλων πολεμούντων. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι οὐ βούλονται ἀκούειν. ἡμεῖς δέ. e. ἀεὶ γὰρ λέγουσιν ὅτι ἡ πόλις ἄρχεται αὐτὴ ὑϕ᾽ αὑτῆς ϕιλουμένη ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ῥητόρων. The assembly is ruled by no one and the people do what they like. and Dikaiopolis received them. εἰς τοὺς ἀγροὺς βλέποντες. h. f. He also refers to an occasion when Kleon had indicted Aristophanes for abusing the . 3. The god is waiting. τῆς ἐκκλησίας περὶ τοῦ πολέμου χρηματιζούσης. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι οὐδὲν ϕροντίζουσιν. οὐκ ἀρέσκει μοι οὐδαμῶς τὸ πρᾶγμα. E – TEST EXERCISE 11 This is a difficult passage based on a later extract from the Akharnians when Dikaiopolis has persuaded the chorus to listen to his anti-war argument. I started to run away (imperfect). λέγειν βουλόμενοι. λέγεται ὅτι οἱ ῥήτορες εὐνοῖ εἰσι τῇ πόλει. 4. but I shall not go to war. but the Athenians do not want to listen. εὖ οἶσθ᾽ ὅτι οἱ ῥήτορες παρίασι. ἐγὼ οὐ πολεμήσω. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. 5. τῶν γεωργῶν πρὸς τοὺς ἀγροὺς βλεπόντων. ἡ ἐκκλησία ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἄρχεται. ὁ θεὸς ἐσίγησεν. ἀλλ᾽ οἱ πρυτάνεις οὑτοιὶ ἥκουσιν. The herald made a proclamation. τῆς δὲ πόλεως ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν διαϕθειρομένης. Amphitheos presented treaties. The city is wronged by the politicians. ἡμῶν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων ἐξαπατωμένων. γεωργοὶ ὄντες.156 Revision exercises for section 11 c. οἱ δὲ τἀληθῆ οὐ λέξουσιν. ὁ Δικαιόπολις ἐδέξατο. τοῦ Ἀμϕιθέου δόντος τὰς σπονδάς. καὶ ἡκόντων αὐτῶν. τοῦ θεοῦ μένοντος. ἐγὼ ἔϕευγον. g. ὁ Δικαιόπολις οὐδὲν ἐϕρόντιζεν. τῆς ἐκκλησίας ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἀρχομένης. ἄκοντες μὲν γὰρ ἀναγκαζόμεθα ἀκούειν τὰ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν λεγόμενα. j. οἱ πρυτανεῖς εἰσέβαινον εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν. oἱ δὲ οὐδενὶ ἀλλῷ ἢ ἑαυτοῖς εὐνοῖ ὄντες τυγχάνουσι. ὁ δῆμος ποιεῖ ἃ ἐθέλει. d. τῶν Ἀχαρνέων λίθους λαβόντων. i. ὁ δῆμος ἐπείθετο πολεμεῖν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. but the Athenians do not care. The rest are at war. but the god was silent. 1. οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι διαϕθείρουσι τὴν γῆν. 2. τοῦ κήρυκος κηρύξαντος.

themselves.Revision exercises for section 11 157 Athenian people in public when there were foreigners in the audience. DIKAIOPOLIS Don’t make a noise. And I shall tell you terrible but just things. nor in the market. I hate the Lacedaemonians very much. we were not willing to do so. even though I am taking part in a comedy. remember this. For Kleon will not now abuse me for speaking ill of the city when strangers are present. that I do not mean the city) who are responsible. most particularly Pericles. spectators. a festival held in winter when few foreigners could sail to Athens. This was the start of the war. the big spring festival. And. But (for you who are here are friends) how are the Lacedaemonians responsible for these disasters? There are men among us (I do not mean the city. the Olympian. being destroyed by the plague and always gazing out at our fields. For we are on our own. . who proposed the law that Megarians must not remain on land. For it was not pleasing to Pericles. My vineyard is being cut down by them. and we are shut up in the city against our will. their wives and their children. if I come as a beggar and begin speaking among Athenians about the city. nor on the mainland. this is at the Lenaia. nor on the sea. and no strangers are here yet. For even comedy knows what justice is. May they perish. That was at the City Dionysia. though the Megarians and the Lacedaemonians often asked and begged us to withdraw the decree.

Section Twelve: Neaira as slave 12A Page 144 1–2 ἄλλος ἄλλον ὡς ὁρῶσιν ἥκοντα ‘as they see one another coming’. Translation for 12A When the herald summons them the dikasts come into the courtroom. shaking hands. The speech throws some interesting light on the position of women in Athenian society. if you find that makes you lose track of the story. 158 . 9 οὐκ ἤλπιζον ἐντεύξεσθαι ἐλπίζω + future infinitive. Cf. with imaginary conversations between three jurors at intervals. The case is also fairly confusing. so it is well worth reading the introduction before you start. And as they see one another coming in. before you can translate them in detail. A great deal of new grammar and syntax is introduced in these sections and so it is wise to do the exercises when they occur to consolidate your learning with practice. relative. ποῦ ‘where?’ interrogative. When Komias and Euergides come into the lawcourt – where they are going to judge a case about Neaira – they greet one another. finish reading Section 12 and then go back to revise the grammar and do the exercises. 15 ὄλοιο 2nd. s. aorist optative of ὄλλυμι: ‘may you perish’. ‘I am about to do something’. or. 11 ἐξέσται The future of the impersonal verb ἔξεστι: ‘it will be possible’.’ 9–10 Στρυμοδώρῳ … διατρίβοντι … νέῳ ὄντι καὶ ἀπείρῳ All agree. Rhetorical Greek is often elaborately structured and you may find that you have to analyse the sentences carefully as a whole. 3 οὗ ‘where’.Sections Twelve–Fourteen: The prosecution of Neaira The next three sections are taken from a lawcourt speech. they immediately greet one another. which ingeniously reinforce the new points of grammar and syntax that have been introduced. μέλλουσι δικάσειν μέλλω + future infinitive. ‘I did not expect to meet.

an idiomatic use of δεινός + the infinitive. according to the oath which we swore. Page 146 12 πάνυ δεινὸν λέγειν ‘very clever at speaking’. Strymodoros! STRYMODOROS Greetings.) You. what did you mean by holding my tunic? To hell with you! (May you perish!) EU. But who is that. Komias. it is indeed the man himself. And Apollodoros. he will say. Euergides. KOM. walking quickly? KOMIAS This happens to be the prosecutor in the trial. by Zeus. and he has a meddlesome nature. ἄν + optative expresses a polite request. For such things are always said by the accusers. ‘Won’t you be quiet and concentrate?’ 19 ὅπως σιωπήσεις ὅπως. 12B Page 145 5 oὐδεν διαϕέρει ‘it makes no difference’. ὁ ϕεύγων = ‘the fleer’. neighbours. ὅπως μή + future indicative expresses a caution ‘see that you …’ (GE p. 20 καὶ προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν See above on line 16. Oh what luck! But I did not expect to meet Strymodoros spending his time in the lawcourt. A good suggestion (you speak well) and we will call him. Well done. For we must show common goodwill for the contestants and listen in the same way to the arguments which each of them uses. since he is a young man and without experience in judicial matters. Sit down. will say the same things. Translation for 12B Apollodoros the prosecutor comes in. is it? Yes. But I know that you. 260. KOM. Strymodoros. ‘the defendant’. Why don’t you call him over here? It will be possible for him to sit with us. ‘prosecutor’. ‘I did not begin the enmity’. I know it well.Section 12B EUERGIDES 159 Greetings. who is approaching the rostrum. What a big crowd! But who is this? It’s not really our neighbour Strymodoros. 16 οὐκ ἂν σιγῴης καὶ προσέχοις τὸν νοῦν. EUERGIDES But it makes no difference if his nature is meddling or not. Oh the size of the crowd! (He is pushed by a juror who is holding his tunic. KOMIAS And [greetings] to you too. EU. Perhaps Apollodoros is naturally patriotic. as a prosecutor are very clever at speaking. And indeed Apollodoros seems to himself and to many others to be benefiting the city and making the laws valid by bringing a charge against Neaira for being an alien. and ‘The defendant did me the greatest STRYMODOROS . whose name is Apollodoros. Euergides. #245). ὁ διώκων = ‘the pursuer’.

and concentrate. but my daughters and my wife. Similarly. 2–3 οὗ γυνή ἐστιν … ‘Whose wife is …’ oὗ = ‘whose’. aorist passive of ἀδικέω: ‘I was wronged’ (GE pp. ‘set up’.’ Translation for 12C Apollodoros speaks. genitive of ὅς. See GE p. but καθίσταμαι εἰς (without an object) means ‘I get into a state’. 3 κατέστην From the verb ἵστημι. It is therefore for the sake of revenge that I am engaging in this contest. and ‘I want to be revenged on him. For I did not begin the enmity. gentlemen of Athens. ‘set myself up’. if it does not have an object it will mean ‘stand’. 7 ἀδικηθέντες Nom. #234. 236–237. I want to give you a preliminary outline of everything we suffered and [to tell you] how. Reasonably.160 Section 12C EU. But see that you are silent too. some have not and are intransitive. Euergides. having been wronged by him. [although] he had not been wronged in any way yet by us in word or deed. . ἀδικηθείς Nom. But now won’t you be quiet and concentrate? For Apollodoros is already clearing his throat. and he is standing up. m. I shall be silent. and to come before you. καθίστημι εἰς + object means ‘I put someone into a state’. we were placed in extreme danger of poverty and loss of citizen rights. aorist passive participle of ἀδικέω.’ But I am not always persuaded by such statements. potential ἄν + optative. as people do who are starting to speak. APOLLODOROS For many reasons. I was placed in extreme danger. injustice’. I wanted to bring this charge against Neaira. Strymodoros. which I am now pursuing. And having been wronged by him. line 19). m. but Stephanos did. ‘be set up’. #228). aorist passive participle of ἀδικέω. not only myself. 12C Page 146 2 ἠδικήθην 1st s. s. Some tenses are transitive and have an object. 11–12 τίς γὰρ οὐκ ἂν βούλοιτο … ‘Who would not want?’ Potential expressed by ἄν + optative. line 21. For I was greatly wronged by Stephanos whose wife this Neaira is. KOM. pl. Page 147 14 ὅπως μὴ … πιστεύσεις ‘See that you don’t trust …’ (see note on 12B. 17 ἡδέως ἄν τι μάθοιμι Cf. ‘I would gladly learn something. If it has an object it will mean ‘place’. 242. having been placed in such danger.

The grammar of this is explained later in GE pp. m. is a clever speaker. 4 ὃ οὐχ οἷός τ᾽ ἦ ἐκτεῖσαι ‘Which I was not able (οἷός τ᾽ ἦ) to pay’. The disaster and the disgrace was going to be great for me in regard to my wife and daughters if I had been bankrupted and could not provide a dowry and owed the amount of my fine to the state. but who inflicted a lesser penalty on me. Stephanos therefore became the cause of such great evils for us all. as it seems. 7–9 μοι … καταστάντι … οὐ δυναμένῳ … ὀϕείλοντι Note the agreement of all the participles with μοι. KOMIAS Take care that you do not easily trust the contestants. s. though he had never been wronged by me. For. But I would gladly learn something. 9 oἳ οὐκ ἐπείσθησαν ‘who were not persuaded’. For Apollodoros says that being wronged by Stephanos he was placed in danger of poverty. Translation for 12D When I was acting as a member of the Council I proposed a decree which I brought before the people. Page 149 19–21 ϕάσκω Στέϕανον τοῦτον συνοικεῖν … εἰσαγαγεῖν … ἐγγυᾶν … ἀσεβεῖν ‘I allege that Stephanos does …’ (a series of things in the infinitive). 247–249.Section 12D STRYMODOROS 161 Apollodoros. For when they stand up in court the contestants use every art to win the goodwill of the jurors. I feel goodwill towards him because it was Stephanos who began the enmity. For Apollodoros is continuing to speak about the beginning of the conflict. aorist participle of αἱρέω from εἷλον. For he was seeking. Aorist passive. he asked for a large fine which I could not pay. And now with all my friends encouraging me . because I owed money to the state and was unable to pay. I am deeply grateful to the jurors who were not persuaded by Stephanos. who was wronged by Stephanos. and having brought false witnesses. Strymodoros. and thus began our enmity. #235–236. But this Stephanos indicted my decree as illegal. Therefore we were all going to be placed in poverty. 12D Page 148 3 ἑλών Nom. aorist indicative from αἰτέω. having secured a conviction against the decree. ᾔτησε 3rd s. STR. to deprive me of my citizen rights. having placed me in extreme embarrassment. For who would not want to take vengeance on an enemy? Everyone wants to do good to their friends and harm to their enemies. What did Stephanos do to bring Apollodoros into this danger? EUERGIDES Listen.

Therefore I bring this Neaira before you and charge her. Imperf. she who is irreverent to the gods. I bring this case before you. (intrans. For my friends reproach me and call me the most cowardly of men if I do not exact vengeance on behalf of my daughters and my wife. That Neaira is an alien and that she is living with Stephanos against the laws. Thus I have come to you and I declare that this Stephanos is living with a foreign woman contrary to the law. act. mid. Act. It may be helpful if you look back over the passage you have just read in this section and see how it has been used. then go on and try the exercises to confirm your understanding. aor. Intransitive ἵσταμαι (ἱστάμενος) I am standing up στήσομαι (στησόμενος) I will stand up ἱστάμην I was standing up ἔστην (στάς στᾶσα στάν) I stood up ἐστησάμην (στησάμενος) 2nd. mid. Act. mid. . Fut. insulting to the city and contemptuous of your laws. and that he has introduced alien children into the phratries and to the demesmen. For Stephanos was trying to deprive me of my family against the laws. aor. 1st aor. Imperf. Fut. 236–237. Below is a simplified version in chart form. 1. #230–233. See GE pp. Grammar You should now learn the grammar for 12A–D before you go on. act.. 238–242. mid. ἵστημι (ἱστάς) I am setting up στήσω (στήσων) I will set up ἵστην I was setting up ἔστησα (στήσας) I set up Pres. The verb ἵστημι Transitive Pres. The aorist passive (GE pp. This is difficult and seems complicated at first. by whom I was so wronged. mid. 1st aor. I set X up for myself so 1st aor. and that he is committing sacrilege against the gods. The verb ἵστημι ‘I set up’. 2nd. That I was formerly wronged by Stephanos you know well. act.162 Section 12D and urging me to take vengeance on Stephanos. mid. Act. becomes transitive and ‘true’ middle. and that he gives in marriage the daughters of prostitutes as if they were his own daughters. #228–229) indicative and participle. this I want to prove to you clearly.) has taken place of 1st aor. This is easy to recognise because of ‘θ’ but make sure you also read the notes! 2.

8. τοὺς πολεμίους πεισθέντας τῷ δούλῳ λυθέντι τῶν χρημάτων δοθέντων αἱ γυναῖκες κελευθεῖσαι τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἀδικηθέντος 12A–D: 3 1. ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12A–D THE AORIST PASSIVE 12A–D: 1 1. In its intransitive forms it means ‘I am put in a certain position’ or ‘I am elected’. 9. 146–147) εἰς κινδύνους τοὺς ἐσχάτους κατέστην.) were made 12A–D: 2 1. 7. καταστὰς εἰς τοιοῦτον κίνδυνον … εἰς τοὺς ἐσχάτους κινδύνους κατέστημεν περί τε τῆς πενίας καὶ περὶ ἀτιμίας.) were persuaded I was given he was guarded you (s.g. 2. ἵσταμεν ἵσταναι we are setting up to set up . εἰς κίνδυνον κατέστη περὶ τῆς πενίας. 10. e.) were chased they were indicted/ written he/she was honoured you (pl. κατέστην εἰς πενίαν ‘I was reduced to poverty’ (‘I was placed in poverty’). 6. ἐκωλυθήσαν ἐπέμφθημεν ἐλύθη ἐπείσθητε ἐδόθην ἐφυλάχθη ἐδιώχθης ἐγράφησαν ἐτιμήθη ἐποιήθητε they were prevented we were sent he/she was set free you (pl. 2. ‘I am made’. 4. ‘I become’. Examples 3 5 8–9 17–18 18–19 12C (pp. τί ποιῶν ὁ Στέϕανος κατέστησε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον εἰς τοῦτον τὸν κίνδυνον.Exercises for section 12A–D 163 Note on καθίστημι In its transitive forms it means ‘I put someone in a certain position’.g. 3. 2. 5. ‘elect’. e. 5. κατέστησα αὐτὸν εἰς πενίαν ‘I reduced him to poverty’ (‘I placed him in poverty’). 4. 3.

2. 5.) were setting up setting up (n. 6.) from the city. reduced (καταστάς intrans.) in the position of loss of citizen’s rights. For my daughter is getting into a state of poverty because of this case.s. set yourselves up they will set themselves up he set up for himself I set myself where.) we are setting up. 4. 4. κατέστη b. I remained for two years. therefore.) he/it was set up he/she/it is being set up 1. ἵστασθαι 2. being set up set up! (2. and being placed (καταστάς intrans. having set up (ἀναστήσας trans. 9. a. ἱστάμενοι 4. I. part.f. having got up from) my fatherland. I went to Megara. ἵσταντο 3.1st aor.) lying witnesses in the lawcourt. pres. they were being set up setting up for himself. . 2 aor. having left (ἀναστάς lit.) may he set up 12A–D: 4 1. ἀνέστησαν c.164 Revision exercises for section 12A–D 3. ἵστης ἱστᾶσα ἱσταίη you (s. imperative. gentlemen of the jury. 10. pass. owing the fine to the city. he convicted me and asked for a large fine. κατεστήσατε 1. we were setting up (if iota is long) stand up! (you pl. ἵσταται 12A–D: 5 to be being set up they were setting themselves up/being set up being set up (n. Then. 8. But you. infinitive active) REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12A–D B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX Apollodoros wronged me greatly and placed (κατέστησεν transitive) us all in great despair. 7. emigrated (ἐξανέστην intrans. are placing my daughters in great despair by condemning (having condemned) me. imperative). 2.m. 3. 5. Therefore the Athenians move the Aeginetans from Aegina. I stood up to set up for oneself (1st aor.s. part. For. he/she/it stood up they were setting up for themselves. ἐστάθη 5. pres.) to a state of poverty.

ἐξαπατηθείσης d. ἀδικηθέντα b.) were condemned καταδικάζω ἐξηλέγχθης you (s. released ἀπολύω ἀπεπέμϕθησαν they were sent away ἀποπέμπω ἐξηπατήθης you (s. exacted the penalty. a. my daughter became hostile. We. σὺ δὲ ἠδικήθης 5. ἀπελύθητε κατεδικάσθητε c. My friends helped me when I lost my citizen’s rights and was in despair. ἐκλήθησαν they were called καλέω ἐλήϕθη he was taken λαμβάνω ἠπορήθην I was at a loss ἀπορέω κατεδικάσθητε you (pl. ἐξαπατηθεῖσι D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. and I was condemned. τίμημά τι μέγα ᾐτήθη ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου.) were made angry ὀργίζομαι ἐλέχθη it was said λέγω ἐβιάσθημεν we were forced βιάζομαι κατηγορήθη he was accused κατηγορέω ἀπελύθης you were acquitted. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἠδικήθη μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου καὶ Nεαίρας.Revision exercises for section 12A–D 165 d. Since the woman had been deceived by the one who had lost his citizen’s rights. a. βιασθέντος e. πεισθέντες c. 2. We gave many drachmas to the old men who had been deceived by Kleon. I am well disposed towards the man who was wronged by Stephanos. ὁ μὲν δικαστὴς οὐκ ἐπείσθη … ἡμεῖς δὲ κατεδικάσθημεν b. being persuaded by the opponent. 3. her husband despised her. But indeed it makes no difference to me if you were not acquitted but condemned. ἀπορηθέντι f.) were convicted ἐξελέγχω ἐξεδόθημεν we were given in marriage ἐκδίδωμι ὑβρίσθη he was insulted ὑβρίζω διηλλάχθησαν they were reconciled διαλλάττομαι ἐγράϕην I was written γράϕω ὠργίσθητε you (pl. You were greatly wronged by this man. For this speech was made by the opponent. The jurors were not persuaded by the defence. This prosecutor stands up in court and terrifies (brings to fear) the defendant. ἀνέστη κατέστησεν 3. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἔμελλε καταστήσεσθαι εἰς τὴν ἐσχάτην ἀπορίαν. . οὗτοι oἱ λόγoι ἐλέχθησαν d. When I was forced to introduce the child to the clan.) were deceived ἐξαπατάω ἐπείσθην I was persuaded πείθω 4.

by Zeus. 12E This section introduces the accusative (or nominative) and infinitive construction to express an indirect statement after verbs of saying and thinking (GE pp. No one. But about the laws and the gods I do not know clearly. When trustworthy evidence is brought by Apollodoros we shall find out in detail. ὁ Στέϕανος κατέστησε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον εἰς κίνδυνον μέγαν. ‘Apollodoros says that Stephanos began the enmity. For first of all Apollodoros said that he had been put in danger of poverty and loss of citizen rights. myself. All this is what you said. and that he (Apollodoros) is bringing the case for the sake of revenge …’ 6–7 ἀλλ᾽ ἡγοῦμαι … Introduces more accusative and infinitive: ‘I think that Apollodoros …’ 7–9 πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ ἔϕη Ἀπολλόδωρος … καταστῆναι … οὐ δυνήσεσθαι … This time the construction is nominative and infinitive with the nominative left out: ‘Apollodoros said that he (Apollodoros) had been in danger …’ 11ff. A series of potential optatives (‘could’ or ‘would’). The contestants always say such things.166 Section 12E 4. #235–236). ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἐπείσθη τιμωρεῖσθαι τὸν Στέϕανον. 5. STRYMODOROS Rightly. ‘How could Apollodoros not be ashamed …?’ Translation for 12E Don’t you see? This is just what I was saying. KOMIAS . and that he would not be able to give his daughters in marriage. Page 150 3 ϕησὶ γὰρ ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος Followed by the accusative (τὸν Στέϕανον) and infinitive (ἄρξαι) construction. of course. Who would not be concerned about this? STR. Komias. EUERGIDES These things were said by Apollodoros. For Apollodoros says that Stephanos began the enmity and that he himself is bringing the action for revenge because he has been wronged by him. But perhaps Komias would not agree? KOM. About poverty I would agree. 247–249. But I am not persuaded by them. Then he said that Stephanos and Neaira were contemptuous of the laws and irreverent to the gods. and then the nominative (αὐτός) and infinitive (ἀγωνίζεσθαι) construction. ἄν + the optative. For how could Apollodoros not feel ashamed at having unmarried daughters? And who would marry a woman from such a father who did not have a dowry? EU. indeed. but I think that perhaps Apollodoros is saying something important.

5. ϕησὶν ἐμὲ εἰς μέγαν κίνδυνον καταστῆναι. They did not think that Stephanus had deceived the woman. ‘Stephanos did not deceive the woman. ἡγούμην ἀεὶ λέγειν τι δεινὸν τoὺς ἀντιδίκους. He said that I had been placed in great danger. ϕημὶ τὸν κατήγορον σπουδαιότατον εἶναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων.’ They thought Stephanos not to have deceived the woman. ϕασὶ τὸν Στέϕανον εἰσαγαγεῖν εἰς τoὺς ϕράτερας τoὺς ἀλλοτρίους παῖδας. He says that I was placed in great danger. 6.’ He thought him to be wise. 4. I consider that the antagonists always say something clever. 3. I said that man would arrive. 2. The antagonists always say something dreadful/clever. ‘We cannot see. I said to be about to arrive. He thought he (someone else) was wise. 3. ἡγοῦμαι ἀεὶ λέγειν τι δεινὸν τoὺς ἀντιδίκους. The prosecutor is the most eager of men. ‘I am wise. Stephanos introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. I say that the prosecutor is the most eager of men. 2. 4. ἔϕη ἐμὲ εἰς μέγαν κίνδυνον καταστῆναι. ἔϕην τὸν κατήγορον σπουδαιότατον εἶναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων.’ I said that man to be about to arrive. I said I would arrive.’ We think not to be able to see.Revision exercises for section 12E 167 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12E INDIRECT SPEECH USING THE INFINITIVE 12E: 1 1. ‘That man will arrive. I considered that the antagonists always said something clever. ‘He is wise. I said that the prosecutor was the most eager of men. ‘I will arrive.’ He thought himself to be wise. He thought he (himself) was wise. I was placed in great danger. .’ REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12E B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. We think we cannot see.

you have heard the law. ὅτι …. 5. wanting to spend his money on Metaneira and not on Nikarete. he decided to make her an initiate and to spend a lot of money on the feast and on the ceremonies. judges. And Nikarete was persuaded to go . nor to have children. We wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. βουλομένῳ Dative in apposition to αὐτῷ in line 9. ἔϕαμεν βούλεσθαι τότε τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐχθρούς. 12F Page 151 2–4 ὅτι … τοῦθ’ ‘That Neaira is not only … this is what I want to prove.’ ὡς οὖν ἀληθῆ λέγω. We say that we wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. Note that the main clause is delayed to the end of the sentence.168 Section 12F They say that Stephanos introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. And this is clear and reliable proof of this. I want to prove to you in detail from the beginning. For Neaira was first of all a slave of Nikarete in Corinth. ‘he decided to’. paid many drachmas for her. Who would not think that Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws? τίς οὐκ οἴεται τὴν Nέαιραν οὐκ αἰσχύνεσθαι καταϕρονοῦσαν τῶν νόμων.’ Page 152 9 10 13 16–18 ἔδoξεν αὐτῷ ‘It seemed good to him to’. Translation for 12F Apollodoros continues. That Neaira is not only an alien but also a slave and a prostitute. But since all the money which he had paid for her had been taken by Nikarete. τίς οὐκ ἂν οἴοιτο τὴν Νέαιραν οὐκ αἰσχύνεσθαι καταϕρονοῦσαν τῶν νόμων. For Nikarete had another slave called Metaneira. Now then. τούτων ὑμῖν αὐτὸν τὸν Φιλόστρατον μάρτυρα καλῶ ‘that (ὡς) I am speaking the truth [when I say] that (ὅτι) … I call Philostratos himself as witness to you of these things (τούτων)’. ἔϕασαν τὸν Στέϕανον εἰσαγαγεῖν εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας τoὺς ἀλλοτρίους παῖδας. They said that Stephanos had introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. whose lover. Who does not think that Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws? 6. the sophist Lysias. We said that we wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. She had been brought up by her from the time when she was a small child. ᾐσχύνετο γὰρ τὴν γυναῖκα ‘He felt ashamed in respect of his wife. ϕαμὲν βούλεσθαι τότε τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐχθρούς. Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws. this law which does not allow an alien woman to live with a male citizen nor a female citizen to live with an alien man.

who was an old woman and lived in the house).) will place τίθησι(ν) ἐδίδοτε ἔθεμεν ἐδόθη θεῖναι ἔδωκε θέντες δός τιθέναι δώσετε he puts you (pl.) you (pl.) .pl. #237–238 and δείκνυμι (less important) GE pp. 8. but being somewhat younger. who was still a bachelor and was a friend of his. 3.) were giving we placed he/it was given to put. he gives you (pl. 7. you (pl. 3. When they arrived. That I am telling the truth and that Neaira was the property of Nikarete and came with her. 254–255.) are placing we shall show they placed he was showing placing (n. to have put he gave having put give! (s.) will give δείκνυμι 12F: 2 1.f. 6.) δείκνυτε θήσομεν ἔδειξαν ἐτίθη δεικνῦσαι you (pl.) he placed having given (n. 2. being herself also the slave of Nikarete and already working with her body. 9.m. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12F τίθημι 12F: 1 1. I call Philostratos himself as witness. Lysias established them in the house of Philostratos. 5. to place you (pl. 4. 10. Neaira came with them to Athens. 2. 5.) put (s. Grammar You now need to learn τίθημι (very important).) to give ( Lysias did not take them to his own house (for he felt shame before the wife whom he had and his mother.) are showing we shall put they showed he was placing showing 12F: 3 ἐδείχθημεν ἐτέθησαν ἐδεικνύμεθα δειχθέντες we were shown they were placed we were being shown (could be middle) having been shown (n. GE pp.) were putting we gave he was placed to give (aor.Exercises for section 12F 169 to the mysteries taking Metaneira. #239. 251–253.

a. I shall put down this money on behalf of Metaneira herself. 12G This section introduces conditional (‘if’) sentences with ἄν + the optative (GE pp. πολλοὶ πολλὰ χρήματα ὑπὲρ τῆς Nεαίρας ἔθεσαν. #224). 257–258. ‘see to it that …’ ‘take care that you don’t …’ Page 154 1 ἀπολοίμην The optative is used to express a wish ‘may ‘I perish’ Cf. ‘I am damned if I can remember’ (GE p. 5. Although the sophist was paying money on behalf of Metaneira. ἔθηκε b. #244) by the imperfect indicative.’ ἔθηκα e. 247. the proper negative in a conditional clause.170 Section 12G REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12F B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. 212. the sophist decided to pay many drachmas for the mysteries. . ‘But’. εἴθε + optative expresses a wish (GE p. 4. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρός ϕησι τὸν Στέϕανον δούλῃ συνoικεῖν ὡς γυναικί. Wishes for the future are expressed by the optative without ἄν and wishes for the past (GE p. 260. #240–241) and ἄν + the imperfect indicative (GE pp. 258–259. καθισταμένης θεῖναι d. 2. he said. Therefore we have the optative + ἄν and therefore the meaning is potential: ‘I would like. #243). establishes Nikarete and Metaneira at Philostratos’ house. #245: ὅπως. 3. having gone to Athens and paid many drachmas. ὅπως μή + future indicative expresses a caution. The sophist pays many drachmas on behalf of Metaneira. ‘If he does not remember the arguments?’ Note that a participle is used instead of an ‘if’ clause: ‘not having remembered’. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος οὐ* ϕήσει ἀδικῆσαι τὸν Στέϕανον. 6–7 βουλοίμην μεντἂν μεντἄν = μέντοι ἄν. Nikarete did not give her anything. θέντος δίδωσι κατέστησεν c. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἔϕη βούλεσθαι τιμωρεῖσθαι τὸν Στέϕανον. Lysias. #244). Note also μὴ. *The negative is always attached to φημί (GE p. but she was reducing the girl to despair. when the girl had been reduced to despair. τιθείς κατέστησε D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ὁ Στέϕανος ϕήσει τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον ὑπάρξαι τῆς ἔχθρας. #213). Note also GE p. 259. 9 μὴ μνημονεύσας τοὺς λόγους. however …’ 7 εἴθε μνημονεύοιμι ‘Would that I could remember’. 259. But then. ‘acting thus. 8 πῶς γὰρ ἄν δικαίως τιθεῖτό τις ‘For how could anyone justly cast his vote?’ Potential ἄν + optative.

15 εἴθε Ἱππίας γενοίμην ἐγώ cf. Would that I could remember everything he says. not remembering). 23–24 εἰ ταῦτα ᾔδη ἐγώ. 20 εἰ πάντες οἱ σοϕισταί με διδάσκοιεν. This is called a remote future condition. ‘If I knew this. #242). Komias. 258–259. ῥᾳδίως ἂν μνημονεύσαις … καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἐπιλάθοιο ‘If you became a sophist you would easily remember … and would not forget. I would be rich now. καὶ τί ἂν ἔλεγεν. and I am damned if I can remember. Don’t cover up your perplexity. 167. but tell me what is perplexing you. μὴ μνημονεύοντι μνημονεύοντι agrees with τῷ δικαστῇ: ‘It is difficult for a juror to judge the trial.’ 26–27 εἰ δέ τις ἐπιλάθοιτο. 19 εἴθε μνημονεύσαιμι A wish. πῶς ἂν δικάσειε What sort of condition? 28–29 οὐ γὰρ ἂν γένοιτο … εἰ μὴ μνημονεύσειε What sort of condition? Page 155 30 ἀλλ᾿ ὅπως προθύμως προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν ὅπως + future indicative (GE p. 21–22 ἀλλ᾿ εἰ Ἱππίας ἡμῖν νῦν συνεγίγνετο. I’m damned (May I perish!) if I can remember – You seem to me to be in some perplexity. 260. And. feeling ashamed in front of Euergides. ‘If Hippias were with us now. For how could anyone cast his vote justly. RGT 12G p. οἷός τ᾽ ἂν ἦσθα ‘If you were Hippias.’ 11–13 εἰ μέντοι σοφιστὴς γένoιo σύ. I will tell you. #151. See GE pp. #245). by Zeus. πῶς ἂν ἐδίδασκέ με. ‘take care that you …’ 33 ἀπόλοιντο … ‘May they perish!’ Translation for 12G STRYMODOROS KOMIAS STR. 16 εἰ νῦν Ἱππίας ἦσθα. The imperfect indicative is used to express present time and the aorist indicative to express past time. ἄν + the indicative expresses an unfulfilled condition (GE p. οὐκ ἂν οἷοί τ᾿ εἶεν ‘If all the sophists taught me. KOM.Section 12G 171 10 χαλεπὸν δή ἐστι τῷ δικαστῇ διακρίνειν τὴν δίκην. εἴθε + optative (no ἄν) expresses a wish. ‘see that you …’. I would like to remember what the contestant says. 154 line 7. Strymodoros.’ A conditional sentence with optative and ἄν. you would be able’. and what would he be saying. καὶ πῶς ἂν ἐμάνθανον ἐγώ. and how would I learn?’ 23 εἴθε ταῦτα εἰδείην A wish. how would he teach me. If you were a sophist. if he does not remember (lit. A remote future condition. πλουσίος ἂν ἦ τὸ νῦν An unfulfilled condition in present time. Why did Apollodoros mention Lysias and Metaneira? For I don’t remember. ἄν + imperfect indicative. what is perplexing me. if he cannot remember the arguments? It is difficult for the juror to judge the case if he can’t remember everything which the prosecutor says. they would not be able’. A series of unfulfilled conditions in present time. you would easily remember .

EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12G CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES 12G: 1 1. ὅπως μὴ εἶ. of the laws and the arguments and the evidence. εἰ μὴ φιλοίης. ὅπως ἀκούσεσθε. 3. May they perish. Oh dear! For. you would remember everything. εἰ μὴ ἐτρέχομεν. and what would he be saying? And how would I learn? I wish I knew this. See to it that you (pl. ὤφελε δοῦναι 3. οὐκ ἂν μένοιμι.172 Exercises for section 12G STR. εἰ ὑμεῖς ἐκελεύετε. εἰ μὴ ζητήσειας. See to it that you (s. 12G: 2 1.) do not go. having heard them once. For Hippias. they would not be able to make me a sophist. and not a poor man and a juror. But. STR. If anyone forgets so much. like an old man. as it seems. οὐκ ἂν ἐφεύγομεν. having heard it once. all the arguments. 2. For by doing this the jurors cast their votes easily. I forget everything I hear. εἴθε ἔδωκε. 5. εἴθε ἀπεθνῄσκον ὅπως + FUTURE INDICATIVE 12G: 3 1. Strymodoros! For if I knew that I would be rich now. For he would never be a good juryman if he could not remember the things said by the prosecutor … But see to it that you concentrate on the arguments and the laws and the evidence. 4. how would he be teaching me. εἰ γὰρ ἐξεφεύγομεν 2. φιλοίην ἂν ἐγώ. εἰ γὰρ ἔστη. εἴθε ἐτίθεσαν 5. Strymodoros. KOM. If all the sophists taught me. used to remember fifty names. you would be able to list all the archons from Solon. οὐκ ἂν εὕροις. like a Hippias. 2. Like Hippias? Would that I were Hippias! If you were Hippias now. KOM. KOM. ἐπειθόμην ἂν ἐγώ. . εἰ μὴ ἀκούοις.) listen. What skill! Would that I could (if only I could) remember so much! But I am not clever by nature. how could he judge the case and cast his vote? I do not know. whoever are jurors and forget what the contestants say. Strymodoros. SΤR. But if Hippias were here. and you would not forget the things that have been said. ὤφελε στῆναι 4. STR.

He wants to make the boy a sophist. οἶδα ‘know’) or ὅπως ἔσῃ (= fut. ταῦτα μὴ εἰδεῖτε. The jurors are persuaded by the prosecutor / they condemn the defendant. εἴθε πλούσιοι εἶτε (εἴητε). See to it that you (s. εἰ ἐτίμων τίμημα μέγα. I want you to put down money for me. 12G: 4 1. εἰδεῖμεν 4. ἴοις 2. εἰμί ‘be’). εἴθε θείης χρήματα εἰς ἐμέ.Revision exercises for section 12G 173 3. εἶεν. εἴην. τοῦ ϕεύγοντος ἂν καταδικάζοιεν. εἰ τίμημα μέγα τιμῴην. g. I want to be appointed as a juror and to cast my vote. δίκην ἐλάμβανεν ἂν ὁ ἀντίδικος. I don’t want my family to be rich. ὅπως κολάσεις.) do not become. d. εἴθε οἱ ἐμοὶ οἰκεῖοι μὴ πλούσιοι εἶεν. εἰ oἱ δικασταὶ πείθοιντο ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου. 2. . You (pl. σοϕιστὴν τὸν παῖδα ποιήσειεν. a. You want to be a sophist. I do not want to perish. see to it that you (s. a. εἴθε σοϕιστὴς γένοιο. τοῦ ϕεύγοντος ἂν κατεδικάζον. εἶμεν. εἰ ἐπείθοντο oἱ δικασταὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου. ἴοι 5. I want him to remember the evidence. I want them to forget these arguments. i. εἰδείη. e.) are. εἴθε δικαστὴς καθισταίμην καὶ τιθείμην τὴν ψῆϕον.) want to be rich. f. ὅπως μὴ γενήσῃ. ἴοιεν 3. εἴθε μνημονεύσειε τὴν μαρτυρίαν. μὴ ἀπολοίμην. j. I receive a big fine / the opponent exacts the penalty. 4. ἐπιλάθοιντο τούτων τῶν λόγων. εἰδείης. b. b. See to it that you (s. 5. ὅπως εἴσῃ (fut. I don’t want you to know this. h. δίκην λαμβάνοι ὁ ἀντίδικος. εἰδείην REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12G B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1.) punish. c.) know/see to it that you (s.

c. Page 156 1 4 12 14 ᾤχετο Past tense of οἴχομαι. the things of herself)’. #248). Don’t forget the arguments. d. and the future passive (GE pp. ὅπως μὴ θωπεύσετε τοὺς δικαστάς. ϕανερὰ ἂν εἰή τὰ τεκμήρια. εἰ ὑπήρχετε τῆς ἔχθρας. Remember the words. σαϕῶς ἂν εἰδεῖμεν.174 Section 12H c. d. ᾔδει γὰρ ‘For she knew’: a verb of knowing followed by three participles. f. a. τὰ τεκμήρια ἂν ἦν ϕανερά. You begin the enmity / the evidence is clear. ᾤετο Past tense of οἴμαι. δοῦσα … πάντα τὰ αὑτῆς ‘Giving all her own things (lit. ὅπως μὴ ἐπιλήσῃ τῶν λόγων. εἰ oἱ ἀστοὶ ἐξ ἑταιρῶν ἐπαιδοποιοῦντο. e. 264–265. 3. The citizens have children from the prostitutes / we know clearly. εἰ μὴ oἱ πλούσιοι ταῖς ἑταίραις συγγίγνοντο. εἰ παιδοποιοῖντο oἱ ἀστοὶ ἐξ ἑταιρῶν. 12H This section introduces accusative (or nominative) and participle construction after verbs of knowing or perceiving (GE pp. Don’t despise your friend. τοὺς πένητας ἀσπάζοιντ᾿ ἂν ἐκεῖναι. 265–266. ὅπως μὴ παιδοποιήσεσθε ἐκ τῶν ἑταιρῶν. g. Don’t flatter the jurors. Arrange the affair well. εἰ μὴ oἱ πλούσιοι ταῖς ἑταίραις συγγίγνοιντο. h. f. εἰ ὑπάρχοιτε τῆς ἔχθρας. ὅπως προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν καὶ ἀκούσῃ. ὅπως μνημονεύσεις τοὺς λόγους. εἰ μνείαν ποιοίης τῶν ἀστῶν. Don’t have children from prostitutes. οὐκ ἂν ἐπελανθάνετο ὁ κατήγορος. ὅπως κατερεῖς (καταλέξεις) τὸν τοῦ δράματος λόγον. The rich men do not have dealings with prostitutes / those women welcome the poor men. ὅπως εὖ θήσεις τὸ πρᾶγμα. τοὺς πένητας ἠσπάζοντ᾿ ἂν ἐκεῖναι. You mention the citizens / the accuser does not forget. . σαϕῶς ἂν ᾖσμεν. Recite the plot of the play. Concentrate your mind and listen. b. εἰ ἐποίεις μνείαν τῶν ἀστῶν. e. οὐκ ἂν ἐπιλανθάνοιτο ὁ κατήγορος. ὅπως μὴ καταϕρονήσεις τοῦ ἑταίρου. #247).

Note that αὑτοῦ = ἑαυτοῦ ‘of himself’ i. followed by infinitive (the nominative is omitted). Phrynion. ‘by his promise’. but at ἀδικηθήσεσθαι αὐτήν the subject of the clause is someone else. Taking all these. and then by nominative (αὐτός) and infinitive (ἕξειν) ‘that he would have her as his wife’. But when he arrived in Athens. Thratta and Kokkaline. taking her with him. and the clothes and the gold jewellery which Phrynion had given her. 10–11 εὖ γὰρ ᾔδει Στέϕανος … Followed by nominative and participle ‘For Stephanos knew very well that he had no other income. having paid the money on behalf of Neaira for her freedom. collected all Phrynion’s belongings from the house. as she thought. she ran away to Megara. having described the whole affair and the insolence of Phrynion. 14–15 ἀϕαιρουμένου δὲ … εἰς ἐλευθερίαν A genitive absolute. Neaira therefore gave everything she had to Stephanos and made him her protector. Neaira. gave Stephanos all the things she had brought with her when she came from Athens. πυθόμενος … (followed by accusative and participle). and he used to go to dinners everywhere. 2 ἐκόμπαζε Followed by accusative and infinitive: ‘He boasted that Phrynion would not touch her’. being very eager to live here. then. This was the title of a statue of Hermes. 4 ὡς αὑτοῦ ὄντας ‘as being his own children’.Section 12I 175 Translation for 12H Apollodoros resumes. and since. and two slave girls. 3–4 ἔϕη δὲ ‘he said that he’. belonging to the subject of the sentence. and always went to riotous parties with her. Then this Stephanos travelled to Megara and lodged with her. taking her. ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι τινα εἰς ἐλευθερίαν has the technical meaning ‘to claim as free’.e. unless he …’ 12–14 Note the structure of the sentence: ὁ δὲ Φρυνίων. For she knew that Phrynion had been wronged by her and was angry with her. went to Athens. as she was a hetaira. and so appears in the accusative. ‘in order to take her’). he treated her disgracefully. but being afraid of Phrynion. she was not loved. and that he had a pompous and contemptuous character. Neaira. 12I Page 158 1 τῷ λόγῳ ‘by his word’. So this awkward sentence will mean ‘Although Stephanos claimed her as free according to the . She spent two years in Megara but she could not make an adequate income for the management of the household (to meet the household expenses). παραλαβὼν … ἦλθεν … ὡς ἄξων αὐτήν (ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose. 7–8 παρὰ τὸν ψιθυριστήν ‘next door to the Whisperer’. since she was being treated like dirt in a shameful way by Phrynion. There are several more examples of this usage in this passage.

and she would not be harmed by anyone. 12H–I: 2 1. c. He said he would be present. + fut. Phrynion compelled her to give securities to the polemarch.176 Exercises for section 12H–I laws. Phrynion compelled her to give securities before the Polemarch. Having said this he arrived here from Megara. Translation for 12I Apollodoros goes on speaking. And he said that her children would be introduced into the phratries as if they were his own. They hoped to arrive quickly/they hoped they would arrive quickly. since he had paid money for her. I know you are not foolish. bringing her with him and her three children with her. We say that politicians do not speak the truth. b. and that he himself would take her as his wife. having found out that Neaira was living in Athens and with Stephanos. For Stephanos knew very well that he had no other income or livelihood. . 2. He came with her for two reasons: so that he would have a beautiful hetaira for free and so that she would work and look after his household. and they would become citizens. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12H–I INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE IN REPORTED SPEECH 12H–I: 1 a. acc. nom. We learned they were fleeing. + infinitive construction. They heard that we had gone. This Stephanos filled Neaira with great hope in Megara by this promise. Although Stephanos claimed her as free in accordance with the law. But Phrynion. nom. unless he earned something by informing. 3. For he boasted that Phrynion would never touch her. believing that she was his own (αὑτῷ) slave. 4. Proxenos and Ariston and a girl child who is now called Phano. regarding her as his slave since he had put down money on her behalf. + participle construction. I know I am wise. d. And he brought her and the children to a little house which he had in Athens next to the Whisperer Hermes. infin. between the house of Dorotheos the Eleusinian and the house of Kleinomachos. took young men with him and went to the house of Stephanos to take her away. ὅτι + indicative clause. He found out the enemy had fled. after verb of hoping or expecting.’ καταθέντι (dative) agrees with αὑτῷ.

We said that the woman would not be wronged by anyone. + participle construction THE FUTURE PASSIVE 12H–I: 3 1.) will be compelled ἀναγκάζω he will be angry ὀργίζομαι to be going to be fined ζημιόω they will be wronged ἀδικέω a. I shall be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. He thought that Stephanos and Neaira would arrive in Athens from Megara. ϕησὶν ἐμὲ ἀναγκασθήσεσθαι παρὰ Φρυνίωνος τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι. ᾤετο τοὺς τῆς ἑταίρας παῖδας πολίτας γενήσεσθαι. ἡγήσατο τὸν Στέϕανον καὶ τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕίξεσθαι ἐκ τῶν Μεγάρων Ἀθήναζε. b.Revision exercises for section 12H–I 177 5. I shall be brought into εἰσάγω we shall be convicted ἐξελέγχω you (s. We say that the woman will not be wronged by anyone. 2. He says that I will be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. ἡγεῖται τὸν Στέϕανον καὶ τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕίξεσθαι ἐκ τῶν Μεγάρων Ἀθήναζε. . The prostitute’s children will become citizens. οὐκ ἔϕαμεν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ᾿ oὐδενός. He thought that the prostitute’s children would become citizens. d. Stephanos and Neaira will arrive in Athens from Megara. 5. ἀκουσθήσομαι δουλωθήσεται δοθήσονται τεθήσεται σταθήσεται I shall be heard he will be enslaved they will be given he/she/it will be placed it will be set up REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12H–I B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. c. οὔ ϕαμεν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ᾿ oὐδενός. 3. The woman will be wronged by no one. 4. acc. οἴεται τοὺς τῆς ἑταίρας παῖδας πολίτας γενήσεσθαι. 2. He thinks that the prostitute’s children will become citizens. He knew that they (the women) had obeyed. He thinks that Stephanos and Neaira will arrive in Athens from Megara.

b. We were wronged by the prosecutor and condemned by the jurors. He sees that Neaira is resident in the town and has gone to Stephanos. εἰ δυναίμην μνημονεύειν τὰς μαρτυρίας. c. αἰσθάνονται ἡμᾶς ἀδικηθέντας ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου καὶ καταδικασθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν. εἶδε τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ ἐλθοῦσαν ὡς Στέϕανον. You knew you were a prostitute and that you were having children by citizens. You knew that you had wronged the city. γιγνώσκετε ἀδικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν νόμων καταϕρονοῦντες καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες εἰς τοὺς θεούς. He saw that Neaira was resident in the town and had gone to Stephanos. εἴθε μνημονεύσαιμι τοὺς λόγους τοὺς τοῦ κατηγόρου. ἐμνημόνευον ἂν τούτους τοὺς λόγους. οἶδα τὸν Φρυνίωνα ἀδικηθέντα ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ ὀργισθέντα ἐμοί. Phrynion was wronged by me and was angry with me. ᾔσθοντο ἡμᾶς ἀδικηθέντας ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου καὶ καταδικασθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν. δικαίως ἂν θείμην τὴν ψῆϕον. οἶσθα ἑταίρα οὖσα καὶ παιδοποιουμένη ἐξ ἀστῶν. You know you are a prostitute and that you are having children by citizens. Sentences 1. D – TRANSLATE INTO GREEK 1. He said that I would be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. ὁρᾷ τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ ἐλθοῦσαν ὡς Στέϕανον. a. were despising the laws and were being irreverent to the gods. I know that Phrynion was wronged by me and was angry with me. ἔϕη ἐμὲ ἀναγκασθήσεσθαι παρὰ Φρυνίωνος τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι. You know that you have wronged the city and are despising the laws and are being irreverent to the gods. ᾔδεισθα ἑταίρα οὖσα καὶ παιδοποιουμένη ἐξ ἀστῶν. They perceive that we were wronged by the prosecutor and condemned by the jurors. 3. They perceived that we had been wronged by the prosecutor and had been condemned by the jurors. Neaira was living in town (imperfect) and went to Stephanos. I knew that Phrynion had been wronged by me and had been angry with me. e.178 Revision exercises for section 12H–I 3. ἔγνωτε ἀδικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν νόμων καταϕρονοῦντες καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες εἰς τοὺς θεούς. You are a prostitute and you are having children by citizens. . d. εἰ σοϕιστὴς ἦν. ᾔδη τὸν Φρυνίωνα ἀδικηθέντα ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ ὀργισθέντα ἐμοί. 2. You wronged the city and despised the laws and were irreverent to the gods.

And. οὐ γὰρ ἐῶσιν oἱ νόμοι ἑταίρᾳ ὡς γυναικὶ συνοικεῖν ἀστὼν οὐδένα. which I know clearly were inflicted on Timarkhos by this man. may I perish most miserably. Prose ὁ δὲ Ἀπολλόδωρος. I would not be able to go on living. took him to his home and kept him with him. being angry about the affair. if only Pittalakos would get up (genitive absolute). For he thought that he was close to his own nature. if I mention such things. they forced their way during the night into the house where Pittalakos lived. . Hegesandros. Hegesandros and Timarkhos hurried to the altar and standing beside it they kept begging Pittalakos to get up. gentlemen of the jury. to be unjust and disdainful. One of the gamblers is a certain Pittalakos. realising that he had spent so much money on Timarkhos in vain. if I were to speak in your presence of the things that this man did. and he kept visiting the house of Hegesandros. wanted to take him to his own home. ὁ Φρυνίων ᾔδει τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ τὰ χρήματα ἔχουσαν. But when Hegesandros and Timarkhos got angry with him for coming so often. For. When a crowd ran up. he used to spend his days in the gambling-den. and they first of all smashed up the furniture. When Timarkhos had been detached from Pittalakos and taken up by Hegesandros. 2. E – TEST EXERCISE 12 But I shall tell you what came next (the things after this). On the next day. Meanwhile Hegesandros is sailing here from the Hellespont. This man. and first seeing Timarkhos there. whose character you know even better than I do. Finally they persuade him to get up from the altar. By Zeus. χαλεπώτατον ὂν ἂν ἐϕαινετο. εἰ γὰρ καὶ νικῴη οὗτος. seeing Timarkhos in the gambling-den. claiming that the whole affair had been a drunken brawl.Revision exercises for section 12H–I 179 4. as for the outrages. For when this Timarkhos here was released from Antikles. a slave of the city. ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου καὶ εἰς κίνδυνον καταστάς. 5. καὶ ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος λέγει ὅτι σαϕῶς ἐπιδείξεται τὸν Στέϕανον αὐτὰ ταῦτα ποιεῖν. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν ἐλπίζω ἔγωγε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον νικήσειν τὴν δίκην. ἀγωνίζεται ταύτην τὴν δίκην. Pittalakos. by Zeus the Olympian. I would not dare to speak of them before you. ὁ Στέϕανός οὔ ϕησι τὴν Νέαιραν ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ’ οὐδενός. And Timarkhos himself kept declaring that everything would be done by him. He went regularly to visit Pittalakos who was a fellow-gambler. and finally beat up Pittalakos himself for a long time. ἀγαθὸν ἂν εἴη τῇ πόλει. went naked into the market-place and sat on the altar of the mother of the gods. Pittalakos was angry. See that you listen carefully. εἰ γὰρ ὁ Στέϕανος ταῦτ’ ἐτύγχανε ποιῶν.

realising that he would be convicted. You will meet lots of examples of this in 13A and B. #252: ‘Before she came to Athens’.Section Thirteen: Neaira as married woman This section continues the story of Neaira. Note that this is a genitive absolute construction. and having found out (ἅμα δὲ πυθόμενος) that (acc. 18–20 εἰ … μὴ ἐξηπατήθη ὁ Φράστωρ καὶ Φανὼ γνησία ἦν. or to continue reading to the end of Section 13 and then go back to revise the grammar and do the relevant exercises. The subordinate clauses (ὅτι μὲν … δούλη ἦν Nέαιρα … καὶ ἀπέδρα … καὶ ὁ Φρυνίων … κατηγγύησε …) come first. Note the negative in the ‘if’ clause is μή and in the main clause οὐ: ‘if Phrastor had not been deceived and if Phano had been legitimate. As in Section 12 there are long exercises which practise the grammar which has been introduced. either he would not have divorced her or he would have given back the dowry’. 8 πρὶν Ἀθήναζε ἐλθεῖν πρίν + infinitive. Once again you may decide to do the exercises when they occur. 13A Page 162 1–4 The main clause (δῆλά ἐστι τὰ τεκμήρια ‘There are clear proofs that …’) is delayed until the end of the sentence. Note the breathing: αὐτοῦ could have meant someone else’s daughter αὑτοῦ or ἑαυτοῦ ‘his own’ belongs to the subject of the main verb. GE pp. + participle twice) …. 8–9 ὥσπερ αὑτοῦ θυγάτηρ οὖσα ‘as his own daughter’. + participle) … was very angry (ὠργίσθη μάλιστα) … considering (ἡγούμενος) that he … (nominative + infinitives). 272–273. ἢ οὐκ ἂν ἐξέβαλεν αὐτὴν … ἢ ἀπέδωκεν … An unfulfilled condition in past time: ἄν + the aorist indicative. These clauses are all subordinate to the main clause. 25–26 γνοὺς δὲ Στέϕανος ὅτι ἐξελεγχθήσεται … καὶ ὅτι ἐξελεγχθεὶς κινδυνεύσει … διαλλάττεται … ‘Stephanos. 10–11 καὶ δὴ ἴστε τὴν Φανώ … μαθοῦσαν Accusative and participle: ‘You know that Phano had learned’. 14–16 Note the structure: ‘Phrastor seeing (ὁρῶν) that (acc.’ 17 πρὶν εἰδέναι ‘Before he knew that …’ Followed by accusative and participle construction. 21 ἐκπεσούσης δὲ Φανοῦς ἐκπίπτω is used as the passive of ἐκβάλλω. and 180 .

was reconciled with Phrastor and gave up his claim to the dowry and withdrew the charge. seeing that she was neither well behaved nor willing to obey him. realising that he would be convicted of doing wrong and that having been convicted he would risk meeting with the most severe penalties (for Phano was the daughter of an alien woman). For Neaira had a daughter. Phrastor brought a charge against Stephanos here in accordance with the law which does not allow anyone to betroth the daughter of an alien to an Athenian man.Section 13A 181 that. Stephanos. Formerly she had been called Strybele. and he did not give back the dowry. and that she ran away from Phrynion to Megara and that when she returned to Athens Phrynion demanded securities from her before the polemarch on the grounds that she was an alien. If Stephanos had not deceived Phrastor and if Phano had been legitimate. Translation for 13A That Neaira was from the beginning a slave and a hetaira. he would be in danger of … was reconciled with …’ Page 163 28–29 ἀλλ’ εἰ ἀστῆς θυγάτηρ ἦν Φανώ. she did not know how to make herself pleasing to Phrastor’s ways. as if she had been his own daughter from a citizen wife. and at the same time having found out clearly that Phano was not the daughter of Stephanos but of Neaira. Phrastor. before the case came to court. When Phano had been divorced. either Phrastor would not have divorced her or he would have given back the dowry. was very angry. For he had married Phano before he knew that she was the daughter of Neaira. Now I want to demonstrate to you that Stephanos himself provides evidence against Neaira that she is living with him as his wife although she is a foreigner. having been convicted. thinking that he had been insulted and tricked by Stephanos. And. οὐκ ἂν διηλλάχθη Στέϕανος What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? ‘If Phano had been the daughter of a citizen. she was pregnant.’ See GE p. who was a working man and reckoned his income with precision. [of all this] there is clear evidence. Phrastor also . had learned her mother’s character and extravagance. But when Stephanos had brought this suit. This girl was given in marriage by Stephanos here. And Stephanos gave her a dowry of thirty minas. 276. having lived with her for a year. to an Athenian man. whom she brought with her to the house of Stephanos. before she lived with Phrastor. #254. Stephanos brought a suit against Phrastor. Phrastor of the deme of Aigileia. Stephanos would not have been reconciled. Therefore when she went to Phrastor. in accordance with the law which requires a man who divorces his wife to give back the dowry. And furthermore you know that Phano. before she came to Athens. Therefore he divorced Phano. And when they came to Athens they called the girl Phano.

271. before he got better. 272–273. #251) and πρίν + the infinitive = ‘before’ (GE pp. But in his state of need he was courted by Neaira and Phano.182 Section 13B withdrew his charge. οἱ οἰκεῖοι ἔλαβον ἂν τὰ αὐτοῦ What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? ‘For if Phrastor had died childless. #252). since he did not want his relations to inherit his property. 271–272. his relatives would have taken his property. his relations would have got his property. #250) and that you can recognise ὡς + the future participle used to express purpose (GE p. 17–18 εἰ γὰρ ἄπαις ἀπέθανε Φράστωρ. For they went to him. jurors. For not long after Neaira’s daughter was divorced. Translation for 13B I want to provide you with another piece of evidence from Phrastor and the members of his phratry and of his clan that this Neaira is an alien. Before he got better. Phrastor promised that he would do this. to look after him and to care for him enthusiastically (for Phrastor had no one who would look after him).’ Note the future infinitive. nor did he want to die without a child.’ See GE p. . #251): ‘They went to him to look after him and …’ 13–14 καὶ πρὶν ὑγιαίνειν ὑπέσχετο δὴ τοῦτο ποιήσειν ὁ Φράστωρ ‘And before he got better. but he wanted to take back Phano’s child before he died (although he knew that he was not legitimate). Before he was ill there had been a long-standing difference with his relations. Phrastor promised that he would do this. Phrastor fell ill and was in a very bad way and was in total need. to take back Phano’s child and to make him his son. Stephanos would not have been reconciled. how valuable is a woman in time of sickness when she is at the side of a man who is suffering. and anger and hatred. #249) and the future participle passive (GE pp. making the natural and reasonable calculation that he was in a poor condition and did not expect to survive. 276. But if Phano had been the daughter of a citizen woman. and they brought remedies (things useful) for the illness and visited him. #254. Since they were doing this. And Phrastor was childless. Grammar Now make sure that you know the aorist infinitive passive (GE p. I am sure you know yourselves. 271. 4 διετέθη What tense? It comes from διατίθημι. 270. Phrastor was persuaded. For if Phrastor had died without a child. 13B Page 164 3 ἐξεπέμϕθη What tense? It comes from ἐκπέμπω. This was the child which Phano had borne when she had been sent away in a pregnant state by Phrastor. 7 ὡς θεραπεύσουσαι καὶ … ἐπιμελήσομεναι ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose (GE p.

set up for oneself about to be set up about to take about to take for oneself. win οἰσθησόμενος/ἐνεχθησόμενος -η -ον about to be carried στήσων -ουσα -ον στησόμενος -η -ον σταθησόμενος -η -ον ληψόμενος -η -ον ληψόμενος -η -ον ληφθησόμενος -η -ον ὡς + FUTURE PARTICIPLE 13A–B: 3 about to set up about to stand.Exercises for section 13A–B 183 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13A–B THE AORIST INFINITIVE PASSIVE 13A–B: 1 δοθῆναι. τεθῆναι FUTURE PARTICIPLES ACTIVE. πρὶν π(ε)ίθεσθαι. λυθῆναι. πεισθῆναι. πρὶν ἐσθίειν. ransomed about to persuade about to obey about to be persuaded οἶσων -ουσα -ον about to carry οἰσόμενος -η -ον about to carry off for oneself. ὡς πείσων αὐτήν 4. PASSIVE 13A–B: 2 λύσων -ουσα -ον λυσόμενος -η -ον λυθήσομενος -η -ον πείσων -ουσα -ον πεισόμενος -η -ον πεισθησόμενος -η -ον about to loose about to ransome about to be loosed. MIDDLE. ἀπελθεῖν 3. ὡς σώσοντας ἑαυτούς 3. ἐκβαλεῖν . take hold of about to be taken 1. πρὶν ἐκβάλλειν. πεισθῆναι 2. πρὶν τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπιέναι. φαγεῖν 4. ὡς ληψομένη αὐτήν 2. ἐνεχθῆναι. ὡς δώσοντες πρίν + INFINITIVE 13A–B: 4 1.

while Exercise 4 gives you practice in πρίν + infinitive = ‘before’. ἐκβαλοῦντι ἐντευξομένῃ εἰσαχθησόμενος καταστήσοντι παρέξοντες ἐκδώσοντα ἐρῶν θησόντων ἀϕαιρησόμενος γνωσομένην λήσουσαν ἐσόμενον ἀναγκασθησομένῳ ἐπιδειξουσῶν πευσομένων ἀποθανουμένῃ παραληψομένῃ ἐκπεσούμενοι Aorist passive infinitives πεισθῆναι ἐκπεμϕθῆναι ἐξαπατηθῆναι ἐξελεγχθῆναι ὑβρισθῆναι ἐκβληθῆναι διατεθῆναι Other infinitives εἶναι εἰδέναι ἀποδιδόναι θεῖναι δεικνύναι ἀπολλύναι ἀποδοῦναι ἀϕιστάναι τιθέναι ἐκβάλλω ἐντυγχάνω εἰσάγω καθίστημι παρέχω ἐκδίδωμι λέγω τίθημι ἀϕαιρέω γιγνώσκω λανθάνω εἰμί ἀναγκάζω ἐπιδείκνυμι πυνθάνομαι ἀποθνῄσκω παραλαμβάνω ἐκπίπτω I throw out. lead in I establish.184 Revision exercises for section 13A–B REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13A–B B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. prove I find out I die I receive from I fall out. . set up I provide I give in marriage I speak. get divorced 2. I am thrown out. divorce I meet I introduce. tell I place I take away I know I escape notice I am I compel I show. πείθω ἐκπέμπω ἐξαπατάω ἐξελέγχω ὑβρίζω ἐκβάλλω διατίθημι εἰμί οἶδα ἀποδίδωμι τίθημι δείκνυμι ἀπόλλυμι ἀποδίδωμι ἀϕίστημι τίθημι Exercise 3 is on the use of ὡς + future participle to express purpose.

10–13 The structure of the sentence is as follows: ἀλλὰ οἱ γεννῆται. Therefore I am going to him to speak the truth and listen to lies. ὡς ἄξοντες b. Note that a whole accusative and infinitive phrase can be used in this way (GE p. See GE p. εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε ἄν + the aorist indicative expresses an unfulfilled condition in past time (GE p. 6–7 εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε … οὐκ ἂν ἀνέλαβε … What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? Page 166 10 εἰδότες Can you recognise this participle? It comes from οἶδα.Section 13C 185 3. ὡς ἐρῶν… καὶ ἀκουσόμενος d. 279. Here the infinitive is used as a noun with the article. a. The man went into the lawcourt to defend himself and to be acquitted. Those men came to the house of Stephanos to take away Neaira. #258). ὡς διατρίψουσαι καὶ ἐργασόμεναι c. εἰδότες … καὶ ἀκούσαντες … ἀποψηϕίζονται τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ οὐκ ἐνέγραφον … There is an . 276. 4. This example is followed by three more: διὰ τὸ ἄπαις εἶναι καὶ τὸ θεραπεύειν αὐτὰς αὑτὸν καὶ τὸ τοὺς οἰκείους μισεῖν. Phrastor withdrew the charge ii(i) πρὶν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον before he came to court i(ii) πρὶν ἐκπέμψαι τὴν Φανώ before he divorced Phano (iii) πρὶν ὑπισχνεῖσθαι ἀναλήψεσθαι τὸ παιδίον before he promised that he would take back the child (iv) πρὶν λεχθῆναι τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας before these words were spoken by Neaira. #254): ‘Phrastor would not have done that if he had not been ill. a. #257. 280. 5 ἀλλὰ βιασθεὶς διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν ‘but forced by his illness’. b. ὡς ἀπολογησόμενος καὶ ἀπολυθησόμενος 4.’ 2 ὡς … τάχιστα ‘as soon as …’ 4–5 ὅτι οὐχ ἑκὼν ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον οὐχ ἑκών ‘not willingly’: ‘that he did not willingly take back the child’. 13C Page 165 1–2 ὅτι οὐκ ἂν ἔπραξε τοῦτο ὁ Φράστωρ. Stephanos brought Phrastor to the lawcourt ii(i) πρὶν τὸν Φράστορα γράψασθαι γραϕήν before Phrastor indicted him i(ii) πρὶν τὸ τῆς Φανοῦς παιδίον γενέσθαι before Phano’s child was born (iii) πρὶν τὸ παιδίον ἀναληϕθῆναι ὑπὸ Φράστορος before the child was taken back by Phrastor (iv) πρὶν γνῶναι ὅτι ἐξελεγχθήσεται ἀδικῶν before he knew that he would be convicted of wrong-doing. The women went off to Athens to live (spend time) in Stephanos’ house and to work.

For Phrastor. introduced Phano’s son into the phratries and into the Brytidae. εἰ ἀστῆς θυγάτηρ ἦν Φανώ. knowing that the woman was the daughter of Neaira. Phrastor abandoned the oath and went away before he could swear that his son was legitimate. his relatives would have taken his possessions. ‘But the clansmen. But the members of the clan. For as soon as Phrastor recovered from that illness. when he was ill. Stephanos would not have been angry. knowing that his wife was the daughter of Neaira.186 Revision exercises for section 13C 13–14 14 16–17 18 accusative + participle clause depending on εἰδότες and an accusative + participle + infinitive clause depending on ἀκούσαντες. he would not have taken back the child. οὐκ ἂν ὠργίσθη Στέϕανος. ἀλλ’ εἰ ὁ παῖς … What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? What mood and tense are the verbs? Translation for 13C Now I shall prove to you by a great and clear piece of evidence that Phrastor would not have done this if he had not been ill. the sister of Diphilos. But if his son had been legitimate and born from a citizen wife. I want to show you another proof that this Neaira is an alien. the legitimate daughter of Satyros of the deme of Melite. and having heard that Phrastor. because of his illness. and having heard that Phrastor had divorced her and had then because of his illness taken back the child. οἱ οἰκεῖοι ἂν ἔλαβον τὰ αὐτοῦ. εἰ ἄπαις ἀπέθανε Φράστωρ. the members of the clan would not have voted against the child. προκαλουμένων δ’ αὐτὸν τῶν γεννητῶν Another genitive absolute. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13C 1. λαχόντος οὖν τοῦ Φράστορος Genitive absolute. he took a citizen wife according to the laws. And furthermore. If Phrastor had died childless. But if Phano had been the daughter of a citizen. had then taken back the child. but was forced to do it because of his sickness and the fact that he was childless and because the women were looking after him and because he hated his relations. This is proof for you that he did not willingly take back the child. he would have sworn. If Phano had been the daughter of a female citizen. voted against the boy and …’ Note that this is another unfulfilled condition. a. b. but would have registered him in the clan. having divorced her. the members of the clan challenged him to swear by the sacred mysteries that he truly believed the child to be his own son from a citizen wife legally married in accordance with the law. . voted against the child and did not register him in the clan. Therefore when Phrastor brought a suit against them. When the members of the clan challenged him. For if Phrastor had not been ill. of whom Phrastor is a member.

and then was himself persuaded by Neaira and Phano. These actions are perfectly clear and form great proofs that they knew that this Neaira was an alien. And furthermore. and Phrastor bears witness that he divorced the daughter of this Neaira and did not give back the dowry. For Phano would have been a citizen. to take back the child and to make him his son. on account of his sickness and childlessness and his hatred of his relations.’ 5–9 Φράστωρ δὲ μαρτυρεῖ ἐκβαλεῖν … καὶ οὐκ ἀποδοῦναι … ἔπειτα δὲ αὐτὸς … πεισθῆναι διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν καὶ τὸ … οἰκείους ἀναλαβεῖν τὸ παιδίον καὶ … ποιήσασθαι. οὐκ ἂν ἐγράψατο Φράστωρ αὐτὸν γραϕήν. Neither εἰμί nor οἶδα have an aorist. but then. but he did not swear that … and that later he married a citizen woman …’ 11–13 Look to see if there is an ἄν and note the mood and tense of the verbs. εἰ μὴ ἔλαχε Στέϕανος τὴν δίκην ταύτην. Phrastor would not have brought this accusation against him. so the context will determine the translation.B. both Stephanos here who has her now and is living with her and Phrastor who married her daughter. Phano would not have been sent away. and that he later married a citizen wife according to the law. and he himself introduced the boy to the members of the clan. εἰ ᾔδει Φανὼ Nεαίρας οὖσαν θυγατέρα ὁ Φράστωρ.Section 13D 187 c. 13D Page 167 3–4 ὁ μὲν γὰρ Στέφανος … ‘For Stephanos bears witness against Neaira through his unwillingness (διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι) to engage in litigation on behalf of her daughter about the dowry. If Phrastor had known that Phano was the daughter of Neaira. For if Neaira had been a citizen. if . If Stephanos had not brought this suit against him. ἐξέβαλεν ἂν ὡς τάχιστα. d. N. Φράστωρ οὐκ ἂν ἐξηπατήθη. Translation for 13D Therefore I clearly demonstrate to you that the very members of Neaira’s own family have furnished proof that she is an alien. was persuaded by … on account of his illness and because he was childless and because of his hostility to his relations.… and that he himself introduced him to the clan. For Stephanos bears witness against Neaira because he was not willing to go to court on behalf of her daughter about her dowry. he would have thrown her out (divorced her) as quickly as possible. αὐτὸς δὲ εἰσαγαγεῖν … ἀλλ’ οὐκ ὀμόσαι … ὕστερον δὲ γῆμαι … A string of infinitives depends on μαρτυρεῖ: ‘Phrastor bears witness that he divorced … and did not give back the dowry. εἰ Φανὼ ξένης θυγάτηρ ἐκλήθη. to take back the child and make him his son. e. Phrastor would not have been deceived. but did not swear that he was the son of a citizen woman. If Phano had been called the daughter of a foreigner.

διὰ τὸ εἰδέναι f. 7. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13D VERBS IN THE INFINITIVE USED AS NOUNS 13D: 1 1. ἄνευ τοῦ μισεῖν διὰ τὸ διανοεῖσθαι τοῦ θορυβῆσαι ἕνεκα. because they knew that he was not legitimate. 2. The clansmen were forced to vote against the child. And he made mention of these facts. 3. ὁ Φράστωρ ἔγημε τὴν Φανὼ πρὶν εἰδέναι αὐτὴν Νεαίρας θυγατέρα οὖσαν. the clan members would not have voted against her son. Because of the fact that Phrastor was not willing to swear an oath. The child clearly belongs to an alien woman. Impiety is a great evil. that he was weak and that he was depressed and that he was being looked after by Neaira. ὁ Στέϕανος ἦλθε πρὸς τὸν Φράστορα ὡς ἐγγυήσων αὐτῷ τὴν Φανώ. 3. Care is a good thing. 10. τῷ βιάζεσθαι D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. 4. τὸ θεραπεύειν g. Stephanos is clearly committing an injustice towards the city and irreverence towards the gods. οὐκ ἂν ἀνέλαβεν ἐκεῖνος τὸ παιδίον. εἰ μὴ ἐθεράπευσε τὸν Φράστορα ἡ Φανώ. 9. διὰ τὸ φυγεῖν μετὰ τὸ μέλλειν ἀντὶ τοῦ παύσασθαι τῷ μάχεσθαι τοῦ φυλάξαι ἕνεκα 6. because the clansmen voted against him and did not register him in the clan. 2. Phrastor took back the child on account of his illness and his hatred of his relations and his childlessness. a.188 Revision exercises for section 13D Phano had been a citizen. . 5. 8. and because the members of the clan voted against the boy. τὸ ἀσεβεῖν i. διὰ τὸ μὴ ὀμόσαι d. διὰ τὸ τοὺς γεννήτας ἀποψηϕίσασθαι αὐτοῦ καὶ μὴ ἐγγράψαι εἰς τὸ γένος e. τῷ ἀπορεῖν διὰ τὸ βοᾶν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13D B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. Illness is an evil. τοῦ ἀσθενεῖν τε ἕνεκα καὶ εἰς ἀπορίαν καταστῆναι καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας θεραπεύεσθαι h. Stephanos was clearly doing wrong because he did not swear. διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν καὶ τὸ μισεῖν τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ τὸ ἄπαις εἶναι c. τὸ ἀσθενεῖν b. I was compelled to go in by force (being forced).

Section 13E 189 4. And this woman made the secret sacrifices for you on behalf of the city. Before Theogenes entered on his office. Φράστωρ ἀνέλαβε τὸ τῆς Φανοῦς παιδίον διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν καὶ τὸ τὴν Φανὼ θεραπεύειν αὐτόν. There was once a certain Theogenes who was elected as basileus (King Archon). 13E In this section you will meet a new tense. the perfect active (I have -ed). followed by two clauses. If you want to find out about it before you meet it in reading. εἰ γνήσιος ἦν ὁ παῖς. Notice that ξένῃ οὔσῃ is dative agreeing with αὐτῇ. And she went into the place where no other Athenian goes except the . ξένῃ οὔσῃ ‘and she saw what it was not fitting for her to see. αὗται αἱ πράξεις δηλώσουσιν Note the rhetorical inversion of the clauses again: ‘That I am speaking the truth. 11 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν οἷ ‘and that she went in to where’. everyone knew that Phano was clearly an alien and not a citizen. this Stephanos. being a foreigner. 5. For Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor what sort of habits she had. Stephanos gave him money so that he would become his assistant and share in his position. 11–12 καὶ εἶδεν ἃ οὐ προσῆκεν αὐτῇ ὁρᾶν. 4 ἦν γάρ ποτε Θεογένης τις … ‘There was a man called Theogenes. Consider then what shamelessness Stephanos and Neaira showed and how they wronged the city. Stephanos.’ 6 ὡς πάρεδρος γενησόμενος ὡς + future participle expresses purpose. ὁποία … Nεαίρας and ὅπως … ἠδίκησαν: ‘what sort of shamelessness …’ and ‘how they wronged the state’. these actions will prove. becoming his assistant by giving him money. Cf. #260–262. Φράστωρ ἂν ὤμοσεν. 282–283. So greatly did this man despise you and the laws. 9–10 οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει ὁ Θεογένης ὅτου θυγάτηρ ἐστὶ οὐδὲ ὁποῖά ἐστιν αὐτῆς τὰ ἔθη ‘for Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor what sort of character she had’ (‘what sort were the characteristics of her’).’ Translation for 13E Because of this. being an alien’. ποῖ ‘where to?’ 15–16 οὐ μόνον … ἀλλὰ καί … ‘not only … but also …’ 15–20 A series of examples of the perfect tense! 18 ἐκδούς Can you recognise this? It comes from ἐκδίδωμι and agrees with the subject. and saw what it was not fitting for her to see. being well born but poor and inexperienced in affairs. 20 ὅτι δ’ ἀληθῆ λέγω. When Theogenes took up office. see GE pp. For they openly dared to allege that the daughter of Neaira was a citizen. Page 168 2 σκοπεῖτε τοίνυν ‘Consider then’. gave the daughter of Neaira to Theogenes as a wife and betrothed her as being his own daughter. It is very easy to recognise.

βεβ. The aorist optative passive.τεθ. 285. 287.) have lived in ἐπιδημέω ἐπιδεδημήκατε I have written γράϕω γεγράϕαμεν you (pl.) have shouted βοάω βεβόηκας he has ordered κελεύω κεκελεύκασι(ν) we have done πράττω πέπραχα I have loved ϕιλέω πεϕιλήκαμεν you (s.and -είην (GE p. For you will be casting your vote not only on your own behalf and on behalf of the laws. The future optatives (GE p. These are formed just as you would expect by adding the optative endings to the future indicative stems. τετ. 285–286. Followed by two indirect questions: τίς αὐτὰ ποιήσειε and πῶς πράξειαν οἱ ἄρχοντες. which is easily recognised by -θ.λελνεν. Page 170 2–3 γενομένων … ἱερῶν.ἐκβεβ.πεϕ.πεπ.γεγ. For he has made the laws invalid and has shown contempt for the gods. ἀναβάντων … ἀρχόντων Two genitive absolutes.ἐκπεπ.πεϕ. #264 (this is worth studying before you go on reading). And then this woman has performed the rites and sacrifices on behalf of the city.γεγ. and she was presented to Dionysos as his bride. That I am speaking the truth. #266).ἐπιδεδ. 3. I want to tell you in greater detail about these things.κεχ. .λελ. #263). by giving the daughter of Neaira as a wife to Theogenes when he was holding the office of basileus. these events will prove. 2. 3–4 ἤρετο ἡ βουλή ‘the council asked’.) have gone χωρέω κεχωρήκατε they have worried ϕροντίζω πεϕρόντικεν 13F Here you will meet: 1.190 Section 13F wife of the basileus. and she performed on behalf of the city the ancestral rites to the gods which are numerous.μεμ. I have shown you then that Stephanos has acted most irreverently. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13E B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. they have set free λύω λέλυκεν you have borne witness μαρτυρέω μεμαρτύρηκας he has conquered νικάω νενικήκασι(ν) we have honoured τιμάω τετίμηκα you (s.πεπ.ἐπιδεδ.πεπ. but for respect towards the gods. The use of the optative in indirect speech (GE pp. sacred and secret.γεγ2.κεκτεθ.

Theogenes began to beg them. the Council on the Areopagos inquired about the sacred rites. + infinitive. but he had been deceived by Stephanos./acc. main verb (ἐδεῖτο) subject + participle + participle. When Theogenes came down from the Areopagos. since she is not the daughter of Stephanos but of Neaira. held back. Translation for 13F Stephanos.’ Since Theogenes promised that he would do this and was entreating. I shall send the woman away from my house. married his daughter to Theogenes while he was holding the office of basileus. because of this he had allied himself to him by marriage before he found out clearly what sort of person he was. genitive absolute. And immediately the Council started to ask who was this wife of Theogenes. and the nine archons had gone up onto the Hill of Ares (Areopagos). ‘on the grounds that he had been deceived’. the . and had himself accepted Phano as being his (Stephanos’) legitimate daughter in accordance with the law. but shows by the use of nom. When arguments had taken place and the Council of the Areopagos was angry and punishing Theogenes on the grounds that he had taken such a wife and allowed her to perform the secret rites on behalf of the city. This shows that they are part of what he said. ἡ βουλή (subject) ἅμα μὲν ἐλεήσασα … ἅμα δὲ ἡγουμένη + infinitive. then. it showed concern about the rites and proposed to punish Theogenes. ἐπέσχεν (main verb). 23 ἐξαπατηθέντι ‘granted a pardon to him having been deceived’. who had performed them and how the archons had acted. genitive absolute + ὅτι clause with two verbs in the optative (λάβοι. 13–14 Here the construction changes to nom. ἐάσειε) + infinitive. He said that Stephanos appeared to be well disposed towards him. 7 ἐζημίου This is a special use of the imperfect tense. and this woman performed these holy rites. Note that the verbs in the ὅτι clause are all in the optative. he immediately banished the woman. ‘That I am not lying’ he said ‘I shall demonstrate to you by a great proof. imploring and entreating. But on account of his inexperience in affairs and his naivety he had made Stephanos his assistant so that he could administer the office. ‘proposed to punish’. the Council of the Areopagos. 7–10 The structure of this sentence is: genitive absolute.Section 13F 191 5–7 The pattern continues. But the sentence starts with an infinitive which follows διὰ … τὸ: ‘because of his inexperience in affairs and his innocence he had made Stephanos …’ 17–19 The structure is: genitive absolute./acc. 10 ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὅτι ‘for he said that’. For he said that he did not know she was the daughter of Neaira. at once pitying him for his innocence and at the same time thinking that he had truly been deceived by Stephanos. and what sort of things she had done. When these sacred rites had taken place. And when it found out whose daughter Theogenes had as a wife. Greek does not repeat ‘he said’. ‘was inclined to punish’. + infinitives that this is indirect speech.

ὅτι οὐκ εἰδείη ὁποῖοι εἶεν.) knew where the enemy were assembling. THE FUTURE OPTATIVE 13F: 2 I shall vote ψηφισοίμην you (pl. that Phano had been given in marriage to Phrastor and that the sacred rites on behalf of the city had been performed by a foreigner. ὅτι Φανὼ ἐκδοθείη. δουλωθείην. 4. τεθείην. 2. from his house. who had deceived him. and pardoned him because he had been deceived. εὑρεθείην. τιμηθείην. δοθείην. the Areopagites ceased judging Theogenes and being angry with him. I know why he does not obey/ is not persuaded. and removed Stephanos. Theogenes said that he did not know what were Phano’s habits and that he had been persuaded by Stephanos to do this. The jurors asked what Stephanos had done.) will see why they are angry. a. ὅ τι πράξειεν ὁποία εἴη ὅπως ἀδικήσειεν b. ληφθείην. πεμφθείην. from the council board. κελευθείην. I knew why he would punish the slave. He answered that the king had died. ἀποθάνοι παρέσοιντο συνίοιεν κολάσοι REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13F B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1.) will be saved σωθήσοισθε you (pl. ὅτι ἐργάζοιτο c. 6. πεισθείην. 5. When Phano had been sent away.) will blame μέμψοισθε Ι shall run δραμοίμην 13F: 3 he will be guarded φυλαχθήσοιτο they will be given δοθήσοιντο we shall invite προσκαλοῖμεν we shall carry οἰσοίμεθα 1. For Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor that she had worked with her body. You (pl. διαφθαρείην. You (pl. He said that the citizens would not be present. The council was annoyed at the affair. and what was the impiety of Neaira and how she had wronged the city. 3. ὡς τὰ ἱερὰ πραχθείη . ὅτου θυγάτηρ εἴη. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13F THE AORIST OPTATIVE PASSIVE 13F: 1 βληθείην.192 Revision exercises for section 13F daughter of Neaira. ὅτι πεισθείη d. ποιηθείην.

c. #270. You will meet this construction later in GE pp. #282. Who did this? ἠρόμην ὅστις ταῦτα ποιήσειεν. ὡς καταδικασθεῖεν. The rest of this section is full of various forms of the perfect active and middle. Page 171 2 πεποιήκασι What tense? Page 172 4 καταπεϕρονήκασιν What tense? 5 μεμαρτυρήκασιν What tense? καταπεϕρονηκέναι What is it? Perfect infinitive active. #267–268). How did the archons behave? ἠρόμην ὅπως πράξειαν οἱ ἄρχοντες. 291–292. 13G Here you will meet the perfect middle and passive. τὸν Στέϕανον is the subject of all the participles. b. 14 ἀλλ’ εὖ ἴσμεν ‘But we know very well that’ is followed by a series of accusative + participle phrases. The perfect middle and passive are the same.’ 8 πεπολίτευμαι. a. See GE pp. 304–305. ἅττα λεχθείη 2. 292–293. From where (for what cause) did Theogenes divorce his wife? ἠρόμην ὁπόθεν ἐκβάλοι τὴν γυναῖκα ὁ Θεογένης. STRYMODOROS . EUERGIDES If indeed Apollodoros is speaking the truth. Stephanos and Neaira have done the most sacrilegious things. Didn’t you hear that we went into the lawcourt and that those men were condemned and didn’t you hear what was said in the prosecution? ὡς εἰσέλθοιμεν. Who was Theogenes’ wife? ἠρόμην ἥτις εἴη ἡ γυνὴ ἡ Θεογένους. ‘For many people have borne witness that they have shown contempt for the city and for the gods. on behalf of the state) and the gods. e. γεγένημαι These are perfect middle (GE pp. the perfect infinitives and participles and some important irregular perfects (GE pp. Translation for 13G Oh what lawlessness! For Stephanos committed many disgraceful acts. 291–295. #267–273). What sort of woman was Phano? ἠρόμην ὁποία γυνὴ εἴη ἡ Φανώ. The infinitive shows that this is an indirect statement. d. For they have shown contempt for the laws of the state (lit. 12–13 οἳ ἂν ἀποϕαίνωσι ‘whoever show’: ἄν + subjunctive makes the relative clause ‘indefinite’.Section 13G 193 e.

and who were introduced to the phratries by Stephanos. that ‘I have been a good citizen’ and ‘I have been responsible for no disaster in the city. For many people have borne witness that they have shown contempt for both the city and the gods. 295. 295. STR. Translation for 13H What then? What will Stephanos say in his defence? Will he say that Neaira was a citizen and that he lives with her in accordance with the laws? KOMIAS But Apollodoros has employed the strongest evidence. #272. which takes the dative. Reasonably. 15 πεϕύκασι ‘They have been born’. at least. and the STRYMODOROS . proving that Neaira was a hetaira and became the slave of Nikarete. nor has he been a good citizen. and was not born a citizen. It is probable. who were Neaira’s.e. ‘they are born to make mistakes’. i. See list at GE p. 13H Page 172 3 κέχρηται What tense? What verb? It comes from χράομαι. #272. For the children. This shows clearly how close the perfect is to the present in meaning. For the dikasts have often acquitted those who have done wrong who can point out the virtues of their ancestors and their own good services.’ For you know well that all the defendants claim that they have performed their state duties patriotically and that they have won many glorious victories in the games (contests) and that they have accomplished much good for the city. ‘they exist’. So that it is clear that Stephanos will be convicted of lying. nor has he been appointed choregos. nor has he done any good to the city. 7 εἴληϕε This is an irregular perfect from λαμβάνω. if he says such things. nor has he been a trierarch. Section 13H KOMIAS EU. But we know well that Stephanos is not rich. Stephanos will say the sort of things which all defendants say in their defence. I wonder what Stephanos will ever say in his defence. What then? That he did not take Neaira as his wife but as a concubine in his house? EUERGIDES But Stephanos has brought evidence against himself. 5 ἐξελεγχθήσεται What tense? What verb? Try ἐξελέγχω. Page 173 8 Στέϕανος αὐτὸς ὑϕ’ αὑτοῦ ‘Stephanos himself has been condemned by himself.194 SΤR.’ 12 εἴρηται Perfect passive from λέγω: see GE p.

’ Page 174 8 πεϕυκότας Cf. of the perfect participle of ἀσεβέω. #272–273. but a much greater one for what he has done. has thus shown much contempt for the laws and you and has been irreverent to the gods. and some irregular perfects. and make sure also that you look at the lists in GE pp. 3–4 ὁ Στέϕανος ἄξιός ἐστιν οὐκ ἐλάττω δοῦναι δίκην … ἀλλὰ καὶ πολλῷ μείζω ‘Stephanos is worthy to pay no less penalty than …. by declaring himself to be an Athenian. these clearly prove that Neaira was living with Stephanos as his wife. who was given in marriage to an Athenian man. p. For I have proved that he. all men indeed are born to make mistakes. Therefore Neaira has been put in the most terrible danger on account of the things that have been done by Stephanos. followed by two sets of nominative + participle phrases. which show awkward cases where you cannot use an ordinary reduplication. line 15 ‘those who have been born to …’: ‘those who by nature are more inclined to impiety rather than piety’. Before you pass judgment. And Stephanos also is done for. 13I Page 173 1–3 μεμαθήκατε This is followed by two sets of accusative + participle phrases. Note the form of the reduplication when the verb starts with a vowel. and that you yourselves have been greatly wronged and insulted. EU. #267–271). as it seems to me. 2 ἠσεβηκυῖαν Acc. and their participles and infinitives (GE pp. You will need to learn these by heart. also ἠδικημένοι and ὑβρισμένοι. and you have learned in detail that Neaira is an alien and has shown a lack of reverence towards the gods. 173. judges. Yes. daughter. fem. You must therefore take vengeance upon those who have been impious to the gods and you must punish those who have wronged the city and are disposed to sacrilege rather than to piety. but a much bigger one. 294–295. Grammar Now make sure that you know both active and passive forms of the perfect indicative. and it is clear that the truth has been spoken by Apollodoros. 291–294. s. know that this Stephanos deserves to pay no lesser penalty than this Neaira. .Section 13I 195 STR. Translation for 13I You have heard the evidence.

he has been wronged. you (pl. δεδηλῶσθαι 13G–I: 3 κεκωλυκότος κεκωλυκότες κεκωλυμένου κεκωλυμένοι τεθυκότος τεθυκότες τεθυμένου τεθυμένοι γεγαμηκότος γεγαμηκότες γεγαμημένου γεγαμημένοι τετιμηκότος τετιμηκότες τετιμημένου τετιμημένοι δεδηλωκότος δεδηλωκότες δεδηλωμένου δεδηλωμένοι 13G–I: 4 κεκωλυκυίας κεκωλυκυῖαι κεκωλυμένης κεκωλυμέναι τεθυκυίας τεθυκυῖαι τεθυμένης τεθυμέναι γεγαμηκυίας γεγαμηκυῖαι γεγαμημένης γεγαμημέναι τετιμηκυίας τετιμηκυῖαι τετιμημένης τετιμημέναι δεδηλωκυίας δεδηλωκυῖαι δεδηλωμένης δεδηλωμέναι κεκωλυκότος κεκωλυκότα κεκωλυμένου κεκωλυμένα τεθυκότος τεθυκότα τεθυμένου τεθυμένα γεγαμηκότος γεγαμηκότα γεγαμημένου γεγαμημένα τετιμηκότος τετιμηκότα τετιμημένου τετιμημένα δεδηλωκότος δεδηλωκότα δεδηλωμένου δεδηλωμένα it has been announced. they are standing. τεθύσθαι.196 Exercises for section 13G–I EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13G–I PERFECT INDICATIVE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE 13G–I: 1 κεκώλυται τεθύμεθα γεγάμημαι τετιμημένοι εἰσίν δεδήλωσθε 13G–I: 2 he has been prevented we have been sacrificed I have been married they have been honoured you (pl.) have hurled you (s.) have suffered. τετιμῆσθαι. γεγαμῆσθαι.) have been shown κεκωλῦσθαι. he has gone. .

εἰσηγμένοι εἰσίν These men have been the cause of many evils in the city. ϕάσκω τὸν Φανοῦς παῖδα εἰσῆχθαι ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας. ὕβρισαι ἠδίκησαι The prosecutor has accomplished this. οἶδα ὑμᾶς τεκμηρίῳ ϕανερῷ κεχρημένους. gentlemen. gentlemen. a. You have governed well. οἶδα τούτους αἰτίους γεγενημένους πολλῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. ἴσμεν τὸν Στέϕανον οὐδέποτε δίκην δεδωκότα. b. ϕάσκω τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας εἰρῆσθαι. a. ἠδίκημαι REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13G–I B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. καταμεμαρτυρήμεθα Those men have done these things. ϕάσκω ὑμᾶς τεκμηρίῳ ϕανερῷ κεχρῆσθαι. ἕστηκα. οἶδα καταμεμαρτυρημένος αὐτὸς ὑπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. e. ϕάσκω καταμεμαρτυρῆσθαι αὐτὸς ὑπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. j. οἶδα ὑμᾶς μεγάλα ὑβρισμένους καὶ ἠδικημένους. and you have been greatly wronged. οἶδα τοῦτο εὶργασμένον τὸν κατήγορον. h. 2. οἶδα τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας εἰρημένους. . κέχρησαι I myself have been condemned by myself (lit. d. οὔ ϕαμεν τὸν Στέϕανον δίκην ποτε δεδωκέναι. ἐστέρηται. f. εἴρηται You have used clear proof. f. ϕάσκω ὑμᾶς μεγάλα ὑβρίσθαι καὶ ἠδικῆσθαι. I have had witness borne against me by myself). ϕάσκω ἡμᾶς ἠδικῆσθαι μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. ϕάσκω σε εὖ πεπολιτεῦσθαι. g. οἶδα ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ταῦτα διαπεπραγμένους. c. i. ϕάσκω τοῦτο εἰργάσθαι τὸν κατήγορον. d. οἶδα τὸν Φανοῦς παῖδα εἰσηγμένον ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας. a. ἠδίκημαι These words have been spoken by Neaira. εὖ πεπολίτευσθε We have been greatly wronged by Stephanos. h. ἀφῄρηται. γεγένηται You have been treated most violently.Revision exercises for section 13G–I 197 13G–I: 5 εἰρήκασι. ϕάσκω τούτους αἰτίους γεγενῆσθαι πολλῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. ἐζήτηκας. i. c. e. διαπέπρακται Phano’s son has been introduced to the brotherhood by Stephanos. b. οἶδα ἡμᾶς ἠδικημένους μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. ϕάσκω ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ταῦτα διαπεπρᾶχθαι. 3. πεπόνθαμεν. εἰργασμένοι εἰσίν οἶδα σε εὖ πεπολιτευμένον. j. Stephanos has never paid the penalty. g.

οἶσθα τὸν Στέϕανον ὡς τὴν αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα τὴν Φανὼ ἐκδεδωκότα. c. Neaira has been irreverent towards the gods. ὁ γὰρ Φράστωρ οὐδέποτ’ ἂν ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον. will look after your affairs and mine. if I had been able. ἔϕασκες τὴν Νέαιραν ἠσεβηκέναι εἰς τοὺς θεούς. ἐπιδέδειχα τὴν Φανὼ τεθυκυῖαν τὰ ἱερὰ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως. Therefore I want to make one of you my son. Στέϕανος εὖ πεπολίτευται καὶ πολλὰ καὶ καλὰ πεποίηκεν. ‘For’. εὖ ἴσμεν πάντες ὅτι οὐδὲν καλὸν οὔτε εἴρηται οὔτε πεποίηται οὐδέποτε ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. and who would bury him when he had died and would carry out the customary tasks on his behalf in the period after his death.198 Revision exercises for section 13G–I b. 3. ϕατὲ δικασταὶ καθεστηκέναι.’ And Menekles said that it was a good idea (that he was speaking well) and so adopted me. δῆλον ὅτι. E – TEST EXERCISE 13 1. You have been appointed jurors. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK Sentences 1. e. ᾔδεισθα τὴν Νέαιραν ἠσεβηκυῖαν εἰς τοὺς θεούς. βουλομένη τὸν Φράστορα τὸ παιδίον ἀναλαβεῖν. Prose τὴν οὖν Φανὼ τῆς Νεαίρας θυγατέρα οὖσαν ἐπιδεδειγμένην εὐθὺς ἐξέβαλεν ὁ Φράστωρ. Θεογένης ἔϕη ἐξαπατηθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. but that he might have a child who would look after him before he died. καὶ οὐ διὰ πολλοῦ ἠσθένησεν ὁ Φράστωρ. ‘I am always abroad. indeed I would have had children from this family. 2. ἀναστὰς γὰρ γυναῖκα γνησίαν κατὰ τοὺς νόμους ἔγημεν. καὶ διὰ τὴν ἔχθραν τὴν πρὸς τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι αὐτοὺς λαβεῖν τὰ αὑτοῦ. he said. After this. Make him your son. ‘who is always at home. meaning me. as you know. ϕὴς τὸν Στέϕανον ὡς τὴν αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα τὴν Φανὼ ἐκδεδωκέναι. But. he found no other relation closer to him than us. Phano is an alien by birth (has been born). 5. Stephanos has given Phano in marriage as his own daughter. Menekles began to take thought so that he might not be childless. but my brother here’. ἡ δὲ ἐκβεβλημένη ὀλίγον χρόνον ἔμεινεν. ἴστε δικασταὶ καθεστηκότες.’ And when my brother heard this. εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε. d. he started to enter into an agreement with us and he said ‘Fate did not allow me to have children with your sister. οὐ βουλόμενος ἄπαις τελευτᾶν. he praised his words and said that because Menekles was an old man and alone he needed me to look after him. 2. 4. ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον πρὶν ἀναστῆναι. Since. . εὖ οἶδα τὴν Φανὼ ξένην πεϕυκυῖαν. ϕημὶ τὴν Φανὼ ξένην πεϕυκέναι. ἡ βουλὴ ἤρετο ὁποίαν γυναῖκα ἔγημεν ὁ ἄρχων βασιλεύς. then.

since the matter has come to you and you have become responsible for it. being persuaded by him. . gentlemen of the jury. Instead. Do not therefore. take away the name from me. vote for justice in accordance with the laws. and bearing in mind the law and the oath which you have sworn and the things that have been said about the matter. help us and that man who is now in the house of Hades.Revision exercises for section 13G–I 199 My opponent here wishes now to disinherit me and to render the dead man childless and nameless.

will you then allow this Neaira to insult the city so disgracefully and so contemptuously. 10 ἐπειδὴ δὲ πέπυσθε καὶ ἴστε … Notice the present force of the perfect ‘since you have found out and you all know (now. which prepares for πρίν. before this woman was charged by me and brought to trial and before all of you found out who she was and what sort of impiety she had committed. ἥν This is accusative s. ἐλήλυθεν What tense? What verb? Learn it! ψηϕιεῖσθε This comes from ψηϕίζομαι. [this woman] who was neither left a citizen by her parents nor was she made a citizen by the people? Will you allow her to act irreverently towards the gods with impunity. at this moment)’. and since you are able to punish her. But. you yourselves will be acting impiously towards the gods if you do not punish this woman. νομίζω νομιέω. 8–9 πρίν is followed by two accusative and infinitive clauses ‘before she did x and y. Do not translate πρότερον. so it cannot be a relative pronoun. Cf. fem. Translation for 14A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Gentlemen of the jury. 300–304. and the city was indifferent (lit. whose future is ψηϕιοῦμαι. to the crimes). Try ‘or’.Section Fourteen: Guarding a woman’s purity 14A Page 176 ἐάσετε Future of ἐάω. #282). 200 . she who has openly prostituted herself throughout the whole of Greece? For where has she not worked with her body? Or where has she not gone for her day-to-day earnings? Now that Neaira is clearly known by all as the kind of woman she is. what fine thing will you say that you have accomplished to those who ask you? For [formerly] her crimes existed. 14B You now meet the subjunctive (GE pp. will you vote that she is a citizen? And if you vote in this way. 304–305. of the relative pronoun: ‘she whom …’ ἥ What is this? ἤ This has a smooth breathing. This makes a clause indefinite (GE pp. and before you did z’. since you have found out and since you all know. #274–281) and one of its commonest uses with ἄν.

4–6 Look carefully at all the tenses here. ἀτιμώρητος p.) And they. Cf. she lived with a citizen against the law and because she married her daughter to Theogenes when he was basileus and she performed the sacred and secret rites on behalf of the city and was given as a bride to Dionysos. 4 ὅτι should probably be translated as ‘because’. 436–442. Page 177 1 τί δὲ ϕήσειεν ἄν ἄν + optative: ‘What would each of you say …’ 2 ἐπειδὰν γάρ τις ἔρηται ὑμᾶς ἄν + subjunctive ‘when someone asks (if they actually do ask). m. endings are identical. This is the indefinite construction expressed by ἄν + the subjunctive (GE pp. i. Translation for 14B And what would each one of you say when you go back to the house to your wife or your daughter or your mother if you have voted (having voted) to acquit Neaira? For when (whenever) someone asks you ‘Where were you?’ and you say ‘We were trying a case’. #282).’ 3 ἐρήσεται What tense is this? You may find it useful to look up the principal parts of ἐρωτάω in the irregular verb list on pp.’ ὅ τι ἂν βούλωνται Another indefinite clause: ‘what(ever) they like’.’ Will not the most self-controlled of women.Section 14B 201 ‘when he says’. 9 ἐπειδὰν πύθωνται ‘When they find out’. though an alien. when they find out. 176. that someone will immediately ask ‘Whom were you trying?’ and you will say ‘Neaira’ (of course) ‘because. which is potential and means ‘could’ or ‘would’ (GE #283) or ἄν + indicative in unfulfilled conditions. and f.e. #389 of GE. 11 ἄδειαν διδόναι ποιεῖν ‘To grant licence to do. 3. This gives the predicted reaction of thoughtful women and foolish women. Do not confuse this ἄν with ἄν + optative. hearing this. will ask ‘What then did you do?’ and you will say ‘We acquitted her. you will seem to be granting licence to foolish women to do what(ever) they like. be angry with you because you thought it right that Neaira should equally with them have a share in the business of the city and in the sacred rites? And moreover. For you will seem to be contemptuous and yourselves to be in agreement with Neaira’s standards of behaviour. 6 διηγήσεσθε What tense is this? 7 κατηγορήθη What tense is this? 8–11 οὔκουν ἤδη αἱ σωϕρονέσταται τῶν γυναικῶν and καὶ δὴ καὶ ταῖς ἀνοήτοις γυναιξί. 304–305. . l. ‘whenever he says’.’ (And you will go through the other things about the charge saying how well and carefully and accurately on each point she was prosecuted. Note that ἀνόητος is a compound adjective and has only two terminations.

it will be possible’: see GE p. you would understand. What do you say. κύριαι. Of course. Not only that. What do you say about what he has said? Are you. STRYMODOROS 14D This section is full of future conditions (ἐάν + subjunctive) and indefinite relative and adverbial clauses (‘whoever’. too. with the speech which Apollodoros made. of the aorist passive subjunctive of ἀπορέω. etc. ‘however’. then. now I have heard the speech which Apollodoros has made. Consider. but I don’t understand. What then? Must we condemn Neaira? EU. 198. For whenever anyone speaks well and truthfully. For if we acquit Neaira it will be permissible for prostitutes to live with whoever they like. Euergides. Euergides. and why do you neither praise nor criticise the arguments? For I am very pleased. 12–13 Note the opposites ἄκυροι. but I am concerned with none of these things. and you would be concerned about female citizens. and hetairas will have the power to do whatever they like. #176. Komias? Do you think the laws will become powerless? KOMIAS You are concerned with hetairas and the laws. 19–20 What sort of condition is expressed here by ἄν + imperfect indicative? Translation for 14C But why are you silent.) expressed by ἄν + the subjunctive. If you were a woman. Your concern is with female citizens? How do you mean? Perhaps you are saying something important.202 Section 14D 14C Page 178 6 ἐπειδὰν γάρ τις καλῶς λέγῃ An indefinite clause: ‘when anyone speaks well’. My concern is with female citizens. More indefinite clauses. . ἐξέσται ‘For if we acquit Neaira. ‘in whatever way’. 9 ἐὰν γὰρ ἀποψηϕισώμεθα Nεαίρας. STR. It is normal to express a future condition as an indefinite. Page 179 1 ἀπορηθῇ Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. 10–11 ἄν + subjunctive. but there is also the fact that the established laws will become powerless. who does not enjoy listening? STR. STR. and to declare that their children belong to whoever they happen to find [to father them]. Strymodoros. KOM. pleased by his words? EUERGIDES I am certainly very pleased. Strymodoros. Strymodorus.

But if the Athenians have children however they please. EU. ‘take care that …’ ἀποδῷ 3rd s. perfect indicative of διέρχομαι. This is why I am concerned about citizen women. even if that citizen is poor.Section 14E 203 5 6 8 10 21 καθεστήκῃ Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. if Athenians marry whomsoever they like. aorist active subjunctive of ἀποδίδωμι. STRYMODOROS What do you mean? KOM. If Neaira is acquitted (freed). ‘acquitted’: ἀπολυθῇ is the 3rd s. it will be permissible for the Athenians to live with hetairas and have children however they please. Apollodoros has delivered his speech well. ἐάν τις βούληται ‘If someone wants’: ἐάν + subjunctive. -ῃ indicates the subjunctive. but this matter has been expressed by Komias even better and more sincerely. In this way the lawmakers take care that the daughters of citizens will not be unmarried – STR. ‘has gone through the argument’. Therefore. for Apollodoros is ending his speech. of the aorist passive subjunctive of ἀπολύω. For hetairas will be allowed to have children with whomever they like and to share in mysteries and sacred rites and honours in the city. who will marry the daughters of poor men. Translation for 14D For now. the law provides a sufficient dowry. If someone wants to rear children that are citizens. σκοποῦσιν ὅπως + future indicative: ‘see to it that …’. KOMIAS 14E Page 180 3 ὁμοίως Nεαίρᾳ τῇ πόρνῃ ‘in the same way as Neaira the prostitute’. even if a woman is in dire straits and her father has fallen into poverty and cannot give his daughter a dowry. . διελήλυθε 3rd s. εἰ καὶ πένητος ὄντος ‘Even if he is a poor man’. ἐὰν δὲ ἀπολυθῇ Nέαιρα ‘If Neaira is set free’. who do not have a dowry? The function of prostitutes will come completely to the daughters of citizens because they have no dowry and the reputation of free women will come to hetairas. it will not be necessary for Athenians to marry citizen women. 6 καὶ ὅταν μὲν τοῦ κατηγορεῖν γένησθε ‘and whenever you are concerned with prosecution’. friends. EUERGIDES What then? KOM. If nature grants a girl moderate beauty. but they will be able to marry whomsoever they like. of the perfect active subjunctive of καθίστημι. πένητος ὄντος is genitive in apposition to ἀστοῦ in the previous line. But be quiet. he must marry the daughter of a citizen. The perfect is used because ‘he has been placed in a situation’ = ‘he is in a situation’. as it does in ἀπορηθῇ. how will it be possible for us to distinguish between the citizen and the alien? And if we cannot distinguish between the citizen and the alien.

you will say that you condemned her. Look after them. what next? EUERGIDES . like a sophist. although I am eager to do it. Of course. she has done these things. and puts me in great perplexity. think only of this one thing. whether. STRYMODOROS But what shall I say when my children and my wife ask whether I condemned or acquitted her? EU. gentlemen of the jury. and by which you have sworn to give judgment. 14F There are many more examples of the use of ἄν + the subjunctive in this section. And when you are concerned with the defence. First listen and then decide (judge). Strymodoros. Good. How then will it be possible for me to judge the trial? ΕU. listen to the laws themselves. as it seems. ‘would you be quiet and concentrate?’ 11–12 ὅπως + the future indicative: ‘Take care that you…’ Translation for 14F Good. Strymodoros. STR. Page 181 10 ὡς ἀπολογησόμενος ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose. and give them in marriage in accordance with the laws. STR. another of his city and its laws and its religion. Translation for 14E I want each one of you to know that you are casting your vote. And when you look upon the face of Neaira. Do not show respect for these women in the same way as for Neaira the prostitute. one of you on behalf of his wife. KOMIAS And the defendant too will drag you round in a circle. And when you are concerned with prosecution. But when we have cast our vote. another on behalf of his daughter. STR. remember the condemnation of the laws and the proof of the things which have been said which you have heard. σιγῴης ἄν … προσέχοις ἄν ἄν + optative = a polite request. If Neaira is condemned. So great then is the prosecution which Apollodoros has delivered. look after them with much good discipline and care. being Neaira. you will say that you acquitted her. I cannot remember the prosecution. and if she is acquitted.204 Section 14F 8 ὅταν δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀπολογεῖσθαι ἦτε ‘and whenever you are concerned with the defence’. for the prosecutor leads me round in a circle. But now we must hear the defence of Stephanos and when we have heard it we must cast our vote. the laws through which we live in the city. But. another of his mother. But Neaira with her many disgraceful ways has had intercourse with many men many times each day.

a. ἐπειδὰν εἰδῶ. Whatever evidence the witnesses give and whatever they say. παύῃ no future subjunctive ἐκπέσῃ σχῶσι(ν) I have married he will go they are we have become they placed we make/do (for ourselves) they see they knew they were giving he carried 14: 3 γεγαμήκω ἴῃ ὦσι(ν) γεγενημένοι ὦμεν θῶσι ποιώμεθα ὁρῶσι(ν) γνῶσι(ν) imperfect (pres. With reason! But stop chattering. see that you remember the things said by Apollodoros and that you pay attention to everything which Stephanos may say. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 14 THE SUBJUNCTIVE 14: 1 he made a mistake he was stopping he will persuade/you (s. 205 EU. μαρτυρῶσι λέγωσιν . and all the household welcome me because of the three obols. Strymodoros. is διδῶσιν. see above) ἐνέγκῃ ἐὰν ὁρῶσιν/ἰδῶσιν ἐπειδὰν ἀκούω/ἀκούσω ὅστις ἂν ἴῃ/ἔλθῃ. Komias. ὅστις ἂν ὦσιν.) will obey he fell out/was thrown out they had 14: 2 ἁμάρτῃ the imperfect subjunctive shares the expect of the present subj. we always judge carefully. And as for you. It is very pleasant when I go home with my three obols in my mouth. Would you please be quiet and pay attention. For Stephanos is now standing up to make his defence. What next? When we have got up from our seats and cast our votes. Strymodoros. ὅπου ἂν ᾖ ἐπειδὰν ἀπίωσιν/ἀπέλθωσιν ἐὰν δουλῶμεν/δουλώσωμεν.Revision exercises for section 14 KOM. we shall receive our three obols. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 14 B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. subj.

So that. we regard as innocent. find that you have constructed a different version and are still perfectly correct. 5. ἀπολύσεις τὸν ϕεύγοντα. ἐὰν ϕιλῇ ὑπὸ τῶν θυγατέρων. 4. When(ever) the prosecutor speaks and persuades us. ὅταν οἱ δικασταὶ οἴκαδε ἔλθωσιν. The law provides an adequate dowry to any woman whose father does not give a dowry. 3. he is killed when the noose is drawn tight. all the citizens are pleased. ἐπειδὰν οἱ κατήγοροι λέγωσιν. 2. οὔτε γὰρ οὑτοσὶ οὔτε οἱ πρόγονοι πρὸς τὸ εὐσεβεῖν πεϕύκασιν ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὸ ἀσεβεῖν. καίτοι εὖ ἴσμεν πάντες ὅτι οὐδὲν οὔτε καλὸν οὔτε ἀγαθὸν διεπράχθη ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ οὐδέποτε. see that you flatter her. If you concentrate your mind carefully on the prosecution and are eager. χαλεπὴ γίγνεται. the laws are preserved. Note that it is possible to translate this passage into Greek in a number of different ways. When you enter the house and your wife meets you. ἐὰν προσέχῃς τὸν νοῦν πρὸς τὴν ἀπολογίαν. ἀεὶ τὰ αὐτὰ λέγουσιν. you will condemn (vote against) Neaira. This is only one of them. the proposer lives and gets away. we condemn. δῆλον ὅτι. ἀγωνίσηται ἀποψηϕίσωνται d. E – TEST EXERCISE 14 1. Whoever is not condemned but acquitted by the jurors. But if it does not. if someone wants to make a new law. ἡγῆσθε τιμᾶτε h.206 Revision exercises for section 14 b. καταστῇ f. And if the law seems to be good and useful. Whatever fine you think just and inflict. πρόσσχητε προθυμῆσθε j. δώσουσί σοι ὅ τι ἂν βούλῃ. οὐ δῆτα. therefore. μὴ καταδικασθῇ ἀπολυθῇ e. ϕήσει. λέγῃ πείθῃ c. You may. Whenever you want to say something terrible and you reveal the truth. that is the penalty that the man who has been condemned owes to the city. βούλῃ δηλοῖς g. ὅταν γυνή τις χρήματων λάβηται. For there they think the citizens ought to observe the long-established laws and preserve tradition. your enemies will always take vengeance on you. I want to tell you how they frame the laws in Lokris (among the Lokrians). 2. εἰσίῃς ἐντύχῃ D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK Sentences 1. εὖ πεπολιτεῦσθαι καὶ πολλά τε καὶ ἀγαθὰ διαπεπρᾶχθαι. Prose ἀπολογούμενος οὖν τί λέξει ὁ Στέϕανος. he proposes it with his neck in a noose. αἱ γυναῖκες ἀσπάζονται αὐτοὐς. ἢ τοιοῦτό τι πρᾶγμα ἀκηκόατέ ποτε. If an evil man loses his citizen’s rights (is placed in loss of citizen’s rights). but they observe the ancient laws . In fact they do not dare to propose new laws. μὴ δῷ i. When(ever) a citizen goes to law or the clansmen reject (vote against) a child born from an alien.

he is said to have dared to put forward the following law: if anyone knocks out the eye of a one-eyed man. the one-eyed man was upset. who happened to have one eye. An enemy is said to have threatened his enemy. and thinking that his life would be unliveable if he suffered this. For there is a law established in Lokris that. For in this way they would both suffer the same injury. only one new law is said to have been passed. When this threat had been made.Revision exercises for section 14 207 strictly. if a man knocks out an eye. that he would knock out this one eye. the one who knocked out the eye must offer his own eye to be knocked out in return. . And the Lokrians are said to have passed this law alone in more than two hundred years. he will have to give both his eyes to be knocked out in return. In the course of many years.

Consult the translation. Translation for 15A CHORUS FEMALE Let her know then [that she] is going to die gloriously and by far the best woman of those under the sun. This squashing together of two separate words (τὰ ἐμά) is called ‘crasis’. but it is not always easy to recognise whether the preposition is there in its own right or if it is a case of ‘tmesis’. The vocabulary tells you that κατθανουμένη is the future participle of καταθνῄσκω. It is quite common in verse authors. the Greek should prove manageable. We have tried to keep the translation as literal as possible throughout. οἶδα is followed by a participle (‘know that …’.Section Fifteen: Alkestis in Euripides’ play In this section you are introduced to the verse of Greek Tragedy in a touching scene from Euripides’ Alkestis (produced in 438 BC). utterances can be far more oblique and tightly packed with meaning. Who will disagree? What should this outstanding woman be called (how should she be described)? How could anyone declare more [clearly] that she holds her husband in honour than by 208 . crucial for the continued existence of the home. 11 ἐκ … ἑλοῦσα This splitting of a verb from its prepositional prefix is called ‘tmesis’ (‘cutting’). 3 πῶς δ’ οὐκ …. It is easiest to translate it as an adverb. Consult GE p. (literally ‘for how not?’ = ‘of course’) has appeared from Section 1 onwards. see GE #247). #286. 310.’ While it is probably true that you will find an increase of difficulty in this section. 4–5 Difficult. Note (e) here contains the warning: ‘Word order in verse can be far more flexible than in prose. 16 τἀμά See GE p. 13 ‘Εστία Hestia is the goddess of the hearth. again. #286 for a list of tragic usages. 310. εὐκλεής = ‘a glorious [woman]’. ‘gloriously’. SERVANT Of course [she is] the best. πῶς γὰρ οὔ. 15 πίτνω This form of πίπτω is very common in poetry. 15A Page 184 1 ἴστω The third person singular imperative of οἶδα (GE #207).

#286). For when she realised that the appointed day had come. has reduplication and uses future endings. For I do not hate you. she could not be more chaste. You will see that it is middle or passive. Here means ‘from the action of …’ περί + gen. 309–310. not lamenting’). you have destroyed me alone. And may the children not die – as I their mother am being destroyed – before their time. Some other woman will have you for her own. Translation for 15B She approached all the altars which [are] throughout the house of Admetos and she garlanded them and addressed them in prayer. for shrinking from betraying you and my husband. and standing before the Household Hearth. then indeed she wept and said these things: ‘O bed. having taken out from their cedar home (i. and the coming disaster did not change the graceful nature of her complexion. farewell. but may they happily complete a pleasant life in their father’s land. but you will wonder as you hear what she did in the house. and. she adorned herself becomingly. 5 κἄπειτα Crasis (GE p.’ . Here means ‘for the sake of …’ 11 κεκτήσεται Future perfect. where I lost my virgin maidenhood to this man for whose sake I die. adds a sense of grandeur. but perhaps [will be more] fortunate. 6 ᾽δάκρυσε The first syllable (ε) is elided (struck off) after the vowel at the end of the previous word (prodelision). chest) clothes and decoration. without lamentation. 310. #284–285. unweeping. she prayed: ‘Mistress – [I am addressing you] for I am going beneath the earth – appealing to you for the last time. elision usually works the other way round. I die.’ 15B Page 186 1 δόμους Poetic plural – the house is in fact singular. As you will remember.e. the vowel at the end of a word disappears.e.Section 15B 209 being willing to die for him? And the whole city knows these things. Then rushing into her bedroom and [falling onto] her bed. And join a dear wife in marriage to the boy and a noble husband to the girl. i. she washed her white skin in waters from the river. 8 ἐκ + gen. 4 μεθίστη Imperfect (GE #230–234). I shall beg you to look after my orphaned children. but this use of the plural. Have a look at this rare form at GE pp. 3 Note the prefix ἀ.(‘not weeping. which is fairly common in poetry.

For she is dying and wastes away through the disease. #287–290 and try to scan the first four lines of section 14B. he would. but nevertheless still breathing (although [just] a little). and no one was so low-born that she did not speak to him – and was addressed by him in return. Translate ‘in his hands’. All the servants were weeping throughout the house. falling out of) the bed. at another time another’. Then read it naturally. as she was on the point of dying. Exhausted. Her children. trying to bring out the iambic rhythm first of all. 311–313. and often going out of the bedroom she turned back and flung herself back again on the bed. having died).210 Section 15C 15C Page 187 5 πολλά Neuter plural used as an adverb. You will have this explained to you in Section 17. She stretched out her right hand to each of them. 19 χεροῖν This is a dual ending. Such are the evils in the house of Admetos. Here it gives the answer ‘I suppose he does’ to the question the Chorus ask. Does Admetos grieve over these evils. 12 κοὔτις Crasis of καὶ οὔτις. But when she had had enough of many tears. now the other. holding his dear wife in his arms. but escaping death he has so much grief – which he will never have forgotten. clinging to their mother’s robes. Then read aloud to yourself as much of 14B as you can. meaning ‘often’. She. Tragic verse metre Read GE pp. And. have perished. seeking the impossible. if he must be deprived of a good woman? Yes. Translate ‘in both hands’. she wishes to look towards the rays of the sun – as [she] never [will] again – but now for the last time. page 188 16 λελήσεται Future perfect of λανθάνομαι (GE pp. pitying their mistress. he weeps. 309–310. to be sure. she kissed it and bedewed all the bed with a flood [of tears] welling from her eyes. . a pathetic weight in his arms. #284–285). taking them into her arms. if he had died (lit. 10 ἄλλοτ’ ἄλλον ‘at one time one. were weeping. And embracing [the bed]. 22 χειρός Literally ‘of his hand’. Translation for 15C FEMALE SERVANT CHORUS F. throwing herself from (lit. and begs her not to forsake (lit. she went headlong. embraced now one.S. 17 που The enclitic που can mean ‘I suppose’. betray) him.

e. Notice particularly μή + aorist subjunctive = ‘don’t …’ (GE #292). 315. #291–294. Apollodoros’ next question shows two of the procedures which they might advise on. Aristarchos? ARISTARCHOS From the agora. for what purpose were you spending your time in the agora? AR. ἠδικήκει What tense? 17 διεξελθόντι δέ μοι … οὐκ ἔϕασαν ἐξεῖναι … Literally ‘to me having related … they said that it was not possible to …’ ἐπεπόνθη What verb? What tense? Try πάσχω πείσομαι ἔπαθον πεπόνθα. you seem to me to be depressed. ἔχω + adverb expresses the state that someone is in. Apollodoros.’ 10 τοὺς ἐξηγητάς These were state officials who advised what to do in cases of murder. seeing Aristarchos coming towards him. 315–318. addresses him. and I am going home. Apollodoros. When he is at the gate. state and individuals In this section you will meet a number of different features of grammar and syntax that are clearly described in GE pp. Where are you going to and where have you come from. my friend. #291. Tell me then. καλῶς ἔχω ‘I am well’. AP. as it seems. there he meets Aristarchos the son of Ariston. Apollodoros. 16A Page 192 3 ἀθύμως ἔχοντι Agrees with Ἀριστάρχῳ. AP.Section Sixteen: Official justice – ships. or about burial? APOLLODOROS 211 . κακῶς ἔχω ‘I am in a bad way. 13 ἐπεποιήκει What tense? see GE p. But. walking along the road outside the wall. who is very depressed. What do you say? Did you go to them about purification. and ϕοβοῦμαι μή + subjunctive = ‘I am afraid that something may happen’ (GE #293). I went to the officials. Translation for 16A Apollodoros is going straight towards Ilisos. For you seem to be upset about something. GE #294–295.g. Also there are verbal nouns ending in -τέος which express obligation (‘must’). beneath the wall itself.

For it is not a short story. and don’t be despondent any longer. προθυμητέον See GE pp. and do not conceal anything. my friend. APOLLODOROS . my friend. for what he had done. but take heart. going into the farm and offering violence to my family and what is more killing an old woman who was a freedwoman. 15 βοηθήσω What mood and tense is this? compare ἀπολέσω. That is what we have here. #293. ἵνα + subjunctive expresses purpose. Therefore don’t regard me without respect (do not hold me in dishonour). Verb forms in -τέoς mean ‘must’. how you will relate the affair to me as clearly as possible. AR. Note that although this looks like a future indicative at first sight. For this man had wronged me particularly. Section 16B Yes. 316. the first aorist indicative is ἀπώλεσα and its subjunctive is therefore ἀπολέσω. but when I had told them what I had suffered and what Theophemos had done. Taking this tragedy to heart and wanting to take revenge on this man. Apollodoros. What then? Do you want to listen while we go for a walk or while we sit down? The path along the Ilisos is in every way suitable for us to speak and to listen as we go. I went to the officials. Aristarchos. And indeed. One must not despair but take heart. ARISTARCHOS But I am afraid that I may finish you off in telling you. for you are a clever prosecutor and reasonably experienced in legal matters. We must consider this matter from the beginning. 18 συμβουλεύσωμαι What mood and tense after ἵνα? 19 χάριν γὰρ εἴσομαι Have you remembered that εἴσομαι is the future of οἶδα? Translation for 16B Don’t despair. 315–316. μηδὲ ἀθυμήσῃς μή + aorist subjunctive = ‘Don’t …’ (GE pp. AP. For I have time to spare (leisure). it is fitting for you to hear it (the hearing is fitting for you). Theophemos by name.212 AR. #294–295. 5 διέξει What tense? What person? This is the second person singular of διέξειμι. and don’t hold back. 6 ϕοβοῦμαι μὴ σ’ ἀπολέσω See GE p. Speak now. concentrating in every way on this. #292). they said that it was not possible to take revenge in the way I had in mind. Tell me therefore. Fears for the future in primary sequence can be expressed by μή + subjunctive. Then I must tell everything from the beginning. 317–318. For you must not be upset by what has happened nor be despondent. Don’t be afraid that this will happen. I went for this reason (thus) being angry with a violent man. 2 ἀθυμητέον. it is in fact the aorist subjunctive. as it seems. The future is ἀπολῶ. 16B Page 194 1 μὴ ἀπορήσῃς.

Listen. don’t (pl. I shall not stop accompanying you. 5.) fall. then.) had honoured he had placed we had died they had thrown I had gone we had been loved they had been enslaved you (pl.) do this 2. don’t (s. don’t (pl.) are afraid he was enslaved φοβεῖσθε μὴ δουλωθῇ I am afraid they did not fight φοβοῦμαι μὴ οὐ μάχωνται .Exercises for section 16A–B AP. You speak. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16A–B THE PLUPERFECT 16A–B: 1 ἐτετιμήκης ἐτεθήκει ἐτεθνήκεμεν ἐβεβλήκεσαν ἐβεβήκη ἐπεφιλήμεθα ἐδεδούλωντο ἐκεκρατήκετε μή + SUBJUNCTIVE 16A–B: 2 you (s. 4. And indeed I shall be grateful to you if you speak. don’t (pl. 213 AR. held power 1. die 5. Why not? For it is not yet the stifling midday heat. if you listen. 3.) say this VERBS OF FEARING 16A–B: 3 μὴ τοῦτο ποίει μὴ δράμητε μὴ μένετε μὴ πέσῃς μὴ λέγετε ταῦτα 1. they are afraid he came. AP. arrived φοβοῦνται μὴ ἀφίκηται we are afraid they fled φοβούμεθα μὴ φύγωσιν he is afraid we stayed φοβεῖται μὴ μείνωμεν you (pl. so that I can learn what has happened. so that I can help you in your despair and despondency. I shall be grateful to you. 2. don’t (s. I am very eager to listen.) run 3. So that. if in your walk you go all the way to Megara.) stay 4. The gratitude would be twofold.) had conquered. Certainly. AR. so that when I have heard I can take counsel with you.

a. μὴ ἐπιθυμήσητε. 6 καίπερ δέον καίπερ + participle = although … δέον is the neuter singular of the participle of δεῖ. οὐκ ἐξόν Accusative absolute ‘it not being possible …’ 14 γράϕει Χαιρέδημος Note the change to present tense for vividness. Forget this matter. h. 3. βοηθητέον αὐτοὺς/αὐτοῖς. d. ἡμᾶς/ἡμῖν ἀκριβῶς σκεπτέον περὶ ταῦτα. Hold back. 2. the man may be disheartened. i. μὴ μνημονεύσητε πάντας τοὺς λόγους. 7 ἦν τότε. used impersonally ‘although it being necessary …’ (GE p. σοὶ/σὲ ἰτέον οἴκαδε. ὅτε … ‘There was at that time. μὴ παραλάβῃς τοὺς νεανίσκους. Tell the argument of the defence. Restrain yourself. #297. f. b. 16C Prevent the man. Page 196 1 ὅθεν ‘from where’. We must consider these things in detail. e. d. μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς. We are afraid that. Despise the gods. Remember all the arguments. c. 321. Be despondent. 10 ὡς τάχιστα See GE p. c. μὴ κατείπῃς τὸν τῆς ἀπολογίας λόγον. Be eager. μὴ κωλύσητε τὸν ἄνδρα. Take care (see that) you do not tell lies to the jurors about what happened. ‘the office finishing (going out)’. when …’ Note τότε and ὅτε. Take revenge on your friends. d. #296). a.214 Section 16C REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16A–B B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. ἵνα + subjunctive expresses purpose. I am afraid that Demosthenes did not save the men. τῷ ἀνδρὶ/τὸν ἄνδρα οἰστέον τὴν συμϕοράν. μὴ καταϕρονήσῃς τῶν θεῶν. a. You must make war. . e. οἴκαδε πεμπτέον σέ. It is necessary to send you home. ὑμᾶς/ὑμῖν πολεμητέον. μὴ τιμωρήσησθε τοὺς ϕίλους. I am dreadfully despondent in case my friend may not do this. c. ἵνα μάθῃς ‘so that you may learn’. μὴ ἐπιλάθησθε τούτου τοῦ πράγματος. μὴ ἐπίσχῃς. hearing this. j. Take the young men. 320. 13 ἐξῆν What verb does this come from? Imperfect of ἔξεστι. f. g. μὴ θῇ τὴν ψῆϕον. b. Cast your vote. 4–5 ἐξιούσης τῆς ἀρχῆς Genitive absolute. 14–15 ἵνα … προστάττωμεν καὶ ἀναγκάζωμεν Purpose clause. b. The man must endure the disaster. They must help. ὡς + superlative = ‘as … as possible’. this is the relative form of the interrogative πόθεν ‘from where?’. k. You must go home.

Chairedemos proposes a resolution so that we who have been appointed as trierarchs may order and compel those who had been trierarchs (whoever had not given it back) to give back the equipment. I received none of the equipment from him. tow and rope. there was no supply of equipment for the ships in the dockyard. Therefore there was great necessity for me to get the equipment so that I could prepare the ship and. as they were before. so that he too can prepare the ship. to hand over the trireme and its equipment to the person who is going to become trierarch. so that it was not possible to buy them. In addition to this. See GE p. And since it was not possible to buy them. 18 ἦν Back to the past tense.Exercises for section 16C 215 15 ὃς ἂν μὴ ἀποδιδῷ Indefinite clause: ‘whoever does not return them’. 286. so that it was necessary for the trierarchs to send out a rescue operation of triremes quickly. 19 δέον Accusative absolute again. For those who owed it had not given back the equipment. For I happened to be holding the office of trierarch. having prepared it. send it out as quickly as possible. when I was about to become a trierarch. great danger to the city because of the rebellion of the allies. ‘It being necessary …’ Translation for 16C I want therefore to tell you the origin of the enmity towards Theophemos (from where it arose) so that you may learn what happened and know that he wronged not only me but also the people and the Boule (Council). not in the subjunctive. and as trierarch I had to receive the equipment and the trireme from Theophemos. there was at that time. And the resolution orders us to get the equipment in whatever way we can so that we may prepare the ships as quickly as possible and send out the rescue mission. But although it was necessary for us to send out the ships as quickly as possible. among whom was Theophemos. in primary sequence. But although it was obligatory for Theophemos to hand over the equipment. ἐξὸν ἡμῖν ἀπιέναι it being possible for us to go away since we can go away . Since it was necessary for me to do this. there was not in the Piraeus an unlimited supply of sailcloth. Note that as the main verb is now in the past we are in historic (or secondary) sequence and so the verbs in the ἵνα clause which follows are in the optative mood. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16C THE ACCUSATIVE ABSOLUTE 16C: 1 1. #265. when his term of office expires. And moreover. I went to Theophemos in order to get the equipment. and the people who owed them had not given them back. for you know very well that it is necessary for someone who has been a trierarch.

c. a. προσῆλθον πρὸς τὴν βουλήν. οἱ τριήραρχοι οὐκ ἐδύναντο παρασκευάζειν τὰς ναῦς. I went to the Council. The trierarchs were not able to prepare the ships. βέλτιστος ὡς ἐλάχιστος ὡς σαφέστατος ὡς σωφρονέστατος ὡς φοβερώτατος ὡς ἀδικώτατος ὡς μέγιστος ὡς κάκιστος. Chairedemos proposes a resolution. χείριστος the best possible the least/smallest possible the clearest possible the most prudent possible the most frightening possible the most unjust possible the biggest/greatest possible the worst possible REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16C B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. δέον τοὺς ἄνδρας ἐκδοῦναι τὰς θυγατέρας it being necessary for the men to give their daughters in marriage since the men/husbands must give their daughters in marriage 16C: 2 ὡς ἄριστος. Then it is not possible for me to prepare the trireme. τοῖς παῖσιν ἐξὸν παίζειν it being possible for the children to play since the children are allowed to play 5. δέον ὑμᾶς θεραπεύειν τὰς γυναῖκας it being necessary for you to look after the women since you must look after the women 3. δέον ἡμᾶς παρασκευάζειν ὡς τάχιστα τὰς ναῦς. γράϕει Χαιρέδημος ψήϕισμα. It is necessary for the one who owes it to the city to give back the equipment to the one who is about to become trierarch. ἐγὼ ὡς τὸν Θεόϕημον προσῆλθον. I went to Theophemos. . It was not possible to buy any of the things needed in the Piraeus. b.216 Revision exercises for section 16C 2. οὐκ ἐξὸν ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ οὐδὲν πρίασθαι ὧν ἔδει. δόξαν/δοκοῦν μοι ποιῆσαι τοῦτο it seeming best to do this because I thought it best to do this 4. δέον τὸν ὀϕείλοντα τῇ πόλει τὰ σκεύη παραδιδόναι τῷ τριηραρχήσοντι. It was necessary for us to prepare the ships as quickly as possible. εἶτα οὐκ ἐξόν μοι τὴν τριήρη παρασκευάζειν. d.

5 Note the use of the imperfect. from somewhere else where Theophemos lived. Therefore I made my request and delayed for some days so that Euergos might tell Theophemos. ὅπως σώσειαν αὑτούς . going to Euergos. secondary – optative. and p. where the verb in the subordinate clause is indicative in primary sequence and optative in secondary sequence. having taken as many witnesses as possible. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16D PURPOSE CLAUSES 16D: 1 1. and taking an official from the board of officials. Having found out. #299. 6–7 ἠρόμην … πότερον … εἴη. Page 198 1 Note genitive absolute followed by accusative absolute followed by aorist participle agreeing with the subject of the verb. The woman came to take her.Exercises for section 16D 217 16D You have already met the idea of sequence of tenses in clauses in indirect speech introduced by ὅτι. #300. but Euergos did not give back the equipment. So. whenever the people who owe it do not return it. See GE p. 325. 286. 2 ἐκέλευoν αὐτὸν ϕράσαι ‘ordered him to tell’ (aorist infinitive). I asked him whether the property was shared or not. 323. ἵνα λάβοι αὐτήν 2. and when I asked. See GE p. I asked for the equipment and told him to tell Theophemos. ὁπότε + ἄν denotes an indefinite clause. I went to the house of Theophemos to see him. therefore. but kept abusing me. #265. 3 ὁπόταν ‘when(ever)’. the brother of Theophemos. ἀπεκρίνατο … ὅτι … εἴη Two clauses in indirect speech in secondary sequence with the verb in the subordinate clause in the optative. In purpose clauses (and indefinite clauses and fears for the future) the sequence of tenses is: primary – subjunctive. For there is a resolution of the Boule to get the equipment in whatever way we can. 10 ἦλθον … ἵνα ἴδοιμι Purpose clause in secondary sequence: ‘so that I might see him’. Translation for 16D But since Theophemos was not there and it was not possible for me to see him. The situation was continuing until the action in the next sentence. Euergos answered that the property was not shared and that his brother lived separately. I saw the men fleeing with the intention of saving themselves.

πρόσειμι πρὸς τὴν βουλὴν ἵνα ψήϕισμα γράϕωσιν. wherever he happened to be. Finding that he was not inside. 16E Notice GE p. καίπερ τὸν Θεόϕημον δέoν ἀποδοῦναι τὰ σκεύη. 10 εἴ τινας ἴδοι Indefinite clause in secondary sequence. ἵνα πείσαι αὐτήν 4. And when Theophemos arrived. representing a future indicative in direct speech. The man gave money to the woman in order to persuade her. μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς. the sequence being historic (secondary). whenever someone did not give back the equipment. #300 about indefinite clauses in primary and secondary sequence. Where shall we go to give the food to the poor? ὅπως διδῶμεν REVISION EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16D D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. 3. I asked where he was. 10–11 καλέσαντος δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ παρόντων μαρτύρων τῶν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ κληθέντων Genitive absolutes. I asked him for the register of the equipment and showed him the resolution of the Boule. ἦλθον πρὸς τὴν ϕίλου τινὸς οἰκίαν ἵνα πυθοίμην ὅπου οἰκοίη ὁ Θεόϕημος. 2 ὅπου ἂν νῦν γε τυγχάνῃ ὤν Primary sequence. which ordered me to get the equipment in whatever way I could. and Theophemos kept refusing. 4. 3 ὅπου ὢν τυγχάνοι Secondary sequence. I told the woman who answered to go after him. ἆρα ϕοβῇ μὴ αὖθις πάσχῃς τι ὑπὸ τούτων τῶν πονηρῶν. 325. 11–13 ἐκέλευον … ἢ … ἢ … ‘I ordered him … either to … or to …’ 13 ληψοίμην Notice the future optative. ἵνα μάρτυρές μοι εἶεν … Purpose clause in secondary sequence. ὦ βέλτιστε. here and later in this section. 5. but others of the trierarchs [did] too.218 Section 16E 3. wherever he now happened to be’. in secondary sequence it has the optative without ἄν. Note that in primary sequence the indefinite clause has subjunctive + ἄν. οὐ δύναμαι ἀναγκάζειν αὐτὸν ταῦτα ποιῆσαι. Aristarchos was in the process of making his demands. after the woman had fetched him. and the woman answered that ‘he was not inside. And indeed I was not the only one who acted in this way. Translation for 16E Having knocked at the door. . Page 199 1–2 Note the use of the imperfect. 2.

If he does not do this … εἰ μὴ ποιοίη τοῦτο… 2. wherever he was. Theophemos did not hand it over. οὐκ ἐπαύοντο ἑπόμενοι. a. 2. d. (ii) When he came in. so that they might be witnesses for me of what had been said. if he said that he did not owe the equipment. When(ever) I see him … ὁπότε ἴδοιμι αὐτόν… 3. And when the boy had summoned them. ἐϕοβούμην μὴ Εὔεργος οὐ δείξειε τὸ πρᾶγμα τῷ Θεοϕήμῳ. before I did anything else. I am afraid that Euergos may not explain the matter to Theophemos. (ii) The master ordered him to give back to the city whatever he happened to have. b. βούλεται κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη. (i) I had already found out that he happened to be married. (ii) I was asking the woman to fetch her master. κελεύω τὸν παῖδα καλέσαι τοὺς πολίτας. he used to see the woman sitting down. ἵνα τὴν τριήρη παρασκευάζῃ. and the register had been requested. a. d. They do not cease following so that they may learn what has happened. or to return the equipment. ἵνα τὰ γεγενημένα μάθοιεν. Who(ever) they order … ὅντινα κελεύοιεν… 4. . and when the witnesses summoned by him were present. If not.Revision exercises for section 16E 219 But when the resolution had been shown to him. I was telling the slave to summon the citizens. Therefore. ἵνα μάρτυρές μοι ὦσι τῶν λεχθέντων. so that they might be witnesses for me of what had been said. i(i) Whenever he came in. (i) The slave summoned all the citizens whom he could see from the road so that they could be witnesses. If you give me those things … εἴ μοι διδοίης ταῦτα… REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16E B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. He wanted to collect the equipment so that he could prepare the trireme. he saw the woman sitting on the altar. I ordered my slave to summon the citizens from the road. if he could see any. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16E INDEFINITES IN SECONDARY SEQUENCE 16E: 1 1. c. I began to request Theophemos again either himself to follow me to the Boule. When(ever) I learn … ἐπειδὴ μάθοιμι… 5. c. I said that I would take securities from him in accordance with the laws and the resolutions. (i) I asked the slave where his master was. b.

For indeed the Boule knew very well that once Theophemos was impeached he would be convicted and fined. #302 for the principal parts of ἁλίσκομαι. so that I might have a witness. I had found out that he was not married. I started to lead away the woman who had been standing at the door. gave back the city to the Aeginetans. 16F Page 200 2 ἑστηκυῖαν Perfect participle of ἵστημι: ‘standing’. I went to the Boule to show my bruises and to tell all that I had suffered while trying to fetch the equipment for the city. 8 πεπονθὼς ἦ This is the equivalent of the pluperfect indicative. having arrived in Aegina. having called those present to witness. and when the members of the Boule found out that the city had been offended and that I had been wronged. 9 ἐπεπόνθη This is the usual form of the pluperfect indicative. And before going in. #301. See GE p. 329. γεγαμηκὼς εἴη This is the perfect optative. having collected as many of them as he could. This convention is further illustrated in Section 17. and I had been struck by him. And Theophemos took her away from me. Therefore I was ordered by the Boule to impeach him on the grounds that he was committing a crime and hindering the expedition.220 Section 16F (ii) The slave was ordered to summon any citizens he saw from the road to be witnesses e. As I went in. made up of the perfect participle + the optative of εἰμί. 328. (ii) Lysander. ‘to be captured’ or ‘to be convicted’. Since. although he was ordered by me. (i) It seemed to us that each word we spoke about Love should be as beautiful as possible. Theophemos struck me on the mouth with his fist and I. Translation for 16F Since he was willing to do none of these things. being annoyed at what I had suffered and seeing what state I had been reduced to by Theophemos. Theophemos was convicted and fined. And although it was possible for him to . For the Boule considered that it was not I who had been insulted but itself and the people and the law. Then when the judgment was passed in the Boule. 10 ἁλῶναι See GE p. For the door happened to be open (to have been opened). but went into the house to get some security for the equipment. and I let the woman go. defended myself. then. the one who had gone to fetch him. 5 ἐπεπύσμην What tense is this? It would have been a gross breach of good manners and of social conventions for a man to enter another’s house without invitation if that house contained a wife. made up of the perfect participle + the imperfect indicative of εἰμί: ‘all I had suffered’. And the Boule. wanted him to be convicted and fined. the securities were taken away by Theophemos.

EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16F ἁλίσκομαι 16F: 1 1. I. ARISTARCHOS We must certainly do this if you want. Page 202 15 πῶς πρὸς σε διέκειτο ὁ Θεόϕημος. #304.) Let us stop therefore and sit in peace beside the Ilisos. was moderate and reasonable and agreed to a fine of twenty-five drachmas. Let us stop then.Section 16G 221 be fined five hundred drachmas. See GE pp. ‘until (ever) …’ 4–6 παυώμεθα. AR. APOLLODOROS . Of course. (This must be done if it seems good to you. ἕως ἂν … γένηται Note the subjunctives. and if I walk more. ἕως ἄν + subjunctive. Do you see that very tall plane tree? AP. let us remain until I recover from my weakness. #303. There is shade there and a slight breeze and grass to sit on. 2. it is a beautiful spot. 330. ‘let us cease’. and let us consider where we shall sit down. I shall find myself in a state of great distress. 15–16 τεκμαιρομένῳ Agrees with ἔμοιγε: ‘it seems to me inferring …’ Translation for 16G You were indeed moderate and reasonable about the things which Theophemos had done. AP. Let us go there then. AR. Lead on then. until I can recover myself from my weakness. so that we can sit and rest. 3. 5. Now that we have got here. ἔγνω βάντες ἁλοίη βῆναι γνῷ 16G ἔβη γνόντες βαίη γνῶναι βῇ ἑάλω ἁλόντες γνοίη ἁλῶναι ἁλῷ Page 201 4 παυώμεθα See GE p. until the heat becomes gentler. 330–331. διακεῖμαι + adverb describes someone’s attitude or state of mind. Aristarchos. AP. although I had been wronged. Would you lead on? By Hera. if we like. But why don’t we stop walking? For the heat is now stifling. καθιζώμεθα. ‘How was Theophemos disposed towards you? What was his attitude to you?’ κακῶς Answers πῶς in the previous sentence. 4.

Listen then. But naturally nothing prevents me from going through the story. Aristarchos. as it seems to me judging from the evidence of your despondency. 4. What [happened] after that? How was Theophemos disposed to you? (What was his attitude to you?) Badly. as you were saying. ἀκούσωμεν μὴ ἀπίωμεν λαβώμεθα στῶμεν μὴ δῶμεν ἕως ἄν ‘UNTIL’ 16G: 2 1. 5. . if nothing prevents you? Since it seems to me that I shall keep you here until you tell me everything. 6–8 More participles: παρασχόμενος … ὑποσχόμενος … ἐξηπάτησε … 9–10 Again: ζημιωθείς … προσελθὼν … ἐκέλευον … 11 ἀντὶ τοῦ καταδίκην ἀπολαβεῖν Here ἀντί + genitive is followed by the infinitive used as a noun: ‘instead of accepting the fine’. 3. so that you may learn more clearly. 5. won the impeachment case. But you. 2. 3. ἕως ἂν ὁρῶμεν τοὺς ἄνδρας until (such time as) we see the men ἕως ἂν ὑπισχνῆται ἀκούσεσθαι until (such time as) he promises to listen ἕως ἂν διδῶσι τὰ χρήματα until (such time as) they give the money ἕως ἂν παραλαμβάνητε τοὺς μάρτυρας until (such time as) you (pl. 2.) hand over the witnesses ἕως ἂν εὑρίσκω τὴν ναῦν until (such time as) I find the ship 16H Page 202 1 ἐνενικήκη Tense? 2–3 Notice the use of the participles in the narrative. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16G ‘LET US…’ (SUBJUNCTIVE) 16G: 1 1. 4. Why then do you not finish telling me the story. They match the order of events: ἐνθυμούμενος … βουλόμενος … ἔλαχε … ϕάσκων … (the main verb is underlined).222 Section 16H AR. until everything has been told.

was the start of the trouble. ἐφοβεῖτο μή τις ἐκφύγοι. 3. ἐὰν εἴπῃ. declaring that I had begun the blows at the door. you would persuade me. But Theophemos instead of collecting the fine went to my farm. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16F–H D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. But Theophemos. When I had incurred a fine in this way. παυώμεθα πορευόμενοι καὶ καθιζώμεθα. ᾖα ἵνα εἰσαγγείλαιμι τὸν μάρτυρα. 4. not many days later. who were persuaded to cast their vote for Theophemos. ἐνταῦθα μενοῦμεν ἕως ἂν ἐκ τῆς ἀσθενείας συλλέγωμεν ἡμᾶς αὐτούς. . 1. and promising that he would hand over [for torture] the body of the woman who had been standing at the door (which he has not done). Ι will listen. εἴ σοι πείθοιμι πείσοιο ἂν σύ. I kept quiet. ἐκεῖ καθιζώμεθα ἕως ἂν ἠπιώτερον γένηται τὸ πνῖγος. having produced lying witnesses. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16H SEQUENCE OF TENSES 16H: 1 φοβοῦνται μὴ αὐτοὑς ζημιώσῃ. 4. They are afraid that he may punish them. 3. not fearing that the jurors would condemn me. πρὶν οἰκάδε ἐπανιέναιι. 2. ἀκούω ἀκούσομαι If you speak. If I were to persuade you. For I least of all expected that I would be convicted. as they say. ἐπανῆλθον πρὸς τὴν βουλήν. Sentences 1. 2. 5. I went to summon the witness. I listen. going to Theophemos I asked him to accompany me to the bank to collect the fine. wanting to be revenged. but this. 5. For Theophemos at once took the fine very much to heart and. He was afraid that anyone might escape. τὸ ψήϕισμα ἐκέλευσε τοὺς τριηράρχους κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη ᾧ τρόπῳ ῥᾷστα δύναιντο. since I was innocent. Euergos his brother and Mnesiboulos his cousin. ὁπότε οἱ τριήραρχοι καταλάβοιέν τινα μὴ ἀποδιδόντα τὰ σκεύη. deceived the jurors.Revision exercises for section 16F–H 223 Translation for 16H I had in fact won the impeachment case. he brought a suit for assault against me.

Prose οὐκ ἐξὸν κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη. I told him to take over the ship from me as my successor. when you ought to be doing the same as the other trierarchs. I could refute his objection at once. corrupting the sailors and the marines. I went in immediately in front of the general and began to speak with him [i. and to pay me the expenses for the extra time that I had served. he said: ‘Who could endure your madness and extravagance.’ When I said this. But when I made this challenge. for it is no longer my business to be trierarch. καὶ αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔνδον ὄντα καταλαβών. if he objected to anything. and to pay me the expenses for the period which I had served as trierarch beyond my time. καὶ τῆς πολέως ἐν μεγάλῳ κινδύνῳ οὔσης. οἱ δὲ τριήραρχοι τῷ μὴ ἀποδίδοντι. and I went to him in the agora in Thasos. ἐϕοβούμην μὴ τὰ σκεύη οὐκ ἀποδιδοίη. I asked him to take over my ship from me. For I had written down all the expenses in detail. I answered him: ‘As for the sailors and the marines.e. When I challenged him in this way. ἐδείκνυον τὸ ψήϕισμα. you who alone of the trierarchs have your own private equipment and pay a great deal of money to the sailors? You have become a teacher of bad habits in the army. E – TEST EXERCISE 16 When this man arrived in Thasos. ὥστε ὁ μὲν Χαιρέδημος ψήϕισμα ἔγραψεν. εἴ τινα εὕροιεν. Take the ship. take the trireme yourself and provide sailors and marines for yourself who will sail with you without receiving any money.224 Revision exercises for section 16F–H 2. Polykles]. so that. he answered that his joint-trierarch had not come to the ship: ‘I will not therefore take over the ship on my own. and the marines. Polykles answered that he could not care less what I said (that there was no concern to him of what I said). ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν προσελθὼν πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Θεοϕήμου οἰκίαν.’ . τὴν βουλὴν ἔδει πράττειν τι ἵνα τριήρων βοήθειαν ὡς τάχιστα παρασκευάζοιμεν. Having found Polykles there and the trierarchs and their successors and some others of the citizens.’ When he said this. if you say they have been corrupted by me. I collected as many of the citizens as I could as witnesses. I wanted to calculate this with him in detail while witnesses of what had been spent were with me.

#309–310 Page 206 8 ᾖξαν This comes from the verb ᾄσσω ‘to dash’ or ‘to dart’. 338. Before I knew what had happened. ὅσα ἔτι ὑπόλοιπά μοι ἦν ‘all the furniture. An important item of grammar is the verb (ἀϕ)ἵημι (GE pp. 336. #308). Translation for 17A Theophemos then did not allow me to pay him the money. but going off. in secondary. look up (ἐκ) βάλλω in the list of irregular verbs on GE pp. i. ἕως (‘until’) (ever) can introduce an indefinite clause with.e ‘having been freed’ (GE p. 341. which were being pastured by the shepherd. This is the aorist passive participle.Section Seventeen: Private justice – trouble down at the farm This continues the story begun in Section 16. For he did not wait until I produced the money. in primary sequence. 10 ἐκβληθείσης δὲ τῆς θύρας Genitive absolute. 17A Page 205 1–2 ἕως τὰ χρήματα παρέχοιμι See GE p. See also GE p. ἐλευθέρα ἀϕειμένη: perfect passive participle. #308). Much of the syntax introduced continues to illustrate the primary – subjunctive. as much as was still left to me’. 22 ἕως εἰσέλθοιεν ‘until they came in’. There will be more about this after 17A. ἕως ἅλοιεν. Compare this with Hagnophilos’ punctilious attitude in 17B. Can you recognise the verb it comes from? If not. ‘having been released free’. secondary – optative pattern. 436–442 #389. #307. he took fifty soft-fleeced sheep of mine. #307. 15–16 Note the parts of ἀϕίημι. 336. 12 ἃ βούλοιντο Indefinite clause in secondary sequence: ‘whatever they wanted’. 10–11 εἰσελθόντες ἐπὶ τὴν γυναῖκά μου Notice the disgraceful intrusion into the women’s quarters. 336–339. Indefinite clause in secondary sequence. before the exercise on it. 11–12 πάντα τὰ σκεύη. See vocabulary. Theophemos had taken not only the sheep but also everything that was 225 . An indefinite clause in secondary sequence. ἄν + subjunctive and. optative without ἄν. See GE p.

my wife happened to be having breakfast with the children in the courtyard. and they went off. and I have lived there since I was a youth). Grammar ἵημι (stem ἑ) behaves exactly like τίθημι (stem θε) but it looks more complicated because its stem starts with a vowel instead of a consonant. (You may prefer to leave this until you have finished reading the whole section. While they were having breakfast in the courtyard. When all these things had been taken.) . whereas parts of εἰμί and εἶμι will appear as (e. she came back to me. she had lived with her husband. since she had been my nurse). and the shepherd along with them and then also a boy servant. thus in compounds the difference can be clearly seen. and to avoid confusing it with both εἰμί and εἶμι. where they lodge) when they heard the tumult and the shouting. And when the door had been broken down. they went to the house and broke open the door that leads into the garden. and with her was my old nurse. It was obligatory for me to look after her. taking whatever they liked. ἐτέθην εἵθην τεθείς ἑθείς It is worth taking a great deal of trouble to learn ἀϕίημι. Theophemos and Euergos went into the farm (I farm near the racecourse. Compare some of the tenses: Present Active Middle Participles τίθημι ἵημι τίθεμαι ἵεμαι τιθείς ἱείς Imperfect ἐτίθην ἵην ἐτιθέμην ἱέμην Future θήσω ἥσω θήσομαι ἥσομαι θήσων ἥσων Aorist ἔθηκα ἧκα ἐθέμην εἵμην θείς εἵς Aorist pass. since she was an old woman and there was no one to look after her. did not wait until they came in. these men charged in and found them and seized the furniture. and first of all they dashed at the household slaves.g. When she was freed by my father. But when her husband died. NB.) ἀπεῖναι or ἀπιέναι. But when the household slaves did not wait to be caught but escaped first (anticipated them escaping).226 Section 17A accompanying the herd. as for example in the infinitive ἀϕιέναι. εἰμί and εἶμι do not have rough breathings and ἵημι does. the rest of the women servants (for they were in the tower. When you have learned it. they rushed in on my wife and children. a kindly and loyal creature who was a freedwoman (for my father had freed her. In addition to this. and carried out all the furniture that was left to me in the house. but closed the tower before they charged it. elderly now. who was returning a bronze water jar that had been borrowed from a friend and was very valuable. 17A: 2. before they entered the house. try the following exercise. While the furniture was being seized by them.

4.) ought to have prayed until you were saved. ἀφῆκε ἄφες ἀφήσουσιν ἀφιέναι ἀφίεται ἀφέντας he let go let go! they will let go to let go he is being released having released ἀφέσθαι ἀφήσεις ἀφεῖντο ἀφείθη ἀφείκασιν ἀφιέμενοι ἀφεῖναι ἀφεθήσεται ἀφεθῆναι ἀφοῦ ἀφεῖσαι to release (for oneself) you (s. 2. 3. 3. θεῖσαι . τεθήσεται 18.) ἀφῇ to set up (for oneself) you (s. You (s. στήσασθαι 10. LET GO.) will let go they let go he/it was released they have released letting go to release/have released he/it will be released to have been released let go! having released They were fighting until they were victorious. δραμεῖν βούλονται ἕως ἂν στῆναι μὴ οἷοί τ’ ὦσιν. (ἀφ)ἵημι ‘RELEASE. 7. 5.) will give they placed it was set up they have given ἀφείη setting up (for oneself) m. ἔδει σε εὔχεσθαι ἕως σωθείης. δοῦ 20. ἔδωκε θές στήσουσιν διδοίη τιθέναι ἵσταται δόντας 8.Exercises for section 17A 227 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17A ἕως ‘until’ 17A: 1 1. δώσεις ἔθεντο ἐστάθη δεδώκασιν θείη ἱστάμενοι δοῦναι he gave put! they will set up ἀφιείη to place he is rising it is being set up having given (m. 5. They are willing to run until they are unable to stand. to give/have given it will be placed to have been set up give! having put (f. 2. 11. 6. σταθῆναι 19. SHOOT’ 17A: 2 1. We are staying until he comes. 12. θῇ 9. 14.acc. 15. 4. ἐμάχοντο ἕως νικῷεν. βουλεύονται ἕως ἂν συγχωρήσωσιν. They are debating until such time as they agree. μένομεν ἕως ἂν ἔλθῃ. 13.

which here means ‘valued’ or ‘reckoned’. part. (is releasing / has released (perf. #311. ‘lap’. 342–343. ‘so … that. 2–5 The words in parenthesis explain how Aristarchos’ wife knew the facts which she is speaking about. The slave girl has been set free by my father. pass. ‘a bay in the coastline’. with subjunctive + ἄν in primary. Hence it can mean ‘breast’. (having been set free / having been released (aor. Page 208 7 οὐ παύονται πρὶν ἂν λάβωσι For πρίν meaning ‘until’ see GE p. It follows the normal pattern for indefinite clauses. 9 εἰς τὸν κόλπον The basic meaning of κόλπος is ‘a curve’.)) (being about to be set free / being about to be released (future passive participles f. pass. Latin sinus. 13–14 οὕτω πονηροὶ ἦσαν ὥστε … ‘They were so wicked that …’ οὕτως … ὥστε …. f.228 Section 17B EXERCISE FOR 17A B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. and optative without ἄν in secondary sequence. a. See GE pp. 342.) / was releasing / will release) c. act./m. The slave girl. as a result …’ This expresses a result clause. married a man who had also been released by his master (perfect passive participles). 10–11 οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν γραῦν ὥστε … ‘They treated the old woman in such a way that …’. She knew the sheep had been taken because a neighbour had told her.)) d./m. The Athenians released the slaves who had fought in that seabattle. διατίθημι + adverb is a common idiom. (have released / are releasing / will release / were releasing) 17B Page 207 2 τετιμημένα Perfect passive participle from τιμάω./m.)) (while being set free / while being released (present passive participles f. (was set free (aor. and she knew that the money was at the bank because she had heard it from Aristarchos. 10 ἀϕείλοντο What verb does this come from? Try ἀϕαιρέω. See GE . ‘the fold of a garment’. #313. cf.) / will be set free / is being set free / was being set free) b. My father released the slave girl. having been set free by my father.

who is my neighbour. . which are equal in value to the fine. But the nurse. so that they should not take it. See GE p. #309. particularly as you also have the value of the fine. there is a genitive absolute. they did not stop until they had taken very many things. And they were going away not only taking my furniture. 19–21 Notice that Hagnophilos.) ‘And the money is waiting for you at the bank. When the neighbours’ servants heard the noise and the shouting. εἴη The optative is used because this is indirect speech in secondary sequence.’ (For she had heard this from me. #314–317. going into the other road. 341.’ This represents an unfulfilled condition in past time (ἄν + aorist indicative). They were so shameless that they did not stop trying to strangle the old woman and beating her until she fell to the ground. and then they took the cup from the fold of her dress. My wife told them not to do this. summoned by Anthemion. εἰσῆλθεν ἄν ‘If the master had been present he would have gone in. when she saw them inside. if the master had been present. and seeing Hagnophilos passing. saying that the furniture was hers and was valued as part of her dowry. as if he were a household slave. And she had scratches on her throat. Some of them called to the passers-by from their own roof-tops. he saw the furniture being carried out and Euergos and Theophemos coming out of my house.’ (For one of the neighbours had knocked on the door and reported this. they saw my house was being plundered by them.Section 17B 229 pp.’ Although my wife said this. seeing her. snatched it away and treated the old woman so badly that her arms and wrists were blood-stained when she was pinioned and dragged along by them. Here ἕως is followed by the indicative because this is a definite time (not an indefinite time). 24–25 ἕως … εἶπεν ‘until he told them’. but they carried out the furniture from the rest of the house. told him to stand by. Translation for 17B So they did not get in there. one of my neighbours. The use of indicative shows that the result actually happened. observes the conventions and will not enter Aristarchos’ house while he is absent. 345–346. and was being throttled by them and her chest was bruised. and put it in the fold of her dress. in contrast with the unprincipled brothers. but. But Theophemos and Euergos. but also leading my son. he would have gone in). his brother.) ‘Therefore do not take the rest of the furniture before my husband returns with the fine. but instead of the ‘if’ clause. παρόντος δὲ τοῦ κυρίου. took the cup which was lying beside her from which she had been drinking. being in Anthemion’s farm. And Hagnophilos came. until Hermogenes. met them and said that he was my son. and others. and said that ‘You have the fifty sheep and the boy and the shepherd. but he did not enter my house (for the master of the house was not present.

BE TREATED’ 17B: 2 1. Before I left my house. indicative shows it happened.n. 4. e.’ d. until such time as he falls Indefinite in primary sequence. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17B B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. WHILE’ and πρίν ‘UNTIL’ 17B: 1 until he fell. διάκειμαι ‘TREAT. Nos. . 3 and 5 might change in poetry by dropping the ἄν. optative shows this must be in secondary sequence. διετίθετο he was treated διέκειτο 2. διατίθεσθe you (pl. but could equally well be middle. I was in the Piraeus while my house was being robbed. b. διατίθημι. ἡ γραῦς κακῶς διέκειτο διὰ τὸ συγκοπῆναι.) are being treated /be treated! διακεῖσθε 5 διατίθενται they are being treated διακεῖνται NB. until he fell Used definitely. The woman asked Theophemos not to take the furniture until her husband returned. 1. before falling πρίν + infinitive. διατιθέμενοι being treated (m. c. διατιθεῖτο optative διακέοιτο 4. 2. said the neighbour. until such time as we fall Indefinite in primary sequence. The slave girls stayed in the tower until the men went away. ‘But do not ask this either’. 2.230 Revision exercises for section 17B EXERCISES FOR 17B ἕως ‘UNTIL. a. 5.) διακείμενοι 3. The old woman was in a bad way because she had been beaten up. a. I had told my wife that the money was lying at the 3. All the διατίθημι items have been treated as passive. and I did not go home until the things that had happened were reported to me there. ‘For these men are violent and will not cease plundering the house until they have taken everything away. therefore in the past. should fall Used indefinitely.

346–347. hexagon. #314–317 for the use of ὥστε + infinitive to express a result clause: ‘in such a state that (as a result) she was in danger of her life’. Page 210 11 μεθ᾿ ἑτέρων ὁμοίων αὑτῷ ‘with others like himself’.Section 17C 231 b. 9 κακά με πολλὰ εἶπεν Note that κακὰ λέγειν. The woman told Theophemos that the money was lying in the bank. ‘ordered him to …’ 8 ὃν βούλοιντο Why is the optative mood used here? See GE p. ordinal and adverb forms. in the fold of her dress. takes a double accusative: ‘to speak bad words [to] someone’. and the thing heard (the happenings) are in the accusative. 3 τὰ ἐκπεϕορημένα Perfect passive participle. also μύριοι and myriads. Note that αὑτῷ = ἑαυτῷ (the reflexive form) and so has a rough breathing. 345–346. Cf. ‘to abuse someone’. 17C Page 209 1 τὰ γεγενημένα This is the neuter plural of the perfect participle of γίγνομαι. decimal. 3–4 τὴν γραῦν οὕτω διακειμένην ὥστε … See GE pp. d. See GE pp. 17 τὰ ἡρπασμένα What participle? What verb? Try ἁρπάζω. 342–343. ‘the having happened things’.’ 6–8 ἐκέλευον δ᾿ αὐτὸν … ἀπολαμβάνειν … ἀκολουθεῖν … θεραπεύειν … εἰσάγειν … ἐκέλευον is followed by a series of infinitives. 15–16 This might be the moment to learn the numerals at GE pp. ἡ γραῦς ἐνέθηκεν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τὸ κυμβίον ὅ παρέκειτο αὐτῇ. ‘He heard the words of the woman. The old woman put the cup. #313 for the relationship between διατίθημι and διακεῖμαι. You will find useful resemblances to Latin and to mathematical terms (pentagon. c. NB. kilometre) as well as correspondence between the cardinal. octagon. like κακὰ ποιειν (53). 325. Θεόϕημος καὶ Eὔεργος οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν γραῦν ὥστε ὕϕαιμοι ἐγένοντο oἱ βραχίονες. Theophemos and Euergides treated the old woman in such a way that her wrists were blood-stained. #318. . ἡ γυνὴ εἶπε τῷ Θεοϕήμῳ ὅτι τὸ ἀργύριον κεῖται ἐπὶ τῇ τραπέζῃ. which was lying beside her. Note that ὥστε + the indicative stresses that the result actually happened. #300 for indefinite clauses in secondary sequence. 4–5 καὶ ἀκούων τῆς γυναικὸς τὰ γενόμενα Remember that after ἀκούω the source of the sound (his wife) is in the genitive.

went off taking my furniture. While I was saying this and earnestly entreating him. Euergos. Grammar Don’t forget to learn the numerals. But this Euergos immediately set out from the city with others like himself to go to my farm. three hundred and thirteen drachmas and two obols. You should be able to recognise the participle from the context.232 Section 17C 17–18 οὐκ ἔϕη ἀποδώσειν … ‘He said that he would not give back …’ Note the position of οὐ. had been carried down by me because of our need. Translation for 17C Well then. the moment the fine had been paid. a messenger came to me. I told him first to accept the fine and to follow (me) to the bank. Theophemos got angry and abused me vigorously (lit. It is always placed before ϕημί (rather than before the infinitive). and. but I paid the fine at once. GE pp. But Theophemos was so grasping that he took the fine and kept the sheep and the slaves and the furniture. meaning ‘He refused …’ or ‘He denied …’ 20 εἰσεληλυθότα Can you recognise this? If not. I was very angry and went to Theophemos on the next day at dawn in the city. 23 οἴχοιτο Why is the optative used here? Because it is indirect speech in secondary sequence. For I did not know that Euergos had gone to my house on that day. and hearing from my wife what had happened. said many bad things to me). taking witnesses. #389.436–442. but seeing all the things that had been carried off from the house. a stonemason who was working on the monument near by. 21 οὕτως ἐπλεονέκτει … ὥστε … A result clause is introduced: ‘was so grasping that…’ 22 ἐκτετεισμένης τῆς δίκης Genitive absolute. look up the principal parts of ἔρχομαι. whatever had been in the tower on the day before and did not happen to be outside. then to look after the old woman whom they had beaten and to bring in whatever doctor they liked. when these events were reported to me in the Piraeus by neighbours. . I went to the country. saying that Euergos had gone away again. and I paid the fine. one thousand. But then Theophemos came along with reluctance. but I was not now able to catch these men (for I did not arrive until they had gone). after carrying off the rest of the furniture from the house. check ἐκτίνω in the vocabulary. and the old woman in such a state that she was in danger of her life. and I asked him to give back the sheep and the slaves and the furniture which had been seized by him. Meanwhile I was paying the money to Theophemos. breaking open the door (which they had broken open on the previous day as well). I made those present witnesses of this reply. causing delays and saying that he wanted to get witnesses himself. in the presence of many witnesses. If not. The remaining furniture. but Theophemos refused to give them back to me (said he would not give them back to me) .When he gave this answer.

coming into the shrine. just as ὥστε + infinitive is the commonest way to express result in Greek. Note that GE pp. The fellow reached such a pitch of impiety as to come into the shrine and drag a suppliant away from the altar. ὥστε μὴ δίκην διδόναι. ἐδυνήθην See GE p. 1. They do everything so as not to pay the penalty. 17D Page 211 1 Note that ἔδει is past: ‘What then was I to do?’ or ‘What ought I to have done?’ 3–4 συνεκόπη Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. ὥστε μὴ αἰσχυνέσθαι εἰς τὴν γυναῖκα εἰσιόντες. This may be useful for the exercise. while ὥστε + indicative states a matter of fact and therefore has negative οὐ. second aorist passive (i. 4–5 ἐβουλήθη. Those men were so wicked that they (actually) beat the woman and took away the cup from her. #314–317 suggest that ὥστε + infinitive should be translated by ‘so as to’ and ὥστε + indicative by ‘so that’. #324 for a list of deponent verbs which have their aorists in passive form. 6 ἕκτῃ oὔσῃ ἡμέρᾳ Dative expressing a point of time: ‘on the sixth day’. d.e. The men were wicked enough to beat the woman and take away the cup from her. Those men were so abominable as not to be ashamed at going in to my wife. ὕστερον ἤ ‘later than …’. 350. b.Section 17D 233 EXERCISE FOR SECTION 17C RESULT CLAUSES B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX Note that ὥστε + infinitive has negative μή. ‘after …’ . a. which is the commonest way to express result in English. Those men were so abominable that they were (actually) not ashamed to rush in to my wife. and the distinction between the ‘potential’ and the ‘actual’ result is a valid one. The fellow reached such a pitch of impiety that. 345–346. ὥστε εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἱκέτην ἀϕελκύσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ βωμοῦ. but in practice it will often sound more natural to translate ὥστε + infinitive by ‘so that’. no θ). he (actually) dragged a suppliant away from the altar. ὥστε τύπτειν τὴν γυναῖκα και ἀϕελέσθαι ἀπ᾿ αὐτῆς τὸ κυμβίον. They are doing everything so that they do not (as a result) pay the penalty. c.

Purpose clause in secondary sequence. if nothing else. bear the tragedy as easily as you can. ὅ τι ποιητέον ‘what must be done’. In addition to this I recalled the goodwill of the woman and that she had died because she would not give up the cup. #305. take care that you do not make a public denunciation of anyone by name.’ . Therefore Aristarchos could not legally bring a case against Theophemos and Euergos for her murder. and that you do not bring a suit for murder before the king archon. 9 τό τε ὁρμηθῆναι αὐτούς … καὶ ἐλθεῖν τό is followed by two infinitives used as nouns with the subject in the accusative: ‘the fact that they had charged … and that they had come …’ εἰς τοῦτο ἀσελγείας ἐλθεῖν ὥστε … ‘to reach such a pitch of depravity that …’ Literally ‘to reach this [point] of depravity that …’ See GE pp. and the fine had been paid? But then. But when Theophemos was not willing and I could not persuade him. I ordered Theophemos to look after the old woman who had been beaten and to bring in whatever doctor he wished. ‘because she would not give up the cup’. but your wife and children. and where should I have turned. But yesterday. See GE p. But having purified yourself on behalf of your household and yourself. #317. All he could do was to go through a ritual of purification to free himself and his household from the pollution of the death. The old woman was neither family nor slave. #321. Translation for 17D What should I have done. my old nurse died. nor is she a slave. εὐλαβήθητι μή … ‘take care lest …’ The construction is the same as after a verb of fearing. from what you say. and take vengeance in any other way you like. the old woman was in danger of her life. 12 διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀϕεῖναι Once again the infinitive is used as a noun: ‘owing to the fact that she did not give up the cup’. the officers gave this advice: ‘Since you yourself were not present. 316. 345–346. 16 The case for prosecution could only be brought by a relation or the master of the deceased. on the sixth day after they had charged into the house. the fact that they had charged into the farm and reached such a pitch of depravity that they had not been ashamed to burst in on my wife and children. I was at once very angry. 349. and since other witnesses did not appear for you. For the woman is not one of your family. I brought in a doctor whom I had used for many years. and I went early (as I have said) to the officers to find out what should be done about this. and try to think up some other means of vengeance. and to carry off the furniture. 332. since the furniture had been carried off.234 Section 17D 7–8 ἵνα εἰδείην ‘so that I might know’. 15 εὐλαβήθητι Aorist passive imperative. and I told them all that had happened. Apollodoros. See GE p. Having heard the story from me. #293 and p. and to beat up the old woman for the sake of a cup.

βῆθι 17E 3.’ 5 τί δρῶμεν Why is the subjunctive used here? 6 σκοπῶμεν ‘Let us consider’. στήτω 4. What effect does it have? 7–8 The desire to inflict vengeance on one’s enemies was regarded as natural and proper by the majority of people in the ancient world. 4–5 οὐ γὰρ οὕτω τούτους μισῶ ὡς ἐμαυτὸν φιλῶ For the use of correlatives see GE pp.) let them be punished be taken (pl. 351–352. 351. ‘I do not hate them in such a way as I like myself. φαθί 5. Otherwise it brings in as much as it can of the syntax that you have learned in Sections 16 and 17. #327).) be honoured (s. γένωμαι All these are deliberative subjunctives. the deliberative subjunctive (GE p. or Reference Grammar 404. (Socrates was unusual in taking the opposite view that it is never right to do wrong. Make sure that you have digested it and fully understand it all. 351. even in retaliation. ἄν + optative expresses potential: ‘could’ or ‘would’. #325–327). Page 212 1 ποιήσω. μὴ φοβηθῇς μή … ‘Don’t be afraid lest …’ μή + aorist subjunctive expresses the prohibition. See GE p. 2 χρῶμαι χράομαι + dative means ‘to use’ or ‘to treat someone’. and #293.) . κολασθέντων 3. γνῶτε 2. 7 δεινὸν ἂν εἴη Note the ἄν. ‘What am I to do?’. and correlatives (GE pp. γράφητε 17D: 2 let him/her be set free (s. 3 οὐδ᾿ ἄν … ‘Nor would I dare to lie even if I knew well that …’ Here you need to understand ‘dare to lie’ repeated from the previous line. #325. λήφθητε 4. and the second μή introduces the fear for the future with its verb in the subjunctive in primary sequence (optative in secondary): GE #292. #328. ‘Where am I to turn?’ etc. λυθήτω 2. 2–3 οὕτως … ὥστε … + infinitive indicates result.’ ‘I do not hate them as much as I like myself.Section 17E 235 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17D MORE IMPERATIVES 17D: 1 1. 351–352. τράπωμαι.) 1. Here ‘I do not know what to do with myself’ (GE p. τιμήθητι 5. γνώτω This section introduces two new pieces of syntax.) be written (pl. 351. #328).

Translation for 17E So be it. Consider then what we are to do. ἐὰν θεὸς ἐθέλῃ ‘If god is willing. What am I to do? Where am I to turn? What will become of me? For I do not know what to do with myself. #282.’ ἵνα βουλευσώμεθα Why the subjunctive? It is the verb in a purpose clause in primary sequence. and #206–207. #294 for verbal nouns expressing obligation. You have the story. Come to my house tomorrow at dawn. if you are not sure: GE #198–199. 457. if God wills it. my excellent friend. and I agree that I must do nothing before I have consulted with you. AP. I will come to you tomorrow. ARISTARCHOS . ἀϕικοῦ What part of the verb is this? Revise aorist imperatives. and do not be afraid that I won’t share your enthusiasm. the Greek for ‘Do please come’ would be ‘Come and don’t do otherwise. For I do not dislike them as much as I like myself.’ ‘Not even a dog should be wandering about. nor would I do so. please come (and don’t do otherwise). But you act thus for me.236 Section 17E 10 11 12 12–13 13 16 16–17 In general. AR. πρὶν ἂν συμβουλεύωμαι For πρίν meaning ‘until’ see GE #311–312 and compare this with indefinite clauses in general. my good friend. even if I knew that I would convict my enemies of doing wrong. For surely I would not be so foolish as to dare to lie to the jurors. by the Gods. So it is necessary for me most of all to help you in your perplexity. Let us be going. See GE Reference Grammar p. #402. ποίησον. I am delighted by what you say. Apollodoros. καὶ μὴ ἄλλως ποιήσῃς Literally this means ‘Don’t do otherwise’. But let us do this later and resume our talk. See GE #298–299 or Reference Grammar #399. and. APOLLODOROS Let us consider together. χάριν εἴσομαι What tense of οἶδα is this? ποιώμεθα. Thus a friend could be expected to give all possible help in making plans for revenge. AR. so that we can take counsel about these very things. not even a dog should be wandering about now.g.’ See GE p. ἀναλάβωμεν What mood and why? οὐ κυνὶ πλανητέον ‘It ought not to be wandered by a dog. then. For indeed it would be a terrible thing for a good friend not to share his friends’ desire to be revenged on their enemies. 304–305. Reference Grammar p. AP. but it is frequently used to beg someone to do what you suggest: e. For it is raining. The idea comes from the opening of Menander’s Misoumenos. 317.’ For future conditions see GE pp. Indeed I shall be grateful to you. Let us do this. #398. vengeance was just as much a matter of honour for the man in the street as for the Homeric hero. 460. and for conditions in general. for sharing my enthusiasm.

3. ‘ἆρ’ οὐκ ἤδη πεντήκοντα ἔχετε πρόβατα. like most people. If they were to see us. ἔϕη. then some men of that time were so astounded and listened with such delight that while singing they neglected food and drink and did not SOCRATES . But if they see us talking and sailing uncharmed past them as if they were the Sirens. τὸν ἐμὸν υἱὸν ἦγον ἕως γείτων τις εἶπεν ὅτι υἱὸς οὐ δούλου ἀλλὰ πολίτου εἴη. But when the Muses were born and song appeared. ‘μὴ τὰ σκεύη λάβητε’. perhaps they would be pleased and grant us the gift which they have from the gods to give to men. as it seems). to use a subordinate clause instead of a participle. ἡ δὲ ἐμὴ γυνὴ ὀργισθεῖσα. 2. 2. ἐκινδύνευσα οὕτως ὀργισθῆναι ὥστε τὸν Θεόϕημον αὐτὸς παίειν. certainly we have the time. πάντ᾿ ἀκούσας. οὕτως ὠλιγώρουν ὥστε εἰσελθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν ἐκϕορεῖν τὰ σκεύη. singing and talking to one another.Revision exercises for section 17 237 REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17 D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ἐκέλευσα ἀκολουθεῖν ἐμοὶ ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν ἵνα τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἐνταῦθα κείμενον συλλάβῃ. I am afraid that you may appear to be uncultured if you are ignorant of such matters. It is said that once upon a time cicadas were men. And at the same time the cicadas seem to me to be watching us. For I really am unaware of it. What am I to do? It is clear that I must tell you. at midday not talking but sleeping and being bewitched by them through idleness of thought.’ οἱ δὲ οὐκ ἀκούσαντες τῆς γυναικὸς ταῦτα λεγούσης. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα. it seems (lit. they would rightly laugh at us. as it seems. before the Muses existed. for example. there is leisure. ἄγγελός τις προσελθὼν πρὸς τὸν Πειραιᾶ ἐπήγγειλεν ἐμοὶ τὰ γεγενημένα. It is quite possible. PHAEDRUS What is the gift? Don’t keep it a secret. αἱ θεράπαιναι οὐκ ἔμειναν ἕως ἅλoιεν. Sentences 1. πάντα λαβόντες ἀπῆλθον. although it is proper to call you a lover of music and literature. SOC. τῇ δὲ ὑστεραίᾳ. 5. ἐγὼ δέ. περιμένετε δή· οὐ γὰρ δεῖ ὑμᾶς ἀπελθεῖν πρὶν ἂν ἐπανελθῇ ὁ ἐμὸς ἀνήρ. my dear Phaedrus. ὠργίσθην ὅτι ὑβρισταὶ ὄντες οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν τίτθην ὥστε περὶ ψυχῆς ἐκινδύνευεν. regarding us as slaves who sleep like sheep round the spring. or to choose a different Greek word in some places. For. TEST EXERCISE 17 Let us talk then. Prose There are a several alternative ways of translating the English into Greek. οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο ἐκϕοροῦντες τὰ σκεύη ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας πρὶν πάντα ἁρπάσειεν (ἁρπάζοιεν). προσελθὼν πρὸς αὐτόν. 4.

for many reasons we must have some conversation and we must not sleep in the middle of the day. provides an essential list of irregular verbs and their principal parts (ultimately you should make it your goal to know all these by heart). # 390–391 # 392–394 # 396–406 . receiving this gift from the Muses. but that without food or drink they should sing until they died. they should tell them which of men honoured the Muses. adjectives. that they should need no food. We must indeed make conversation.(ὥς). verbs. # 352–388 # 389 has tables of nouns. notice that they were dying. From now on you may find it increasingly useful to use the Reference Grammar. gives a summary of the main syntactical constructions. Therefore.238 Revision exercises for section 17 ΡΗ. and after that. gives lists of prepositions and particles. going to the Muses. participles and infinitives. And from these men the race of cicadas later sprang. give uses of ὡς. pronouns.

Protagoras 320c–323a. νέμει. into whose mouth he puts the speech. and also that the aorist stem of νέμω is νειμ-.Section Eighteen: How Zeus gave justice to men This passage is reproduced unadapted from Plato. The introduction to this section in Reading Greek is important. aorist. νέμων Note the repetitions. the other two elements. The style is not typical of Plato. the gods formed them within the earth out of a mixture (having mixed) of earth and fire and of the 239 .) 6–9 Note the careful patterning of the phrases: τοῖς μέν … τοὺς δέ …. fire and water. though normal in Homer. νείμαντος. τοὺς δέ … τοῖς δέ … (ABBA) followed by ἃ μὲν γὰρ σμικρότητι ἤμπισχε … ἃ δὲ ηὖξε μεγέθει … 10 καὶ τἆλλα = καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ‘and he assigned the other qualities also …’ Translation for 18A There was once a time when gods existed but mortal creatures did not. It is likely that he is here imitating the style of the sophist Protagoras.) 5–6 νεῖμαι. Here the article is used as a demonstrative pronoun. but the iambic rhythms also suggest that the myth may be based on a long established story which had been told often in verse. 2 χρόνος εἱρμαρμένος ‘allotted’ in the sense of ‘allotted by destiny’. γῆς ἔνδoν ‘within the earth’. ὅσα πυρὶ καὶ γῇ κεράννυται ‘as many as are mixed with fire and earth’. 6 ἐπίσκεψαι Can you recognise this? What kind of imperative is it? (2nd s. perhaps in tragedy. This refers to air and water. 18A Page 216 1 The verb ‘to be’ is often used in the sense of ‘to exist’. it is a fascinating passage which describes the creation of the world and the social necessity for man of possessing δίκη and αἰδώς (a sense of right and a moral awareness of others and their response to one’s actions). (Some Greek philosophers believed that all things were composed of four elements. ‘fated’. This is rare in Attic Greek. earth. Whatever its origins. When the appointed time came for these also to be born (time of birth). air. 3 τῶν = ἐκείνων.

some with hooves and some with tough and bloodless skin. This is the subject of ὑπάρχοι. These he made less fertile. Steroids thicken your physique. to whom he gave an unarmed nature. those whom he enlarged in size.e. they ordered Prometheus and Epimetheus to equip them and assign powers suitable to each one. pl. What part of the verb is ἰοῦσιν? 4 τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ‘these same things (i. ‘birth’. while . balancing everything in this way. ‘solid’. clothing them with thick hair or tough skins. Next he provided different sorts of food for them. and the root ϕθορ as in διαϕθορά ‘destruction’. πολυ-γονία These should be guessable. ‘And when I have done it’. 8 ὀλιγο-γονία. and he assigned the other qualities also. he began to distribute the powers. He planned these things. Epimetheus asked Prometheus [to allow him] to do the distributing himself.108) also points out that animals that are preyed on reproduce rapidly. 2 στερεοῖς ‘thick’. In his distribution. Cf. δέρμασιν Cf. skins)’. γονstands for ‘race’. To those on whom he bestowed smallness. διαϕθείρω. Translation for 18B When he had provided enough means of escape for them from mutual slaughter. 18B Page 218 1 ἀλληλοϕθοριῶν This is made up of two words: ἀλλήλους which means ‘One another’. some he armed with weapons. And there were some to whom he gave the flesh of other animals for their food. Remember that a n. for some fruit from the trees. taking care that no species should be destroyed. but to the weaker he gave speed. εἰς εὐνὰς ἰοῦσιν ‘for them going to bed’. he protected by that very quality. the same skins should serve as individual and natural coverings for each one. ‘family’. ‘dermatitis’. and for some roots. ‘you review it’. he gave some creatures strength without speed. he devised some other power for their protection. ‘dermatology’. ‘pachyderm’. for some grass from the earth. Herodotus (3. he contrived comfort against the seasons sent from Zeus. and he planned that when they went to bed. he said. ‘epidermis’. stereophonic sound is ‘dense’ or ‘thick’. 6–7 ἔστι δ᾿ οἷς ἔδωκεν … ‘and there were some to whom he gave …’ This use of ἔστι + relative pronoun is a fairly common idiom.240 Section 18B things that are compounded with fire and earth. 7. subject has a singular verb. sufficient to ward off the winter’s cold and capable of withstanding also the summer’s heat. while for others. The root γεν-. ὥρας ‘hours’ or ‘seasons’. he allotted winged flight or an underground dwelling. 3 Notice ἱκανοῖς μέν … δυνατοῖς δέ … and understand a repeat of ἀμῦναι in the second phrase. 5 ἄλλοις ἄλλας ‘different foods for different creatures’. Having thus persuaded him. And when they were ready to bring them to the light. And he shod them too.

Athene is the goddess of wisdom. ‘in as much as’. Prometheus comes …’ 6–7 ἀπορίᾳ οὖν σχόμενος … ἥντινα σωτηρίαν … εὕρoι See note on line 3 above. in fact. It is difficult to find an adequate translation. Page 220 13 ἐϕιλοτεχνείτην This is a dual. 356. two hands. e. See GE p. and in nouns and adjectives. 356. Translation for 18C Now. #330. But the human race was still left over for him. thus conserving the species (providing safety for the race). without any . he did not notice that he had used up all the powers on the animals (he escaped his own notice having used up the powers).g. Hephaistos is the god of fire and the master-craftsman. 9–10 Notice the contrast between τὴν περὶ τὸν βίον σοϕίαν and τὴν πολιτικήν. τέχνη covers both the skill of the craftsman and the creative genius of the artist. agree with σοϕίαν. 18C Page 219 1 ἅτε + participle means ‘since’. as here. #329. 8–9 ἀμήχανον … γενέσθαι ‘for it was impossible for it (αὐτὴν = τὴν ἔντεχνον σοϕίαν) to be possessed (κτητήν) by anyone (τῳ = τινί) or to be useful (χρησίμην) without fire’. It is worth looking at the pattern of the duals. 2 τὰ ἄλογα ‘the speechless ones’. he made more fertile. and so this phrase encompasses both meanings. ἀποροῦντι δὲ αὐτῷ ἔρχεται Προμηθεύς ‘to him being in doubt.’ See GE p. The dual can be used in verbs. Man now has the skills to stay alive. The power of speech is what distinguishes man from beasts. See GE pp. καταναλώσας ἀναλίσκω (ἀναλωσ-) means ‘I spend’ or ‘I expend’. possibly ‘technical knowledge’ would suit the context best here. In addition. 356–358. but has not yet acquired social skills which enable him to live in a community. and so both their attributes are reflected in the phrase. since Epimetheus was not particularly brilliant. but it is not essential to learn them by heart. #331–332.Section 18C 241 those on whom they fed. when two people or things are the subject. thus it does. 3 ἠπόρει ὅ τι χρήσαιτο This is a deliberative question in secondary sequence: ‘What am I to use?’ becomes ‘He was in doubt what he was to use. a chariot team or. 10 ταύτῃ ‘in this way’. 8 τὴν ἔντεχνον σοϕίαν ἔντεχνον is a compound adjective and has only two terminations. a couple. and so τὰ ἄλογα becomes the normal word for ‘beasts’. You will probably be able to recognise them when you meet them. usually when they are a pair.

unshod. but it can mean ‘one’s portion in life’. without a bed and without weapons. being at a loss to find any protection for man. English ‘sporadically’. and cattle would make them like cattle. 7 δημιουργική Α δημιουργός is a craftsman (from δῆμος and ἔργον). had later on to stand trial for theft. Men had to live in scattered groups because they had not the πολιτικὴ τέχνη to live peacefully and cooperatively in cities (or to organise an army). he gave them to man. man imagines gods in his own image: ‘But if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could draw and make works of art with their hands as men do. The verb in the optative shows that this is an indefinite clause. therefore. hence ‘destiny’. ‘doom’. . 2 θεoὺς ἐνόμισε Here νομίζω means ‘to acknowledge’. and he did not know what to do. It can also mean ‘that which is rightly one’s portion’. thanks to Epimetheus. 9–10 ὅτ’ οὖν ἀθροισθεῖεν ‘whenever they gathered together’. so the story goes. just like the body that each species possesses. ἅτε + participle expressing the cause. While he was still at a loss. cf. but that man was naked. but he did not have political skill.242 Section 18D attributes. 18D Page 221 1 μοίρας Here this simply means ‘portion’. and already the appointed day had come on which man too had to emerge from the earth into the light. Prometheus. In this way man acquired skill to keep him alive. As a result of this man had the means of life. then horses would draw the images of their gods and make their bodies like horses. Whenever they tried. not ‘to think’. but Prometheus. and Prometheus no longer had permission to enter the acropolis. which were divine prerogatives. Prometheus came to inspect the work (the distribution) and he saw that the other creatures were well provided with everything. 6) points out. 10 ἅτε οὐκ ἔχοντες ‘since they did not have’. Μοῖρα (personified) is the goddess of fate. ‘at first’. the sentinels of Zeus were terrible. the house of Zeus – moreover. And so he secretly entered the house shared by Athene and Hephaistos in which they practised their art. The μοῖρα referred to here is the skill of fire and the technical skill to use it. 5 κατ᾽ ἀρχάς This means ‘in the beginning’. As Xenophanes (fr. for that was in the keeping of Zeus. they had to give up and then in their small groups they once again fell prey to wild beasts. σποράδην This is an adverb. stole from Hephaistos and Athene the gift of technical skill together with fire – for without fire it was impossible for anyone to possess or use this skill – and so he gave it to man. hence ‘one’s due’. and stealing Hephaistos’ art of working with fire and the other art of Athene.’ 5–11 This is a most ingenious explanation of the need for social skills.

since they were in every way weaker than them. Translation for 18D Since man had a share in the portion of the gods. or private morality and public observance of the law. and invented houses and clothes and shoes and bedding and food from the earth. and secondly. first of all. . αἰδώς means ‘shame’. ‘modesty’. men lived to begin with in scattered groups. R. That means the present is used instead of the past to make the story more dramatic. 2 αἰδῶ τε καὶ δίκην Two immensely important words which have a wide range of meanings. something that actually took place. it can range from abstract justice to a legal case or the penalty inflicted. as you already know. but the narrative is still about a past event and the verbs in the subordinate clauses still reflect a secondary sequence. It contains an element of fear – men behave well through fear of what others may think of them if they do not. respect for others and their rights. but is the aorist participle of δείδω. and it is everywhere apparent in Homer – the heroes must not ‘lose face’. In this passage the two words express the two qualities which make community living possible: respect for others and a sense of justice and the rule of law. and the technical skill which was sufficient help to them in getting food was not adequate for fighting the beasts – for they did not yet have the political skill of which the art of war is a part. They did indeed seek to come together and to protect themselves by founding cities. they injured one another because they did not have political skills. See vocabulary. Notice the position of πᾶν at the end of the clause. shows that this is an actual result. and there were no cities. hence. he alone of living creatures believed in the gods and set to work to build altars and images of the gods. an irregular verb. Therefore they were destroyed by the wild beasts.Section 18E 243 10–11 ὥστε … διεϕθείροντο The verb in the indicative. 2 ἵν᾽ εἶεν … ‘so that they might be …’ A purpose clause in secondary sequence. but whenever they gathered in communities. the capacity to feel ashamed if you act wrongly to others. because of his divine kinship. the main verb πέμπει is a ‘historic present’. with the result that they scattered again and were again devoured. E. Dodds in The Greeks and the Irrational discusses the nature of the ‘shame culture’. δίκη is here more abstract. making it emphatic: ‘lest it might be destroyed totally’. 18E Page 222 1 δείσας This is in no way related to δεῖ. rather than the infinitive. Thus provided for. he quickly discovered speech and names by his art. although.

) Note once again the chiasmus (ABBA pattern) in πόλεων κόσμοι τε καὶ δεσμοὶ ϕιλίας. 351. οὕτω δή Introduces the conclusion. τὸν μὴ δυνάμενον … κτείνειν. rather than οὐ. ἰδιώταις Often ἰδιώτης means ‘a private individual as opposed to one of a citizen group’. The use of μή. and why? It is not the future (νεμῶ). #296. οἵ τε ἄλλοι καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι Literally this means ‘both the others and the Athenians’.244 Section 18E 3 4 4 5 6 7 7–8 8–9 9–10 10 12–13 14 15 κόσμοι κόσμος is another important and wide-ranging word. used in a deliberative question. θῶ. ὦ Σώκρατες. εἰ ὀλίγοι αὐτῶν μετέχοιεν The optative mood of the verbs and presence of ἄν will tell you what sort of a condition this is. from earliest childhood. The accusative is used adverbially. ὅταν μὲν … ᾖ λόγος ‘whenever the argument is concerned with …’ ὅταν δὲ … ἴωσιν A balancing and contrasting clause to the previous one. He goes on to describe how Athenian education was aimed. genitive. makes the participle phrase indefinite: ‘whoever is incapable of …’ rather than ‘the one who is not capable …’ Here the difference in meaning is slight. genitive. or Reference Grammar #395.E. 460. νείμω Do you recognise the deliberative subjunctives? μετεχόντων Can you recognise this? ‘Let them all have a share …’ οὐ γὰρ ἂν γένοιντο πόλεις.e. and then ‘the thing that is ordered’. αὕτη. 320. but in some cases it can be significant. ἐρωτᾷ Continuing use of the historic present. ὡς νόσον πόλεως This is the law they must enforce. τούτου αἰτία Q. δεσμωτήριον ‘a prison’. at developing the potential for political skill. In effect it means ‘the Athenians in particular’. the summing-up of the meaning of the myth. τίνα οὖν τρόπον ‘in what way’. κτείνειν Poetic. ‘Am I to assign these (qualities) in this way?’ See GE p. (Cf. nominative – nominative. δεσμοί These are ‘bonds’ or ‘fetters’. #325–326. ‘the universe’ (‘the cosmos’) or the ‘world’ (‘cosmopolitan’). . Here the sense is ‘order’. You will see that δοίη is optative. Protagoras rests his case. ‘order’. νείμω Can you recognise what mood this is. p. which illustrates the difference between specialist knowledge and expertise.D. It means ‘decoration’ (‘cosmetic’). The normal prose use would be ἀποκτείνειν. but it is the aorist subjunctive (aorist stem νειμ-). and the basic human qualities which all should share. See Reference Grammar #402. and thus reflects secondary sequence. Notice how the meaning has deteriorated over the centuries into ‘idiot’. Be careful not to confuse εἷς with εἰς. The brutal extermination of those without the right qualities underlines the importance which Zeus attaches to them. προσῆκον Accusative absolute. See GE p. but here it simply means ‘individuals’. i.

.’ Thus it is for these reasons. believe that only a few are capable of giving advice. ‘and let all men have a share.Section 18E 245 Translation for 18E Therefore Zeus. as you say – reasonably in my view – but whenever they seek advice on political wisdom. and the same is true of other experts. said Zeus. they rightly listen to every man. the Athenians. is the reason for this. Hermes asked Zeus in what way he was to give justice and respect to men: ‘Am I to distribute these gifts in the same way as the skills have been allocated? They have been distributed in this way: one man having the skill of a doctor is sufficient for many individuals (laymen). or am I to assign them to all men?’ ‘To all men’. And moreover lay it down as a law from me that if anyone is incapable of sharing in justice and respect he must be put to death as a plague to the city. Socrates. that. whenever the debate is about skill in architecture or any other expertise. for there could never be cities if only a few people shared in these qualities as in the other arts. like other people. and if anyone outside these few gives advice. Socrates. they do not tolerate it. which must always follow the path of justice and moderation. sent Hermes to take to men the qualities of respect for others and a sense of justice so that there could be order in the cities and bonds of friendship uniting men. since they think it is proper for every man to have a share in this virtue or there would not be any cities. Am I then to give justice and respect to men in this way. That. fearing that our whole race would be destroyed.

8 ἐωθότα δὲ στρατηγέειν μιν … Object of ἐξέπεμπε in the next line. for all practical purposes. 9–10 ἀκόντια δὲ καὶ δοράτια καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα πάντα Objects of both ἐκκομίσας and συνένησε. Croesus commits an act of ‘hubris’ by exhibiting pride in his continuing happiness. and thus attracts the vengeance of the gods. μιν ‘him’.Section Nineteen: The story of Adrastos This passage is reproduced unadapted from Herodotus. a brutal word for ‘handicapped’ (cf. 2–3 ἐπέστη ὄνειρoς The dream is personified.34–45. It is very important to read both the introduction on pp. oἱ ‘to him’. 359–360. 4 διέϕθαρτο Literally this means that ‘he had been destroyed’. 225–226 of RGT and the beginning of the story. 2 ἑωυτόν = ἑαυτόν. which is translated for you. Histories 1. Note this carefully. The form is uncontracted. and it is always easy to confuse it with ὤν ‘being’. 227–229. You will meet it frequently. Perpetual happiness is the prerogative of the gods and not of man. but it shows Croesus’ feeling that he had only one son. 19A Page 230 1 νέμεσις ‘retribution’. You will find that you get used to this quite quickly. οὐδαμῇ ‘nowhere’. ὀλβιώτατον Note the emphatic position. #333–334 ‘The Dialect of Herodotus’. its position near the beginning of a sentence should help to distinguish it. Herodotus writes in the Ionic dialect (see Introduction). and the vocabularies will help you as well. ‘written off’). it ‘stood over him’. However. 11 μή τί oἱ κρεμάμενον … ‘lest anything having been hung over him might…’ 246 . but punishment for ‘thinking more than mortal thoughts’. This is not punishment for an evil act. before you start. you may want to look at GE pp. as are many of the verbs. Apart from the accent. 5 ὦν = οὖν. 6 ἀπολέει Here the future of ἀπόλλυμι means something like ‘will lose’ rather than ‘will destroy’. or ‘stood beside him’. pp.

A suppliant would sit by the hearth and was under the protection of Zeus Epistios. 19B Page 232 1 ἔχοντος … τὸν γάμον ‘(with) his (οἱ) son having his marriage in hand …’ ἀπικνέεται = ἀϕικνεῖται. This is an accusative of respect. Then when he woke up and took counsel with himself. (Cf. ‘purificatory’. perhaps ‘gripped by disaster’. ἀμείβετο There is no augment. This means literally ‘by the hearth’. Catharsis is the rite of purification which the perpetrator of a crime (whether voluntarily or involuntarily committed) must undergo before he can cease to be regarded as polluted and return to normal life and relationships.Section 19B 247 Translation for 19A After Solon had gone. οὐ καθαρὸς χεῖρας ‘not clean in respect of his hands’. 360. 5 ἐπυνθάνετο The imperfect tense suggests that Croesus ‘began the process of finding out’ or ‘wanted to find out’. it is the object of ἐπικυρῆσαι. although he had been accustomed to command the Lydians in battle. 239. great retribution from god. See GE p. of whom one was disabled (for he was deaf and dumb). because he thought himself to be the happiest of all men. 7 ἐπίστιος = ἐϕέστιος. 1–2 συμϕορῇ ἐχόμενος Literally ‘being held by disaster’. line 10. 3 καθαρσίου The neuter of the adjective καθάρσιος. is used here as a noun. lest anything hanging over the boy might fall on him. and then. but you can tell that the verb is past because of the ending. Thus ξένος can mean ‘stranger’. Croesus had two sons. ‘host’ and ‘friend’. #335. also in the next line κόθεν = πόθεν. Straightaway a dream came to him when he was asleep which revealed to him the truth of the evils which were going to happen with regard to his son. he first brought a woman in marriage for the boy. Croesus no longer sent him out on this sort of venture anywhere. ἐών = ὤν ‘being’. his name was Atys. ‘guest’. p. ἀέκων is the uncontracted form of ἄκων. 6 ὁκόθεν = ὁπόθεν. fearing the dream. the relationship of guestfriendship would be established. struck by an iron spear-head. 9 ἐμεωυτοῦ = ἐμαυτοῦ. to make a reasonable guess. And it was this Atys that the dream pointed out to Croesus that he would lose. . 19F. but the other was far superior to his contemporaries in every way.) Once he had been accepted into the house. and he also removed javelins and spears and all such weapons as men use in war from the men’s quarters and stacked them in the inner chambers. overtook Croesus.

but were harmed by it. where you shall be in need of nothing while you remain in my house. 11 τοῖσι ἰοῦσι ‘to those going’. and at this same period. there arrived in Sardis a man who was beset by misfortune and whose hands were polluted (not pure). Dative plural of the participle. Cf Section 5A line 6. he started to ask who he was and where he came from. GE pp. coming to Croesus. sir. ‘O King. See list of irregular verbs. the son of Midas. 4 ἀπικόμενοι = ἀϕικόμενοι. 3 διαϕθείρεσκε The ending in -έσκω is ‘frequentative’. It will be best for you (you will profit most) if you bear this misfortune as lightly as possible. Cf. coming to the house of Croesus. Making forays from this mountain. I have been driven out by my father and deprived of everything. #389. we cannot do so. Translation for 19B While his son was occupied with his wedding. ‘at the doctor’s’.’ Croesus answered him in these words. and the Mysians. who are you and where in Phrygia do you come from? What man or woman did you kill?’ And he answered. I am the son of Gordias.’at the dentist’s’.’ 19C Page 233 2 ὑὸς χρῆμα μέγα Literally ‘a great thing of a boar’. I am called Adrastos. 436–442. often setting out against it. being a Phrygian by birth. ‘You are the son of men who are my friends and you have come to friends. and related to the royal family. 12 ἐν ἡμετέρου ‘in [the house] of ours’. ποιέεσκον later in the same line. Now therefore we ask you to send us your . Translation for 19C So he took up residence in the house of Croesus. Finally. The process of purification is very similar in Lydia and in Greece (among the Lydians and among the Hellenes). And Croesus did cleanse him. Page 234 10 οἱ ‘to him’. this creature used to destroy the Mysians’ crops.248 Section 19C ἐξεληλαμένος From ἐξ-ελαύνω ἐλάω ἤλασα ἐλήλακα ἐλήλαμαι ἠλάθην. p. messengers from the Mysians spoke thus: ‘O King. 54: ‘τὸ χρῆμα τῶν νυκτῶν’. begged him to cleanse him of his blood-guilt in accordance with the laws of the country. on the Mysian Mount Olympus. When Croesus had performed the customary rites. saying these words: ‘You. did it no harm. a huge monster of a boar appeared. This man. No augment for either. who were my suppliant. Although we are eager to destroy it. and shows that the action took place repeatedly. and I am here because I killed my own brother by accident. which is destroying our crops. a huge monster of a boar has appeared in our land. Cf.

19D Page 234 2 οὐ ϕαμένου See GE p. ϕοιτέοντας does not agree with ἡμῖν. i. 13–14 εἴ κως … ‘if in some way …’ διακλέψαι ‘steal you (from death or Fate)’. remembering the words of the dream. for I would not send him to you. 6 τέοισι ὄμμασι τέοισι = τίσι: ‘with what eyes?’ How will he look to observers? What will people think of him? How will he appear in their eyes? 7 κοῖος = ποῖος. ‘Do not mention my son any more. χρῆν … This is an unfulfilled condition.’ This is the aorist imperative from μεθίημι. Latin nego. ‘in consideration of’. τὴν ἀκοήν is an accusative of respect. 15 διεϕθαρμένον τὴν ἀκοήν ‘destroyed in respect of his hearing’. Page 236 19–21 εἰ μὲν γὰρ … εἶπε … . there is no ἄν used with χρῆν. I shall send selected bands of Lydians and the whole pack of hounds and I shall order those who go to be as eager as possible to join in ridding your land of this creature. 8 μέθες ‘Let me go. 11 ὄψις ὀνείρoυ … ἐπιστᾶσα This echoes the ἐπέστη in Section 18A. 17 τό is both the object of μανθάνεις and accusative of respect with λέληθέ σε ‘there is something which you do not understand. Cf. he is newly married and this is what concerns him now.Section 19D 249 son and a selected band of young men and hounds. going to wars and to hunts to win fame’.’ This was his answer. . 7–8 Notice the crescendo of indignant questions. 16 τoι = σοι. spoke these words to them. for χρῆν was felt to be virtually potential on its own. 361. and in respect of which the dream has escaped your notice (which you have failed to observe in the dream)’. #336 for the meaning of οὔ ϕημι.e. ‘deaf’. However. ὀλιγοχρόνιον You will be able to guess this if you derive it from the two words you know. 3–4 τὰ κάλλιστα … ἡμῖν ἦν … ϕοιτέοντας εὐδοκιμέειν Literally ‘the most glorious and noble deeds were once formerly to us (mine). but. 14 τυγχάνεις ἐών Here the meaning is ‘you really are’ rather than ‘you happen to be’. 12 πρός ‘with regard to’. as often.’ They made these requests. but Croesus. because it is seen as part of an accusative and infinitive phrase which explains the first statement. so that we may rid our country of it. 5 ἀποκληίσας ἔχεις Herodotus often uses a past tense made up of ἔχω + aorist participle. σϕι ‘to them’.

Since Croesus was refusing to send his son to them. then you ought to be doing what you are doing. ‘orthodontist’. ‘I forgive your protectiveness for me. 23 ἔστι τῇ ‘there is a way in which …’. or persuade me by reason that these things are better for me if done this way. what sort of iron spearhead does it have that you should fear? For if it had said to you that I would be killed by a boar’s tusk. Translation for 19D Although the Mysians were contented with this. Father. Since therefore our fight is not against men.250 Section 19E 20 ὀδόντος Cf. I change my mind and let you go to the hunt. then. having heard what the Mysians were asking. it is a weapon that is to kill me. although you have noticed no cowardice or lack of spirit in me. Because of this dream. the son of Croesus went to him. Now to what eyes must I appear as I walk to and from the agora? (What must people think of me?) What sort of person shall I seem to the citizens. But now you have barred me from both these activities. ‘someone’.’ Croesus answered.’ 19E Page 237 1 εἴπας This is the aorist participle formed from the first aorist εἶπα which is the alternative to εἶπον. and that you would perish by an iron spearhead. it is the case that you conquer me. for the other one is deaf (disabled in respect of hearing). it is not because I have noticed any cowardice or any other disagreeable trait in you that I do this. Father. ἔστι τις ‘there is a sort of person who …’. τοι = σοι. I hastened this marriage of yours and I do not send you on this undertaking. taking precautions to see if I can somehow steal you [from death] for as long as I live (for the period of my life). as far as I am concerned (for me). or something else like this. τευ = τινός. but what sort of hands does a boar have. but because the apparition of a dream came to me in my sleep. but what you do not understand and have failed to observe in respect of the dream. ‘My son. what sort of man to my new-wed wife? With what sort of husband will she seem to be living? You must therefore either let me go to the hunt. it is right that I should point out to you. let me go. ἢ ἄλλου τευ ὅ τι τούτῳ οἶκε ‘or of anything else which seems like to this’. . You say that the dream says that I will die by an iron spearhead. as it is. Cf.’ Croesus answered in these words: ‘My son. since you have had such a dream. and I do not consider that he exists. οἶκε = ἔοικε. and standing by me said that you would be short-lived. So. it was most honourable and noble for me to go to war and to the hunt to win glory.’ The young man answered with these words. defeated by you. ‘somehow’. the young man spoke thus to him: ‘Previously. For you are in reality my only son. ‘odontology’. showing me your opinion about the dream. But.

to return my generosity. ‘Adrastos. lest any evil thieves appear to do you harm on the road. in an uncontracted form. ἔγωγε ἂν οὐκ ἤια ἄν + the past tense of εἶμι (‘I go’) make this an unfulfilled condition. This is the aorist subjunctive. for it is not seemly for a man who has experienced such a disaster to join his peers who are more fortunate. who first did you a good turn. I gave you purification when you had been stricken by an unpleasant misfortune (for which I do not blame you). whom you command me to guard.’ Adrastos answered: ‘O King. ‘in other circumstances’. and I have received you in my household. under other circumstances I would not go to such a contest. χρηστοῖσί με ἀμείβεσθαι ‘to repay me with good things’. and when he arrived he spoke to him like this. 10 πάρα = πάρεστι ‘it is present’. I ask you to be the guardian of my son when he sets out for the hunt. 5 What does ὁρμωμένου agree with? 6 ἐπὶ δηλήσι = ἐπὶ δηλήσει ‘with a view to harm’.’ .’ Translation for 19E Having said this. 7 ἀπολαμπρυνέαι For -έεαι. ἂν ἶσχον ἄν + the imperfect indicative continues the unfulfilled condition: ‘I would be holding myself back. it is right for you to go where you can distinguish yourself by your deeds. 2nd person sing. 4 προποιήσαντος χρηστὰ ἐς σέ ‘having done good things for you previously’. because you owe it to me. Croesus sent for the Phrygian Adrastos.’ 11–13 Notice the highly dramatic use of short phrases as the climax is reached: ‘I am ready to do this / your son / whom you order me to guard / unharmed / thanks to his guardian / expect to return to you.Section 19E 251 3 ὑποδεξάμενος ἔχω Another example of this form of past tense. Cf. now therefore. and for many reasons I would restrain myself. it is your birthright and besides you have the strength. and it is my duty to please you (for I owe it to you to return your generosity). 19D line 5. ἤια = ᾖα. I am ready to do these things. But now. In addition. Page 238 9 οἰκός = ἐοικός ‘likely’ or ‘fitting’. 8 ἄλλως ‘otherwise’. return to you unharmed so far as depends on his guardian. ‘the wish’ – the infinitive is used as a noun. providing for all your expenses. since you are eager. ϕανέωσι Can you recognise this? ϕαίνω has a second aorist passive ἐϕάνην. Here the aorist passive form is used instead of the aorist middle. and you can expect to see your son. τὸ βούλεσθαι = ‘the will’. ἀποκληίσας ἔχεις. of future tense. nor could I wish it.

ἐπίστιος and ἑταιρήιος. The killer and the killed. 12 τὸν ξεῖνον ϕονέα τοῦ παιδός The contrast is enhanced by the juxtaposition. the attitude of surrender.) 8 συντεταραγμένος A very strong word. ταράσσω means ‘to throw into confusion’. ἐσηκόντιζον Imperfect: ‘they began to …’ 5 ἁμαρτάνει. the plea for death with the brutal word ἐπικατασϕάξαι thrown into prominence as the first word in its clause. 13 ϕύλακα … πολεμιώτατον Here the antithesis is marked by placing the contrasting words at the beginning and the end of the clause. as with a defeated army. and is often associated with sacrificial slaughter. The brief plain phrases leading inexorably to the disaster are deeply moving. and the succession of vivid impressions. ‘shattered’. καθάρσιος. called Adrastos’. Similarly. following behind. 2. . The formal expression seems to give a ritual quality which emphasises the universal truth underlying the story and to make it more than the personal fate of individuals. This technique is used even more forcefully later in this passage. This reminds us of Adrastos’ history. 3 ἐζήτεον. He is given no name and he dominates the coming passage. Croesus’ act and the bond of guest-friendship between them.252 Section 19F 19F Page 239 2–5 Notice the succession of short clear phrases as the dramatic climax is reached. Page 240 14–17 Again the short. τυγχάνει The present tense is used for dramatic effect. then to the corpse and then to the solitary figure of the killer. under the auspices of Zeus Epistios he had taken him into his house and under the auspices of Zeus Hetairesios he had befriended him and sent out as guardian of his son the man who proved to be his murderer. Under the auspices of Zeus Katharsios he had purified the stranger. (You can tell it is future by the single λ and the -εω ending. clear phrases. 15 ἐπικατασϕάξαι σϕάζω means ‘to kill with a sword’. ‘he struck the son of Croesus’ reminds us of the full significance of the relationship with Croesus. so ‘overwhelmed’. Once again the inevitable progress of predestined events is made clear. and finally the quiet statement of utter despair. 10 πεπονθὼς εἴη The perfect optative is used because this is in indirect speech in secondary sequence: ‘bearing witness to the things which he had suffered’. Notice also the formal description of Adrastos as ‘the stranger. 5–6 The emphasis is on the fulfilment of the prophecy. the one who had been cleansed of blood-guilt. 6 ἀγγελέων Future participle expressing purpose. 13–14 The focus of attention moves from the Lydians (‘there they were’). 9–13 Croesus calls on Zeus in three capacities. and its effect on Croesus. ‘distraught’. illustrating the tragic consequences of his observance of the proper duties in each case.

of all the men whom he knew. But Croesus. 21–25 The climax opens quietly. and the murderer followed behind. hearing this. calling upon him as the god of the hearth because having received the stranger into his house he had unwittingly nurtured the murderer of his son. Among mortals there can be pity. the Lydians came bearing the corpse. But Croesus. in contrast perhaps to the relentless force of destiny fulfilling the design of the gods. Cf. (Adrastos is the ‘destroyer’ of the man who purified him. A dignified and moving end. but hit the son of Croesus. and stretching out his hands. In his grief at this tragedy. ‘realising that. speaking of his former disaster. and spoke thus to him: ‘Stranger. in the sense that by killing his son he has destroyed his life. fulfilled the prophecy of the dream. he begged him to slay him over the corpse. I have full justice from you. but it was some god. where the reconciliation of Theseus and his son contrasts with the unrelenting vengefulness of Aphrodite. Euripides’ Hippolytus.) Finally. missed the boar. Κροῖσος μέν … buries his son. who prophesied to me long ago the events that would come to pass. and he called upon him as the god of the hearth and the god of friendship. and calling upon him as the god of friendship on the grounds that he had sent him as a guardian for his son and found him to be a most deadly enemy. the one who had been ritually cleansed of murder. 20 εἶς = εἶ ‘you are’. he called in anger upon Zeus the Purifier. the man called Adrastos. even though he was in such personal distress. ϕονεὺς δέ … the repetition recalls the double tragedy. And there the stranger. and having found it and surrounded it they began to hurl javelins at it. and how in addition to it he had destroyed the man who had cleansed him. Translation for 19F When he had answered Croesus with these words. he said that life was no longer liveable for him. overwhelmed by the death of his son. And standing before the body. and someone ran to tell Croesus what had happened. they started to look for the boar. he told him about the fight and the fate of his son. when all is quiet and the mourners have gone from the tomb. since you condemn yourself to death. except in so far as you unintentionally did the deed. was even more grieved because he himself had cleansed of murder the man who had killed him. he offered himself to Croesus.Section 19F 253 17–21 The reaction of Croesus. ὁ ϕονεὺς μέν … . You are not the one who is responsible for this tragedy.) Next.Then indeed he. After this. nobility and forgiveness. hurled his javelin at the boar. and. ἐπικατασϕάζει τῷ τύμβῳ ἑωυτόν. bearing witness to the things that he had suffered at the hands of the stranger. naming this same god. they set off after this accompanied by the selected young men and the hounds. then our attention moves to Ἄδρηστος δέ … (Adrastos is now given his full formal name at this final moment of the story. he was βαρυσυμϕορώτατος’ (a most weighty and impressive word saved to the last to make it even more emphatic).’ . pitied Adrastos. being hit by a spearhead. and when he reached Sardis. When they arrived at Mount Olympus.

when it was quiet and the crowd of people had gone from the tomb (when it was quiet of people about the tomb). so that. the one who had been the killer of his own brother. φυλάττω μόνος. and the destroyer of the man who had cleansed him. without having to struggle quite so hard to understand the Greek. the son of Gordias the son of Midas. But Adrastos. καλούμενος. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 19 THE DIALECT OF HERODOTUS (a) (b) (c) (e) (f) (g) νεανίας. ἕνεκα ἐγένου. συμφορά πράττω. you can appreciate fully both the dramatic effect of the story and the varied artistry of Herodotus’ narrative technique. regarding himself as the most accursed of all men whom he knew.254 Exercise for section 19 Croesus then buried his son as was fitting. killed himself upon the tomb. χρηστοῖς . ποιοῦμεν Περσῶν ταύταις. ἀπολεῖ. Note You may perhaps want to read through this whole section again.

having covered himself with leaves. Remember that this is poetry in the oral tradition. Odysseus is often referred to by this description. Oral poets did not commit a poem to memory verbatim. 20A Page 246 1 ὥς with an accent = οὕτως ‘so’. and it is interesting to consider how Homer uses them.Section Twenty: Odysseus and Nausikaa Here you have the whole of Odyssey 6. There is also the Reference Grammar pp. thus ‘much-enduring’. and it is entirely apt. #337(a). partly in Greek and partly in translation. 255 . Do you remember the rhapsode in Section 1H. μιν = αὐτήν. πολύτλας δῖος ’Oδυσσεύς A formulaic phrase. See GE p. and GE pp. #338–339 on Homeric hexameters and Greek metre. καθεῦδε = καθηῦδε. but they had in their minds a huge collection of formulaic phrases which fitted neatly into a hexameter line and they could use these to tell the story. An abbreviated form of ἄρα: ‘then’. with Athene making her way to Phaeacia. and then returns to where it started. The absence of the augment is very common in Homer. You will quickly come to recognise such phrases. ‘anemometer’ = ‘wind-measurer’. 21 στῆ = ἔστη. with the ‘winedark sea’ (ἐπὶ οἴνοπα πόντον) and the ‘black. ῥ’ = ῥά. No augment. -τλας is from τλάω ‘I endure’. hollow or swift ship’? These were ‘formulas’. ‘anemone’ = ‘wind-flower’. 378–382. πολύτλας: πολύ = ‘much’. 4ff. page 247 20 ἀνέμου Cf. 3 βῆ = ἔβη. 362–364. #337 on some vital features of Homeric dialect and syntax. 362. #349–352 ‘Homeric dialect – the main features’. ‘thus’. Make sure you read the excellent Introduction. ἔνθα Odysseus is sleeping under an olive bush. 243–244. 362. and notice GE p. RGT pp. The passage in English gives the earlier history of the Phaeacian people. This is known as ‘ring composition’ and is a common feature in Homer.

and is frequently found with μήτηρ. 33 τοι Here probably the particle ‘indeed’. Page 248 24 γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη Another formula. Here the verb is used with two accusatives. ἕπομαι takes the dative. 29 τοι Here this probably means ‘in fact’. γλαυκός = ‘gleaming’ or ‘grey-green’. 28 τὰ δὲ τοῖσι The article is normally used for ‘them’ or ‘these’ in Homer instead of αὐτόν and οὗτος. #350). it means either ‘grey-eyed’ or owl-faced’. It is usually the second word in the sentence. ‘And you must provide others for those who …’ οἵ κέ σ’ ἄγωνται κε or κεν = ἄν. 362. . 30 πότνια μήτηρ πότνια is a stock epithet for goddesses and great ladies. 362. ἔην = ἦν. ‘let us go’. ‘How did your mother come to have such a lazy daughter?’ 26 τοι = σοι. GE p. as seen on the Athenian silver drachma. GE p. See GE p. This is a standard epithet for Athene. another ethic dative ‘as far as you are concerned’. κεχάριστο This is the pluperfect of χαρίζομαι (not the perfect. although in Homer an indefinite is very close to a future: ‘those who will lead you’. It is often translated ‘lady’. 27 ἵνα + indicative means ‘where’. not -σται. but it could be either in the context. πλυνέουσαι Future participle expressing purpose. #337(k). Therefore this is an indefinite clause. 32–33 ὄϕρα …ἐντύνεαι ὄϕρα + subjunctive/optative expresses purpose. although it has no augment. #337(j). 31 ἴομεν = ἴωμεν. ‘addressed her a word’. This is the ‘dative of the person concerned’. as GE says in the vocabulary for 19A). it ends in -στο. In poetry the preposition is often left out if it is used as the prefix to the verb. 22 ναυσικλειτοῖο Genitive ending (GE p. The preposition is ‘cut off’ from its verb.256 Section 20A πρὸς … ἔειπεν ‘spoke to’. There is also a particle τοι which means ‘in fact’. #337(d). This is called ‘tmesis’ (‘cutting’). where μοι is equivalent to τοι in this line. ‘look here’. The Phaeacians were famed for their nautical skills. You can see it is pluperfect because. Present subjunctive. the bird of Athene. 23 οἱ = αὐτῇ (GE p. 32 τοι = σοι. ὤψ = ‘face’ or ‘eyes’. Here it is almost certainly the pronoun: compare this example with 20B line 59. 25 τί νύ σ’ ὧδε … Literally ‘How did your mother bear you thus lazy?’. ‘addressed’. ἔσσεαι = ἔσει ‘you will be’. ἡ γλαύξ is ‘the owl’. 280. αὐτήν Agrees with σε (understood). 362. but only the context will help you to decide between them. 362. and does not express purpose. and is not equivalent to σοι. καλά Understand εἵματα from the previous line. #337(i)). ἀνθρώπους ἀναβαίνει Understand another ἀνά before ἀνθρώπους: ‘goes up among men’.

(Idylls of the King 1. 36 ἄγ᾽ = ἄγε. or rain. Possessive dative. so that you may get ready very quickly. for already the noblest of all the Phaeacian men throughout the people are courting you – you are of the same race as them. since you will not be a maiden much longer. famous for ships. like a breath of wind. 40 ἀπὸ … εἰσί Tmesis again. And it is much better for you yourself to go in this way than on foot. 37 ἡμιόνους ‘mules’ as in Section 8E. overcome by sleep and weariness. ‘and they are your nation too’. who was of the same age as her and was very dear to her heart. ‘Nausikaa. 42 Οὔλυμπόνδε The suffix -δε means ‘towards’. But let us go and do the washing as soon as dawn appears. See GE p. In between these repeated phrases there is a marvellous description of Olympus. 189–190. ask your famous father before dawn to equip you with mules and a wagon to take the girdles. 18–22. It was copied by Lucretius in De rerum natura 3. e. 39 πολὺ κάλλιον Understand ἐστί.Section 20A 257 35 τοι = σοι. followed by a command.’ . but Athene went to the people and the city of the Phaeacian men … * * * She. or any snow. ‘Come on’. and by Tennyson: Where falls not hail. ‘where is the race to you yourself also’. how has your mother borne such a lazy [daughter as] you? The shining clothes are lying uncared for by you (as far as you are concerned) – and your wedding is near. 41–47 Ring composition again: (line 4) ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη … ἔνθ᾽ ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις (line 10). making herself like the daughter of Dymas. 41 ὣς εἰποῦσα ‘so speaking’. the home of the gods. the grey-eyed Athene addressed her. ἐϕοπλίσαι Aorist infinitive of ἐϕοπλίζω. 38 ῥήγεα σιγαλόεντα Cf. 381. hurried to the bed of the girl. ἄμαξαν ‘wagon’ as in Section 6H. and I will go with you as a helper. But come.g. 43 ἔμμεναι = εἶναι This is a common form of the infinitive in Homer. godlike Odysseus slept there. For from these things indeed a good reputation spreads among men. Likening herself to her. for the washing-places are far from the city. οἰκάδε. ‘thus’. the robes and the shining covers. ‘are distant from’. ‘where is your race too’. ἐπότρυνον Aorist imperative (GE pp. #351(iv). Nor ever wind blows loudly. and a father and lady mother rejoice. ὥς with an accent = οὕτως ‘so’. when you must wear fine [clothes] yourself and provide others for those who will escort you.428–9) Translation for 20A So much-enduring. Cf. ‘phrase’. line 19 ἀκηδέα σιγαλόεντα. 47 διεπέϕραδε Aorist of διαϕράζω. and stood above her head and addressed her a word. #198–199).

as often in Homer. It cannot be τοι = σοι. Note the accent. 55 ἵνα + indicative means ‘where’. ‘Sea-purple’ because purple. dye came from the murex (a shell-fish). 53–54 τῷ δὲ … ξύμβλητο ‘She met him …’ ἐρχομένῳ agrees with τῷ. 380 #350. Nausikaa was modest about her marriage. 71 τοί = οἱ ‘they’. 19A line 19.258 Section 20B So speaking. hence ‘royal purple’. a very common idiom in Homer. ἁλι. 265. or crimson. when she had spoken to the girl. nor does snow come near. 381. 57 πάππα ϕίλ’ This is informal: ‘Daddy. 20B Page 250 48 μιν ‘her’. 68 τευ = τινος. Translation for 20B At once fair-throned dawn came and she woke fair-robed Nausikaa. τοκεῦσι ‘to her parents’. ‘in the purple’. 66 αἴδετο ‘felt reticent about’. µοι Another ethic dative (dative of the person concerned). not ashamed. but a very clear sky spreads over it. Cf. ‘nobles’ (not ‘kings’). cloudless. #351(iv). line 308) when speaking to Odysseus. See GE p. 50 βῆ δ᾽ ἴμεναι Literally ‘she went to go’. It means ‘she went’. it is not shaken by winds. ἵν᾽ ἀγγείλειε ἵνα + optative expresses purpose in secondary sequence. . the grey-eyed Athene went away to Olympus. where they say the safe seat of the gods is for ever. 53 θύραζε = θύρασδε. explained by Ναυσικάαν εὔπεπλον in the next line. See GE p. 54 βασιλῆας ‘chieftains’. 52 σὺν ἀμϕιπόλοισι γυναιξίν Another formula which fits the second half of the hexameter. and a white radiance covers it. and then described more fully with ἡ μέν … in line 52. 56 μάλ᾽ ἄγχι ‘very close’. at once she was amazed at the dream and she went through the palace to tell it to her parents. nor wet by showers. ‘right up close’. 53 ἠλάκατα στρωϕῶσ’ ἁλιπόρϕυρα ‘spinning the sea-purple wool’.is from the word meaning ‘salt’ or ‘sea’. itemised in the next line. οὐκ ἂν δή μοι ἐϕοπλίσσειας A polite request: ‘Wouldn’t you provide me with …’ 59 τά = ἅ ‘which’. θαλερὸν γάμον ‘fruitful marriage’. as daughter to father. There the grey-eyed one went. Nausikaa uses this same phrase (p. and τῷ δέ … in line 53. dear’. almost certainly a stock epithet. It was particularly valuable. ἴμεναι is a form of infinitive. in it the blessed gods enjoy themselves all their days. 60 σοὶ αὐτῷ ἔοικε This is followed by accusative + infinitive: ‘it is right for you yourself to discuss plans (βουλὰς βουλεύειν) being among the foremost men (ἐόντα) having (ἔχοντα) clean clothes on your body’.

Go. πόλιν ‘to the city’. The preposition is omitted.’ So saying. She stood very close to him and addressed her dear father: ‘Daddy dear. with her servant women. i. The servants will equip for you a high well-wheeled wagon. won’t you get ready for me a high well-wheeled wagon. 115 σϕαῖραν ‘sphere’. She found them indoors. ‘inhabit’. he ordered the servants and they obeyed. 123 νυμϕάων This recalls the simile likening Nausikaa to Artemis and her nymphs on p. she (her mother) was sitting by the hearth. 380. See GE p.Section 20C 259 her dear father and mother. #350. Remember the sophist in Section 6F ‘catching up the argument like a ball’. It is a possessive dative.’ So she spoke. 119 τέων = τίνων. If the inhabitants are ‘god-fearing’. 117 ἐπὶ μακρόν Adverbial. they will respect the laws of hospitality and look after the stranger kindly. ἔχουσι ἔχω often has the sense of ‘have (as their home)’.’ Almost ‘It was time to go home. Page 253 119 ὤ μοι ἐγώ Difficult to translate naturally. = ‘loudly’. for she was hesitant to mention fruitful marriage to her dear father. ἡγήσαιτο takes the dative and it is in the optative because it continues the purpose clause started in line 113. 114 oἱ = ‘him’ (dative). child. him she met going towards the door. lines 33–39. dirty. Odysseus had the same thoughts before he met the Cyclops. so that I may take the lovely clothes to the river to wash them? They are lying there. . two are married and three are thriving bachelors. All these things are a concern to my mind. when you are with your nobles. Five dear sons have been born to you in the palace. 173. to discuss plans with clean clothes on your body. on his way to his distinguished counsellors to a council to which the Phaeacian nobles called him. I know. And it is fitting for you yourself.’ 112 ἄλλ’ ἐνόησε Note the accent on ἄλλο: ‘planned something else’. the breathing (ἀ) and the diaeresis (ϋ) show this. fitted with a canopy. ἀλλά (as in line 110) means ‘but’. spinning sea-purple wool. Perhaps ‘Oh dear me!’ 119–121 A most important consideration on arriving in a strange land. 121 σϕίν ‘to them’. 113 ὡς + optative expresses purpose in secondary sequence. βασίλεια Nominative and feminine. 20C Page 252 110 ἔμελλε ‘She was going to return home. nor anything else.e. ἄϋσαν Three syllables. but here he is more fortunate. they all wish to go to the dance with newly washed clothes. but he realised all and replied: ‘I do not be grudge you mules.

Cf. ὄσσε A dual (GE #331–332). it missed the handmaiden and fell into the deep eddy. the aorist of ϕαίνομαι. The simile of the mountain lion. 137 ϕάνη = ἐϕάνη. 130–134 Just as our attention was drawn to Nausikaa with a simile (Artemis and the nymphs). then again the grey-eyed goddess Athene planned something else. ϕωτός Be careful not to confuse ϕώς ϕωτός ‘man’ and τὸ ϕῶς (ϕάος) ‘light’. See GE p. 138 ἄλλυδις ἄλλη The whole phrase means ‘in different directions’ (as in GE). so at this point it is focused on Odysseus. Godlike Odysseus awoke. considered in his heart and mind. note on 20C line 117 ἄϋσαν. The princess then threw a ball to a hand-maiden. παχείῃ Cf. 130 βῆ δ᾽ ἴμεν See note on 20B line 50 above. οἱ is a possessive dative. driven down from the hills by hunger to raid the village animals. ἐν probably belongs to δαίεται and is cut off by tmesis. 134 δόμον Here referring to the ‘pens’ where the sheep and cattle were kept. who inhabit the steep peaks of mountains and sources of rivers and grassy meadows. #350. let me try and see for myself. of εἶμι. savage and not just. ‘who goes’. or are they hospitable and have a god-fearing mind? The female shriek of maidens surrounded me – of nymphs.260 Section 20D 126 πειρήσομαι ἠδὲ ἴδωμαι These verbs are both subjunctives. ‘his eyes’. after yoking the mules and folding the fine clothing.’ 20D Page 254 128 κλάσε = ἔκλασε. to the land of what people have I come this time? Are they violent. 131 εἶσ’ = εἶσι: 3rd s. 133 ἑ = ‘him’. . as with a neuter plural subject. ἠμέν … ἠδέ … ‘both … and …’ Translation for 20C But when she was about to go back home again. is apt. ‘gastric’. Aorist of κλάζω without the augment. Note that the verb (δαίεται) is singular. a thick-skinned animal. sitting up. ‘let me …’ ἠδέ ‘and’. and they shrieked loudly. and he too is storm-tossed and driven by desperate necessity to come from the wild to seek help in a civilised community. 136 περ = καίπερ. and. Cf. accusative. ‘gastritis’ etc. 380. ‘a different one in a different direction’. Or am I now somewhere near men who speak with human voices? But come. Odysseus appears as savage and terrible as a lion to the girls. ‘a leafy branch’. 132 ὀΐεσσιν Four syllables. γαστήρ Cf. 129 ϕύλλων Goes with πτόρθον in the previous line. ‘Oh dear me. that Odysseus should wake up and see the beautiful girl who would lead him to the city of the Phaeacian men. ‘pachyderm’. literally.

disfigured with brine. ‘Are you a god or a mortal?’ A splendid piece of flattery and also of reassurance. p. Literally ‘maintaining herself’. with his broad hand he broke a leafy branch from the thick-foliaged bush so that shielding (around) his body he could hide his male genitals. and ‘honeyed’ would be equally appropriate here. naked though he was. He seemed terrible to them. 20E Page 256 149 γουνοῦμαι GE gives this as ‘beseech’. At once he addressed to her a honeyed and cunning speech. εὐώπιδα κούρην Another formulaic phrase. for Athene put courage in her heart and removed the fear from her limbs. 145 κέρδιον ‘more profitable’. to make trial of the sheep. who goes on. the arch-persuader. holding her ground. ‘crafty’) in line 148. they are often employed by Odysseus. Do not confuse this with οἷος ‘such as’. for need was upon him. Alcinous’ daughter alone remained. This shows the shrewdly calculating mind of Odysseus. So Odysseus was going to meet the maidens with beautiful hair. to be better to beseech her with honeyed words from a distance. 141 σχομένη Middle participle of ἔχω. as he thought about it. or goes after the wild deer. 252. and his eyes burn. ‘soothing’. 147 μὴ … χολώσαιτο ‘lest she be angry’. 142 γούνων … λαβών Touching or clasping the knees was a sign of supplication. godlike Odysseus emerged from the bushes. ‘more advantageous’. but he attacks the oxen or sheep. 143 μειλιχίοισι GE gives this as ‘winning’. hunger orders him to go even into the densely-packed pens. He went forward like a mountain-bred lion trusting in his strength. Its basic root is μέλι ‘honey’. for no man is going to offend or rape a goddess. It seemed to him. She stood and faced him. It literally means Ί clasp your knees’ – the very thing that Odysseus has not done! θεός νύ τις ἦ βροτός ἐσσι. so ‘holding her ground’. . Cf. though rained upon and blown upon. ‘to see if she would show him the city and give him clothes’. Both are in an indirect question in secondary sequence.Section 20E 261 139 οἴη The feminine of οἶος ‘alone’. Translation for 20D Speaking thus. and is picked up by κερδαλέον (‘subtle’. 144 δοίη Aorist optative of δίδωμι. in case the girl should grow angry in her heart with him for taking her knees. and they ran in different directions along the jutting shores. line 113. ‘Honeyed words’ is a frequent formula. Odysseus debated whether to take her knees and beseech the beautiful girl or simply with honeyed words at a distance to beseech her to show him the city and give him clothing. δείξειε is also an aorist optative.

Zeus. 172 νήσου ἀπ᾽ Ὠγυγίης This was the island of Calypso where Odysseus was detained for seven years. of course. The construction follows the sense: ‘if you are one of the gods who’. and both Nausikaa and her parents hope at some time that Odysseus might perhaps remain and become her husband. created the palm and the bay tree. 162 Delos was sacred to Apollo. 167 δόρυ This refers to the palm. etc. 151 Ἀρτέμιδι This recalls the simile on p. Odysseus has. a formulaic phrase. that he has been a person of some importance: line164 πολὺς δέ μοι ἕσπετο λαός. τοῖον agrees with ἔρνος. 160–165 Note the transition from his admiration and awe at the beauty of Nausikaa to his own story and the ‘hint’ to her (mentioned in the introduction). 152 εἶδός τε μέγεθός τε ϕυήν τ’… All these are accusatives of respect: ‘I liken you to Artemis in appearance. Page 258 170–174 Now he speaks of his past sufferings and his foreboding for the future. where Nausikaa is likened to Artemis. The point of the comparison is the slender beauty of the palm and the awe it induces in the beholder. and brings us back in the ‘ring-composition’ structure to the starting-point of the simile. 155–157 There are more constructions here that go with the sense rather than with strict grammar. that she may be a mortal. and the feminine participle εἰσοιχνεῦσαν ‘agrees’ with the neuter noun θάλος. …’ 153 εἰ δέ τίς ἐσσι βροτῶν … More flattery and reassurance as Odysseus develops the second possibility. since Artemis is a virgin goddess. after a singular antecedent θεός. 162–163 Note the order in which the ideas are presented: ‘in Delos once … such a … by the altar of Apollo … of a palm … the young shoot springing up … I saw’.262 Section 20E 150 θεός … τοί τοί is a plural relative pronoun. . οἴνοπα πόντον ‘the wine-dark sea’. This is a recurring theme in the Phaeacia story. Translate ‘yesterday’. Literally ‘yesterday’s’. Cf. 170 χθιζός An adjective agreeing with the subject Odysseus. It was there that Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis and in honour of this their father. 168–169 δείδια … γούνων ἅψασθαι Another example of ring composition. 158–159 The climax and another reference to Nausikaa’s marriage. λευσσόντων ‘agrees’ with σϕισι in line 155 ‘when they see …’. also to explain to Nausikaa why he is not clasping her knees in the attitude of formal supplication. lines 102–109. γουνοῦμαι in line 8 at the start of the speech. 252. 173 ὄϕρα … πάθω ὄϕρα + subjunctive expresses purpose: ‘so that I may suffer some trouble (κακόν) here as well (καί)’. It is also particularly suitable.

180 δοῖεν Optative for a wish. daughter of great Zeus.’ 178 δεῖξον Aorist imperative of δείκνυμι. a husband and a home. I look at you in awe. I had gone there. . leads you home [as his wife]. ‘may they give’. I escaped from the wine-dark sea. when I saw it. whatever they wrapped the washing in. I am astonished and I am terribly afraid to touch your knees. neither man nor woman. I delighted in my heart for a long time. 174 τελέουσι In form this could be present or future. ‘than this’. I liken you most closely to Artemis. awe holds me as I look. ‘To you may the gods give all that you desire in your heart. ἢ ὅθ’ ‘than when …’ 183 ὁμοϕρονέοντε. stature and beauty. If you are one of the mortals who live upon earth. 181 ὀπάσειαν Another optative expressing a wish.Section 20E 263 173–174 οὐ γὰρ ὀΐω παύσεσθαι ‘I do not think it will cease. ἀμϕιβαλέσθαι An explanatory infinitive. and a large company followed me. The sense suggests future. ‘Yesterday.’ παύσεσθαι = future middle infinitive of παύω. but hard grief has come upon me. He means any old piece of material. have pity. ἔχητον These are both duals. princess. give me a rag to put round myself. In the same way as. 182 τοῦ Genitive of comparison. but the gods will accomplish even more before that. in appearance. are you a god or a mortal? If you are a god. now a god has cast me up here. ‘I have not seen with my eyes such a one. on the twentieth day. near the altar of Apollo. 175 σε Governed by ἐς in the next line: ‘I came to you first. for surely the heart within them always warms very much with pleasure through you when they see such young beauty entering the dance. princess. so that I may suffer some evil here too. ῥάκος Very close to ‘rag’. after loading you with gifts. than when in harmony of mind a man and woman share a home. since no such shoot ever yet came up from the earth. I saw such a young shoot of a date-palm growing up. ‘This’ is explained in the next line. But he in his heart is most blessed above [all] others who. ‘may they grant’. if you had any wrapping for the clothes when you came here. the subject is ἀνὴρ ἠδὲ γυνή. lady. and may they grant beautiful harmony: for there is nothing greater and better than this. and thrice blessed are your brothers. and I do not know any other of the people who inhabit this city and land. ‘a rag to put round me’. Translation for 20E ‘I beseech you by your knees. for I do not think it will stop. Show me the city. In Delos once. so. thrice blessed are your father and lady mother. such as inhabit the broad heaven. on that journey on which evil troubles were destined to befall me. after suffering many evils I have come to you first. for so long the waves and swift storms carried me always from the island of Ogygia. But.

subj. Tradition has it that Phaeacia is the modern Corfu. ῥά = ἄρα. Nausikaa tells her maids to wash Odysseus. You first met these lines in Section 4C p. Once again the religious requirement of hospitality is emphasised. 190 τετλάμεν Infinitive of τλάω. Odysseus is described in the first line of this book as πολύτλας. . The μοι is rather like our colloquial phrase ‘Will you do this for me?’ 200 ϕάσθ᾽ Here this is more like ‘consider’ than ‘say’.) clothing or anything else which (ὧν is genitive by relative attraction.’ 194 ἐρέω Future of λέγω. 199 στῆτέ μοι ‘stop. starting with the previous line. lines 31–32. 187–189 Nausikaa means that since Odysseus is sensible and intelligent he must accept whatever fate Zeus sends him. Euthydemos). beyond the reach of pirates and enemies and with their magic ships that need no helmsman to take them anywhere they wish to go. 204–205 ἀπάνευθε. but ‘there is not a mortal man living who …’ The accent on ἔσθ᾽ shows that it means ‘exists’ rather than ‘is’. hence. and women who do not work in the fields and get sun-burned. 201 This is easy to mistranslate: – not ‘this is not a mortal man’. It is a compound adjective with only two terminations. see 218b) it is right (ἐπέοιχ᾽) for a poor suppliant (ἱκέτην ταλαπείριον) not to lack (μὴ δεύεσθαι is understood from οὐ δευήσεαι in the previous line) having met [someone]. 191–193 A complicated clause.264 Section 20F they are a great grief to their enemies and a delight to their friends.’ 198 ἦ ῥα A common formulaic phrase: ἦ = ‘she spoke’.. please’. ‘just as he pleases’. so that the -ος ending can be feminine. 48. 3rd s. they themselves are greatly respected. ἔσχατοι The Phaeacians live far away on the edge of the known world.’ 20F Page 260 186 λευκώλενος ‘white-armed’. is ‘So you will lack neither clothing nor anything else which it is right for a poor suppliant [to have] when he has met [someone to help him]. pres. 189 ἐθέλῃσιν = ἐθέλῃ. almost in a fairy-tale land. 9.’ In grammatical detail: ‘You will not lack (+ gen. not to take him to a place where he can wash himself. διερός occurs in Homer only here and in Od. The meaning. ‘On him the power and might of the Phaeacians depend. 207 πρὸς Διός πρός here means ‘under the protection of’. 197 GE tells you that ἐκ governs τοῦ and that ἔχεται ἐκ means here ‘depend on’. This is an epithet which is applied only to women. On Minoan frescos women are conventionally coloured white and men terracotta. 210 λούσατε Note that this is active. ἔμμεναι = εἶναι. ἦ δ᾽ ὅς in sections 7D and 7E (Plato. Cf.43. It is therefore complimentary.

and you must doubtless endure them. where are you fleeing after seeing a man? Surely you do not think this is one of the hostile men? That mortal man does not exist. where there is shelter from the wind. nor does any other of mortals have dealings with us.’ 20G Page 261 211 ἔσταν = ἔστησαν ‘they stopped’. 224 νίζετο The verb takes two accusatives here. give the stranger meat and drink. for all strangers and beggars are under the protection of Zeus. But.’ She spoke. But now. It means ‘unharvested’ and so ‘unharvestable’ and so ‘barren’. to good and bad. They escorted Odysseus to a sheltered spot and sat him down there. I will show you the city and tell you the name of the people. on him the power and might of the Phaeacians depend. The two verbs look like futures. We live far away in the loud-roaring sea. and a gift is small but welcome. ἀνά can be treated in the same way. you will not lack for clothing nor anything else which it is right for a poor suppliant [to have] when he has met [someone to help him].Section 20G 265 Translation for 20F Then white-armed Nausikaa answered him in reply: ‘Stranger. since you seem to be neither an evil nor a foolish man. where we would have to say ‘washed the brine from his body’. 219 ὤμοιϊν Dual – he has two shoulders. The Phaeacians inhabit this city and land. I am the daughter of great-hearted Alcinous. for we are very dear to the immortal gods. who would come to the land of Phaeacian men bringing slaughter. the furthest [of peoples]. . But this is some poor wanderer who has arrived here. and wash him in the river. 226 ἀτρυγέτοιο A regular epithet for the sea. Page 262 218–220 ὄϕρ᾽ … ἀπολούσομαι … χρίσομαι ὄϕρα + subjunctive expresses purpose. whom we must now look after. Odysseus refuses their assistance because his body is in such a dreadful state after his hardships that he ‘is ashamed to be naked among maidens with well-ordered hair’. to each. Olympian Zeus himself apportions happiness to mankind. handmaidens. just as he pleases. handmaidens. nor will he ever be born. and so he has given you these things. since you have come to our city and land. ‘washed his body’ and ‘washed the brine’. 212 κάδ … εἷσαν Note κάδ = κατά. although the ordinary plural is used in lines 225 and 235. 221 αἰδέομαι It was normal practice in the world of Homer for girl-slaves to bath male visitors. but are in fact aorist subjunctives. 214 πάρ = παρά Note the shortening of some prepositions to monosyllables – κάδ has just occurred and recurs in line 230. the root of ἕζω = ἕδος. and gave orders to her handmaidens with pretty hair: ‘Stop.

Then Nausicaa. 230 εἰσιδέειν An explanatory infinitive. Then indeed godlike Odysseus said to the handmaidens: ‘Handmaidens. as Nausikaa daughter of great-hearted Alcinous ordered.’ Translation for 20G So she spoke. stranger. But from the river godlike Odysseus washed from his body the brine which lay thick upon his back and . with the gods’ loveliness on her stood beside the pillar that supported the roof with its joinery. so that I myself may wash the brine from my shoulders and anoint myself with olive-oil. For indeed ointment has been absent from my body for a long time. where there is an underlying pathos when Odysseus speaks his last words to her the day before he leaves for Ithaca. daughter of great-hearted Alkinoos. and gazed upon Odysseus with all her eyes and admired him. 245 οἱ ἅδοι ‘and that it might be pleasing to him …’ ἅδοι is the aorist optative of ἁνδάνω. For. where Athene and Hephaistos are the gods who are the masters of the craftsman’s art. saying: ‘Goodbye. and they told him to wash in the stream of the river. with ‘on his head and shoulders’ in apposition. But I will not wash in front of you . 244 αἲ γάρ = εἰ γάρ. clustering curls are like the wild hyacinth petals. ‘on him’. how I was the first you owed your life to. Once again the marriage theme. grant me to reach my house and see my day of homecoming. all the days of my life. 248 πόσιν Here = ‘drink’. next to him they put a cloak and a tunic as clothing and gave him moist olive-oil in a golden oil-jar. even so may Zeus. 233 δέδαεν Takes two objects. 235 τῷ Indirect object. maiden. 238 μετηύδα From μεταυδάω ‘I speak to’. and spoke to him aloud and addressed him in winged words. never to see her again. and they stood and encouraged each other. ‘greater to look upon’. for I am ashamed to be naked coming among maidens with lovely hair. and they went far off and told the girl.266 Section 20G 228 ἕσσαθ᾽ First aorist middle of ἕννυμι: ‘he put on’. They sat Odysseus down in shelter. 231 ὑακινθίνῳ ἄνθει ὁμοίας Presumably thick. πόσις ‘husband’. Nausikaa is to be disappointed. The last we hear of her is in Book 8. and think of me sometimes when you are back at home. 232–234 In this simile Athene enhances the appearance of Odysseus as a skilled craftsman puts the finishing touches to a work of art. stand thus far off. So even when I am there I will pray to you as a goddess. You may remember the passage from Plato in Section 18.’ So he spoke. lines 457–468.’ Then resourceful Odysseus spoke in turn and answered her: ‘Nausicaa. ‘whom … have taught all skill’. my life was your gift. high-thundering husband of Hera. εἰ γάρ + optative expresses a wish.

so that I may say something. handmaidens. As when a skilled craftsman. and that it might please him to remain here. Odysseus is moved to tears. From his head he wiped the scum of the unharvested sea. but now he is like the gods who inhabit the broad heaven. and Alcinous at last asks him who he is. Then indeed she spoke to her beautiful-haired handmaidens. In Books 9–12 he tells what has happened to him since he left Troy until the time he was washed up on the shore of the island of Calypso. give the stranger meat and drink. Then indeed much-enduring godlike Odysseus drank and ate greedily. ‘Listen to me.’ So she spoke. Then going along the seashore. He is welcomed and. Odysseus reveals his identity and starts to tell his story. because for a long time he had not tasted food. then Athene. Not against the will of all the gods who inhabit Olympus has this man come among the godlike Phaeacians. white-armed handmaidens. But when he had washed all and richly anointed himself.Section 20G 267 broad shoulders. and put on the clothes which the unmarried girl provided for him. In the evening there is a banquet. In Book 7 Odysseus follows Nausikaa’s advice and. Now read on in English to the end of Book 6. he sat far off. Earlier he seemed to me to be wretched. . lays gold on silver and completes graceful work. But. and put beside Odysseus meat and drink. the maiden watched him admiringly. and after the banquet the singer Demodocus tells the story of the wooden horse at Troy. whom Hephaistos and Pallas Athene have taught all skill. after some debate. with Athene’s help. down from his head she sent bushy hair. Would that such a man might be called my husband dwelling here. On the next day (Book 8) the Phaeacians hold games at which Odysseus establishes his prowess. like the hyacinth flower. shining with beauty and grace. In Book 13 he departs from Phaeacia and the story moves forward again to his return to Ithaca and all the problems which await him there. so she poured on him grace. and they readily heard and obeyed her. daughter of Zeus. on his head and shoulders. he goes to the palace and appeals to the Queen. made him taller and broader to look upon. given hospitality.

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