An Independent Study Guide to
First published in 1978 and now thoroughly revised, Reading Greek is a best-selling oneyear introductory course in ancient Greek for students of any age. It combines the best of modern and traditional language-learning techniques and is used in schools, summer schools and universities across the world. This Independent Study Guide is intended to help students who are learning Greek on their own or with only limited access to a teacher. It contains notes on the texts that appear in the Text and Vocabulary volume, translations of all the texts, answers to the exercises in the Grammar and Exercises volume and crossreferences to the relevant fifth-century background in The World of Athens. There are instructions on how to use the course and the Study Guide. The book will also be useful to students in schools, universities and summer schools who have to learn Greek rapidly.
THE JOINT ASSOCIATION OF CLASSICAL TEACHERS’ GREEK COURSE
An Independent Study Guide to
Singapore. Cambridge CB2 8RU. Madrid. 2008 This publication is in copyright. no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.cambridge. Cape Town. Melbourne.
.CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge. New York. accurate or appropriate.org/9780521698504 © The Joint Association of Classical Teachers’ Greek Course 1995. First published in print format 2008
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state and individuals Section Seventeen: Private justice: trouble down at the farm Section Eighteen: How Zeus gave justice to men Section Nineteen: The story of Adrastos Section Twenty: Odysseus and Nausikaa
page vi vii ix xi 1 3 20 30 42 57 71 84 101 113 137 149 158 180 200 208 211 225 239 246 255
Authors’ note Author’s note on the revised edition Preface Abbreviations used in the text Grammatical Introduction Section One: The insurance scam Section Two: The glorious past Section Three: Athens and Sparta Section Four: Lawlessness in Athenian life Section Five: ‘Socrates corrupts the young’ Section Six Section Seven: Socrates and intellectual inquiry Section Eight: Aristophanes’ Birds Section Nine: Aristophanes’ Wasps Section Ten: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata Section Eleven: Aristophanes’ Akharnians Section Twelve: Neaira as slave Section Thirteen: Neaira as married woman Section Fourteen: Guarding a woman’s purity Section Fifteen: Alkestis in Euripides’ play Section Sixteen: Ofﬁcial justice: ships.
However we hope that it may also prove useful to pupils in schools. It is intended primarily for those who are learning Greek on their own. They are also very grateful to him and to Professor Eric Handley for reading the page-proofs and to the copy-editor Susan Moore for all her skilled assistance. universities and summer schools who have to learn Greek rapidly and intensively. In particular they would like to thank Professor Malcolm Willcock who has saved them from innumerable errors by his meticulous proof-reading of the trial stages. Jeannie Cohen Carol Handley James Morwood James Neville
. The authors would like to express their gratitude for the helpful comments they have received from those who have used the Independent Study Guide in its trial stages.Authors’ note
This study guide has been written by members of the JACT Greek Committee for use by those who are using the JACT course Reading Greek published by the Cambridge University Press. and from those fellow teachers who have read it with a critical eye. or with only limited access to a teacher.
Author’s note on the revised edition
A new edition of Reading Greek has been prepared. in spite of the fact that much of the grammatical material in them is also explained in the new Grammar and Exercises volume of Reading Greek. The notes to help with the passages in Reading Greek Text are largely unchanged. It was felt that different learners ﬁnd different forms of explanations helpful. Carol Handley
. and so it is hoped that some duplication may prove to be an advantage rather than an irritant. I am extremely grateful to Anthony Bowen for his meticulous proof-reading and numerous suggested improvements. which gives the reader very much more information about the grammar and syntax of Greek and has added a great many more exercises to help consolidate learning and understanding. This revised edition of the Independent Study Guide contains answers to all the new exercises and all references are to the new edition of Reading Greek.
It is not essential to do all the exercises on morphology and syntax. Then you look at the explanations of the grammar in GE. and a key to the exercises in GE. translations of the text. Then you learn the grammar and the lists of ‘vocabulary to be learnt’ in GE. Then you do the exercises for the section to make sure that you have understood the grammar. 3. The translations of the text and the exercises will help you if you get stuck. They are designed to help you with the reading and to amplify the explanation of the grammar in GE. However. You may also like to have The World of Athens (second edition 2008). 2. RGT and GE. were designed to be used together so that 1. You may want to do each section of the exercises as you study the grammar in GE. so that you get immediate practice in a new feature of language. Since the
. and will also allow you to check whether you have got everything right.
The Independent Study Guide (ISG) contains notes on translating the text of RGT. but they will help you to practise the language and to make sure that you understand the grammar. you should always do the ﬁnal ‘Test Exercise’ in each section. and records readings from passages in RGT. which gives you background information about Athenian history and life. The ﬁrst two books. as it is an important check on your grasp of the section. The notes will give you some general advice at the start of a new section and some additional help as you read the text. 4. You read the passage in RGT with the aid of the running vocabulary for the section.Preface
How to use this course You have three books: Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary (RGT) Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises (GE) Independent Study Guide to Reading Greek (ISG) In addition there is a CD Speaking Greek which illustrates pronunciation. they will refer you to relevant pages and paragraphs in GE and in RGT.
or whether you like to look at a new pattern of grammar and then see how it is used in the text. Some people prefer to look at the explanations of the grammar in a new section before they embark on reading the text. It is always a good idea to re-read the text of a section after you have ﬁnished it. It will also help you to absorb more of the very varied vocabulary which is used in Reading Greek to provide a greater range of interest and a wider experience of the language from an early stage. they are literal rather than elegant in style. but it will work just as well if you prefer the second. In the ﬁrst section. ISG assumes that you will be using the ﬁrst procedure. It is a matter of personal choice whether you prefer to look out for new forms in reading. You will be surprised at how much more you remember if you do this. and then ﬁnd out how they work.x
translations are there to help you to understand the Greek.
giving chapter and paragraph numbers.
.Abbreviations used in the text
ISG RGT GE WA
= The Independent Study Guide = Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary = Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises = The World of Athens
References with no preﬁx are to the text of this ISG.
Try the exercise on the alphabet on GE p. but ‘Akhilleus’ comes as a shock.
The words in their Greek form (without accents) are: drama panthēr δραμα πανθηρ comma cōlon κομμα κωλον
. For centuries it was common practice in English usage to turn all Greek spellings into their Latin equivalents. this is not straightforward. have become so much part of our English heritage that they look strange and unfamiliar in their ‘Greek’ form. we all recognise ‘Achilles’. ‘The sounds of Greek’. The latter course has been followed in this book. 4–7 #1–7). as well as a description of the basic terms used to describe the grammar (GE pp. Editors therefore have to make a decision whether to be consistently ‘Latin’ or consistently ‘Greek’. 1–3). E. In their English form the words will be: Byzantium (Busdantion) Dicaeopolis or Dikaiopolis Euboea or Euboia Zenothemis or Sdenothemis Hegestratus or Hegestratos Parthenon Chios (Khios) acropolis (akropolis) emporium (emporion)
As you see. but the difﬁculty with this practice is that some words and names. 3.g. Reading and writing Look at the alphabet and the pronunciation guide in GE pages 1–3. More recently it has been fashionable to keep to a spelling that is closer to the original Greek. at the same time.Grammatical Introduction
In the Introduction to Grammar and Exercises you will ﬁnd the Greek alphabet and a guide to pronunciation (GE pp. If you have the Speaking Greek CD it is very helpful to listen to the ﬁrst section. or whether to keep the familiar words in their ‘Latin’ form while treating the less familiar words in a ‘Greek’ way.
and you should certainly not try to absorb it all at this stage. ὁ Ζηνόθεμις is the subject. However. 2. Hegestratos as subject will be Hegestratos as object will be Zenothemis as subject will be ὁ Ἡγέστρατος τὸν Ἡγέστρατον ὁ Ζηνόθεμις
When you have studied the Grammatical introduction you will be aware that in reading Greek it is necessary to learn not only to interpret the new script.2
crocus geranium hippopotamus ibis asbestos charactēr scēnē Periclēs Sophoclēs Euripidēs *Hippocratēs
κροκος γερανιον ἱπποποταμος ἰβις ἀσβεστος χαρακτηρ σκηνη Περικλης Σοφοκλης Εὐριπιδης Ἱπποκρατης
Sōcratēs Zeus Artemis *Hēraclēs asthma dyspepsia cinēma orchēstra mēlon iris
Σωκρατης Ζευς Ἀρτεμις Ἡρακλης ἀσθμα δυσπεψια κινημα ὀρχηστρα μηλον ἰρις
Case: Subject and object (pp. #7)
1. most of this will be of future interest. τοὺς ναύτας is the object.
. τὸν Ζηνόθεμιν is the object. You will have to train yourself consciously to notice the endings. #408–454). 369–463. 3. 6–7. You will ﬁnd more information about the Greek language in Part B of GE in the Reference Grammar (GE pp. but also to look closely at the endings of words. τὸν Ἡγέστρατον is the object.
ὁ Ἡγέστρατος is the subject. #340–406) and in Part C Language Surveys (GE pp. ἡ γυνὴ is the subject. This is something which we do not need to do in English. or you will ﬁnd that you are making avoidable mistakes in understanding Greek. 465–495.
This procedure is recommended for the whole of Section 1. You will ﬁnd the answers to the exercises in this volume after our grammar and notes on 1A and 1B (p. 8–12. Hegestratos goes into the ship. ὁ κυβερνήτης). pausing at the end of every sentence and repeating the Greek aloud. the ship sails to Athens and the Piraeus. please see the Grammatical introduction GE 1–7 pp. and ﬁnally the captain and the sailors go into the ship. check with the translation suggested below. Now listen to the whole of Section 1A as read on the Speaking Greek CD. and the Grammar for Section 1A–B #8–11. not word order. NB. determine the functions of words in the sentence – the subject and object.g. 6). then Sdenothemis goes into the ship. does not always have the same word order as English. If you think you would prefer to ﬁnd out about the grammar and how it works before you start reading. In Chios.Section One: The insurance scam
Speaking Greek CD First. If you are uncertain.
. then look at GE pp. And in Euboea. Dikaiopolis gets on board. the rhapsode boards. You will ﬁnd that several complete phrases are listed (e. This is because in Greek (as in Latin) case-endings.g.
Translation for 1A (ll. The ship sails to Chios. (If these terms are not familiar to you. 1–7)
The ship is in Byzantium. with the aid of the running vocabulary on p. Then the ship sails to Euboea. Replay the ﬁrst paragraph (lines 1–7). And in Byzantium. Finally. 4–7. Greek. Then try working out the translation of that ﬁrst paragraph. ἐν Βυζαντίῳ) and that all the nouns appear with their articles (e. 5. read the English introduction at the beginning of Section 1A. #8–11. as you see. It should help you to get used to the script and the sound of the language.
4. Note slight variation in the verb-ending -ῶσι(ν) in ὁρῶσι(ν) (lines 11. What does Sdenothemis see? Sdenothemis sees the acropolis and the Parthenon.
Translation for 1A (ll. Then read it to yourself. before trying to translate it. Notice that Greek often includes a τε and καί to form a closely linked pair. she. If the -ουσι or -ῶσι ending is followed by a word beginning with a vowel.
Using the same method as that recommended for Section 1A.
2. and Sdenothemis looks towards the land. The preposition ἐν (‘in’) is followed by the dative (ἐν Χίῳ.
3. when translating. So you will see τὸ πλοῖον in the text.4
2. then the (ν) is added. Dikaiopolis and the captain hear a noise. They can be tabulated as follows:
Plural ἡ τήν τό τό οἱ (τούς) αἱ τάς (τά) (τά)
Singular Nominative ὁ Accusative τόν
(You may be puzzled by the change in accent. τὸν Πειραιᾶ). Then both Dikaiopolis and the captain look towards the land. 8–14) (continued)
3. 5. and it may seem more natural. Suddenly. using the same method.
Notice the various different forms of the deﬁnite article. 13). It is a printing convention to change this grave back to an acute when the word is printed in isolation with no word following it. listen to Section 1B on the CD. it means (literally) ‘both … and’. βαίνουσι(ν) is 3rd person plural (‘they go’). What do Dikaiopolis and the captain see? Dikaiopolis and the captain see the acropolis and the Parthenon. An acute accent on the last syllable usually changes to a grave when it is followed by another word. it goes’). ἐν Eὐβοίᾳ). The preposition πρός (‘towards’) in line 6 is followed by the accusative case (τὰς Ἀθήνας. Now move on to the second paragraph of 1A.
Notice again the ﬂexibility of Greek word order: you will ﬁnd that it is essential to concentrate upon word-endings and not word order to determine the structure. though in English this often seems strained.) Note also the change in verb-ending between βαίνει (line 2) and εἰσβαίνουσιν (line 3): βαίνει is 3rd person singular (‘he. or is the last word in a clause.
So the ship sails. to omit the ‘both’. but τό in the above table.
Notice that in Greek a semicolon is used as a question mark. Now I too can see the acropolis. C A P T A I N You are right. captain. how beautiful is the dockyard. DIK. You speak the truth. So you and I hear the noise. Note that καί can mean ‘and’. Sdenothemis. SDEN. No.
3 ἆρα καὶ σὺ τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ὁρᾷς. and [how] beautiful the Piraeus. Yes. I too hear the noise again. Often here it is used in phrases like ‘I too’.
Translate the following sentences: (p. You are right. and [how] beautiful [is] the acropolis. but ψόϕος = ‘a noise’. by Zeus. Yes. 19–20. which are logical variants. or ‘you too’. Cf. But come over here and look. Do you not see the Parthenon? DIK. I hear nothing. SDEN. ‘also’ or ‘even’. Sdenothemis. are set out fully in GE pp. Ο Zeus. Here the other person-endings of the present tense are introduced. 14. ‘Can you too see the Acropolis?’ καί means ‘also’ and σύ emphasises you. Do you hear? What is the noise? Do you also hear the noise. Hey! A noise. only the absence of the deﬁnite article. Can you also see the acropolis? DIKAIOPOLIS Where is the acropolis? For I cannot see the acropolis. Thus. Note the pattern of endings (GE p. clearly.
Verbs. The ship is at Byzantium. Come over here and look.
Translation for 1B
Come over here.
. CAPT. #23–25 and are explained in 1E–F. Dikaiopolis. ‘an’) in Greek. Sdenothemis? SDEN. Thus ὁ ψόϕος = ‘the noise’. SDΕN. Do you also see the dockyard? CAPT. 9) The rhapsode goes. line 11 ὁρῶ καὶ ἐγώ. Don’t worry. For again I hear the noise. The sailors see the land and the rhapsode. and look. 15 μὴ ϕρόντιζε ‘Don’t worry!’ μὴ is the negative used with imperatives.) Listen! A noise. (Lit. The other endings. #12):
the regular the variant -ω -ῶ -εις -ᾷς -ει -ᾷ -oμεν -ῶμεν -ετε -ᾶτε -ουσι(ν) -ῶσι(ν)
Learn the regular ones ﬁrst. captain. οὐ is used with statements. ‘He doesn’t worry’ would be οὐ ϕροντίζει. For I see the acropolis. 12 There is no indeﬁnite article (‘a’. Ο Zeus! How beautiful is the Parthenon. For I see the dockyard and the Piraeus.
gen. nom. 4. accusative. 5. sponges neut. 30. dative. gen. dative. 7. nominative. stage fem.6
Practice (p. 3. you need not remember this. plural feminine. dat. f. singular masculine. acc. singular masculine. plural feminine. nerve. plural EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1A–B
the city the king the old men the triremes of [the] democracy for [the] Homer of the atoms by the skills
Now you will have more practice with the different persons of the verb. sing. 10)
feminine. 9. genitive.
. sing. sing.. sing. dat. genitive. breathing. eyes
6. Go on reading and listening to the CD. 7. nom/acc. nom.
ὁ καλὸς κυβερνήτης τὸ καλὸν πλοῖον τοῦ καλοῦ ἔργου τὰς καλὰς Ἀθήνας τοῖς καλοῖς ἀνθρώποις
6. pl. #42). 8. singular m.. 2. democracy neut. 5. or n. nom. sinew masc. 10.
neut. sing. skeleton masc. 3. pl. accusative. This is because an acute accent on the last syllable of a word changes to grave when it is followed by another word (unless that word is an enclitic GE p. 9. singular masculine. masters fem.. tragedy
ADJECTIVES 1A–B: 2
1. 10. acc. plural feminine. heads fem. 8. accusative. acc. Unless you are planning to learn to use all accents.
τὴν καλὴν ἀκρόπολιν τὸν καλὸν Παρθενῶνα ταῖς καλαῖς βοαῖς τῷ καλῷ πλοίῳ τῇ καλῇ ἀκροπόλει
Note that the accent on καλός has changed from acute in the table to grave καλὸς in the exercise. gasping masc. pl. gen. 4. pl. 2. sing.
For I see the markets and the merchant ships. So what? Ο Poseidon. so it is brought forward to the beginning of the phrase.
In this section you will meet another contracted verb. Don’t worry. means ‘why?’
Translation for 1D
So down goes the captain. Hegestratos? What [is] the noise?
Translation for 1C
CAPTAIN SDEN. but τι without an accent (see line 13) means ‘something’. friends.
1 καταβαίνει μὲν …. 20. how beautiful are the markets.Section 1D
Notice the words for ‘where from’ πόθεν and ‘where to’ πoῖ. 3 Similarly notice that τὸν ‘Hγέστρατον is brought forward for emphasis. You should have no difﬁculty in recognising the person from the ending (GE p. CΑΡΤ. The only way we can express this emphasis in English is to say something like ‘It is Hegestratos whom …’ 8 τί with an accent means ‘what?’. it is Hegestratos that the captain and the sailors see. SDEN. But where is the noise [coming] from? From below.
Hey. over here. Sdenothemis. For I see –
In this section you met the remaining person-endings: 2nd person plural: βαίνετε (14) and imperative plural: ϕροντίζετε (1). friends. and down go both Dikaiopolis and the sailors.rather than an -α-. Listen.’ For we hear the noise clearly. The verb is particularly important here. CΑΡΤ. friends? Don’t worry. The same sufﬁx -θεν as in πόθεν appears in κάτωθεν ‘from below’. one with an -ε. literally ‘on account of what?’. you! What are you doing? But what are you doing.
I do not hear [it]. Do you also see the markets? AND DIKAIOPOLIS We also see them. how beautiful are the merchant ships. Dikaiopolis. καταβαίνουσι δὲ … Notice the word order. Why don’t we go down? Come on. But look over here. For the noise [is] from below. Dikaiopolis – Where are you going? Where are you going? Why don’t you stay. and don’t say ‘How beautiful are the markets. DIK. And below. Hegestratos is making the noise below. But come over here and look. #24). διὰ τί.
don’t look! (pl. Hegestratos? HE. 5. 8. What have you in your right hand.)are going down you (pl.)/ you (pl. nor do I hear any noise.)
. he/she hears 9. and I’m throwing myself out of the ship.)/ you (pl. CAPT.
you (s. Hegestratos. I’m off.
φεύγει διώκουσι(ν) βλέπεις μένομεν οὐκ ἀκούει
IMPERATIVES 1C–D: 3
1. 10. Ο Zeus! For Hegestratos is not telling the truth. over here. friend. οὐδὲν ἔχω ἔγωγε. CΑΡΤ.) look! (s. not me. 4.) listen! (s. Ο dear.8
Exercises for section 1C–D
I am not doing anything. 7. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1C–D
VERBS IN -ω 1C–D: 1
1. For Hegestratos has something in his right hand. they go 7. 3. 2.) Sailors.) don’t hear we are looking they remain he/she does not ﬂee you (s. I have nothing. 2.: τί πoιεῖς σύ. 9. help and pursue [him]. 3.) are running away 10. 2.) are pursuing
Notice again the way in which the pronouns can be used to emphasise the person in the verb-ending.) are ﬂeeing
6. 10. The fellow is sinking the ship. pursue! (pl. 4. 4.) go down! (pl. CAPT.) don’t go in! (pl. Don’t worry. 7. DIK. HE.). you (pl. 5. captain.
go! (s. 8. 9.) are not looking 8.) are going/ go! (pl. 5. don’t wait! (s. 3. What are you saying. sailors? Over here. Dikaiopolis? Hegestratos is sinking the ship? But why don’t you catch the man. captain. sailors. For Hegestratos has an axe in his right hand. he/she/it remains
1. Help. you (s. e.
ἀκούουσι(ν) βλέπει διώκετε βαίνω οὐ μένουσι(ν)
6. DIKAIOPOLIS Come over here and look.g.
but run away yourself as well. Help. Sdenothemis – oh dear! SDEN. Hegestratos? Look. -αω and -οω. Throw yourself into the sea. and the sailors help. Come along. and throw yourself out of the ship. I am.
The main new point of grammar here is the conjugation of ‘contract’ verbs. Oh dear! For now I see the sailors clearly. #23–25 sets this out and shows how the stem vowel contracts with the endings. Sdenothemis towards the sailors. sailors. The important words are often brought forward to the beginning of the sentence or phrase. captain? The men are dying. help! ΗΕ. Don’t wait.
Translation for 1E
Hegestratos ﬂees from below. For the men throw themselves into the sea and look for the lifeboat. and they are dying badly. For the lifeboat is in the sea. verbs ending in -εω. I’m dying – DIKAIOPOLIS Do you see those men.You will ﬁnd it easy to recognise the persons from the pattern of the endings. For the men are bad. and don’t wait around. C A P T A I N Don’t worry about it. Notice the word order in this passage.
1F Translation for 1F
Hegestratos and Sdenothemis do not wait around but run away. HE. 19–21. and the captain unties the lifeboat. The sailors clearly see their ﬂight from the ship. The lifeboat drifts away from the ship. Hegestratos. For the lifeboat is clearly drifting away from the ship. Sdenothemis remains above. the sailors are chasing me. Oh dear! Where is the lifeboat? Where is it. For the sailors are coming up and are in pursuit.
But what are you doing. Sdenothemis. Hegestratos? I can’t see the lifeboat.Section 1F
1 ὁ μὲν ‘Hγέστρατος … oἱ δὲ ναῦται … The particles μέν and δέ are frequently used to make a contrast. Dikaiopolis. Where are you running away to? I’m escaping into the sea. save yourself.
SDΕN. Hegestratos looks towards Sdenothemis. For the men are coming up here now. GE pp. I’m running away. They can never be the ﬁrst word in a phrase. We are dying. and chase Hegestratos.
Exercises for section 1E–F
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1E–F
CONTRACT VERBS 1E–F: 1
1.) are doing/making don’t show! he/she is showing
1. 10. 2.)
6. 3. 8. 7. 9. 2.) make/do you (pl. 5.
ὁρῶσι(ν) ποιεῖ ποιεῖτε δηλῶ βοηθοῦσι(ν)
6. 9. 8. 7.
ποιεῖ μὴ ποίει ὁρᾷ ὅρα μὴ βαῖνε
.) see he/she sees they see we are doing/making they show
τιμῶ γαμεῖς οἰκοῦσι(ν) σιγῶμεν ἀσεβεῖτε
6. 10. 4.) help you (s. 9. 3. 8.
stay (s. 2.
you (s. 3.
ἀσθενεῖ ἐλευθεροῦμεν ἐξαπατᾷ νοσῶ τιμᾶτε
CONTRACT IMPERATIVES 1E–F: 4
ποιεῖ ποιοῦσι(ν) δηλοῖς ὁρῶμεν ποιεῖ
1. 8. 10.) show you (s.) he/she is doing/making he/she sees don’t show! (pl.
see! do/make! (s. 5. 4.) show he/she helps
1. 4. 7. 8. 7. 2. 9. 5. 10.) you (pl. 5.) go. 4. 7.
μὴ μένετε δίωκε δηλοῦτε μὴ ἄκουε βοήθει
6. 5. 10. Go! you (s. 9. 2. 3. 3.
So we are not in danger. The possessive is normally only used to stress ownership.
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1G
THE DECLENSIONS 1G: 1
1. We are now dying badly: for our ship is clearly sinking into the sea. We say ‘Men are lazy’ or ‘Women are clever’. ἀνθρώπους 7. 3 περι-σκοπῶ Compound verb. Be quiet.
Translation for 1G
But is our ship safe. When English speaks of a class of people it does not use the article. (The captain comes up. ἀνθρώπων. 5 ἡ ἡμετέρα σωτηρία Notice that Greek normally uses only the deﬁnite article where we in English would often use the possessive adjective. Dikaiopolis. 9 τοὺς ἀνθρώπους Another of the differences in the way Greek uses the article. ἔργων 3. ἔργοις
5. Our ship is safe and we also are safe.) CAPT. ἀνθρώπῳ. but Greek will use the article in this situation. ἔργον
. But Dikaiopolis remains above. It means ‘to look (σκοπῶ) round’ (περι).’ 16 σῶον μέν … σῶοι δέ … Note the contrast pointed by μέν and δέ. For we always make sacriﬁces to you. ἀνθρώποις. Greek will say ‘the father’ or ‘the safety’ if it is clear from the context that it means ‘his father’ or ‘our safety’. and are we safe as well? Why don’t I go down below and look around carefully? For I [am] the captain: so it [is] my job. Thus the Greeks would say ‘The men are lazy’.) DIKAIOPOLIS Now. ἔργῳ 6. So our safety [is] assured. (The captain goes down and looks round. or if the context is ambiguous. ἔργῳ 8. Ο Poseidon. and you always save people from the sea. our lifeboat is clearly drifting away and our safety [is] not assured. ‘The women are clever. And moreover the harbour is near by.Exercises for section 1G
2 σῶοι δὲ καὶ ἡμεῖς Notice that the verb ‘to be’ is often left out in Greek if the meaning is clear. καί Here means ‘also’. and our safety [depends] on me. ἄνθρωποι 4. ἄνθρωπον 2. save us [bring us safely] into the harbour. You will meet this repeatedly in this section. ἀνθρώπῳ.
ἀνθρώπων gen. 5. if you have mastered all elements of the language
in the markets into the ships in the work from the men from the market
6. 3. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου 4. τὰ καλὰ ἔργα 6. ποιεῖ
MORE ADJECTIVES 1G: 3
PREPOSITIONS 1G: 5
4. grammar and vocabulary. τῶν καλῶν ἐμπορίων 8. you should do the revision exercises only after completing work on text. τοῖς ἡμετέροις ἔργοις 3. 2. τοῖς κακοῖς ἀνθρώποις
1. ἄνθρωπον acc. The more you do. 3. εἰς τὸ πλοῖον 7. you should regard as essential.
1. 4. The Test Exercises. τοὺς ἡμετέρους ἀνθρώπους
5. pl. 8.12
1. 9. ἐστι(ν)
1. εἰς τὰ ἐμπόρια
As you are advised in GE. pl. pl. if you feel you have grasped these aspects. however. τῷ ἡμετέρῳ πλοίῳ 7. ἀνθρώπους acc. s. διώκουσι(ν) 3. τῶν κακῶν ἀνθρώπων 4. τὴν καλὴν γῆν 2. 10. the more competent you will become. ἀνθρώπου gen. They have been carefully designed so that. then you can omit these exercises or do them quickly. ἐν τοῖς πλοίοις REVISION EXERCISES
5. πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους 8.
from the ships towards the markets into the ship in the lifeboats towards the men
1. ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου 2. s. 5. ἐστι(ν) 2. How many of the exercises you do will depend upon your own choice and interest. εἰς τὸν λέμβον 3. ἀνθρώποις dat. The exercises on Word shape and Syntax are designed to help you absorb and retain particular features of the language. ὁρᾷ 5. 2. 7. πρὸς τὸν λέμβον 6.
φρόντιζε or you (pl. καταβαίνει we come up s. to do with sailing I see/look into I run away. τὸ νεώριον. a. τῶν ἀνθρώπων 4.) are going away s. φροντίζεις they go down s. If you ﬁnd you do have to look up a word or an ending. ἀποχώρει 3. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1A–G Note the advice on tackling these exercises in GE pp. τοῖς ψόφοις. τῷ λέμβῳ. maritime.) go pl. τὰ πλοῖα. ὁρῶσι(ν) help! (s.) pl. τοῖς καλοῖς ἀνθρώποις e. worry (pl.) s.
. τὸν καλὸν ἄνθρωπον
Notes on English into Greek
Don’t worry about word order yet. morphology and syntax).) s. you will be able to do the Test Exercises without any looking up at all. ὅρα you (pl. nautical I steer nautical. the error or omission should alert you to the area needing further consolidation.
you (s.) are worrying s. οἱ ἄνθρωποι. τὰ καλὰ νεώρια c. βλέπομεν he/she makes. ὁ καλὸς ἄνθρωπος b. run from
1. or if you make a mistake in your translation. 33–35
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
I go I chase sea helmsman sailor I see I ﬂee
B – WORD SHAPE
I go out I chase out belonging to the sea. ἀναβαίνω you (pl. ποιοῦσι(ν) he/she sees pl. βαίνετε I see pl. does pl. But go on noticing how it works in Greek. ἀποχωρεῖς or go away! (pl. ὁρᾷς or see! (pl.) s.Revision exercises for section 1A–G
required so far (vocabulary. τῷ καλῷ ἐμπορίῳ d. βοηθεῖτε 2.) see s.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. although it has occurred in the Text. It would be ὁ ανὴρ in 3. But suddenly they hear the noise.
C – SYNTAX
Hegestratos sees the acropolis. They look towards the land and see both the dockyards and the Parthenon. For he has an axe in his right hand.
. Then they go down. τοὺς ἀνθρώπους.
E – TEST EXERCISE 1 A–G
The ship departs from Euboea and sails towards the Piraeus.14
Revision exercises for section 1A–G
If you used ἀνήρ ἀνδρ. ὁ Ἡγέστρατος οὐχ ὁρᾷ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/τοὺς ἄνδρας Can you not see the Acropolis? ἆρα ὁρᾷς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/τοὺς ἄνδρας καὶ σύ. ὁ Ζηνόθεμις 3. 4. Dikaiopolis saves the men. and in the sea they die. The men don’t see the life-boats. Hegestratos ﬂees from below. but help and chase the man. ὁ λέμβος 5. The captain and Dikaiopolis are up above.
Sdenothemis goes into the ship. Sdenothemis is looking towards the land. τὸν Ἡγέστρατον. Come over here and look. The sailors don’t see Hegestratos. The sailors pursue Sdenothemis. Don’t wait around. διώκετε τὸν ἄνθρωπον/τὸν ἄνδρα. ἔλθετε καὶ βοηθεῖτε.
CAPTAIN DIKAIOPOLIS CΑΡΤ. The men are coming up. Don’t worry. ὁ ἄνθρωπος/ὁ ανὴρ (ἀπο)φεύγει πρὸς τὸ πλοῖον. The helmsman casts off the life-boats. You have not yet learned the pattern for this noun. I see. The men escape into the sea. μὴ (ἀπο)ϕεύγετε. τοὺς ἄνδρας in 5. Dikaiopolis? Yes.
1. ὁ ἄνθρωπος 4. The men see the sailors clearly and throw themselves into the sea. The sailors come up from below. 2. oἱ ϕίλοι οὐ μένουσιν. 2. while Sdenothemis remains above. For Hegestratos is making the noise.
Who is making the noise? Do you see.for ‘man’ in 3 and 5. sailors. you may have got it wrong. 3. For the fellow has an axe. But Hegestratos remains below and is sinking the ship.
A sailor asks the captain where they are. The rhapsode is always quoting Homer. Where are we. RHAP. then see if you can identify the person. but pronoun σύ should help. 1–2 ναύτης δέ τις This is the indeﬁnite τις. as ‘wine-dark’. and extensively used in this and subsequent sections. 5 ὁμηρίζει Transliterate ﬁrst. You are right. 18 τί τὸ … Literally. 21 ἐν νηὶ θοῇ. 36. but a problem for translators. and I do not know where we are. 17 ἐν νηὶ μελαίνῃ This is another common Homeric phrase. So the captain says that they are sailing into the harbour. without an accent. sailor. though note that μῶρος is an adjective. The -ιζω ending in Greek verbs is like our ‘-ize/-ise’ ending. but the ἡμεῖς indicates which person of the verb this is. also explained by its pronoun σύ. For I see nothing. ‘We are sailing in a black ship. We are sailing towards the harbour. 13 οἴνοπα πόντον A lovely phrase and frequent in Homer. which follows the word it agrees with. again reinforced by the inclusion of the pronoun. 36. ‘What (is) the …?’. Literally it means ‘wine-faced’ but it is usually rendered.e. παίζει πρός It means ‘makes fun of’.Section 1H
1 λιμένα Check the English introduction above. Thus this might be translated ‘Homerise’. νηί is irregular dative of ναῦς (line 28) meaning ‘ship’. For the sailor does not clearly know where they are: for it is night. #44. more poetically. captain? Do you know? For I do not clearly know. What’s the fellow saying? DIKAIOPOLIS It’s clear that the fellow is quoting Homer. τίς with an accent. itinerant reciter of Homer. See GE p. 4 ῥαψῳδός τις ‘a rhapsode’. C A P T A I N I know clearly. i. See GE p. 9 οἶδα Yet another new form.’
. He’s a rhapsode. οἶσθα Also new. A rhapsode is a professional. There is on the ship a rhapsode. because of the night.
Translation for 1H
So the captain steers the ship towards the harbour. 8 ἐσμεν New here. would mean ‘Who?’ or ‘What sailor?’ 3 λέγει ὅτι Remember ὅτι carefully: it is extremely common. εἶ Another new person of the verb. #44. my friend. Note also the English explanation in introduction. Dikaiopolis makes fun of the rhapsode like Socrates with his students.’ SAIL. RHAPSODE ‘We are sailing on the wine-dark sea. and κοίλῃ ἐνὶ νηί Two more common Homeric phrases. rather like a medieval troubadour. ‘What’s that …?’ 19 μῶρος English ‘moron’ suggests the answer. coming ﬁrst.
For Homer knows matters of war. Note the thrust of the rhapsode’s argument: he knew much about Homer – Homer knew much about everything – therefore he (the rhapsode) knew much about everything. hence στρατιωτικά refers to soldiering. 6 διότι ‘because’. δήπου is often heavily sarcastic in its meaning.
RHAP. ‘nautical’ and ‘strategic’ should help to establish the meaning of three. Be quiet. It is clear that you are stupid. tactical. and matters nautical. but are joking at us. How do you know many things? It is clear that you are uneducated. but is joking at us. στρατηγός was so called because he was an army (στρατός) leader (ἄγω – ‘I lead’).
1 εἰμί A new form. ‘In a swift ship’ we are sailing. γιγνώσκω A new word (Latin cognosco). Here the effect is ludicrous.’ Do you hear. the business of the soldier.g. so the whole Greek word means ‘uneducated’. meaning ‘one’ (here = ‘one and the same’). and don’t know anything. It is clear that our rhapsode is stupid. Similarly a στρατιώτης was a member of the army.is the root of the English word ‘p(a) edagogue’.is often a negative one in Greek (cf. 5 ἄριστος An aristocracy is rule by the ‘best’ people. although the original idea resulted in a new and valuable tool of reasoning. strategic – So you also know matters of strategy?
. by Zeus. rhapsode. This form of argument reﬂects some forms of Socratic and Platonic dialectic where an attempt is made to use words in as deﬁned a way as numbers. a soldier.
1 μία Feminine form of εἷς.
What are you saying. 11 δήπου Like ‘of course’ in English. sailors? Come here and listen.e. 2 ἀπαίδευτος The preﬁx α.
DIK. For the fellow does not know anything accurately. ‘polemics’. I know much because Homer knows much. rhapsode? What’s that ‘in a black ship’? For our ship isn’t black. 7–12 The various -ικος adjectives here correspond to many -ic/ical adjectives in English: e.
But I am not stupid: I know many things. person indicated by pronoun. i. I am not uneducated about Homer. English ‘amoral’. No.16
Translation for 1I–J
RHAPSODE DIKAIOPOLIS RHAP. DIK. παιδ. ‘asymmetrical’). ‘in a hollow ship. For you do not know whether our ship is ‘black’ or ‘swift’ or ‘hollow’.
you (s. It is clear. 7. Yes. εἰσί(ν)
Note carefully the conjugation of both irregular verbs εἰμί and οἶδα (GE p. Nevertheless it is sensible to learn them now and it is worth learning them very carefully. RHAP.
Of course.) are you (pl. rhapsode. RHAP. RHAP. Dikaiopolis. Dikaiopolis. 8. the rhapsode is indeed a fool. DIK.Exercises for section 1H–J
RHAP. ἴσασι(ν) 6. the best general of the Greeks. and I also am experienced [in them]. For Socrates always jokes in this way at his students. SAILOR
RHAP. DIK. Are you then. DIK. 2. meet them in Test Exercise 1H–J. sailors? Is the rhapsode a fool or not? By Zeus. εἶ 3. of course. #44): it is essential to know both thoroughly – and although most of εἰμί has appeared in the Text. the best general of the Greeks? Of course. DIK. And you are the best rhapsode of the Greeks? Certainly. Dikaiopolis. οἶδε(ν)
. DIK. that you are Socratising and joking with me. What do you say. DIK. What? Are you then experienced in matters of strategy. 5.) know we are
6. the plural forms of οἶδα have not. 36. οἶδα 2. ἐστί(ν) 5. It’s my job. RHAP. 3. RHAP. So the best general of the Greeks is a fool.) know they are I am they know
he/she/it is we know you (pl. Dikaiopolis. rhapsode? Yes. For Homer is experienced in matters of strategy. The Greeks are always children. The fellow is. So good rhapsodes are at the same time also good generals? Yes. but he does not know precisely whether the ship is ‘black’ or ‘swift’ or ‘hollow’. in fact. Are then the skill of a rhapsode and the skill of a general one [and the same]? One [and the same] skill. Dikaiopolis. 10. 9. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1H–J
IRREGULAR VERBS 1H–J: 1
1.) are you (s. You will.
) are he/she knows you (s. You know much (many things).) both exist and do not exist (are and are not). 3. 2.
πολλὰ ἴσασιν. ἐσμέν τε καὶ ἴσμεν. Rhapsodes (as a class of people*) are the best generals. The rhapsode is a fool. ἐσμέν 8.) know he/she is they know play! (s. 5. οἶδε(ν) 10.) know about both seafaring and generalship. 3. 4. 2. reveal I am in Greek (adjective) I wait around I command (an army)
B – WORD SHAPE
The rhapsode is a Greek.
a.) I am we know
εἶ γιγνώσκουσι(ν) ἴστε εἰσί(ν) οἶδε(ν) παίζετε ἐσμέν οἶδα
C – SYNTAX
you (pl. come clear I am a Greek person I wait a general
I go round I go (or come) round I make clear. b. The Greek is a rhapsode. οἶδα καὶ οὐκ οἶδα τά τε ναυτικὰ καὶ τὰ στρατηγικά.
I go away I go. ἔστι καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν.
. Do they know about both soldiering and generalship?
1. 5. You (pl. οὐκ οἶδε τὰ στρατηγικά.18
Revision exercises for section 1H–J
9. c. ἐστέ
1. We both know and see much. 4. d.
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1H–J
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
Suddenly the rhapsode recites Homer. but foolish. 4.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. What are you saying?) For you are a rhapsode. Do you not know that the good rhapsode is at the same time also a good general? No.
. and English does not. but I know that you are a fool. but the sailors do not know where the ship is.
DIKAIOPOLIS RHAPSODE DIΚ. πολλὰ δὲ γιγνώσκω. (σὺ) οὐκ ἔμπειρος εἶ περὶ τὸ ἔργον. 2. Likewise οὐ δέ εἰμι is not on: μέν and δέ do not follow negatives. art. 5. Rhapsodes are the best generals. δῆλόν ἐστιν ὅτι ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς πολλὰ γιγνώσκει. to denote a class of people. The rhapsode is a captain. not a general. For you are the best rhapsode of the Greeks and expert in Homer. you are not expert.
It is clear that Dikaiopolis is teasing the rhapsode. So they ask the captain where it is. nor do you know anything accurately. f. The captain is a rhapsode/A rhapsode is captain. ἀλλὰ μῶρος μὲν οὔκ εἰμι. You are not skilled. DIΚ. I am expert in many things. What do you mean? (Lit. ὁ ἄριστος στρατηγός ἐστι ῥαψῳδός.
Do you know the business of a rhapsode. however. Do you not know that the man is always joking? ἆρ᾽ οὐκ οἶδεν ὅτι ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς ἀκριβῶς λέγει. rhapsode? Of course.
Note: μῶρος δὲ μέν and μῶρος μὲν δέ are not permitted. μέν and δέ are never used side by side. I also know the skills of a general.Revision exercises for section 1H–J
e. rhapsode. *This is where Greek uses the def. 3. Dikaiopolis teases the rhapsode. RHAP. On matters of strategy.
E – TEST EXERCISE 1H–J
So the ship sails towards the Piraeus. The captain says that the ship is near the harbour. It is clear that the man knows much about Homer.
ἀλλήλους – leave blank for a moment. ἔρχεται New ending. #52–54). which person of the verb must it be? What should it mean? Sense demands a verb of motion – in fact. 46–48. then back to ἀλλήλους = ‘each other’. English ‘dialogue’ may help. The active voice describes what the subject does to the object. βραδέως The ending in -ως shows that this is an adverb (see GE pp. #43. See GE p. You will also meet some more noun types (GE pp. the verb can mean either ‘come’ or ‘go’.
1 ἡ μὲν ναῦς The article shows this is nominative. 22–23. The verbs you will meet in this section occur only in the middle and do not have an active voice. You will also meet a new pattern of verb in what is called the middle voice (GE pp. You will add -οω verbs (GE p. The middle describes what the subject does for (or to) himself. and it often does not have an object. #55–58) which you will eventually have to learn. for meaning. #24) to -αω and -εω ones. #52–53. or does for his own advantage. as in ὁ δὲ Δικαιόπολις. using the running vocabulary and the following notes for guidance if you need them. if circumstances permit!). 2 πρὸς ἀλλήλους πρὸς should be known.Section Two: The glorious past
In this section you will practise a third variant of the contracted verbs that you met in Section 1. #28–29).
After reading the English introduction. 43–46. or you may just prefer to keep referring to GE pp. Then try translating the paragraph. These are all in the active voice. 3 ἡδέως Part of speech? (English ‘hedonism’ may guide you to the meaning of this word. It is easy to recognise which person the ending indicates. μέν warns you that there will be a contrast in the following clause or sentence marked by δέ. 44–45. and is very common. try reading through the whole of the ﬁrst page (aloud. but you will be able to recognise what case they are in from the article used with them.
.) διαλέγονται Note the person ending. You may want to make a chart of the present indicative middle and to add the new endings as you meet them. 30. 20.
so the meaning is: ‘the around-Salamis sea-battle’. hence ‘go through’ as in ‘relate’. 20 οὐδὲν ἴσμεν ἀκριβῶς ἡμεῖς oἱ ναῦται Notice the word order. 9–11 The ﬁrst three lines are mostly recapitulation of words/phrases occurring earlier. ‘go’. hence ναυμαχία ‘sea-battle’.
Translation for 2A
The ship goes slowly towards the Piraeus. GE gives ‘keep quiet’. See GE p. [is he] not?).’ 4 διέρχεται Both elements have been met – the ἔρχεται = ‘come’/’go’. You therefore know much about rhetoric also (for Homer [is] rhetorical.= ‘through’. ‘Why doesn’t … ?’ You will see the same pattern in ‘διὰ τί οὐ λέγει…. νικῶσιν Here the verb is encountered for the ﬁrst time. and why doesn’t he tell what happened in the Persian Wars and how the Greeks and Persians fought and what deeds they dared and how many fell?’ The rhapsode gladly relates the sea-battle. ‘recount’. rhapsode. Come along then. τὴν περὶ Σαλαμῖνα ναυμαχίαν This is a phrase within a phrase as is shown by the linking device connecting τήν with ναυμαχίαν. come
. ἡμεῖς indicates the person. it can also mean something like ‘settle down’ or ‘calm down’. therefore = ‘our’. Notice διὰ τί οὐ followed by a question mark. μάχη means ‘battle’ and ναῦς ‘ship’.
12 ἐρχόμεθα The verb has occurred earlier in the sense ‘come’. 15 ἡμετέραν Possessive adjective. ἐν τοῖς Μηδικοῖς (literally) ‘in the Medic (things)’. See also the noun νίκην. 6 τίνα ἔργα τολμῶσι The context should help you towards the general sense of ‘what deeds they did’. 11 ἄγε δή GE gives ‘come!’ for ἄγε. but note that as well as meaning ‘be silent’. τόλμαν See note earlier (line 6). The ship is already going past Salamis and the captain says: ‘Why does the rhapsode not relate the sea-battle at Salamis. Dikaiopolis and the sailors and the captain and the rhapsode are talking happily to each other. the Greeks used ‘Medes’ and ‘Persians’ almost interchangeably. but more like English ‘Come on!’ – a spur to action and not necessarily an instruction to move. 5 τί γίγνεται The context should help. Μηδικοῖς being neuter plural. but notice that here it is not used like δεῦρο ἐλθέ. derived from ἡμεῖς (‘we’). #62. 23 ἡσυχάζετε Imperative. ‘what happens’. 21 κάλλιστον ποίει τὸν λόγoν The word order shows that this means ‘make the/ your story very beautiful’. δι. rather than ‘make the very beautiful story’. 49. know much about Homer. ‘rhetoric’.Section 2A
4–5 διὰ τί ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς οὐ διέρχεται…. τολμῶσι = ‘dare’ (τολμάω and its noun τόλμα are much used later in this section). 10 ῥητορικά Cf. the phrase means ‘in the Persian Wars’.
‘helplessness’. ‘few’. ‘large’. sailors. Θεά ‘Goddess’. 9 εὔχονται ‘they pray’. 3 ἀποροῦσι A verb for which there is no direct English equivalent: it means ‘be in a state of not knowing what to do’. #61. But speak. goddess of memory.22
over here and tell us the events at Salamis. and make your story very ﬁne. ‘sing’. ‘the ships. an army. which dominates throughout and is ﬁnally resolved only in Book 24. Keep quiet then. The Persians do not defeat us nor do they enslave us. ‘quandary’. RHAPSODE Of course. in the Iliad. line 16: ‘We are safe. announces at the very outset a central theme of the poem – the wrath of Achilles. here. and the sailors know nothing. because the quarrel of Agamemnon and Achilles led to near-disaster for the Greeks. the god-like king’: in the original it is Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος ‘of Achilles. 1G. line 9. 8 θυσίας Also above. This is not in the vocabulary for 2B. See GE p.
. We sailors know nothing accurately. Tell us then the Persian Wars and the sea-battle at Salamis and our daring and victory. and we are going slowly past Salamis towards Athens. Ξέρξου θείου βασιλῆος ‘of Xerxes. For you. the invocation of the Muse. A common enough occurrence – it’s surprising we have no verb for this. SAILORS Yes. οὐλομένην ‘accursed’: in the Iliad. An oligarchy is rule by a few. although nouns like ‘perplexity’. 16. For there is the island of Salamis. 5–6 αἱ νῆες αἱ τῶν Ἀθηναίων Notice the repeated αἱ which adds a description. ‘many’. So we gladly listen. μῆνιν ‘wrath’ (acc.). στρατιά was what the στρατηγός led. etc. because the invasion of Xerxes threatened the freedom of the Greeks. the very last book. 7 κίνδυνος You have not yet been asked to learn this word. therefore we are not ἐν κινδύνῳ. give the idea.
1 These lines are adapted from the opening lines of the Iliad.’ ἀπορία The noun form of ἀπορέω (see above in line 3). to help the poet in telling his story. the ones of the Athenians’. ϕοβοῦνται Another new verb: what are phobias? πολλή ‘much’. rhapsode. 4 στρατιά στρατηγός has been learnt (Section 1J). ἄειδε Imperative. I always make my stories very ﬁne. Tell us what happened in the Persian Wars and how the Greeks and foreigners fought and how many fell. so they may present a few problems. son of Peleus’. this. ὀλίγοι ‘small’. my friend. 49. and listen. but it occurred on p. viz. though it is in the Total Vocabulary. know clearly the events at Salamis.
and the Athenians few. Many [are] the Persian ships. For the Persian army [is] large. 19 βεβαία … ἡ … σωτηρία Cf. how many are the shouts. The Athenians free Greece and save their country through their daring. 11 πολλάκις The πολ. 18 ὕβριν Difﬁcult because not exactly like the English usage of ‘hubris’. For freedom [is] a good thing. 14 ἱκετεῖαι ‘supplications’.e. 12 τόλμα Not yet learnt. So the Athenians sacriﬁce their sacriﬁces to the gods and pray much. whereas English does not. says nothing worth-while. ‘aggression’. line 15). while the Athenians are at a loss and are afraid. although the verb τολμάω has occurred (2A. Great [is] the daring of the Greeks and their generals. τῆς ἐλευθερίας = ‘freedom’. line 6). line 18. and the accusative τόλμαν (ρ. Finally the Persians arrive and the Greeks ﬁght. and this is the object. So thus the salvation of the Greeks becomes secure.
Translation for 2B
‘Sing. but few the ships of the Athenians.
1 οὐδὲν λέγει Literally ‘says nothing’. ‘you don’t know anything’. but ‘Greece’. 1G. ἀγαθόν ‘good’ – but neuter gender. whereas ἐλευθερία is feminine. goddess. ‘on behalf of’. Herodotus describes the Persian Wars in terms that often sound surprisingly familiar. 16 τὴν Ἑλλάδα Note the word order (the subject is after the verb). so the accusative is the same as the nominative. so that it is not ‘the Greeks’. the destructive wrath of Xerxes the god-like king. how great the perplexities. Notice also that it is accusative singular and feminine.element should be familiar. how many the supplications to the gods! Finally the Athenians defeat the Persian ﬂeet and the Persians fall and they do not enslave the Athenians.
. talks rubbish. here with the adverbial sufﬁx -άκις or -κις it means ‘many times’. great their perplexity and great also their fear.’ So the foreigners slowly approach the city. 4 οὐκ οἶσθα οὐδέν Notice the reinforcing negative. 13 ὅσαι This means ‘How much/many …’ as used in exclamations. For courage and daring always defeat aggression and superior numbers. Great then [is] the danger of the Athenians. they go quickly into their ships and ﬁght for their freedom. And in the sea-battle.Section 2C
10 ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας A crucial phrase for a crucial concept to the Greeks. τὸ πλῆθος This is a neuter noun (of a type you have not yet met). This is a common idiom in Greek: ‘freedom is a good thing’. ὑπέρ = ‘for’. the struggle of the free peoples of the West against the totalitarian regime of the East. ‘often’. Note that Greek uses the article with ἐλευθερία because it is a general idea. 23. Here the sense is ‘violence’. i.
You are talking rubbish. 26. Persae 353–5. But at dawn a shout arises (occurs) and when the trumpet echoes from the rocks. like you. The Persian ﬂeet arrives. ‘there’. ‘where’ according to context.
. here combined in the sense of ‘retreat’. 25 This is taken from Aeschylus. 3 ἀναχωροῦσιν Both elements have been met: χωρεῖ ‘go’. your wives! Now [is] the struggle for everything!’
2 θεᾶται What one does in a θέατρον. the Persian ships sail slowly this way and that. We are looking for the truth. Then the captain also relates the events at Salamis. For my grandfather tells the events at Salamis as follows. fear develops (occurs) at the same time in the foreigners. and note also ‘petrol’. Matthew 16. and hear again. completely unadapted. the ﬁne deeds of the Greeks. ἴτε An irregular imperative (corresponds with Latin ite) meaning ‘come!/go!’ ἀγών ‘struggle’. but not falsely. and stays near Salamis. ‘petroleum’ ( =‘rock-oil’). as in English ‘antagonist’. For they now clearly hear the shout: ‘O Children of the Greeks. Be quiet then. friend. The captain says that the rhapsode is speaking rubbish. when it refers to what is going to follow. When night comes. when it refers to what has gone before. Consider. The phrase thus means ‘at dawn’. Here it is used idiomatically to mean ‘this way and that’. 21 ἅμα ἕῳ Perhaps needs some explanation: ἅμα is an adverb meaning ‘at the same time as’. and you are telling us falsehoods. So you do not make your story very ﬁne. ‘watches’. 23 ἐκ … πετρῶν What is the meaning of the English name ‘Peter’? Cf. For you perhaps tell us a ﬁne story. while we Greeks keep quiet. Listen. go! Free your country.
Translation for 2C
The rhapsode is silent. 22 σάλπιγξ ἠχεῖ Illustrated on RGT p. ‘when’. viz. free your children. ἀνά ‘up’. RHAPSODE What are you saying? In what way am I not making my story very ﬁne? CΑΡT. and you don’t know anything. ‘back water’. sailors.24
15 ὧδε Means ‘like this’. But how do you know whether I am telling the truth or falsehoods? CΑΡT. RΗAP. My grandfather is a Salamis-ﬁghter and he often tells me the events at Salamis truly. friend.18. ἕῳ is dative of a very irregular noun meaning ‘dawn’.
20 ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα ἔνθα literally means ‘then’. my grandfather [tells] the facts. The sailors settle down. οὕτως means ‘like this’.
very terrible. ‘misogynist’.being the regular Greek negative preﬁx. similarly. When the Athenians pursue the Persians. cosmetic = ‘ordered state of the dress/face’. 10 τάξιν ‘arrangement’ – taxonomy is the classiﬁcation. And the other Greeks retreat. And of the Greeks. and I back water. ἀκόσμως … ἀτάκτως Opposites of the previous two words. why are you still retreating? Do not be afraid of the Persians but go to the rescue and be bold.g. a ‘terrible lizard’ (σαῦρος). Xerxes also ﬂees and no longer watches the sea-battle. ‘misanthrope’. actually itself the Greek word for ‘mind’. and others capture their ships and their sailors. ‘nous’ has been adopted as a word for intelligence. δεινόν ‘terrible’. In modern Greek ἐν τάξει means ‘in order’. of organisms into named groups (ὄνομα = ‘a name’). Metabolism is the change of food into energy. Now we are ﬁghting in good order and in rank. and a few English compounds beginning ‘mis-’ may help towards the meaning e. and the rest of the Greeks also sail swiftly to the attack and move against the Persians. Finally of the Persians. τοῦ πολέμου causal genitives.
Translation for 2D
So the enemy ships approach quickly for a sea-battle (Xerxes the king is watching the sea-battle with pleasure). μισοῦσιν Again English compounds may help – as well as the context.in compounds often has the sense of ‘against’. occurring in English ‘dinosaur’. But the phantom says: ‘Friends. so here ‘sail against’/ ‘attack’. some … others …’ 22 μεταβολή Means ‘change’. e. τῶν ‘Ελλήνων. or ‘agree’. Cf. and others remain and fall. And the Persians do not enslave the Athenians. α. likewise ἐπέρχονται (line 1). Clearly here the clause after ἀλλά is going to mean something contrasted with the clause before it. So here it is ‘be like-minded’. ὁμο. or arrangement.
.’ And I quickly sail to the attack and am no longer afraid. ‘metamorphosis’. other ‘meta-’ compounds in English have a sense of ‘change’.g. 7–9 ἐπιπλέω ἐπι. κοσμέω also means ‘I decorate’. I am afraid of the phantom. So the Greeks become free through their courage. 25 ϕεῦ Exclamation of despair or disgust. In this way the gods punish the aggression of the Persians and save the city. 9 κόσμῳ ‘order’ – with interesting derivations: cosmos = ‘ordered state of the universe’. while the foreigners are ﬁghting in disarray and out of rank since they are not bold like us.Section 2D
4 ϕαίνεται … ϕάσμα ϕάσμα = ‘apparition’. some ﬂee. Suddenly there appears the phantom of a woman. which has the same root as the verb νοέω. some pursue the Persians. 12 oἱ μὲν … oἱ δέ … It means ‘Of the Persians. 23 ὁμονοοῦσιν The elements of the word may help.in compounds = ‘same’. English ‘phenomenon’ which is derived from ϕαίνομαι ‘I appear’. ‘OΚ’.
9.)are going and ﬁghting he/she/it is afraid he/she is enslaving he/she is watching you (s. (See GE pp. to be learnt before attempting the exercises.
go (pl. 3. But the change in events is now great: for at that time the Greeks were friends with each other. 11.
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2A–D
MIDDLE VERBS 2A–D: 1
he/she/it becomes/ happens/occurs 2. Now they no longer agree.
ἐρχόμεθα φοβοῦνται δουλοῦται θεᾶται οὐ γίγνονται ἔρχῃ
. 12. they enslave 4. 9. alas for the Greeks. Now we know clearly and accurately about the Persian Wars. 10. it is enough to remember the endings for the feminine of the deﬁnite article and the fact that nouns of the ﬁrst declension may have either -α.or -η. 5. Much more important are the middle verbs in GE pp. 11.
1.) and ﬁght or you (pl. Then there was agreement among the Greeks. but hate each other because of the war. captain. we are not going 3. 10. #55–57. 14. 19–21 #23–25. they are ﬁghting 5. we are enslaving 7. 8. Alas. and now there is hatred. Note also the extra vocabulary on p. while all the plurals are the same. 13. 2.) are afraid I am not watching he/she/it shows
1. 4. Perhaps the most important thing to notice is how -ο. alas for the war!
Contracted verbs in -όω: there should be little difﬁculty in recognising the person of these verbs from the endings you already know. Feminine nouns: if you are doing English–Greek exercises. don’t ﬁght! 6. 12.26
Exercises for section 2A–D
You speak well. 6. go (s.
μὴ θεᾶσθε ἔρχονται οὐ φοβεῖται γίγνεσθε δουλοῦσθε φοβοῦμαι
7.) For recognition of the case of the noun.predominates throughout. it is important to notice the differences between the different types of feminine noun.in the singular endings. 46–47. Notice also the masculine nouns (1d #58) which are slightly different in some cases of the singular and the same as the feminines in the plural.
1d 2A–D: 3
1. 7. θάλατται τοῖς ναύταις. 6. 3. 1b. away from the Athenians
1. TYPES 1a. 2.Exercises for section 2A–D
NOUNS. θάλαττα τοὺς ναύτας. τῇ βοῇ 7.
διὰ τὰς βοάς ἐκ τῶν πλοίων παρὰ τοὺς φίλους ἐπὶ τὴν στρατιάν διὰ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν
6. against the enemy 8. 2. 5. 8. 5. 2. 4. ναυτῶν. ἀπορίαις.
because of the war against the barbarians alongside the ship away from the friends because of the sailors alongside the Athenians
τὸν ναύτην. 5. 10. νεανίαις ὁ ναύτης.
παρὰ τὰς θεάς διὰ τὰς ὁμολογίας ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους διὰ τὴν νίκην
1. τὰς βοάς 2. 10. νεανίαν τῶν βοῶν. from the armies 11. νεανίας αἱ βοαί. τῷ ναύτῃ 3. ἀπορίαν. 4. 2. 4. θαλαττῶν. 1c. 6. 3. because of the sea-battle 9. οἱ ναῦται 6. τὴν τόλμαν 8. beside the man 12. νεανίᾳ
1. alongside. 8. 9. θαλάτταις ἡ βοή. 3. 4. θάλατταν τῷ ναύτῃ. τὸν νεανίαν
ἐν τοῖς βαρβάροις ἐν τῇ ναυμαχίᾳ ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ εἰς τὴν γῆν ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ
among the barbarians/foreigners in the sea-battle in the deed/task into the land in the Piraeus
. ἀποριῶν. νεανίας τὴν βοήν. τῶν ἀποριῶν
PREPOSITIONS 2A–D: 5
5. 9. νεανιῶν ταῖς βοαῖς. 3. 7. because of the perplexity 10. ἀπορίαι. ἡ τόλμα 4. ἀπορία.
) ﬁght or ﬁght! (pl. pleasure evil. expert work. wickedness the warrior. go through διέρχομαι he/she ﬁghts μάχονται you (s. τὰς βοάς. τῇ ἐμῇ ἀπορίᾳ. unﬁghtable stupidity. the battle. carry out a task I am pleased. μάχου 2. 3. δουλοῦ you (pl.) δουλοῖ.) θεᾷ or θεῶ he approaches προσέρχονται they fear ϕοβεῖται I fear φοβούμεθα they happen γίγνεται you attack ἐπέρχεσθε you (pl.) enslave. task pleasantly bad I ﬁght stupid ship/I ﬁght victory/I win I make/do/create war I am silent army I dare dear. the soldier the daring man. τῶν ναυτῶν. lacking courage. folly I ﬁght a sea-battle unconquered.
. αἱ ἐμαὶ βοαί. τὴν πολεμίαν βοήν. τὴν νίκην. I lack courage I love. τὴν τόλμαν.28
Revision exercises for section 2
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
true accurately man a shout experienced.) watch or watch! (pl. a friend I fear falsely
B – WORD SHAPE
the truth accuracy woman I shout experience. enslave! (pl.) μάχῃ. ἡ ἀπορία. friendship/love fear I tell lies
we relate. I make war silence the army. τοῖς κυβερνήταις. I campaign. τῷ ναύτῃ. ἡ καλλίστη βοή. ταῖς καλαῖς νίκαις
1. ὁ ναύτης. αἱ νῖκαι. expertise I work.) fear ϕοβεῖσθε they watch θεᾶται You (pl. τὴν στρατιάν. unconquerable the maker/creator/poet the warrior/ﬁghter.
their ships sail slowly up and down.
E – TEST EXERCISE 2
So when the Persian army and ﬂeet are approaching. Don’t retreat. ἡ στρατιὰ ἡ τῶν βαρβάρων ἡ τῶν βαρβάρων στρατιά c. τὰ ἔργα τὰ τῶν Περσῶν τὰ τῶν Περσῶν ἔργα b. and Xerxes also ﬂees.
The ship goes towards the sea-battle. Then both the Athenians and the rest of the Greeks keep quiet. 5. So in this way the Greeks become free through their courage. the Athenians quickly embark on their ships and sail towards Salamis. And when the day comes. 3. τὸ πλοῖον τὸ τῶν πολεμίων τὸ τῶν πολεμίων πλοῖον
The deeds of the Persians The army of the barbarians The shout in the harbour The sailors in the ship The ship of the enemy
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. oἱ ναῦται πρὸς τὸν ῥαψῳδὸν διαλέγονται. the Persians advance swiftly to battle. 2. ἴστε ὅτι oἱ τῶν Περσῶν στρατηγοὶ ἀναχωροῦσιν. ὦ ναῦται. οἱ ναῦται oἱ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ oἱ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ ναῦται e. So they ﬁght in good order and defeat the foreigners.
. when night comes. but ﬁght! μὴ ϕοβεῖσθε. 4. Finally the Persian ﬂeet arrives. ἀλλὰ μάχεσθε καὶ ἐλεύθεροι γίγνεσθε. Then the Athenians ﬁght. ἡ βοὴ ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι βοή d. We know that the Greek army is approaching. and the Persian generals are afraid. oἱ δὲ τῶν Ἀθηναίων πολέμιοι πίπτουσιν.Revision exercises for section 2
C – SYNTAX
1. friends. τέλος οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι νικῶσιν. ὁ κυβερνήτης ἡδέως διέρχεται τὴν ἡμετέραν ναυμαχίαν. and. The best rhapsode always makes his stories very beautiful. Finally they are no longer afraid. but are daring and attack the foreigners. So the foreigners ﬂee. but the Greeks are at a loss and are afraid.
πῦρ. A simpliﬁed form of the patterns can be summarised as follows:
s. pl. as above. ‘pyrotechnics’ etc. -α -α -ων -σι(ν)
This covers most of the forms you are likely to encounter in this section. 54–56. + f. but if you want to feel really conﬁdent and to cope with English into Greek. as above. is also 3rd declension. gives us ‘pyromaniac’. pl. Literally.) in grid. It is important to learn the stem to which the other case-endings are attached (as in Latin). -ες -ας -ων -σι(ν) neut. you should learn each new noun. 3 ἡ λαμπάς The article indicates that this is nominative singular. It is not difﬁcult to recognise the case if you are working from Greek into English. Enter neuter plural (nom. Notice that the indeﬁnite τις. 15 σῷζε ἡμᾶς εἰς τὸν λιμένα Note the difference in usage in Greek and English. There are a number of variants which will be introduced gradually. 2 λαμπάδα τινά Another accusative singular. ‘ﬁre’. 13 τὰ πυρά The article indicates neuter plural.Section Three: Athens and Sparta
In this section you will meet the 3rd declension nouns formally. τόν indicates masculine accusative singular: the ending itself is -α. Note that 3rd declension nouns have a number of different forms in the nominative. + acc.
. See GE pp. Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative various -α -ος -ι m. #66–68. its gender and its stem and any peculiarities as you meet it. which regularly follows its noun. but attention now focuses on the ending of λιμένα. 10–11 Note the way that Greek echoes the interrogative πόθεν by its indirect form ὁπόθεν in reply to the question. which may be entered in a grid for 3rd declension endings. but ‘Bring us safely into the harbour’ sounds better.
1 πρὸς τὸν λιμένα The phrase should be familiar. ‘Save us into the harbour’. both ending in -α (for neuter nouns in the nominative and accusative always have the same ending).
captain: I see a light on the island. What are you saying? Do you say ﬁre signals? Ο Zeus! Come along. Dikaiopolis. CAPT. Dikaiopolis sees a light on Salamis.) Ο Zeus! It is not a light you are seeing. 20. So the captain asks where the light is from. pl. 60–61. #69. No clause follows the ὅτι. #74 gives full forms). Don’t be afraid. #42b. and the ship is already turning into the harbour. DIK. You will see that in the latter case the article is also used: ‘this the din’. or you may prefer to look at GE pp. DIK.) Look. I know that well. τὰ πυρά is neuter plural (as above in line 13) b. SAIL. 30. δηλοῖ is here a verb. ‘They show clearly that …’ νῆες ναῦς is highly irregular (GE p. DIK. he immediately hurries towards the harbour. 21 τὰ πυρὰ δηλοῖ Notice that a. hurry and get us safe into the harbour. neuter plural subjects have a singular verb (GE p. (Looks towards Salamis.
New in this section is the word οὗτος ‘this’: so you may wish to have an empty grid ready to ﬁll in its forms as they occur.
Translation for 3A
Thus then the ship goes slowly towards the harbour. but ﬁre signals.
. although the -ες ending is also the regular nom. #35) c. What are you saying? Where is the light [coming] from? Where from? Look! (The captain also looks towards the island.
CAPTAIN DIKAIOPOLIS CAPT.Section 3B
τίς not interrogative. ending and may be entered on the grid.) 20–21 εὖ οἶδα ὅτι ‘I know that well. or it can be used as a demonstrative adjective with a noun (οὗτος ὁ θόρυβος) to mean ‘this din’. but indeﬁnite! The accent comes from enclitic ἐστιν (GE p. 3rd person singular (GE p. We are now approaching the harbour. #25). hurry.
Come over here and look. #69) is used in the same way. When he sees the light. But I am saving you. οὗτος can be used by itself as a pronoun to mean ‘this man’. SAIL. ἐκεῖνος ‘that’ (GE p. I am hurrying. SAILOR CAPT. followed by singular verb) from the line before. 61. We are in danger. subj.’ This is an idiom. 23 σαϕῶς δηλοῖ The subject is τὰ πυρά (n. captain. What do the ﬁre signals show? They show clearly that enemy ships are coming against us. We are hurrying because the ﬁre signals show some danger. by Zeus. But why are we hurrying? Is there some danger for us? [Yes]. 26. 64. pl.
and many shouts. #63. neighbour. singular. Notice that in the masc. see the men. and this is one of them.not πολλ. Tell me. 8–9 ἡ βοὴ ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι Notice the repeated article. to secure the oar to the thole-pin (a pin fixed in the port-hole) and/or the rower’s wrist. and many men appear in the streets and watch the ﬁre signals.
20 τροπωτῆρα … ὑπηρέσιον There is no point in trying to guess these! The former is an ‘oar-loop’. singular the stem is πολ. Do you not see those ﬁre signals? Look: it is clear that Salamis is in danger. like πολύς. Each member of the trireme’s crew kept his own. 15 Notice how ποῖ ‘where to’ is answered by οἴκαδε ‘to my home’. someone with no authority. 63. this is a very common type of phrase. PROTARCHOS (Runs homeward.is the norm except in masc. and acc. and neuter nom. The full pattern is given in GE p. and nowhere [is there] order. 23 παῖς This means ‘child’ or ‘boy’ but is frequently used with the meaning of ‘slave’ i. and neuter nom. neighbour. note the use of the article as well. what is this shouting? What is this confusion. the latter is a ‘cushion’ (usually tallowed underneath) to assist the rower in sliding backwards and forwards whilst rowing. much confusion occurs in the harbour. the one in the harbour’. ‘The [people] in the Piraeus’. 3 ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς There is just a small number of 2nd declension nouns which are feminine. 1–2 πολύς … πολλαί Both are parts of πολύς ‘many’ (as in English ‘poly-’ compounds). POL. ταῦτα τὰ πυρά Neuter plural of οὗτος. For this danger is terrible and great. The stem μεγαλ. 49. #73. neighbour? Do you know? For great is the confusion. 63. great the shouting in the harbour. Protarchos and Polos. 8 μέγας ‘big’ (as in English ‘mega-’ compounds) has slight irregularities. and acc. But why don’t you come with me?
. I am running home for my weapons.) Come over here. (Runs out of his house. #73.
Translation for 3B
When the people in the Piraeus see these ﬁre signals. 14. and look over there.32
1 oἱ ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ See GE p. his neighbour.) Tell me.as in the rest of the cases. where are you running to? PROT. Here the article is followed by a prepositional phrase instead of a noun. ‘the shout. For it is night. This is the meaning given in the running vocabulary for 3B and is the meaning throughout this section. ‘homewards’. And then I am going quickly to my ship.e. See GE p.
). λιμένα. σωτῆρας αἱ λαμπάδες. γείτονες. νύξ. τῶν γειτόνων 7. Our safety is in your (pl. ταῖς νυξί(ν) 8. We are ﬁghting. 4.Exercises for section 3A–B
POL.). friend. νύκτας. The wicked men defeat you (pl. 6. τῆς πατρίδος 2.
εἰς τοὺς λιμένας ἐπὶ τὸν γείτονα διὰ τὴν νύκτα ἐπὶ τοὺς παῖδας διὰ τὴν πατρίδα
PERSONAL PRONOUNS 3A–B: 4
1. τοῖς λιμέσι(ν) 6.) (hands). τοῦ σωτῆρος 4. I [can] see you (s. νύκτα.) are keeping quiet/doing nothing. 3. but you (s. παῖδα. παῖδες.
παρὰ τὸν λιμένα εἰς τὴν πατρίδα ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας πρὸς τοὺς γείτονας διὰ τὸν παῖδα
6.) freedom is in my hands/ is in my power/ is my responsibility. νύκτες. 9. But where are you running to? I’m [going] home for my oar-loop and cushion. but you (pl.
Indeed I am coming with you. πατρίδες τὴν λαμπάδα. παῖδας. 5. 8. λιμένας. Which of you (pl. So Polos brings out his oar-loop and cushion. We are dying. 7. τῷ ἀνδρί
τὸν ἄνδρα. 4. 3. πατρίδας ἡ λαμπάς. but you cannot see me. For it is clear that we are going to a sea-battle. 7. 6. 10. τῶν παίδων 3. λιμένες. 3. πατρίς τοὺς ἄνδρας. Then the men go towards the harbour. 2. 8. τῇ λαμπάδι
1. POL. σωτῆρες τὰς λαμπάδας. λιμήν. 5. 2. Your (pl. but watch us. 7. σωτῆρα οἱ ἄνδρες. γείτων. PROT. men. 8. not in ours. and Protarchos’ slave brings out his weapons and his torch.) do nothing. but not us. γείτονας. πατρίδα ὁ ἀνήρ. 4. γείτονα.
. Don’t chase us.) or which of us is afraid of the men? 5. σωτήρ
1. παῖς. 2. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3A–B
THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS 3A–B: 1
1. But wait.
I educate. commotion the danger I learn house weapons a child I appear
a. the theatre I create a disturbance I am in danger of. a.
a man earth/work I know to there experienced I watch a din.
τὸν ἔμπειρον ἄνδρα τὴν κακὴν νύκτα τὸν σῶον παῖδα τὴν καλὴν πατρίδα ὁ ἀγαθὸς γείτων ἡ καλλίστη λαμπάς ὁ πολέμιος λιμήν ἡ ἐλευθέρα πατρίς τοῦ ἐμπείρου ἀνδρός τῆς κακῆς νυκτός τοῦ σώου παιδός τῆς καλῆς πατρίδος τῷ ἐμπείρῳ ἀνδρί τῇ καλλίστῃ λαμπάδι τῷ πολεμίῳ λιμένι τῇ ἐλευθέρᾳ πατρίδι
. ἀπὸ ὑμῶν 6. d. d. ἡμῶν 7. brave farmer. obvious
B – WORD SHAPE
1. ἡμᾶς 2. d. c. I farm I do not know there. domestic hoplite (heavy-armed soldier) education. without danger the student belonging to the house or family. from there / thence without experience the spectacle. c. πρὸς σέ
5. b. c. ἐν ἐμοί 4. c. a. b. 2. ἐμὲ σέ 8. uneducated apparent. b. a. the spectator. ὑμεῖς ἡμεῖς 3.34
Revision exercises for section 3A–B
1. 3. ἐν ἡμῖν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3A–B
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
hence ‘captain of a trireme’ or ‘trierarch’.‘of a trireme’.Section 3C
C – SYNTAX
the expert man the bad night the saved child the beautiful fatherland the good neighbour the most beautiful light/lamp the enemy harbour the free fatherland
4 δεινὸς ὁ ἐν Σαλαμῖνι κίνδυνος Supply ἐστί. ‘otherwise there’s no way [they can learn]’. hence ‘farmer’ (note Virgil’s Georgics (farming matters) if that helps ﬁx the meaning). ‘expertise at sea’. 17–18 οὐκ ἀϕικνεῖται Λακεδαιμόνιος οὐδείς. 32–33 Notice the order of the words and the ideas. 2 ἄλλως δὲ οὐδαμῶς ‘otherwise nowise’ i. Supply εἰσί. 7–8 πτώσσει … ὥσπερ Ἀχαιὸς ὑϕ’ Ἕκτορι The sailor is ‘Homerising’. 29 γεωργοί Compounded from γῆ ‘land’ and ἔργον ‘work’. ταύτην Refers back to τέχνη. 24 κρατοῦσι κράτος is the Greek for ‘power’. οὐδὲ λαμβάνει οὐδένα … Notice that additional compound negatives simply strengthen the negative sense (GE p. τριηρ. 41 τριηράρχων The -αρχ. ‘aristocracy’. from which we get our ‘-cracy’ words. is used in negative commands or prohibitions. 30 τὸ … ναυτικόν ‘the nautical thing’. but with difﬁculty and with much practice …’ 34–35 ϕησί τις ὑμῶν A typical rhetorical trick. i. 21 τίνες οἱ λόγοι. 75. #86). ‘bureaucracy’ etc. #86). whereas μή. ‘says one of you’. ‘not easily. ‘democracy’.element means ‘ruler’. which will be followed by μηδέ. 26 Notice the contrast between ἐμπειρίαν τινά and οὐδεμίαν … ἐμπειρίαν. 17 οὐδεμία Feminine of οὐδείς (GE p.e. 10–11 μὴ ποίει τοῦτο μηδὲ ϕοβοῦ … Notice that the negatives οὐ and οὐδέ are used in negative statements.e. 75.
28 καὶ δὴ καί Often used at the end of a string of points as a ﬁnal ‘clincher’: ‘and what’s more’. the imagined interjection.
since we have supremacy at sea. For those men take sailors and kill them. Look. Great is the number both of ships and of trierarchs. “do they not practise?” I reply “No. are preventing them.” ’ DIK. those sailors are swarming into the harbour.) This is the indeﬁnite form of ποῦ ‘where’. So don’t be afraid. nor taking anybody. do you learn this skill. how much confusion.
. translated in English above as ‘boatswain’ because he was the one who gave orders to the rowers. my friend. while they have no experience in nautical matters. But we too have some experience on land. οἴκοθεν ‘from home’. the Spartans do not easily learn nautical matters. Look. RHAPSODE What are you saying? Are the Spartans arriving? I am afraid of the Spartans.
6 οἴκοι ‘at home’. SAIL. how many men! Look! Like ants.
2 θόρυβος γίγνεται πολύς Notice the word order. Cf. Tell me. but we. we [have supremacy] at sea. but it often makes the statement vague and tentative. SAIL. we are already near the harbour. rhapsode. and it is clear that not one of the Spartans is arriving. DIK. but with difﬁculty and with much practice. how many warships. ‘The one who orders’. And now see the harbour! How many torches [there are]. one of you says. like ‘I suppose’ in English. For those men have supremacy on land. Athenians. It can mean ‘somewhere’. of the Spartans. Listen then to what Pericles says in the ecclesia (assembly) about the war and about nautical matters: ‘Do not be afraid. “But the Spartans”. this rhapsode ‘is cowering’ in the ship ‘like an Achaean at Hector’s mercy’. SAILOR Look. Do you not remember the words of Pericles? RHAP. 3 κελευστής Derived from κελεύω. που (Without an accent. Nautical [expertise] is a skill: and this “skill” men learn through practice. and οἴκαδε ‘to home’. since they are farmers and not seafarers. Ο Zeus! Terrible is the danger in Salamis and great.36
Translation for 3C
Meanwhile Dikaiopolis and the sailors are still talking to each other. rhapsode: but where is the man? For I cannot see that man. Don’t do this. I know that well. as they do other skills. nor killing anybody. For you know well that not easily. And moreover. What are the words? Tell me: for I do not remember. what are you doing? What fear takes hold of you? For you are the best general of the Greeks. πολύς is delayed to the end to make it more emphatic. But no ship is arriving. He’s afraid of the Spartans. I am. and no other way. and don’t be afraid of these Spartans.
BOY But it’s impossible.) Alas! Wait. POL. why are you still waiting? Why don’t you call your master? For I am looking for him.
Translation for 3D
When Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode arrive on land. What are you saying? Are you joking with me? (He sees the ﬁre signals on the island. 21 ϕέρε. Near the ship is a boatswain. 19–20 ἢ οὐχ οὕτως. Why don’t I knock on this door? Trierarch! Trierarch! I’m calling you! TRIERARCH Go to hell! But who’s knocking at the door? What’s this business? Who’s calling me? Who’s shouting? POL. ὦ παῖ ϕέρε is like ἄγε and means ‘come on. POL.
. Boy! Boy! What are you doing? Is the boy asleep? Boy! Boy! BOY Who is it? Who is shouting? Why are you calling me? Who are you looking for? POL. 25 βάλλε εἰς κόρακας Literally. BOA. But I’m sleeping soundly – POL. do something’. γε emphasises οὕτως. Polos. boatswain. The master is sleeping soundly. there is much confusion going on. Come along then. So hurry. Polos. So Polos runs quickly towards the trierarch. Come and look over there. I’m coming quickly. What are you saying? Impossible? Go to hell! Don’t joke with me. ‘throw [yourself] to the crows’ – a colloquial Greek expression meaning ‘go to hell’. Of course. and this man is shouting. He’s asleep. Finally he arrives at the door. from which Polos came – a normal method of identiﬁcation. The answer to questions is often given in the form of a positive statement: ‘Is he there?’ is more often answered by ‘He is there’ than by ‘Yes’. trierarch: Salamis is in danger. and look for the trierarch and tell him about this danger in Salamis. But don’t sleep. οὕτως γε ‘[He] certainly [is] thus’. ‘or isn’t he?’ Greek will often add the alternative – and note the form of reply. POL. Do you not see those ﬁre signals? TRI. is calling you – me! TRI. Alas! Terrible is the danger of the Athenians. Tell me. and that man is asleep at home. POL. ‘or not thus?’ (literally). where is our trierarch? Clearly at home.e. The men keep quiet and watch the spectacle. is the trierarch inside? Or isn’t he? BOY He is.Section 3D
14 παῖ ‘Boy’ is being used in the sense of ‘slave’.
29 Κυδαθηναιεύς A member of the deme (roughly ward/parish in Attica) Kydathenaion. Tell me. presumably. from the deme Kydathenaion. i. Polos. boy. boatswain.
boatswain. ἐκεῖνος . In. in. out. out … Well done! Now I pour a libation to the gods and pray prayers. out. (He prays his prayers. that 3C–E: 1
1. 8. Our ship is sailing away. 6. ἐκείνας τὰς λαμπάδας
those harbours those lamps/lights
6 ὠὸπ ὄπ Not meaningful words – just a sort of ‘in. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3C–E
ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS: οὗτος .
TRIERARCH TRI. And when he gives the order. in.
Call the time. out. In.) Now call the time again. in. 2. 3. In. Give the order. and θυσίας θύομεν. (He pours the libation. this. 10. Quickly now. out. TRI. 7. 7–8 τὰς εὐχὰς εὔχομαι Greek likes these repetitive phrases. men. 4. 16 κατακέλευε Compound indicates giving time to rowers – ‘Now call the time. 9. 5. the boat sails away. BOATSWAIN
BOA.) Ο Lord Poseidon – for you are the best saviour of sailors and we often sacriﬁce our sacriﬁces to you for our safety – get us safely back to our country. ἐκεῖνοι οἱ λιμένες 2. out’.
τοῦτον τὸν λιμένα αὗται αἱ λαμπάδες οὗτος ὁ γείτων τούτους τοὺς παῖδας ταύτην τὴν πατρίδα τούτους τοὺς ἄνδρας τοῦτο τὸ ἔργον αὗται αἱ νύκτες οὗτοι οἱ σωτῆρες ταῦτα τὰ ὅπλα
this harbour these torches/lights this neighbour these children this country these men this deed/task these nights these saviours these weapons
Translation for 3E
Finally the sailors and the boatswain embark on the ships. out. boatswain. σπονδὴν σπένδω. Well done. BOA. out. and the trierarch also embarks. in. It would be the normal practice to pour a libation and to say a prayer at the start of a voyage. boatswain.
μεγάλη λαμπάς 3. μεγάλας πατρίδας 6. 4. μέγας ἄνηρ
a big harbour a great light big neighbours a great deed large countries a big man
1. 6. 8. ἐκείνων τῶν ἔργων
MANY. 7. 3. ἐκείνων τῶν παίδων τούτῳ. 5. πολλῆς καὶ μεγάλης λαμπάδος 4. ἐκείναις ταῖς νυξίν τούτων. ἐκείνοις τοῖς ἀνδράσι ταύτης. 5. 5. 8. GREAT: πολύς .Exercises for section 3C–E
3. πολλοῦ καὶ μεγάλου λιμένος 2. ἐκείνῳ τῷ λιμένι τούτοις. μέγαν λιμένα 2. 7. μέγα ἔργον 5. 6. 2. ἐκείνης τῆς πατρίδος ταύταις. 9.
πολλοὺς λιμένας πολλαὶ λαμπάδες πολλοὶ γείτονες πολὺς πόλεμος πολλὰ ὅπλα πολλὰς νύκτας πολλὴ ἀπορία
many harbours many lights/lamps many neighbours much war many weapons many nights much perplexity
ἐκεῖνον τὸν γείτονα ἐκεῖνοι οἱ παῖδες ἐκείνη ἡ πατρίς ἐκεῖνοι οἱ ἄνδρες ἐκεῖνος ὁ σωτήρ ἐκεῖναι αἱ νύκτες ἐκεῖνο τὸ ἔργον ἐκεῖνα τὰ πυρά
that neighbour those children that country/fatherland those men that saviour those nights that deed/task those ﬁre-signals
1. ἐκείνῃ τῇ λαμπάδι τούτων. 4.
τούτου. 3. 6. 10. πολλῷ καὶ μεγάλῳ ἀνθρώπῳ 3. 2. μέγας 3C–E: 4
1. μεγάλοι γείτονες 4. πολλῶν καὶ μεγάλων λόγων
. 7. 4. ἐκείνου τοῦ γείτονος ταύτῃ.
d. σπένδω ‘I pour a libation’. a. ἐκεῖνος ‘that (there)’. (speciﬁcally in this chapter) ‘boatswain’. εὐχή ‘prayer’. ἡμέτερος ‘our’. i. b.). σπονδή ‘libation’. 3. κατακελεύω ‘I give the time’. βοάω ‘I shout’. ἐπὶ τὰς ναῦς
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3C–E
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
Revision exercises for section 3C–E
5. b. b. ὑμεῖς ‘you’ (pl. πολλοῖς καὶ μεγάλοις ἐργοῖς 6.e. πολλῇ καὶ μεγάλῃ ἀπορίᾳ
IRREGULAR NOUNS 3C–E: 7
1. εἰς τὴν ναῦν
4. διὰ τὸν Δία 2. ἐν ‘in’. d.
a. 2. a. c. οὗτος ‘this’. πρὸς τὸν Δία 5. ὑμέτερος ‘your’ (belonging to lots of you).
τοῦτον τὸν ἄνδρα ταῦτα τὰ ἔργα ταύτην τὴν λαμπάδα τὰς βοὰς ταύτας τούτους τοὺς λιμένας οὗτος ὁ γείτων αὗται αἱ λαμπάδες τὰ πυρὰ ταῦτα ἡ πατρὶς αὕτη οὗτοι oἱ ἄνδρες μέγα τὸ ἔργον πολλὴν ἐμπειρίαν μέγαν λιμένα πολλὰ δεινά
. βοή ‘a shout’.
B – WORD SHAPE
οὕτως ‘thus’. ἐκεῖσε ‘over there’. c. ἐμπειρία ‘experience’. κελεύω ‘I order’. κελευστής ‘orderer’. ἔμπειρος ‘experienced’. εὔχομαι ‘I pray’. παρὰ τὰς ναῦς 3. d. ἔνδον ‘inside’. βοή ‘a shout’ + θέω ‘I run’ = ‘I run to the help of’. ἡμεῖς ‘we’. e. βοηθέω ‘I help’.
4. Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode go towards the ships. this neighbour. And the Spartans do not easily learn nautical technique.
E – TEST EXERCISE 3C–E
While this ship is sailing past the island. 2. Dikaiopolis sees a light on the island. ἡ οὖν ναῦς πρὸς ἐκεῖνον τὸν λιμένα βραδέως πλεῖ.
3. the captain steers towards a great harbour. πολλοὶ δὲ (ἄνθρωποι/ ἄνδρες) ϕαίνονται. these deeds. And it is clear that these ships are going to a sea-battle. So he hurries into the harbour: for those ﬁre signals reveal that the enemy are attacking the Athenians. For great is the danger of the Athenians.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. Finally these trierarchs arrive at the harbour and get on board. this country. The men in the harbour watch the ﬁre signals and run home for their weapons. ἐκεῖναι μὲν γὰρ ἔμπειροι περὶ πολλά. That man is stupid about many things. and great the confusion of the men. For they know that the danger is great. these shouts. these ﬁre-signals. ἐκεῖνος ὁ μῶρος ῥαψῳδὸς ϕοβεῖται τούτους τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους. This good captain does not hear these shouts. the sailor sees many strange things. the men have much experience in naval matters. these men.
So the captain looks quickly towards Salamis. For the boatswains are looking for the trierarchs. this lamp. and the Spartans by land. 5. (a) μέγας (5) (b) ναυτικήν (9)
τρέχουσιν (5) (c) δῆλον (11)
. but this man [is stupid] about nothing. αὕτη δὲ οὔ. μέγας μὲν γὰρ ὁ θόρυβος.
Note: there are many more possible answers 1. Great fear seizes the rhapsode. 3. ἐπέρχονται (4) θεῶνται (4) 3. The captain knows well that it is not a light but the ﬁre signals. but they are sleeping peacefully. The sailors say that the Athenians are supreme at sea.Revision exercises for section 3C–E
C – SYNTAX
1. So when the ship arrives in the harbour. For he fears the Spartans. Don’t you know whether those men are sailors or not? οὐχ οἶδα πότερον ἐκεῖνος (ὁ ἄνθρωπος/ἀνήρ) στρατηγός ἐστιν ἢ οὔ. great is the deed. this man. these harbours. 5) 4. these lamps. εἰς τὸν λιμένα (3) ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους (4) 2. 2. Then they offer their sacriﬁces and pour their libations and put out to sea. πολλαὶ δὲ αἱ βοαί. λαμπάδα ὁρᾷ (1) θεῶνται τὰ πυρά (4.
1 ὅσον πλῆθος Once again the exclamatory use of ὅσος. #82). #66). ἔπειτα δέ …. likes Pericles’ before modifying to another clause – ‘because/as/since he is a sailor. #77–80).Section Four: Lawlessness in Athenian life
In this Section. 3 πυράς τινας The meaning should be clear (cf. γεωργὸς ὤν ‘because/as/since I’m a farmer’. being a sailor.
. The Long Walls joined Athens to the Piraeus. for example. 4 πρὸς τῶν θεῶν ‘by the gods’ – the case usage will be explained later. ‘What a great crowd … !’ 2 τὰ τείχη τεῖχος is another neuter noun of the 3rd declension like πλῆθος. you might begin with ‘he. 71. which you have learned (see GE p. a common pairing. then re-phrase more idiomatically. adjectives and pronouns (see GE pp. 6 κακοδαίμων ‘ill-starred’ is perhaps the closest English can get to this idea. ‘divine spirit’.70–72. Participles are very widely used in Greek: this means. Participles have a wide range of usages in Greek (see GE p. ἡ πυρά ‘funeral pyre’. #88). This is a 3rd declension adjective (see GE p. There are also more types of 3rd declension nouns. τὰ πυρά in Section 3) but note that here we have the acc. but note that the Greek has no ‘bad’ implications – it is a neutral term meaning ‘god’. When translating. 77–78. πλῆθος is neuter (GE p. δαίμων English ‘demon’ is derived from this word. See the map on page 38 of RGT. pl. of active and middle verbs in Sections C–D. 11 Similarly. 54. the new grammatical material includes the use of participles – of the verb ‘to be’ in Sections A–B. It means the opposite of ‘divinely favoured’: some god is wishing evil upon you. #78) so the two agree. Here. however un-English it may seem. that you should observe carefully the way they are used and not move on from Section 4 until you are quite happy with all the usages of participles encountered in this Section. of another noun. The endings are just the same as in the nouns like λιμήν. 73. 8 Notice πρῶτον μὲν …. This is the ﬁrst example of the present participle. 10–11 ναύτης ὤν ‘being a sailor’. he likes Pericles’. it is often best to translate literally ﬁrst. in effect.
15–16 πόλις … ἄνδρες Cf. 77. but that the stem of the adjectives is -oν. case and gender show that it agrees with τὰς οἰκήσεις.Section 4A
12–13 Note how μέν and δέ are used to point the contrast between ‘us’ and the Lacedaemonians. κρατοῦμεν As on p. 24 νόσος Distinguish carefully from νήσος. See GE p. here speciﬁcally ‘the plague’. the Long Walls and Piraeus. The policy of Pericles explained here was that it was not safe to risk a major land battle against the Spartans. Also there is a separate feminine. The verb ‘to be’ is often used in the sense of ‘to be alive’. 25 οὖσα δεινή is here the clue to determining the form. 56–7. 19–20 τὰ δὲ πρόβατα … διαπεμπόμεθα So that’s what Dikaiopolis was doing over in Euboea way back in Section 1A!
21 πολλοὶ ὄντες Another form of the participle.’ See also Sophocles.77. and that the adjective does not have a separate feminine form whereas the participle does. ‘to exist’. οὐκέτ᾽ ὄντα ‘my son. 29 οὖσαν Agreeing with τὴν ἐμὴν γυναῖκα. 42. This is the feminine form of the participle. #63). #87 for the full paradigm of the participle.and the stem of the participle is -oντ-. 27 ὀλοϕύρομαι You may be able to deduce the meaning of this from the illustration on p. 23 οὔσας Use ὀλίγας to determine which form this is. therefore the countryside of Attica could not be defended and the advice was given to farmers to abandon their property and take refuge in Athens where the city. Notice that the endings are almost the same as the adjectives.13–17). has already mentioned the plague which devastated Athens: νόσος generally means ‘disease’. while Athens waged war by sea (Thucydides 2. ‘my son who is no longer alive’. Deduce number. 36 line 35.T. RGT p. κακοδαίμονα … οὖσαν. The English introduction. so which form? 30–31 κακοδαίμονα ὄντα. ‘It is men who make a city and not walls or ships with no men inside them. 41. as you will see in line 40 below. no longer being’. κακοδαίμονας ὄντας These show clearly the similarities and differences between the participle and the adjective. Thucydides 7. 13 καταλείπετε Note the -λειπ. 49. O. The number. ‘we are superior/supreme’.
. 28 τὸν ἐμὸν υἱόν. and then understand κρατοῦσι in the next phrase. Note the adjective stem without a ‘τ’ and the participle stem with one.element in the middle. case and gender from πολλοί and enter in grid. could be defended. with the basic sense of ‘leave’. 31 τοὺς ἐν τῇ πόλει ‘the people in the city’ (remember GE p.
in this way Pericles persuades us. The city-people have the houses. The ﬂocks we transport across to Euboea. who am ill-starred. and then also Pericles. also ill-starred. and bring your property into the city. who is no longer. RHAP. being heavy. but men. DIKAIOPOLIS The city is indeed unfortunate. You see the [people] in the city. ‘What violence/aggression!’ Similarly with ὢ τῆς ἀνομίας (15) and ὢ τῆς ἀσεβείας (16). After this the plague occurs. For the sailor – DIK. 25 ὥσπερ πρόβατα Our idiom is ‘like ﬂies’. 3 νεκρός Cf. rhapsode.’ 11 ὦ ’νθρωπε = ὦ ἄνθρωπε. English ‘barometer’ etc. it is terrible and destroys many men. Why has the city such a great crowd. For he says: ‘We have supremacy at sea. which is now the object of ϕέρω. Dikaiopolis? Alas! What’s this? I see funeral pyres. They are all from the same root.
. and my own wife.
21 σέβομαι Cf. You see me. rhapsode. which are few. But Pericles [is] a very good general. When we – and there are many of us – arrive in the city. English ‘necromancy’. also ill-starred. Since I’m a farmer. For I am still lamenting my own son. Do not worry. We bring in from the country our children and our wives and the rest of our property. But I’m not a sailor but a farmer.44
Translation for 4A
Heracles! What a lot of people! The walls seem full. farmers. many women. The war is primarily responsible. βαρὺν ὄντα This is accusative and refers to the νεκρός. But it is clear that that man likes Pericles because he’s a sailor. ‘I carry it. It will be explained later – for the present. cf. the crowd is unfortunate and the farmers in particular are unfortunate. who is no longer. slowly. then in the temples. I think Pericles [is] responsible. So leave your homes. and τοὺς ἀσεβεῖς (line 28) and τοὺς εὐσεβεῖς (line 28). Tell me.’ So. You will not meet this type of 3rd declension adjective properly until Section 10. since he is a persuasive orator. You see the city. There you have the situation.
2 βαρύς ‘heavy’. the situation becomes difﬁcult. by the gods. and we live ﬁrst in the Long Walls. what’s the reason? Indeed it is clear that some evil god is punishing the city. 12 ὢ τῆς ὕβρεως The case is a genitive of exclamation. ἀσέβεια. For a city is not dwellings or land. many children. The plague also destroys my household. ‘necrophilia’. and your land. but the Spartans [have supremacy] on land.
O. Where are my mother and father. who were always pious? Now where is my brother. boy. stop! Y. fellow.Μ. master. 39 ἡ θεός There is a noun ἡ θεά. quickly! Wait. But what are you doing? Don’t do this. Come on. wait and don’t hurry. Foul [man]! Are you hitting me. old man. what are you doing? Are you hitting a citizen? What lawlessness! Stop! Alas. I don’t care. For this corpse is heavy. boy.53). O L D M A N What’s this? What are these shouts? You there. and it is my pyre. What are you saying? Corpses are falling upon corpses. DIK. but note the literal meaning ‘lasting for one day’ (ἡμέρα ‘day’). He no longer sees any point in trying to observe the old religion and morality. Come here. Y. a comment on the transience of human existence. Don’t you know that men are short-lived? What are we? What are we not?
YOUNG MAN SLAVE
‘Man is the dream of a shadow. And do you speak to me of gods and laws? You fool – the gods either don’t exist or don’t care about us. but θεός as a feminine form is more common. And don’t talk to me about laws and aggressive behaviour. O. men are dying like ﬂies in their homes and in the temples. stop! You are dishonouring the gods. The young man is depicted here as exhibiting the sort of moral deterioration which Thucydides describes as one of the effects of the plague (Thuc.M. and as it’s heavy. Since the goddess is beautiful and kindly. I’m carrying it slowly. But today I am burying my son. Do you not reverence the gods? Do you not honour the laws of man? Does nothing stop you. a citizen? What aggressive behaviour! Don’t hit [me]. a pyre. what’s this? Are you throwing a corpse onto that pyre? What irreverence! Stop – Y.Μ. DIK. though you are a mortal.
Translation for 4B
Look. 35 Pindar quotation.Section 4B
33 ἐϕήμεροι English ‘ephemeral’ helps. The only deity he has any time for is Aphrodite. because they are ﬁne.Μ. Don’t get in my way. So I’m turning to Aphrodite and pleasure. I honour Aphrodite particularly.Μ. by the gods. She is a beautiful and kindly goddess. neither fear of the gods nor the laws of men? Y. since the plague is destroying both the pious and the impious alike.Μ. Don’t get in my way.
. 2. O.Μ. For I’m not afraid of punishment.
Stop.M. she makes life happy. Y. DIKAIOPOLIS What are you saying? You are carrying a corpse? Y. ‘Man is the dream of a shadow’. the most pious of men? Look. But I don’t dishonour the gods. throw the corpse onto this pyre.Μ.
τῷ ἄστει 7. τινά. πράγματα. 5. εὔφρονας. #81–86. τοῦ πλήθους 9.
πλῆθος – εὖφρον. 4. 5. πλῆθος. 7. τινές. 3. τινάς ἄστυ – εὔφρον. 10. πόλις. Check that you know it and understand it. οὐδεμίαν πρέσβεις – εὔφρονες. and long for my own deme? For in the city there is nothing other than lawlessness and impiety and plague and a great quantity of corpses.46
DIK. 4. πόλεις. πόλεις. 73–76. οὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδέν 4A–B: 3
1. 8. οὐδέν οἰκήσεις – εὔφρονες. 3. οὐδεμία σκεύη – εὔφρονα. τάξεις
1. 9. τάξις αἱ οἰκήσεις. 2. τάξιν τὰ ἄστη. πρᾶγμα τὸν πρέσβυν ἡ οἴκησις. τινες.
Grammar for this part of Section 4 is given at GE pp. τοῦ πρέσβεως 8. 6. τι. εὔφρονας. 70–72. #77–80 and pp. τις . τῷ πράγματι 10.
Exercises for section 4A–B
Are you surprised. σκεύη τοὺς πρέσβεις τὰς οἰκήσεις. πλήθη. 7. οὐδέν πόλιν – εὔφρονα. τάξεις ὁ πρέσβυς τὸ ἄστυ.
οἱ πρέσβεις τὴν οἴκησιν. 2. τις. ταῖς πόλεσι(ν)
TYPE 3 ADJECTIVES. rhapsode. τινά
. There is also some vocabulary to be learnt (p. 2. τι. 6. 3. that I hate the city because I am a farmer. 4.
τῷ πλήθει τοῖς ἄστεσι(ν) τῇ πόλει τοῦ πράγματος τῶν πρέσβεων
6. πόλιν. 5. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4A–B
TYPE 3 NOUNS 4A–B: 1
1. τινάς τάξις – εὔφρων. before you try the exercises. 70). τι.
5. τινῶν τάξεως – εὔφρονος. ὤν
οὖσαν ὄν ὄντες ὤν οὖσαν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4A–B
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
Once again. 4.
PRESENT PARTICIPLES 4A–B: 5
1.Revision exercises for section 4A–B
1. τινί. 4. οὐδενί ἄστεσι – εὔφροσι(ν). show I embark I ask I seek I watch I call education. mortal I become I reveal. τινος. death origin. ὄν 8. 3. 5. τισι(ν)
Check that you understand GE pp. 6. 1. Uneducated I die. οὐδενός πρέσβεων – εὐφρόνων. οὖσαι 10. ποίησις = ‘making poetry’. οὐδενός πόλει – εὔφρονι. 76–78. τινός. 3.g. 3.
ὄντες οὖσα ὄντες. lesson immortal. summons
. ὄντας ὄντα ὄντα
6. τινί. ὄντες 7. Note that nouns which end in -σις normally express the doing of something. do not be surprised if you cannot ‘deduce’ all the meanings.
πλήθει – εὔφρονι. οὐδενί πράγματος – εὔφρονος. οὖσαν 9. 4. 2. #87–88 before trying the next exercises. 5. but ποίημα is ‘a poem’. 2. genesis revelation embarkation question search spectacle calling. whereas nouns which end in -μα describe a thing done: e. 2.
I do not dishonour the gods. since he is very good. μεγάλους ὄντας.
κακοδαίμων ὤν / οὖσα (masc. For I am lamenting both my son. 5.Μ. learning (the thing learned) poem. τὸ πλῆθος. expedition speed honour. which are very good. power learning (the process). The people.
Come over here and tell [me]. We have many problems because of the plague. Y. μέγα ὄν. You seem to be ill-fated indeed. τὸ τῶν νεκρῶν πλῆθος. ναῦται ὄντες. Why are you lamenting. ϕίλαι οὖσαι. … σέ. ὦ γυναῖκες … ἐγώ. though it is beautiful. Ο. or a daughter or a wife? I am doing this because I am ill-fated. οὐ ϕοβοῦμαι. friend.
a. οὐκ ἀτιμάζει τοὺς θεούς. ἡ ἐμὴ γυνή. ϕοβεῖται τὴν νόσον.M. ἀγαθὸν ὄν. For I see the multitude of people are ill-fated. who are unlucky.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. or fem. κακοδαίμων οὖσα. Ἀθηναῖος ὢν καὶ εὐδαίμων. and my daughter who is now a corpse. 3. do. who is ill-fated. This general. daring deed falsehood. τίς ὢν σύ … . who is no more. But what is the reason? How are the people dying? Because of the plague.48
Revision exercises for section 4A–B
beautiful I am powerful I learn I make.) … ἡμεῖς ὀλίγοι ὄντες … ὑμᾶς πολλοὺς ὄντας. friend? Are you lamenting a son. b. κακὴν οὖσαν. the city is in much perplexity and the people are short-lived and ill-fated. σὺ γεωργὸς ὢν οἶσθα τοὺς νόμους. friend. 4.
Since I am a mortal. dishonoured recklessness. Λακεδαιμόνιον ὄντα καὶ κακοδαίμονα. corpses fall upon corpses and people die because they are ill-fated. e. is not afraid of the Spartans who are hostile. 2.Μ. poetic art stratagem army. c. honour the gods’ laws. The Athenians defeat by sea those men who are experienced on land. I do not honour the city. d. create general army quickly I honour I dare falsely
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
beauty strength. κατὰ θάλατταν κρατοῦμεν.
E – TEST EXERCISE 4A–B
YOUNG MAN OLD MAN Y. lie
11 χλαμύδα This is the garment worn in the illustration on p. f. in place of δῆλον ὅτι. It means ‘to happen to be doing something’ or ‘to be really doing something’. there are more examples at lines 10 and 11] 2.
1. using as your example the verb παύω.
So do not dishonour the gods and do not commit irreverent acts against the city. ἀσέβει. 9 ἀποφεύγων τυγχάνει τυγχάνω is another verb that is normally accompanied by a participle (see GE p.. sing.
. ὁδός ‘road’ and πορεύομαι ‘I travel’. ‘undergo’. or ‘they are clearly pursuing’. which is the nearest English phrase: it means to do something either intentionally or accidentally unnoticed by yourself or another. GE p. You can also see the present participle of παύω set out on GE pp. agrees with υἱόν οὖσαν line 4. m. φίλε is vocative ἀπορίᾳ is dative
This section introduces the present participle of active verbs: as above (Sections A–B). Literally.M. 82–83. The action that is ‘not noticed’ is expressed as a participle (in this case τρέχων). 14 πάσχει GE gives as ‘suffer’. sing. s.
6 λανθάνει A very awkward verb to translate as English has no direct equivalent. ‘Do you not notice the man running?’ 7 προστρέχοντα You can tell from the -οντα ending that it agrees with αὐτόν. 3. s. τόλμα. κακοδαίμονες line 8 ἐφημέρους line 11. 77. ‘Are you unaware of the man running?’. ‘they are clear pursuing …’ You will probably want to translate as ‘it is clear that they are pursuing’. agrees with θυγατέρα [nb. The endings are exactly the same as those for the verb ‘to be’ which are set out in GE p.Section 4C
O. 86. 86. The Greek usage is often not as strong as English ‘suffer’: here it’s almost ‘What’s the matter with him?’ 16 δῆλοί εἰσι διώκοντες δῆλοι is used personally here. you may like to make an empty grid in which to ﬁll in the various cases as they occur.. #95). τίμα lines 13 and 14. #90 followed by the participles of contract verbs GE #91.. The noun means ‘traveller’.. ἀτίμαζε. #87. It is probably best to stick to the literal translation to begin with. ‘experience’.
ὄντα lines 2 and 4. #95 gives ‘escape the notice of’. ‘Or does the man escape your notice running?’ before trying to rephrase more idiomatically. 10 ὁδοιπόρος Both elements have been met. κακοδαίμονας line 12 4. ἔλθε εἰπέ line 1. 52 (not the hat or sticks!). but be resolute and honour the gods.
But what’s this situation? A herald is approaching and – the Eleven and the public slaves. Tell me. No. as a suppliant. But the situation is strange. Do you see the man? Or are you not aware of the man running this way? DIK. 31–32 This quotation from Homer. ‘the fugitive’. S A T Y R O S Where is the Spartan ﬂeeing to? Where is he? You there – do you know where the fugitive is? Or are you not aware of the man ﬂeeing? RHAP.
35 δυστυχής The force of δυσ. by Zeus. But the man has anticipated the Eleven by running into the shrine. SAT. Dikaiopolis. Look! The man is running into the shrine of Heracles. Clearly they are pursuing the man. What’s the matter with him. English ‘dyslexia’.in compounds is the opposite of εὐ. Whoever is it? RHAP. that he’s running into the shrine? RHAP. Perhaps he is a slave and happens to be running away. before turning your literal translation into acceptable English.50
18 ϕθάνει Another awkward verb to translate and another of the group in GE p. καίπερ ‘although’ is always followed by a participle. lines 207–208. or ‘the fugitive’. 23 ὁ φεύγων Literally ‘the running away one’. For I see him running towards [us]. ‘dyspepsia’. But he’s in that shrine. And now some men are approaching. ‘hard’ or ‘bad’. this time as the object. Dikaiopolis. Cf. what’s the din? What are those shouts? What’s happening? RHAPSODE Look. DIK. You speak rightly. Odyssey Book 6 can be found in its original context in RGT p. as he’s a Spartan. DIK. It’s clear that he’s turning in for sanctuary.and often has the sense of ‘with difﬁculty’. GE gives as ‘anticipate X (acc. a man is running this way. rhapsode. or of doing it before they can do it. slaves.
. 260. DIK. I am aware of him. ‘dystrophy’. Here the former is more likely: the fugitive escapes into the sanctuary before the Eleven can prevent him from doing so. #95. Come here. Once again it helps if you translate it literally. But perhaps he is a foreigner. 86. Suddenly a man runs up to them. Or do you not notice that the man has a cloak? RHAP.
Translation for 4C
Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode travel towards the city.) in -ing’: the basic sense is usually of doing something either before another can stop you. 28 τὸν ϕεύγοντα As above. into that shrine! Quickly lead away the stranger. But he is not a slave and he seems to be a traveller.
#93) and one further type of 3rd declension noun (GE p. Here the article is used to link the noun to the adjective μέγαν.
Don’t drag away the fugitive. although he’s a Spartan. 84–85. we would say ‘the king’). and govern an object.) calling upon the gods’. ‘those who …’ περὶ Δία ἱκέσιον καὶ ξένιον Zeus was regarded as protecting suppliants as well as strangers and foreigners. What lawlessness! Indeed the stranger appears to be unlucky. 13 ὦνδρες = ὦ ἄνδρες. herald. The middle participles are easily recognised. HERALD DIK.
Now the middle participles are introduced (GE pp. and he anticipated you by running into the shrine. The especial signiﬁcance here is that throughout the Peloponnesian War. like καλός καλή καλόν
2 καθίζεται … ἱκέτης ὤν Illustrated at RGT p. both Athens and Sparta at different times asked Persia for help. #97). Sparta’s later
. thinking that if they succeeded in obtaining Persian support they would be victorious. 32 πρεσβευτής As an ambassador he would of course (as today) be regarded as having diplomatic immunity. The two gods are the twins Castor and Pollux. often this is best translated by a relative clause. slaves. παύομαι gives παυόμενος παυομένη παυόμενον. and the oath is a characteristically Spartan one.Section 4D
DIK. 84. ἐπικαλοῦμαι is a contracted verb: the regular participle-ending is -όμενος. 11 ἀπόκοπτε τὰς χεῖρας Sounds rather drastic. but such an event is recorded by Herodotus. 52. which may help towards meaning. ‘you see’ or ‘see!’ The context favours the latter. 29 ναὶ τὼ σιώ GE translates as ‘by the two gods’ (σιώ is Doric dialect for θεώ). 23 τὸν τοὺς θεοὺς ἐπικαλούμενον Notice that the participle can be itself an object. 15 ἐπικαλούμενος The ﬁrst example of a middle participle. 35–36 πρὸς βασιλέα τὸν μέγαν βασιλεύς (without the article) is regularly used of the King of Persia (contrast our usage: to emphasise.’ Don’t worry about that. 87. 6.91. but lead the man away. In fact. The stranger happens to be a suppliant. ‘the man (obj. ‘those who have …’ 21 καθορᾶτε This could be either indicative or imperative. 21–22 τοὺς ἀσεβοῦντας As above in line 19. 19 τοὺς … ἔχοντας Article + participle ‘the ones having …’. Because he’s a suppliant. #92–93) and the participles of the contracted verbs (GE p.
RHAP. ‘All strangers are under the protection of Zeus. he is sacrosanct. seen below in ὀλοφυρόμενος (18).
36–37 σὺ δὲ δῆλος εἶ φιλῶν τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους Literally ‘But you are clear loving the Lacedaemonians’. who have their daggers? STR. Dikaiopolis. The stranger is calling upon us.
Translation for 4D
Look. so εὐπορία means the opposite. ‘reveals’. look down upon what I am suffering. therefore transitive. and don’t do anything. 230. away from the altar.) Oh gods. 49 Δυσνομία A personiﬁed variation of ἀνομία. hence ‘makes to appear’. ‘plenty’. Ο city. (He does not stop calling upon the gods. The public slaves drag away from the altar the man who is calling upon the gods. Cut off his hands. STR. city! S A T Y R O S Drag away this man. I call upon you. ‘abundance’. agreeing with πάντα. drag the fellow away to the other Spartans. god of suppliants and strangers. line 1 for one instance in the original context). Nemesis can fall upon the wrongdoer himself or upon any one of his descendants. SAT.
. εὐνομία is the opposite of ἀνομία. SAT. Once again notice the personal use of δῆλος with the participle. as a suppliant. and the opposite of Εὐνομία. Don’t you see those public slaves. 47–48 εὐνομία and εὐπορία are contrasted with ἀνομία and ἀπορία. 50 In the second line of the quotation from Solon: (a) ἀποϕαίνει is active in form. ‘visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons unto the third or fourth generation’ (Exodus 20. slaves. since he’s a Spartan. ἀπορία can mean ‘shortage of provisions’. or ‘you are clearly in favour of the Spartans’. fellow.5). Look down upon those who are committing impiety against Zeus. but the public slaves are dragging him away while the stranger is holding on to the altar and calling upon the gods. Cf. Here it is assumed that the extreme ill-fortune of the stranger can only be explained by the belief that he is being punished for the wrongdoing of one of his forebears. rhapsode. (b) εὔκοσμα and ἄρτια are neuter plural. be quiet yourself too.
43 νέμεσις μεγάλη The concept of divine retribution for wrongdoing is common in Greek Tragedy and in Herodotus (see Section 19 in RGT p. and stop lamenting. Satyros. rhapsode and doesn’t stop calling upon us. STRANGER I call upon the gods – PUBLIC SLAVE But the stranger is holding on to the altar. and ﬁnally speaks. do you see? What impiety! For the unfortunate stranger is sitting on the altar. εὐπορία is the opposite of ἀπορία though here in a slightly different meaning from ‘perplexity’ which you met before. men! DIK. Stop calling upon the gods.52
success in securing Persian support undoubtedly contributed to her victory in the end. RHAPSODE (The rhapsode is silent. You.) But nevertheless.
τρέχων. you are clearly being unjust towards men and impious towards the gods. 87. including the forms for the contracted verbs. but in war there is lawlessness and shortage. drag away those who ﬂee into shrines? Do you kill those who turn aside for sanctuary? By the twain. It is clear that the gods hate the man. 87–88. #97). τρέχον. and the useful notes (GE pp. But who is that stranger? He happens to be an ambassador – What are you saying? An ambassador? What lawlessness! Are you killing ambassadors? He is an ambassador and happens to be travelling towards the great King. The stranger does not stop shouting and revealing what he is suffering at the hands of the Athenians.
1. τρέχοντες. τρέχοντος.
Do you. τρέχουσαι. But you clearly love the Spartans.
DIK.Exercises for section 4C–D
STR. παυομένους 2. 95. rhapsode. παυόμεναι 3. 82–85.’
Check that you understand the participles (GE pp. παυομένην 7. παυόμενοι 6. #98–100) on elision and crasis. παυόμενος 8. For in peacetime these things do not happen. παυομένων
. although he is an ambassador and a suppliant. τρέχουσαν. παυομένου 4. and their various uses listed in GE pp. DIK. But what’s the matter with our city? What’s happening? War seems to be a violent instructor. τρεχούσης. For they are killing him. Notice also βασιλεύς (GE p. Shut up then and stop bewailing the Spartan. In peacetime there is good order and plenty in the city. ‘So bad government brings very many evils to the city. SAT.
DIK. #89–93). But good government makes all appear well-ordered and perfect. τρέχων. παυόμενον
5. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4C–D
MORE PRESENT PARTICIPLES 4C–D: 1
1. Athenians. τρέχοντα. #94. The public slaves drag the Spartan away towards the market-place. 85–86. τρεχόντων. παυομένῳ 2. τρέχοντι. Surely great retribution from the gods is coming upon him because of his ancestors and the aggression of his ancestors. παυομένης
3. παυόμενος 4. τρέχοντας. SAT.
acc m. nom. pl. ἐν δὲ ἀπορίᾳ
4. 7. τρέχουσι(ν). φεύγοντας τρέχοντα
1. nom. f. βοῶντας
ELISION AND CRASIS 4C–D: 6
1. acc. βαίνουσα 2. nom.54
Revision exercises for section 4C–D
5. κακός ἐστὶν ὁ πόλεμος 5. nom. τρέχοντι./acc. τρεχούσῃ. s. παυομένῃ
7. ἀφ’ ἡμῶν
4. νῦν δὲ ἐπὶ οἰκίαν 2. s. f. ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς 5. 4. ἆρά εἰμι ἔμπειρος. 5. παυομένῳ 8. εἴμ’ Ὀδυσσεύς
1. of the doers to/for the women who are showing of the one who is afraid to/for the women who are doing to/for the one who sees to/for those who show 4. 2. φεύγων. s. f. ὁ δ’ ἀνήρ 2. m. 6. ἆρ’ ὁρᾷς. 2. 3. 4. παίζων 3. pl. acc. sacred thing
. acc. τρέχουσι(ν). 3.
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4C–D
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
impiety temple. 6. 7. 1. 8. 8. f. ἀλλὰ ἐγώ 3. n. 5.
τὸν θεώμενον τὰς ὁρώσας τοὺς ποιοῦντας αἱ δηλοῦσαι οἱ φοβούμενοι ἡ ποιοῦσα τὴν ὁρῶσαν τὸ δηλοῦν τοῖς θεωμένοις τῇ ὁρώσῃ τῶν ποιούντων ταῖς δηλούσαις τοῦ φοβουμένου ταῖς ποιούσαις τῷ ὁρῶντι τοῖς δηλοῦσι(ν)
the one watching those/ the women seeing the ones doing the ones/the women showing those afraid the one/the woman doing the one/the woman seeing the one/it showing
to/for those watching to/for the woman who sees of those doing. παυομένοις 6. 3.
1. pl. s. 5. παυομένοις m.
For the rhapsode is clearly aware that the stranger is running away. (Does the slave escape your notice dragging away the suppliant?) For the ambassadors anticipate the public slaves (by) running away. ἀποτρέχων f. The stranger is clearly suffering something dreadful. I am aware of the man who is escaping).e. 2.
4. 5. ὁ γὰρ Λακεδαιμόνιος φθάνει τοὺς διώκοντας τρέχων εἰς τὸ ἱερόν. ὁ ξένος οὐ παύεται ἡμᾶς ἐπικαλούμενος καὶ βοῶν. The man escaping does not escape my notice (i. host I happen/unlucky. The pursuers arrive and ask the rhapsode where the stranger happens to be. (Lit. So in this way lawlessness and impiety occur in the city of the Athenians. ὁ δ’ ἀνὴρ δῆλός ἐστι πρεσβευτὴς ὢν καὶ ἀποϕεύγων τυγχάνει. but the rhapsode and Dikaiopolis keep quiet. The king is running away and does not stop running away. The stranger does not stop lamenting and revealing what he is suffering.
E – TEST EXERCISE 4C–D
A stranger happens to be running into the shrine of Heracles. although he is shouting and calling upon the gods. c. Who are ﬂeeing? Do you see them ﬂeeing? τοὺς ϕεύγοντας e. Who is running? I do not see the man running. Why don’t they stop being afraid? ϕοβούμεναι. guest. The stranger eludes his pursuers [by] running into the shrine which is nearby. τὸν τρέχοντα b. Who are lamenting? Where are the people who are lamenting? οἱ ὀλοϕυρόμενοι. as they are afraid of the Eleven. Don’t you see that the master has some gear? (Does the master escape your notice having some gear?) ἆρα λανθάνει σε ὁ δοῦλος τὸν ἱκέτην ἀϕέλκων.
. ὁρῶμεν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/ἄνδρας τρέχοντας. I know who is escaping. ὁ ἀποϕεύγων d.) The herald does not stop hating the strangers and being afraid. pursuing him.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. because some men are approaching quickly. (The Lacedaemonian anticipates the pursuers running into the shrine.) When the pursuers see him in the shrine. For it is clear that the stranger does not escape the rhapsode’s notice running away. unhappy offence
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
I beseech hated hospitality/I entertain chance I assault.
I do not see any Spartan escaping. they drag him away.Revision exercises for section 4C–D
a suppliant I hate stranger.
3. But you are clearly a suppliant and you happen to be lamenting the situation. outrage
1. Women (in general) are always afraid.
(c) 3rd s. (a) 3rd pl. (b) 3rd pl./acc.
(d) m. nom.
. s. pl. (d) 3rd pl. 2. pl. s. nom.
Revision exercises for section 4C–D
English ‘hypnosis’ (and again note English at top of page). Before beginning 5A you may ﬁnd it helpful to write out the present tense (active and middle) of παύω. and it is not introduced until Section 13E. 4 ὕπνος Cf. in which you will meet new tenses of the verb. by contrast. 98.
2 χρήματα Illustrated at bottom of page 53. #102. ὀϕείλει The root cause of Strepsiades’ problem (see English note at top of page). For example: ‘I was going’ indicates an event that was taking place and not necessarily completed (consider its likely context: ‘I was going to the shop when …’. If you are not happy with the term imperfect. 3 ἱππομανής Break it up into its constituent parts: ἱππος (illustrated p. so far the narrative has been conﬁned to the present tense alone. indicates a deﬁnitely completed action – but at an undeﬁned time (yesterday / last week / ten years ago etc.
. A checklist of the active forms appears at the end of the notes to 5A. while ‘aorist’ means ‘undeﬁned’. English ‘mania’). Or see GE p. 6 τὸ χρῆμα τῶν νυκτῶν Literally ‘the business of the nights’ – GE glosses χρῆμα here as ‘length’. and another table for εἰμί. 53) + μανης (cf. ‘I have shut the door’. ‘I went’. Greek also has a perfect tense: this expresses a completed action in present time. #110. ‘unﬁnished’. and a list of the middle forms and εἰμί at the end of 5B. it may be helpful to look at the explanation in GE p. Note: In Section 6 you will met another past tense called the aorist. where the ‘when’ clause is likely to explain why I never reached the shop).Section Five: ‘Socrates corrupts the young’
This is a vital section. In 5A–B the imperfect tense is introduced. leaving room to the right of the table to enter imperfect endings as they occur. and in 5C–D the future. #103. The meaning of ‘imperfect’ in this context is ‘incomplete’. 92.). 93. It is much less common than the aorist. and GE p. ‘I have just come in’.
18 ἐδίωκον Which person (oἱ χρῆσται is the subject)? You can conﬁrm the formation by comparing ἐλάμβανον. ‘this son of mine here’. 17 ἐκάθευδον First example of the normal imperfect. have the same ending. Using these indicators. καθεύδων (9) and καθεύδει (9) indicate that 1st person singular of the present indicative must be καθεύδω. παύω παύεις παύει ἔ -παυ -ον ἔ -παυ -ε(ν)
. 30 γάμους English ‘monogamy’. See GE p. 94.as a preﬁx. though note its literal meaning is ‘bite’. which indicates that ἦ is the past tense of εἰμί. Past tenses in Greek have ἐ. 20–21 ἔσῳζεν. 16 χθές ‘yesterday’. #105. Cf. ‘polygamy’. Can you explain the variation? δι-ελέγετο First example of a middle imperfect – which person? Note that when the verb has a preposition as a preﬁx the augment is attached to the verb stem and not to the preposition. Note that the augment and the ending have been spaced so that you can see the stem clearly:
1st s. ‘for the whole night’. This is called the ‘augment’. ‘picric acid’. Note that in the imperfect. 13 τουτονί Adding the -ι to τοῦτον makes it even more demonstrative.58
12 δάκνει Here = ‘worry’. and then you have to wait until the end of the sentence to ﬁnd out what we never ceased doing. ὁ υἱός) and use the endings to form the corresponding person of παύω. 3rd s. and the 3rd person pl. If you followed the suggestion above. Interim check: the imperfect so far. 23 ἦν Past tense of εἰμί – person? 24 ἐλάμβανε Compare ἐλάμβανεν (21). your present + imperfect table (active only) could look like this. the 1st person s. 95. Note that πικρόν is brought forward to emphasise it. Note that the person is indicated by ἐγώ. ἐλάμβανεν Identify the person of the verb by looking at the respective subjects (οὐδείς. Similarly ὀλίγον χρόνον means ‘for a short time’. ε + α = η. #105. which is used later in this section. 28 ἐπαυόμεθα Which person? Notice that the subject is delayed and the verb comes ﬁrst for emphasis: ‘we never ceased…’. 2nd s. etc. See GE p. 31–34 Note the contrast between rustic simplicity and urban extravagance – Aristophanes makes much more of this than the text here does. what would you deduce to be the 1st person singular of the imperfect of παύω? ὅλην τὴν νύκτα The accusative case without a preposition is used to express duration of time. πικρούς ‘bitter’. should help with the meaning. 25 ἤκουε This is what happens when the augment merges with a vowel.
a vital commodity for the Athenians. This expense already then was ruining me. And while I was at a loss. as you well know. 2nd pl. For his son. 8 ἀργούς Compounded from ἀ. blaming him for the lack of oil – he should have ﬁlled the lamp. alas! Ο king Zeus! The length of the nights – how great it is! Day is not yet coming. And moreover even when sleeping the young man dreams of horses. Yes. But I am still sleepless and at a loss. and being a citywoman she started to bring in much expense.
. being horse-mad. my debts which are heavy worry me. It is still ruining me even now.
2 ἅπτε λυχνόν λυχνός is illustrated opposite. hold) me. ‘not working’ i. Alas! Who was responsible? My wife [was] responsible.e. my wife and I: we were always arguing. So her son always listened and learnt about horses. Alas! We never stopped arguing about the boy. sleep does not hold the father). See! My son is sleeping deeply and does not cease sleeping.
Alas. 4 ἔλαιον ‘olive oil’. For I was sleeping for a short while. but the father cannot sleep (lit.
παύομεν παύετε παύουσι (ν)
ἔ -παυ -ον
Translation for 5A
Strepsiades happens to be lamenting because he owes a lot of money. and this son of mine kept on taking lots of money because he was horse-mad. ‘lazy’. which should help with the meaning of this phrase. sleep deeply! For the debts. But you. Now the son happens to be sleeping deeply. for almost the whole night. nobody was saving me. But when I was sleeping. While I am sleepless. For she always used to take her son and talk to him about horses. I know that well.Section 5B
1st pl. even when a boy he kept dreaming of horses. 3rd pl. just as you are. How sweet was the country life! Marriage – how bitter! For my wife happens to be from the city. fall (lit. and because I owe [much money] my creditors pursue me and are always exacting their due. but for the whole night I was always escaping from these lawsuits. Alas unhappy me! Deep sleep does not yet come to (lit.(negative preﬁx) + ἔργoν. always takes much money. then my creditors kept on pursuing me in my dreams and kept on exacting their due because of my son. For I owe much money because of this son of mine. ‘idle’. certainly. 5 κλαῖε Literally ‘weep’. Strepsiades intends to hit the slave. Ο king Zeus! Why do you make marriages so bitter? For always my wife makes my life bitter. And yesterday I was sleepless. I am unfortunate and sleepless. turn) onto my head.
ἐπείθοντο Imperfect middle ending. How can I light the lamp. Alas for my troubles! For now we give orders. 2. but were good and always obeyed. 10 ἦσαν The past tense of εἰμί – person? 11 τοὺς δεσπότας κακὰ ἐποίουν ποιῶ here seems to take two objects. For the war stops [me]. 1st pl. But why don’t I save myself and my son from our debts? Why don’t I look for some scheme. ‘yourself’. ἦμεν The past tense of εἰμί. For I can’t see anything now. save yourself! Hurray. it does. In fact.60
Exercises for section 5A–B
9 οὐ πείθονται The middle of πείθω means ‘I obey’. ‘I harm’. hurray! I have a plan! Now why don’t I stop this young man sleeping? EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5A–B
THE IMPERFECT 5A–B: 1
1. 2nd pl. What would be the corresponding formation for παύομαι? 14 ἐμαυτόν and σεαυτόν (line 17) are reﬂexive pronouns: ‘myself’. master? Look! There is no oil in the lamp. but they do not obey.) were taking
ἐπαύετο ἐφερόμην. 98. 2nd s. But when we were young. for it is deep night. then the old men always used to punish their slaves. Strepsiades. ἡμεῖς indicates the person. and put an end to these debts? Now. because κακὰ ποιῶ (‘I do bad things’) was treated as a single idea. For they were afraid of punishment. although they are idle. 92. taking a direct object. nor did they treat their masters badly. παύομαι παύει παύεται παυόμεθα παύεσθε παύονται εἰμί εἶ ἐστί(ν) ἦ(ν) ἦν ἦμεν ἦσαν
ἐ -παύ -ετο
ἐ -παυ -όμεθα ἐσμέν ἐστέ ἐ -παύ -οντο εἰσί(ν)
For other persons. What are you saying? The lamp has no oil? Unhappy me! Come here and weep! How evil is the war! I no longer punish my slaves. 3rd s. #102 and p. So they were not idle. #110.
he/she was stopping I/they were carrying you (s. 3rd pl.
But what do I owe? Slave! Come here! Light the lamp. see GE p. By now the tables for παύομαι and εἰμί should look like this:
Ist s. ἐφέροντο ἐλαμβάνου
Translation for 5B
STREPSIADES SLAVE STR.
you (s. 8.) were owing he hears we were remaining he was doing
1. 9.) killed I/they drove away we were destroying you (pl. ὠφείλομεν
ADDITIONAL IMPERFECT PATTERNS 5A–B: 6
4. 2. ἐκελεύετε
1. ἐκώλυον 5. ἀπάγουσιν διαφθείρομεν εἰσφέρετε
IMPERFECT OF CONTRACT VERBS AND VERB ‘TO BE’ 5A–B: 4
1.) were sacriﬁcing
AUGMENTS 5A–B: 2
1. 4.) lament he owes they pray
ἠκούομεν εἶχον ὠλοφύρεσθε ὤφειλε ηὔχοντο
1. 5.Exercises for section 5A–B
4. we were turning 11. he was afraid 8. 10.
he was ceasing you were obeying they were conversing we are afraid they were they were showing
7. 4. 3.
he came down you (s.) were bringing in
καταβαίνει ἀποκτείνεις ἀπάγω. 2.) are punishing he found out. I was calling to witness 10. learned
7. 3. 4. 12.
we were learning you (pl. 3. ἐτίμων 2.) were showing you (s. they were freeing you (s.
we hear they have you (pl. 4. 5. 5. 3. he/she/it was I was freeing. he was lamenting
. 6. ἔπασχε(ν) 3.) were seeming 12.
he was stopping we were honouring I was doing. 5. 6. they are ﬁghting 9. 2. 2. 5. they were doing you (s. 11.
4. d.) were watching ἐθεῶ you (s. For she always takes her son and talks to him about horses. ἐφοβοῦντο … ἐπείθοντο.) owed ὠϕείλετε we were in ἐνῆ you (pl. ἦν … ἐλάμβανε … διελέγετο. For in this way the houseslaves become good. We are young and punish the house-slaves. b. we were conversing διελεγόμην we were watching ἐθεώμην they were bringing in εἰσέϕερεν you (s. but these men are still pursuing me. ἦν … ἐπoίει. e. ἐφαινόμην 5. 2. Who is responsible? My wife. ἦμεν … ἐκολάζομεν … ἐγίγνοντο. ἐποιεῖτο 10. I am sleeping.
ἐκώλυε ἐπαύετο ἐπεκαλούμεθα ὤφειλες ἤκουον
Revision Exercises for section 5A–B
2. 3. ἐφοβεῖτο 3. ἐπείθοντο 2.
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5A–B
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. ἐδουλοῦντο 8. The slaves do not fear their masters nor do they obey them. How bitter is marriage! For my wife always makes our marriage bitter. 5. ἐτίμων 9. ἐβοᾶτε 7. ἐκάθευδον … ἐδίωκον.) used to obey ἐπείθεσθε they were afraid ἐϕοβεῖτο I was calling upon ἐπεκαλούμεθα I was stopping ἐπαύομεν he/she was ἦσαν you were afraid ἐϕοβεῖσθε he/she was watching ἐθεῶντο
ϕιλήσεις there is an additional point to note: contracted verbs lengthen the vowel at the end of the stem before adding the same endings as uncontracted verbs. The point will be further developed later. ὁ πατὴρ ἀεὶ ἐκόλαζε τὸν υἱόν.) stopped the woman punishing the household slaves. (With ϕιλήσω.to form -ξ-. We used to pray to the goddess. but we did not make sacriﬁces. this should alert you to what tense is coming next! ϕιλήσεις The ﬁrst example of the future – note ending -σ-εις. In almost all verbs the distinguishing mark is a ‘-σ-’.Section 5C
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
The young man was shouting. #114. ‘Will you obey?’ 13 Obediently. future middle of πείθω. The farmers always used to honour the gods. The sons owed much money. 22 σώσει See note above on p.
1 Φειδιππίδιον Note the diminutive form – affectionate? 5 αὔριov ‘tomorrow’. You (s. 102–103. Pheidippidikins! What. see GE pp. 17 ἀκούσομαι Some verbs change from present active to future middle with no change in meaning. Pheidippides changes his oath to swear by Dionysus. See GE pp. god of horses (as well as god of the sea).
Translation for 5C
Pheidippides. 12 πείσῃ 2nd s. 20 λέξω Verbs with stems ending in -γ/-κ/-χ combine the ﬁnal consonant of the stem with the -ς. 103. Note the -σ. 3.and regular endings. ‘obey!’ 10 πείσομαι Also future. 9 πείθου This is the middle imperative. 2. although when this is merged with a consonant stem it is not always apparent. #115–116 6 τουτονί τὸν ἵππιον Pheidippides swears by Poseidon.
In this section you will meet the future tense. 58 line 10. 4. ἡμεῖς μὲν ἐκελεύομεν. Note that verb-stems ending in dentals -τ/-δ/-θ/-ζ lose the ﬁnal consonant of the stem before adding -σ. οἱ νεανίαι χρηστοὶ (ἀγαθοὶ) ἦσαν καὶ ἐπείθοντο. father?
. See GE p. ἐβοῶμεν καὶ τοὺς δούλους (οἰκέτας) ἐπαύομεν διαλεγομένους. #112–114. 6 ϕιλήσω … παύσομαι 1st person singular of active and middle respectively. 5. but the sailor did not stop chasing. οἱ δὲ δοῦλοι (οἰκέται) ἡμᾶς κακὰ ἐποίουν.inserted between present stem and person-ending. βαθέως ἐκάθευδον ἀλλ’ ὁ υἱὸς οὐκ ἐπαύετο βοῶν.
Look. god of horses. What is your plan. 6–7 Notice the implication that Socrates and his associates are well paid for their teaching – something which Socrates always vigorously denied. Some irregular verbs use the stem given in brackets to form the future.
Tell me. ‘I consider’ with the sufﬁx -ηριον. Hence ϕροντιστήριον means ‘thinkery’. Will you obey? I will obey. I shall love you tomorrow and I shan’t stop ever. do you love me? I [do]. 105. Will you love me tomorrow? By Poseidon here. So speak then! What are you ordering? I shall order a small thing. #120 for a list of ‘important futures’.g. Here perhaps ‘argument’ ﬁts the meaning most closely. PHEI. son – for that one has the responsibility for my troubles – but listen and obey. PHEI. Were you listening? Or weren’t you listening? Or am I speaking in vain? I’ll stop you sleeping. I’m planning something big. STR. father? What will you order? How will your idea save us? How shall we stop from our debts? You will do it? I will do it. 5 πνιγεύς Ilustrated on next page – these are bowl-shaped. For perhaps this idea will stop us somehow from our debts. earthenware ovens. and I don’t ever stop [loving you]. ἄνθρακες English ‘anthracite’ may help towards meaning: ‘coals’. my son. PHEI. 9 μαθήσονται The future of μανθάνω (μαθ-). What were you telling me? I was telling you that I have an idea. STR. What is your idea? What have you in mind and what are you planning? Were you saying? No. by Dionysus. Socrates is depicted as having two ‘arguments’ in his
. PHEI. PHEI. STR. father. son. STR. For I have a plan and I am planning something. I was listening and I am listening and I shall listen. Yes. I am listening and obeying and I shall always obey. STR.
1 οἰκίδιον The diminutive form of οἶκος/οἰκία. but I will [tell you]. Don’t worry. a very small thing. STR. Tell [me]. which corresponds to English ‘-ery’ sufﬁx in e.64
STR. 3 ϕροντιστήριον An Aristophanic coinage. by Dionysus. See GE p. PHEI. Don’t ever mention that horsey one. 13 λόγον Always a difﬁcult word to translate. PHEI. ‘brewery’ – the place where something is done. STR. PHEI. constructed from ϕροντίζω ‘I think’. ‘bakery’.
Translation for 5D
STREPSIADES STR. as a sign of poverty. 50 γνώσομαι The future of γιγνώσκω (γνω-). εἴσει. again based on the bracketed stem. Socates went unshod. and the ‘wrong’ argument.in the future can combine with a labial consonant stem (κοπ-) to produce -ψ-. but later acquiring pejorative overtones – hence the disgusted reaction from Pheidippides. based on the bracketed stem.and added -έω to form future (see GE p. See GE p. ἀν-(negative) ὑπο. here it is also derogatory. #114. 103. ‘Won’t you obey?’ γενήσομαι The future of γίγνομαι (γεν-). ‘But you. σὺ δὲ διὰ τί οὐκ εἰσέρχῃ μαθητής. εἴσειμι The irregular future of εἰσέρχομαι. but have a contracted future in -έω.do not insert -σ. #117). These men persuade their pupils. always teaching and
. -μ-. and was hence a derogatory description for a man.Section 5D
23 24 27
28 29 32
34 35 36–38
‘thinkery’ (in the original play these ‘arguments’ actually appear as characters): the ‘right’ argument. which gives the meaning of ὠχρούς. οἱ ἔνδον ‘those inside’. PHEIDIPPIDES
Look over here. οὔκoυν πείσῃ. ἄριστε ἀνθρώπων Strepsiades reverts to his wheedling. Verbs with a present stem ending in -λ-. What is it.to form future. ὠχρούς … ἀνυποδήτους Ochres are pale yellowish shades.or -ρ.
41 ἐκβαλῶ βάλλω has shortened the present stem to βαλ. and speaking they persuade their pupils that the heaven is a bell-oven and this bell-oven is around us and we are the coals. is again based on the bracketed stem but with the vowel lengthened.(‘under’) -δητους (‘bound’): ‘unbound-under’ meant ‘shoeless’. To be pale was a sign of spending too much time indoors. 104. εἴσεισι. the accent distinguishes the two when not prefixed. can make the weaker argument appear the stronger. This is doubly confusing because εἶμι (‘I shall go’) is identical in spelling with εἰμί (‘I am’). #117. which. #117). which argues correctly. σοϕισταί Originally a neutral term for philosophers. 104. 105. 57 κόψω Notice how the -σ. Father? This is the thinkery of wise souls. In addition. Inside live wise men.. why don’t you go in (as) a student?’ διαϕθερεῖ One of only two examples in this section of a grammatical point that is easily overlooked (see GE p. λήψονται The future of λαμβάνω (λαβ-). See GE p. εἴσιμεν The future of εἰσέρχομαι again (cf. See GE p. However. note on line 32).104. #120. Do you see this door and the house? I see it. -ν. by verbal trickery etc. Hence Strepsiades’ interest in the latter argument.
noble sophists. And by Zeus no one of them will stop receiving much money from their pupils. but I shall become the winner. I won’t do this. god of horses. 110.66
PHEI. I know: I myself will go into the thinkery and will become a pupil of the sophists and I will learn the unjust argument. But they are ﬁne. PHEI. Why don’t I knock at this door and shout? I’ll do this and I’ll knock at the door and shout. not sophists. But if you won’t go in. PHEI. You mean the pale shoeless [people]. #127a. Why do you not go in as a student? For this way we shall stop ourselves from our debts. And learn to decline Σωκράτης in GE p. PHEI. But how shall I. Yuck! Awful [people]. STR. Hey. STR. STR. What shall I do? Pheidippides will not win. [go] into the thinkery? By Poseidon. being a student.
receiving a lot of money. Why don’t you go into the thinkery. you and I? I won’t. STR. You may ﬁnd it
STR. Father? Which? I mean the just and unjust argument. the just one won’t. Which arguments do you mean. STR.
PHEI. For the unjust argument will put a stop to our debts. PHEI.
PHEI. For I love horses. an old man and slow in exact arguments. I won’t go in tomorrow and I won’t do so in any way. And what’s more in lawsuits they will always defeat their opponents. At this point you may ﬁnd it useful to revise the different formations of the future tense. 102–103. be quiet! Will you not listen? I will listen. I’ll go into the house. I shall become pale. learn philosophy? All the same I’ll go in. those inside have two arguments. becoming [their] pupils? The pupils will learn arguments. I’m not going in today.
Do not neglect the very useful table of indeﬁnites and interrogatives in GE p. but not into the thinkery of the sophists. Won’t you obey and do this? I won’t obey and I won’t do this. before you go on (GE pp. STR. Who are these men? What is the name of the men? I do not know the name. #125. In this way I shall stop those creditors taking their money. But what do the men teach? What will young men learn. #112–114). wretched Socrates and Chaerephon. Then I’ll chase you out of the house and send you to hell! I’ll run away. best of men? What are you saying? I. The students will learn these arguments? [Yes]. STR. PHEI. PHEI. who will go in? Shall we go in together. STR. What will I learn? The unjust argument. PHEI. PHEI. 109. I know. So learn: in this way the creditors will not recover any of these debts. STR. hey. STR. by Zeus. What will you tell me? But as I was saying. the just and the unjust.
εὔξονται τύψει ἡσυχάσεις τρεψόμεθα πείσεις
they pray he hits you (s. ν. -εις.
they will hinder he will order we shall travel you (s.
Irregular verbs μανθάνω λαμβάνω γιγνώσκω γίγνομαι μαθήσομαι λήψομαι γνώσομαι γενήσομαι
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5C–D
THE FUTURE TENSE 5C–D: 1
1.) will prevent
κωλύουσι κελεύει πορευόμεθα παύῃ κωλύεις
CONSONANT STEMS 5C–D: 2
1. 4. leaving the third column free to add the ﬁrst person of the aorist tense as you learn it in the next section. not contracted. δ. 4. 2.) keep quiet we turn you (s. -ει … . χ π. 5. endings: -ω.Exercises for section 5C–D
helpful to make a chart like this. 5. but the stem vowel is lengthened. 2. γ. 3. ϕ τ.) will cease you (s. β. 3. λ. ρ most –ιζω Contracted verbs παύω εὔχομαι κόπτω πείθω θαυμάζω διαϕθείρω νομίζω ποιέω τιμάω δηλόω Future παύσω εὔξομαι κόψω πείσω θαυμάσω διαϕθερῶ (έω) νομιῶ (έω) ποιήσω τιμήσω δηλώσω Aorist
The future of contracted verbs has ordinary. θ most ζ μ.
Present Vowel stems Consonant stems κ.
10. 12.) were ordering
7. ἴμεν 10. they will set free
ADDITIONAL FUTURE PATTERNS 5C–D: 4
νικῶμεν φιλεῖ κρατῶ (έω) ζητεῖτε ἐλευθεροῦσιν
IRREGULAR FUTURES 5C–D: 6
1. he will love 3. 4. γενήσῃ 5.) will do they will destroy we prevent he will converse he will consider I shall show
1. πρὸς τὰς τριήρεις οὔσας.) will cease they will obey. 9. ἴασι(ν) 2. we shall defeat 2. 2. 9. 8. γνωσόμεθα 4. you (pl. it will happen he/she will go
1. 12. 2.
. 6.) will know he will become.) are knocking we shall pray you (s.) will seek 5. 11.
they will go they will be I shall go you (s.
κελεύσουσι(ν) πείσει πείσεται
4. 5. 2. they will suffer they will persuade you (s. εἶσι(ν)
6.) will learn they will ﬁnd out he/she/it will be
7. 3. ἔσεσθε 9. 5. 6. 5. you (s. ἰούσας. 8. 11.
you (pl. ἔσται 3. ἰουσῶν. ἔσεσθε
1. I shall hold power over 4.
he will take they will become we shall be you (pl. τῶν μητέρων οὐσῶν.
he will stop. λήψονται 7. 3. 2. 3.68
Exercises for section 5C–D
CONTRACT VERBS 5C–D: 3
1. μαθήσομαι 8. 10.
4. ἔσομαι … νικήσει The son does not love his father. ἰούσαις REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5C–D
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
1. ἰόντα. l. g. κελεύσει What are you saying. h. j.
. δέξονται We do not hear the words. b. d. διδάξομεν The men receive much money. ἀκουσόμεθα I am wise. e. c. k. ὁ ἀγαθὸς υἱὸς ἀεὶ ϕιλήσει τὸν πατέρα. responsible/cause I blame I teach the teacher justice/ right just I do wrong I am unfortunate the pupil
teaching. οἱ πατέρες ὄντες. 2.
a. κόψω … βοήσομαι Who wins the lawsuits? νικήσει The pupils do not stop learning. σώσει I knock at the door and shout. 6.
The sophists will teach you tomorrow. 5. I shall never hate the gods. oἱ νεανίαι τήμερον μαθήσονται τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. this (man) does not defeat me. ἰόντες.
The father orders his son. τὸν Σωκράτη ὄντα. i. ἰόντος. ἀπὸ τοῦ Περικλέους ὄντος. instruction the contestant in a lawsuit the juror ignorant an idea the house belonging to the house or family a sophist
to do with teaching unjust I judge to do with learning I think I live in
unfortunate I learn
mind/sense I consider a household slave a little house the household or house wise wisdom
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. ταῖς θυγατράσιν οὔσαις. ϕιλήσει The idea saves us. f. παύσονται Who are the wise men? ἔσονται
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. sir? λέξεις We do not teach the teachers.Revision exercises for section 5C–D
1.. SLAVE DIK. boy. slave. and call him. dear Euripides. s. if you get the idea.. Don’t you hear? It’s me.
E – TEST EXERCISE 5
DIKAIOPOLIS SLAVE DIK. in having such a clever slave. How beautifully he speaks! But now.
3. 5. by Zeus. nom... from the deme of Cholleidae.. come here.
(d) present (d) n. οὖτος ὁ ἵππος οὐ παύσεται τρέχων. but I will knock on the door and call Euripides again. No.. Why is it impossible? Call Euripides. nom. boy. SLAVE DIK. nom. Euripides. How do you mean. s. but the man is in.
Slave. stop teasing me. s. 2. writing a tragedy.
. οἱ σοϕοὶ ἔσονται δίκαιοι. boy? How can a man be in and not in? It is clear that you are talking nonsense. 4. But it is impossible.
(c) future (c) m. His mind is collecting words and is not in.70
Revision exercises for section 5C–D
The sailors will not stop looking for the captain. s.. I was speaking correctly/ the truth. ὁ μαθητὴς εἴσεισιν εἰς τὸν οἶκον/τὴν οἰκίαν. O thrice blessed Euripides. The master will punish the slave.
(b) imperfect (b) m. I won’t go away. SLAVE DIK. Who is this? Who won’t stop calling me? You there! Who was shouting? Who? I was shouting. Dikaiopolis calling you. acc. But tell me: is Euripides in? He is not in and he is in.
(a) imperfect (a) m. The women will listen to the words.
17 ἐπαυσάμην Which person do you think this is? Cf. 5 ἔκοψα. 25–26 ὁπόσους … πόδας ‘how many of its own feet’. ‘monoplane’ etc. Note ἐ. Note (a) the augment ἐ. ὦ ᾽γαθέ = ὦ ἀγαθέ. the scholiast (ancient commentator) informs us that Chaerephon had shaggy eyebrows and that Socrates was bald. and ὀϕρύς is ‘an eyebrow’. ἐβόησεν The ﬁrst examples of the aorist. ‘monopoly’. 10 ποιήσω. though in the experiment something slightly less monstrous is envisaged: ‘slippers’. ‘Who is the one knocking?’ Note the use of the participle. You may want to look at GE pp. -σα (person-ending). like the imperfect. line 12). 115–118.(augment).(as for imperfect). just like the future. ἐβόησα 1st person singular (as ἐγώ indicates). as it is a past tense. 22 ψύλλα … ὀϕρύν There is no point in trying to guess here! ψύλλα is ‘a ﬂea’. You will ﬁnd that in most cases the aorist adds a sigma before the ending. δάκνει has occurred at the beginning of the section 5A (p. ἐπαύσατο The ﬁrst example of the middle aorist. κόψω What tense? 12 τίς ὁ κόπτων.e. it will also have an augment. and is here used in its basic sense of ‘bite’.
3 ἔκοψε. 19 μόνοι ‘alone’. and the lengthening of the stem vowel. 6 τίς ὢν σὺ τούτο ἐποίησας Literally ‘You being who did this?’ or ‘Who are you that you did this?’ (2nd singular aorist indicated by σύ). ‘monarchy’. how many ‘ﬂea-feet’? 30–31 πρῶτον μὲν … εἶτα … τέλος δέ … Three stages of the experiment. just as in the future. please refer back to the note at the beginning of Section 5). Again. ἐ(augment). To explain the humour of the situation. (b) -σε in the ending. -σας (person-ending). 54.Section Six
In this section the aorist tense is introduced (if you are uncertain of terminology. 35 ἐμβάδας Illustrated below. #128–138. ἐπαυόμην. The contracted verb lengthens the stem vowel before adding the ending.(augment). Note ἐ. note also that π + ς = ψ. -σατο (person-ending). Cf.
. perhaps. i. but.
40 ἐποίησαν Resumption of aorist endings. ἐ- (augment) and -σαν (person-ending). 42 ὡς ἔλεγον ‘as I was saying’. Notice the difference between the imperfect tense and the aorists which follow, ‘they made the wax warm etc.’
46–47 If the apparent lack of connection here is confusing, it is designed to convey the ignorance of Strepsiades. ‘Knowing the ﬂea’s leap’ = ‘being educated’, and if he’s educated, then he’s sure to win his lawsuits.
Translation for 6A
Strepsiades knocks at the door and shouts Boy! Young boy! S T U D E N T Go to hell. Who knocked at the door? Who shouted? STR. I knocked at the door and I shouted. STU. Who are you that you did that? Some ignoramus, I know well. STR. Strepsiades, from the deme Kikynna. STU. Go to hell, again. STR. Alas! What shall I do? Well, I’ll knock again. (He knocks at the door again.) STU. Who’s that knocking? Why did this fellow not stop knocking, when I told him to? Why are you knocking again? What do you have in mind? You’ve knocked away my thought [by] doing that. STR. But I’ve just stopped, my dear fellow. For you told me to. Don’t throw me out, although I’m a rustic and ignorant. But what was your thought? Tell me. STU. It isn’t right. Only the students learn these thoughts of the sophists. STR. Tell me then. For I have come to the thinkery as a student of the sophists. STU. I will tell you. A ﬂea bites Chaerephon’s eyebrow. When it jumps onto Socrates’ head, the men converse as follows. SOCRATES Look, Chaerephon. The ﬂea does not escape my notice being worthy of an Olympic crown. But tell [me], how many of its own feet did the ﬂea leap? CHAEREPHON I do not know, Socrates. But why don’t we measure the distance? SOC. How shall we measure it, Chaerephon? CHA. Look. First I take some wax, then I make the wax warm. Finally I put the ﬂea’s feet into the wax. SOC. What then? CHA. Now the wax is becoming cold. Look, Socrates: for the ﬂea has slippers. SOC. But what are you doing now? CHA. Now I am loosing the slippers. Look! STR. Ο king Zeus! Oh the wisdom of the men! But tell me, whatever did the men do, student? STU. You don’t escape my notice being a rustic, Strepsiades, not knowing anything. But as I was saying, ﬁrst they made the wax warm. Then they put the ﬂea’s feet into the wax. Finally they loosed the slippers and measured – of course – the distance.
Ο king Zeus! The men appear to be wise. Why then do we marvel at that [famous] Thales? Indeed I shall easily escape justice. For I shall know the ﬂea’s leap. Open, open the door!
1 θηρία GE gives ‘beasts’ – perhaps ‘monsters’ conveys the sense better. 4 οἱ … βλέποντες As before: article + participles = relative clause. 5 τὰ κατὰ γῆς As before: a very common idiom, using neuter plural of article + adjective/adjectival phrase. Literally ‘the things beneath the earth’. Here something like ‘subterranean phenomena’ might convey the meaning. 6 Strepsiades, of course, takes the words at face value: ‘They must be looking for trufﬂes.’ 7 πρωκτός If the students are bent double, what is pointing towards the heavens? 12 ἀστρονομία Possibly in the original production represented by some elaborate instrument. Likewise γεωμετρία (14). 15 The explanation of the original meaning of ‘geometry’, from γῆ ‘land’ and μετρέω ‘measure’. 19 περίοδος Both elements are known, ὁδός ‘journey’, περί ‘round’, hence the meaning ‘map’. 23 A stock joke in comedy was that Athens was litigation mad. Hence, to Strepsiades’ over-literal mind, a map couldn’t represent Athens without depicting a lawcourt and jurors. 30–31 Another over-literal interpretation: on the map Sparta looks too close, so Strepsiades suggests moving it further away. 35 κρεμάθρας See stage directions (line 34). 36 αὐτός ‘Himself’, ‘The Master’.
Translation for 6B
STREPSIADES STUDENT STR. STU. STR.
STU. STR. STU. STR.
Heracles! What are these monsters? Hey you! Why are you amazed? Why did you yell again? Are you amazed at these students? Yes, by Zeus, I am amazed. But what are these ones doing, who are looking into the ground? These are investigating subterranean phenomena. Then they are looking for trufﬂes. Don’t worry about it any more, monsters: I know where there are some lovely big ones. But who’s this? Why is his bottom looking towards the sky? Because his bottom is studying astronomy. Look! What’s this? Tell me! This is astronomy. And what’s this?
STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU.
Exercises for section 6A–B
Geometry. And what use is this? Tell [me]! With this we measure the land. This is a map of the world. Do you see? This is Athens. What are you saying? I don’t believe [you]: I don’t see any one of the jurors sitting. Where is my deme? It’s here. Do you see Euboea? I see [it]. But where does Sparta happen to be? Where? Here. Alas! Go away, go away! How near us Sparta is. But why don’t you drag this away from us a very long way? Impossible. By Zeus, you’ll regret it. But tell me, who’s this who is in the basket? Himself. Who’s Himself? Socrates.
At this point your chart should look like this:
Present Vowel stems Consonant stems κ, γ, χ π, β, ϕ τ, δ, θ most ζ μ, ν, λ, ρ most -ιζω Contracted verbs παύω εὔχομαι κόπτω πείθω θαυμάζω διαϕθείρω νομίζω ποιέω δηλόω τιμάω Future παύσω εὔξομαι κόψω πείσω θαυμάσω διαϕθερῶ (έω) νομιῶ (έω) ποιήσω δηλώσω τιμήσω Aorist ἔπαυσα ηὐξάμην ἔκοψα ἔπεισα ἐθαύμασα διέϕθειρα ἐνόμισα ἐποίησα ἐδήλωσα ἐτίμησα
Note once again that the aorist of contracted verbs has ‘ordinary’ endings -α, -ας, -ε … You will meet the aorists of the irregular verbs in the next section. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6A–B
THE AORIST 6A–B: 1
he sacriﬁced he ordered
they sacriﬁced they ordered
Exercises for section 6A–B
3. ἐκώλυσε(ν) 4. ἔλυσε(ν)
he hindered he set free
they hindered they set free
1. you (pl.) pray 2. they hit 3. he keeps quiet 4. we turn 5. I persuade
ηὔξασθε ἔτυψαν ἡσύχασε(ν) ἐτρεψάμεθα ἔπεισα
1. we defeated 2. he loved 3. I held power over 4. you (pl.) sought 5. they set free
νικῶμεν φιλεῖ κρατῶ (έω) ζητεῖτε ἐλευθεροῦσι(ν)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
ἤκουσε(ν) ἤκουσαν ἀνεχώρησε(ν) ἀνεχώρησαν ἠτίμασε(ν) ἠτίμασαν ἔβλεψε(ν) ἔβλεψαν ἐβόησε(ν) ἐβόησαν ἐδέξατο ἐδέξαντο ἐλύσατο ἐλύσαντο
he heard they heard he retreated they retreated he dishonoured they dishonoured he looked they looked he shouted they shouted he received they received he ransomed they set free
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
ἐδίδαξε(ν) ἐδίδαξαν ἐθαύμασε(ν) ἐθαύμασαν ἔθυσε(ν) ἔθυσαν ἐνίκησε(ν) ἐνίκησαν ἐθεάσατο ἐθεάσαντο ἐτρέψατο ἐτρέψαντο ἔκοψε(ν) ἔκοψαν ἐχώρησε(ν) ἐχώρησαν
he taught they taught he marvelled they marvelled he sacriﬁced they sacriﬁced he defeated they won he watched they watched he turned they turned he knocked they knocked he went they went
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
ἠκούσαμεν ἐδέξαντο ἀνεχώρησας ἐδίωξε(ν) ἐκόλασαν
6. ἐβόησατε 7. ἐνόμισε(ν) 8. ἐδήλωσα 9. ἔμειναν 10. διέφθειραν
Revision exercises for section 6A–B
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6A–B
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
a. Who is knocking at the door? ἔκοψε(ν) b. Who is going into the thinkery? ἐχώρησε(ν) c. But I knock again and do not stop knocking. ἔκοψα, ἐπαυσάμην d. I will tell you. ἔλεξα, εἶπον e. Finally we shall release the slipper. ἐλύσαμεν f. Why do we admire that Thales? ἐθαυμάσαμεν 2. a. The ﬂea leaps onto Socrates’ head. ἐπήδησεν b. But how will you measure, Chaerephon? ἐμέτρησας c. Finally we measure the distance. ἐμετρήσαμεν d. These are seeking things below the ground and do not stop seeking. ἐζήτησαν, ἐπαύσαντο e. What does the matter reveal, Socrates? ἐδήλωσε(ν) 3. a. αὐδάω they spoke f. ὠθέω I pushed b. ἐλπίζω you (s.) hoped g. ἐρωτάω they asked c. ὁμολογέω you (pl.) agreed h. οἰκέω I lived, dwelt d. ἡγέομαι I considered, led i. ἀσπάζομαι they greeted e. ἄρχομαι they began j. ἐκπέμπω he sent out 4.
imperfect ἐκέλευον ἐκώλυον ἐπαυόμην ἔβλεπον ἔκοπτον ἔκρυπτον ἐδεχόμην ἐδίωκον ἔπραττον ἠτίμαζον ἐκόλαζον ἔσπευδον διέφθειρον ἔμενον ἠπόρουν ἐδήλουν ἐμίσουν ἐνίκων future κελεύσω κωλύσω παύσομαι βλέψω κόψω κρύψω δέξομαι διώξω πράξω ἀτιμάσω κολάσω σπεύσω διαφθερέω μενέω ἀπορήσω δηλώσω μισήσω νικήσω aorist ἐκέλευσα ἐκώλυσα ἐπαυσάμην ἔβλεψα ἔκοψα ἔκρυψα ἐδεξάμην ἐδίωξα ἔπραξα ἠτίμασα ἐκόλασα ἔσπευσα διέφθειρα ἔμεινα ἠπόρησα ἐδήλωσα ἐμίσησα ἐνίκησα
present κελεύω κωλύω παύομαι βλέπω κόπτω κρύπτω δέχομαι διώκω πράττω ἀτιμάζω κολάζω σπεύδω διαφθείρω μένω ἀπορέω δηλόω μισέω νικάω
‘short-lived’. The suppliant did not respect/honour the goddess. 4.g. line 33) with the meaning ‘ephemeral’. Even though they were wicked. ὁ γεωργὸς ἐβόησε καὶ ἔκοψε τὴν θύραν. First aorist. Literally.
The woman looked for her son. see GE pp. and aorist). 2. again as in English.
3.is the second aorist stem of ἔρχομαι.Section 6C
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. ‘walk’. ‘sleep’. 8 εἰπέ εἰπ. ‘walked’).is the second aorist stem of λέγω. the neighbours did not punish the young man. ἐπαύσαντο βλέποντες τοὺς ἵππους. Second aorist. #144–146. ἦλθες 2nd singular of the second aorist. but the imperfect uses the present stem. Note that. ὁ σοϕιστὴς οὐκ ἔπεισε τοὺς σοϕοὺς νεανίας. 6 ὦ ἐϕήμερε ἐϕήμερος has been met in section 4A (p.
New in this section is the second aorist. ‘How did you hear me that I am wise?’ or ‘How did you hear that I was wise?’
. which has an augment at the beginning of the word and sufﬁx at the end – compare English ‘regular’ past tenses adding ‘-d’ or ‘-ed’ to the present stem (e. future. most verbs have either a ﬁrst or a second aorist: they are not alternative forms for the same verb. which still has the augment but it is added to a stem changed in some way – compare English ‘irregular’ past tenses (e. 46. ἐλθ. while the aorist has its own stem which is always different from the present stem. ἐθαύμασε τὸν ἄδικον λόγον.
2 ἐλθέ You have met this already (in fact. ‘slept’). Don’t they know that you did this job easily? ἆρ’ οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅτι σὺ/ὑμεῖς ἡδέως ταύτην τὴν γνώμην ἐδέξω/ἐδέξασθε. As you meet them. 124–126. She stopped looking at the stranger. 2.g. The endings are the same as those for the imperfect. The aorist tense in Greek is formed in one of two ways: 1. Here Socrates uses it for comic effect. make a list of these verbs with their principal parts (present. ὁ δίκαιος. This is the sort you have just learned. καίπερ σοϕὸς ὤν. Notice the word order in πῶς δ’ ἤκουσάς με ὡς σοϕός εἰμι. three of the most irregular past stems have been introduced).
11–16 The content is repeated from earlier in the chapter, but note the presence of second aorists – ἔδακε (second aorist of δάκνω), ἤρου (second aorist of ἐρωτάω), ἐλάβετε (second aorist of λαμβάνω), ἐγένετο (second aorist of γίγνομαι), and ἔθετε (aorist of τίθημι, a verb which you have not yet learned in detail). 18 εἶδον ἰδ- is the second aorist stem of ὁράω. 19–20 πόθεν ὢν τυγχάνεις ‘Where do you happen to come from?’ 27 ἐξευρίσκεις εὑρίσκω has perfect tense ηὕρηκα, familiar from Archimedes’ cry on discovering the principle of displacement. Second aorist stem εὑρ- is met in the next line. 29–30 ἔμαθον, ἔτυχε Second aorists respectively of μανθάνω, τυγχάνω.
Translation for 6C
The student goes away. Strepsiades calls Socrates.
STREPSIADES SOCRATES SRT. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR.
SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
Socrates! Dear little Socrates! Come here! Who called? Who forced his way into the thinkery of the sophists? I shouted, Strepsiades from the deme Kikynna. But I didn’t force my way into the thinkery. Why call’st thou me, Ο creature of the day? For what purpose have you come? I have come as a student into the thinkery. For I have already heard that you are wise. Tell me, who said that? How did you hear that I was wise? One of the students said this. What did the student say? Tell [me]. The student said that a ﬂea bit Chaerephon’s eyebrow. Then it jumped onto your head. You asked Chaerephon how many of its own feet the ﬂea leapt. You measured it thus: ﬁrst you took the ﬂea and put it into warm wax. When the wax became cold, the ﬂea had Persian slippers. Then you measured the distance. I have never seen anything so wise. You have never seen anything so wise? But where do you actually come from? Kikynna. You did not escape my notice being a rustic, and ignorant. Don’t blame me. But tell me, what are you doing in that basket, Socrates? I am walking on air and contemplating the sun. Why are you doing that from a basket and not from the ground? What are you discovering or learning, being in a basket? I never discovered meteoric phenomena nor learnt anything, looking from the ground. For the earth happened to prevent thought.
The second part of your verb chart should now look like this:
Irregular verbs present μανθάνω λαμβάνω γίγνομαι future μαθήσομαι λήψομαι γενήσομαι aorist ἔμαθον ἔλαβον ἐγενόμην
and you should also have added:
ἔρχομαι ὁράω εὑρίσκω εἶμι ὄψομαι εὑρήσω ἦλθον εἶδον ηὗρον
Remember to add other verbs with second aorists to the list as you meet them.
This section contains mainly further practice in second aorist stems: these have been given in vocabularies so (it is hoped) they should pose few problems.
3–5 4 6 7 10–12 12 πάσχεις … ἔπαθον The question–answer format may help to link these two. ἔλαθον Second aorist of λανθάνω, cf. λαμβάνω, ἔλαβον. λήψονται Irregular future of λαμβάνω. ἕτερον ‘one of two’. Cf. line 8 πότερον ‘which of two?’ τί δράσω ‘What shall I do?’ is answered by ὅ τι; ‘What?’ κατακλίνηθι An irregular imperative form. The -κλιν- (Latin clin-) stem may guide you towards the meaning ‘lie down’ (‘recline’), and the noun κλίνη is anticipated in the stage directions ‘couch’. λήσω Irregular future of λανθάνω. ἔχεις τι ‘Do you have something?’ meaning ‘Have you an idea/suggestion?’, but the literal translation is probably better to lead into the vulgarity which follows. γυναῖκα ϕαρμακίδα ‘a woman sorceress’, a ‘witch’ in the sense of a woman with supernatural powers. In ancient Greece the months were lunar, and interest was due at the start of the month when the moon rose. Thus no moon = no month = no interest due. In the original, Socrates is more impressed with Strepsiades’ reasoning than the abrupt termination to this chapter would suggest.
Translation for 6D
20 28 38 38–43
But, Socratikins, why don’t you come down? For I have come into the thinkery because, owing much money, I am in debt.
Exercises for section 6C–D
SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
But how did you become a debtor? How do you suffer this? I escaped my own notice having a horse-mad son. So I became a debtor. And I suffered this through horse-fever and my son. For my creditors always exact justice, and unless I do something they will always exact [justice]. So teach me one of your arguments. One of my arguments? Which do you mean? The greater or the lesser? I mean the unjust one, the lesser, the one stopping debts. For this argument will win lawsuits, the greater won’t. What shall I do? What? First lie down on the couch. Then think out some way out of your affairs. Alas for me! The bedbugs will exact their penalty today. You there, what are you doing? Aren’t you thinking? I? [Yes] by Poseidon. And what did you think? Whether I shall escape the bedbugs, which are biting me terribly. You are talking rubbish. But the fellow’s silent. What’s he doing? (He addresses Strepsiades.) You there, are you asleep? By Apollo, I am not. Do you have something? By Zeus, I haven’t. Nothing at all? I have my penis in my right hand. To hell with you! Don’t joke, fellow. Socratikins! What, old man? I have an idea. Tell [me] your idea. I shall take a witch woman and I shall steal the moon by night. What are you saying? You will steal the moon? Tell [me] – how is this useful? How? Listen. The creditors lend money by the month. So I will steal the moon. The moon will no longer rise. How then will the creditors take their money? To hell with you! You are a peasant and ignorant. I will not teach you any longer, since you are ignorant. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6C–D
THE SECOND AORIST 6C–D: 1
1. εἶπε(ν), εἶπον 2. ἔλαβε(ν), ἔλαβον 3. ἔμαθε(ν), ἔμαθον 4. ἦλθε(ν), ἦλθον
he, they spoke he, they took he, they learned he, they went
Revision exercises for section 6C–D
5. ἐγένετο, ἐγένοντο 6. ἔδραμε(ν), ἔδραμον 7. ηὗρε(ν), ηὗρον 8. εἶδε(ν), εἶδον 9. ἔτυχε(ν), ἔτυχον 10. ἔσχε(ν), ἔσχον
he, they became he, they ran he, they found he, they saw he, they happened to… he, they had
1. 2. 3. 4.
ἐγένοντο εἴδομεν ηὗρες ἔλαβε(ν)
5. 6. 7. 8.
ἤλθετε εἶπες ἔμαθον ἔδραμον
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6C–D
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
βιασα- ἐβιασάμην κλεψα- ἔκλεψα θαυμασα- ἐθαύμασα διδαξα- ἐδίδαξα δεξα- ἐδεξάμην ϕιλησα- ἐϕίλησα δηλωσα- ἐδήλωσα 2. μαθ- ἔμαθον ἐλθ- ἦλθον ἐξευρ- ἐξηῦρον διελθ- διῆλθον 3. I saw (ὁράω) I said (λέγω) I escaped notice (λανθάνω) I found (εὑρίσκω) I learned (μανθάνω) I went (ἔρχομαι) I became (γίγνομαι) I suffered (πάσχω)
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
The sailors said that the captain had ﬁnally learned the truth. ὁ μαθητὴς εἶπεν ὅτι ἐξηῦρεν ὁπόσον ἐστὶ/ἦν τὸ χωρίον. 2. The young men happen to be suffering terribly. ὁ γεωργὸς ἔτυχεν ἀμαθὴς ὤν. 3. The suppliants ran into the temple/shrine. ὁ γέρων ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὴν πόλιν.
Summary exercises for section 6
The women saw the moon. ὁ πατὴρ ἄδικος ἐγένετο. You (pl.) took the money because of your debts. οὐκ ἔλαθές με ἄγροικος ὤν.
SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
impossible power I am able I force forceful force I do drama I am amazed amazing wonder horse-mad I am mad madness horse horsey horsemanship I steal thief theft All in the right-hand column are diminutives. old man little old man child baby door little door house little house father daddy Socrates Socratikins Pheidippides Pheidippidikins
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
When the Persian army and ﬂeet approach (προσῆλθον), the Athenians quickly embark (εἰσέβαινον) on their ships and sail (ἔπλευσαν) towards Salamis. Then the Athenians and the other Greeks keep quiet (ἡσύχαζον). Finally the Persian ﬂeet arrives (ἀϕίκετο) and when night comes (ἐγένετο), the ships sail (ἔπλευσαν) slowly this way and that. And when day comes (ἐγένετο), the Persians approach (προσῆλθον) quickly for a sea-battle, the Greeks are at a loss (ἠπόρησαν) and afraid (ἐϕοβοῦντο). Finally they are no longer afraid (ἐϕοβοῦντο) but are daring (ἐτόλμων) and advance (ἐπῆλθον) against the barbarians. So they ﬁght (ἐμάχοντο) in good order and defeat (ἐνίκησαν) the barbarians. And Xerxes also ﬂees (ἔϕυγε). In this way the Greeks become (ἐγένοντο) free through their courage.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
γέρων δέ τις καὶ ὁ υἱός, νεανίας ὤν, διελέγοντο περὶ χρημάτων. ὁ δὲ νεανίας ἔτυχεν ὀϕείλων πολλὰ χρήματα. καὶ διὰ ταῦτα, οἱ χρῆσται οὐκ ἐπαύοντο διώκοντες τὸν πατέρα. ὁ δὲ πατὴρ οὐκ ἐκόλαζε τὸν υἱόν (ἡ γὰρ μήτηρ ἔπαυεν αὐτὸν κολάζοντα) ἀλλὰ διενοεῖτο μηχανήν/γνώμην δεινήν τινα. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ πατὴρ ἔπεισε τὸν υἱόν, ὁ νεανίας πειθόμενος ἦλθε πρὸς τοὺς σοϕιστὰς καὶ πολλὰ ἔμαθεν. οἱ γὰρ σοϕισταὶ ἀεὶ ἔπειθον αὐτόν, καὶ πολλὰ καὶ σοϕὰ
s. τέλος δὲ ὁ γέρων ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν. and the sophists taught him much. ἀλλὰ ἐμίσει. but since I am from the city he loves me particularly. So the father and mother converse. appear to be responsible for my troubles. acc. 3.
2. But don’t worry about it. acc. which is stronger. (b) genitive
(c) imperfect (f) future (c) m. the creditors pursued him and did not stop exacting their dues.
1. nom. ἀεὶ τὰς δίκας ἐνίκα. I will persuade and teach our son. nor did their son stop being horse-mad.
Hurrah hurrah! For now the creditors will not get their money any longer. He saw and heard many wise things. For my son will win the lawsuits through the unjust argument.
E – TEST EXERCISE 6
A young man happened to owe much money because of his horse-fever. ἀλλὰ ἐπεὶ ὁ υἱὸς ἐπανῆλθεν οἴκαδε. pl. except you? Now what shall I do? How shall I stop our debts? You are responsible. husband. When the son learnt the just and the unjust argument. For who took our son and talked to him about horses. So. Finally the young man went into the thinkery of the sophists and became a student. and we shall escape our creditors. the father said:
(a) aorist (d) present (g) aorist (a) m. except you? Who made our son horse-mad. the mother did not stop the young man. οὗτος οὖν ὁ υἱὸς μανθάνων ταχέως τὸν δίκαιον καὶ τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. the young man does not love you or obey you.Summary exercises for section 6
ἐδίδασκον καὶ πολλὰ χρήματα ἐδέχοντο. ἄγροικον ὄντα. and by persuading [him] I will stop [him] from his horse-madness.
. καὶ οὐκ ἐπαύετο παίζων πρὸς τὸν πατέρα. αὕτη ἡ γνώμη οὐκ ἔπαυε τὰ χρέα τὰ τοῦ πατρός. s. As you are ignorant and a yokel. For I have an idea. ὁ γὰρ νεανίας οὐκ ἐϕίλει τὸν πατέρα. (a) vocative
(b) imperfect (e) aorist (b) f. wife.
You. while the father was always defending the lawsuits of his creditors. But [despite] teaching and persuading.
In the ﬁrst (7A–C). GE p. In the second (7D–F) you will meet the typical style of the Platonic dialogue. You will ﬁnd the style of these passages. #162–166). and in the third (7G–H) you will meet the narrative style that Herodotus uses in his History. 4 διέβαλον. 10 ἀνάγκη ἐστί … See GE p. But once you adapt. 142–145. #150–152). ἐγένοντο Tense? 6 ϕανοῦμαι Tense? ὅτι οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἢ τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγειν βούλομαι ‘that I want to speak nothing other than the truth’. 3 οὐ βουλόμεθα διαβάλλειν σε ‘we don’t want to slander you’: βούλομαι + the inﬁnitive – a very common pattern. taken from Plato’s version of Socrates’ defence at his trial (see Introduction). although it is literally the indeﬁnite form of ποῦ ‘where?’
. rather different from the style you have met before.
7A–C Plato: Apology 20c–23b 7A
1 ἐρωτῶσιν οὖν τινες ‘some people ask. 135.Section Seven: Socrates and intellectual inquiry
This is another very important section which introduces some more extremely valuable grammar: inﬁnitives in 7A (GE pp. #153. you will ﬁnd some rhetorical features mixed with a discursive. almost colloquial style. εἰδέναι. you will enjoy the variation and will have acquired a new skill. ἰέναι. You may ﬁnd that it takes you a little while to get used to these changes of style and at ﬁrst the Greek may seem more difﬁcult. 134–135. therefore …’: a typical rhetorical device which allows the speaker to pose the question which he wants to answer. 11 που The particle means something like ‘I suppose’. Make sure that you read the ‘Introduction’ to each passage so that you understand the context. 8 εἰδέναι Learn carefully to distinguish the three inﬁnitives εἶναι. which are only slightly adapted from the original. 135. and then in 7D the aorist participle is introduced (GE pp. #152. reﬂecting a technical philosophical argument.
I happen to have this reputation on account of some kind of wisdom.’ ἐπειρώμην ‘I tried’: the imperfect of πειράομαι.
Translation for 7A
Some people therefore are asking ‘But. for perhaps I shall appear to be joking.
. He was my companion from childhood. #161. Lit. For there is great necessity for the god to speak the truth.’ Note the use of the participle. Accusative of duration of time. gentlemen of Athens. Listen then. ἔδοξέ γε σοϕὸς εἶναι. ‘That Socrates is wise. though. he asked whether there is anyone wiser than Socrates. and the Pythia answered that no one is wiser.: ‘I turned myself towards’. 9 πολιτικόν τινα ὄντα Agrees with τοῦτον τὸν σοϕόν and refers to him. This is a frequent plea by orators who are battling to be heard. You know Chaerephon. And indeed it is necessary for the god to speak the truth. 18 μὴ θορυβεῖτε The jurors are reacting unfavourably. 14–15 τί οὖv ποιεῖv με δεῖ ‘What is it necessary for me to do? ‘What must I do?’ 17 ᾔει What verb does this come from? See vocabulary and GE pp. then. ἠπόρουν What verb? What tense? ἐτραπόμην Second aorist middle of τρέπω. But I want to know if anyone is wiser than Socrates.136–138. why are these men slandering you? What do they have in mind? From where do these slanders arise and this reputation of yours? Speak. σοϕώτατος ‘wisest’.’ So Chaerephon went to Delphi and he obtained this oracle in the presence of the god. And know well that I do not want to joke with you.’ Therefore I want to explain to you and tell you why these men slandered me and from where the slanders and this reputation arose. οὐκ ὤν ‘He thought he was wise. For. ὦvδρες = ὦ ἄvδρες. in reality.138–139. indeed.Section 7B
14 σοϕώτερος ἤ … ‘wiser than …’ See GE p. and you know how impetuous Chaerephon was about everything. For the god at Delphi will bear witness to my wisdom. he was not. For we do not want to slander you.
1–2 λέγει … λέγων You may want to translate this as ‘What does the god mean when he says?’ 5 πολὺν μὲν χρόνον ‘for a long time’. gentlemen! For. I want to bring the god at Delphi. Do you want to know what this wisdom is? As witness. And Chaerephon once reasoned thus to himself. I suppose. 10 ᾤμην Tense? Verb? The vocabulary will tell you. #155–160 for comparison of adjectives. What then must I do? It is clear that I must go to Delphi and consult the oracle. I know well. Do not make a din. Socrates. For perhaps Socrates is the wisest of men. ‘He thought he was wise. We might say ‘who was a politician’. not being. but you must be assured (know well) that I wish to speak nothing but the truth. and explain to us.
at the same time. See p. considered himself to be wise.’ From there. though when he wasn’t’.
. For this man thinks that he knows something. So I went away from there thinking that I was wiser than the poets. 77. for it is not lawful for him. And. οὐδὲν εἰδώς ‘this man thinks he knows something. to myself. Apollo. though they had none. do not think that I know anything. but this man is wiser. though he knows nothing’. I went to the others who thought that they knew something. After this. though he knew nothing. ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄλλους τοὺς δοκοῦντάς τι εἰδέναι Cf. Therefore I went to a wise man (at least he thought he was wise). Cf. I reasoned that ‘I am wiser than this man. I reasoned in this way to myself: ‘What does the god wish to say? For I know that I am not wise. who was a politician. line 13. And I am ashamed to tell the truth. he and many of those present began to hate me.’ And for a long time I was at a loss to know what he meant. but they do not know what these words mean. note on 6C line 8. For I wanted to test the oracle and to show that ‘You. For indeed they say many beautiful things. but I. lines 10 and 11. So. though he was not. And when I tried to show him that he considered himself to be wise. if you are stuck. It is necessary for the god to speak nothing but the truth. but by instinct and inspiration.86
10–11 ἀποϕαίνειν αὐτὸν δοκοῦντα σοϕὸν εἶναι. What then does the god mean when he says that I am the wisest and that no one is wiser? It cannot be that he is lying. though he was not. though they were not. by the dog. I went to the poets. And the man. note on 7A line 17. said that I was the wisest. οὐκ ὄντα ‘to show him that he thought he was wise. those who thought that they knew something were more foolish. line 11.’ Therefore I spoke with this wise man. and then I turned to a search [to ﬁnd out] whether the god was speaking the truth or not. through their poetry. εἰδώς -οτος This is the participle of οἶδα. 23 ἀπῇα What verb? What tense?
Translation for 7B
When I heard this. while those who thought they knew nothing were wiser. 12–13 οὗτος δοκεῖ τι εἰδέναι. As a result of this (from this) that man and others of those present hated me. like the prophets and soothsayers. gentlemen. as I thought. I went to another wise man and he too thought that he knew something. Cf. which can be difﬁcult for speakers of English. and they thought they were the wisest of men. And. though he knows nothing. the poets thought that they had knowledge. 11 πολλοὶ τῶν παρόντων ‘many of those present’. For the poets do not make up their poems by wisdom. but nevertheless I must tell it.’ This is a very common pattern of word order in Greek. For I did not want to be in doubt about the oracle. though I know nothing. For after the politicians. 21–22 τοὺς δὲ λόγους τούτους οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅ τι νοοῦσιν ‘they do not know these words what they mean’ – ‘they do not know what these words mean. as I thought. 16 ᾖα Cf.
Do not forget to learn εἶναι. Therefore.sometimes simply adds emphasis. 9–10 εὑρίσκουσι πολὺ πλήθος τῶν δοκούντων μέν τι εἰδέναι. knowing many things the craftsmen were wiser than I. moreover. they discover a great number of those who consider that they know something. ἰέναι. Such was the experience which both the poets and the craftsmen were clearly experiencing.
. to tell the truth. εἰδότων δ’ ὀλίγα ἢ οὐδέν ‘They ﬁnd a large number of those who …’ Note μέν … δέ making the contrast between what people think they know. and what they actually know. they say that. GE p. who are wealthy and have most leisure. #159. like the other sophists. For young men are arrogant and very much enjoy examining their elders. those who think that they know something become angry and say that ‘Socrates is a most disgraceful person and corrupts the young men. 17 κατάδηλοι ‘obvious’ – the preﬁx κατα. and my reputation. as I think. in fact. but know little or nothing. in the course of examining them. though they were not. ‘they can say nothing’.’ But I want to ask ‘How does Socrates corrupt the young men? What does he do or what does he teach to corrupt them?’ And they have nothing to say. enjoy listening to my words and often try to examine others in the way that I do. #152 and the past tense of εἶμι ‘I shall go’. they considered that because of their skill/art they were the wisest in many other respects. which are serious. when.139. For they do not wish. that they have been revealed as thinking that they know something. arose the slanders against me. For I knew that I knew nothing and that the craftsmen knew many beautiful things. εἰδέναι. as a result of this. but not wishing to seem to be at a loss. τοιοῦτον πάθος is the object of πάσχοντες: ‘such was the experience they seemed to be experiencing’. they know nothing. 13–14 ἔχουσι μὲν οὐδὲν λέγειν ἐκεῖνοι ‘they have nothing to say’. And. But. Therefore. the young men. From this search. GE p. 135. #161. Socrates teaches ‘the things in the air and the things beneath the earth’ and ‘not to believe in the gods’ and ‘to make the weaker argument the stronger’. gentlemen of Athens.Section 7C
4 τοιοῦτον πάθος ἐϕαίνοντο οἱ ποιηταί πάσχοντες ‘such an experience the poets seemed to be suffering’.
Translation for 7C
Finally I went to the craftsmen (artists). Note also the irregular comparative forms. And. GE p. as I thought. as I think.
πλεῖσται νῆες more ships. 9. 11. βούλομαι ἰέναι 2. 2. ἀρίστης θεᾶς of the better. most hostile sailor τοὺς βεβαιοτέρους. βούλονται πιστεύειν 3. 6. πολεμιώτατον ναύτην the more hostile. greatest kings τὰς κακίονας. ἀρίστην θεάν the better. βεβαιοτάτους λιμένας the safer. 3. 8. 15. most beautiful city ἡ δηλoτέρα.
παρεῖναι νομίζειν ἰέναι κλέπτειν ἀπιέναι βιάζεσθαι
13. τῶν βεβαιοτέρων.
διαβάλλειν εὑρίσκειν πειρᾶσθαι εἰδέναι δηλοῦν λογίζεσθαι
7. κάκιστας γυναῖκας the more wicked.
. the worst women τὸ κάλλιον. τῆς ἀμείνονος.
θαυμάζειν πείθεσθαι δέχεσθαι ποιεῖν μανθάνειν λαμβάνειν
Exercises for section 7A–C
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7A–C
PRESENT INFINITIVE 7A–C: 1
1. 14. 6. best goddess αἱ πλείονες. 17. most hostile sailor 2. 3. 4.
τόν πολεμιώτερον. safest harbours 3. ‘the huge majority of’) οἱ μείζονες. 12. 2. most ships (αἱ technically makes this ‘the great majority of’. τὸν Σωκράτη δεῖ διδάσκειν 7. 16. most obvious lawlessness
τῷ πολεμιωτέρῳ. πολεμιωτάτῳ ναύτῃ to. ἀνάγκη ἐστὶν ἀπιέναι 8. δηλοτάτη ἀνομία the clearer. safest harbours τὴν ἀμείνονα. 10. βεβαιοτάτων λιμένων of the safer. 18. κάλλιστον ἄστυ the more beautiful. 7. φαίνεται νομίζειν 4. μέγιστοι βασιλῆς the greater. δεῖ με. 8. for the more hostile. ἡμᾶς. ὑμᾶς παρεῖναι 6. best goddess
1. ὑμῖν ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ μανθάνειν
COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE OF ADJECTIVES 7A–C: 3
1. φαίνονται διαβάλλειν
d. a. 2. Σωκράτης ἐβούλετο εὑρίσκειν πότερον τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγει ὁ ἐν Δελϕοῖς θεὸς ἢ οὔ. ἀλλ᾽ εἶναι. τοῦ καλλίονος.
1. The wise men seem to know something. εὑρίσκειν 3. εἰδέναι 1b. Socrates wanted to discover whether the god in Delphi was telling the truth or not. 6. And Socrates often tried to show that the god was not telling the truth. ἦσαν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7A–C
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1a. f. 4. διαβάλλειν 7. b. δεῖ ὑμᾶς τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγειν. Socrates. ἰέναι 4. We do not want to seem the best. λέγειv 6. διαλέγεσθαι 10. εἶναι 5. c. for the worse. It was necessary for Socrates to go to the wise men and talk about wisdom [with them]. ἀποϕαίνειν 9. as I see it.
PAST OF εἶμι I SHALL GO 7A–C: 5
4. οὐ πειρᾶται διαϕθείρειν τοὺς νέους.
ᾖμεν ἦμεν ἴασι(ν) ἐστί(ν) ᾔει εἶσι(ν)
7. καὶ μὴ διαβάλλειν Σωκράτη. but to be the best. ᾔεισθα 11. δοκεῖν 8. and not slander Socrates. κακίστῃ γυναικί to. εἰσί(ν) 8. You must tell the truth. oὐ βουλόμεθα δοκεῖν ἄριστοι.Revision exercises for section 7A–C
τοῖς μείζοσι. greatest kings 5. oἱ σοϕοὶ δοκοῦσί τι εἰδέναι. οὐκ εἰδότες. μεγίστοις βασιλεῦσι to. worst woman 6. most beautiful city. 5. Σωκράτης. τῇ κακίονι. ἀνάγκη ἦν Σωκράτη ἰέναι πρὸς τοὺς σοϕοὺς καὶ διαλέγεσθαι περὶ σοϕίας. although they do not. ὡς ἐγὼ οἶμαι. 3. διαϕθείρειν 2. ᾖτε 10. καὶ πολλάκις ἐπειρᾶτο Σωκράτης δηλοῦν τὸν θεὸν οὐ τἀληθῆ λέγοντα. ἦμεν 9. 1. ἐσμέν 12. καλλίστου ἄστεως of the more beautiful. e. is not trying to corrupt the young men. for the greater.
ἀγαθός ἀμείνων ἄριστος βέβαιος βεβαιότερος βεβαιότατος δεινός δεινότερος δεινότατος κακός κακίων κάκιστος καλός καλλίων κάλλιστος μέγας μείζων μέγιστος μῶρος μωρότερος μωρότατος πολέμιος πολεμιώτερος πολεμιώτατος πολύς πλείων πλεῖστος ϕίλος ϕίλτερος ϕίλτατος χρήσιμος χρησιμώτερος χρησιμώτατος
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. Kleinias. act. ὦ Kλεινία.. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν ἐδόκουν τοὺς νέους διαϕθείρειν. #162. GE pp. You seem to be stupid. καίπερ οὐδὲν εἰδώς. οἶσθα/ἴστε ὅτι ἐβούλου/ἐβουλόμεθα διαβάλλειν ἐμέ. ‘well all right then’. We must make sacriﬁces and pray to the gods. and having listened …’
The farmers must go to the city. aor. We know that the king wanted to punish the herald. Note the ‘echo’ effect: ἄκουε οὖν. 142–145. #162–166. s. and the aorist participle. or not?’ 7 ἦ δ᾽ ὅς ‘he said’
8 εἶεv ‘so be it’. ‘or not?’ In Platonic dialogue most questions are asked in the form ‘Is X true. 3. πειρῶμαι εὑρίσκειν ὅπως οἱ ποιηταὶ τὴν σοϕίαν ἀποϕαίνουσιν. ἔδει με πρὸς τοὺς ποιητὰς ἰέναι. although you are a teacher.90
2. Note that the aorist participle is formed from the aorist stem. 5. Another very common feature of dialogue style. δεῖ σε ἐξετάζειν ἐμὲ καὶ ἀκριβῶς σκοπεῖν.
7D–F Plato: Euthydemos 275–277c
Here you meet the dialogue style of Plato. GE p. The women are trying to watch the play.142.
5 ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ ‘I said’ these phrases only occur in direct speech and are very common in Platonic dialogue 6 ἢ οὔ. masc. 17 ἀκούσας Nom. 4. ἀκούσας δέ … ‘Listen then.
146. and GE p. Kleinias. Kleinias. And being at a loss he looked at me and blushed. have a reputation for turning people to philosophy and virtue or not?’ ‘We certainly seem to. For it is by speaking and questioning that a sophist turns his students to virtue. line 6. ᾖσμεν Cf. Socrates’.’ Kleinias said: ‘I will do this and answer. And you know that both these men have a good reputation.’ I did not answer. ἀμαθεῖς You can work out the meaning from μανθάνω and then make it negative with ἀ-. For I enjoy answering. turning men to philosophy.’ And at this moment Dionysodoros laughed and with a laugh said: ‘Indeed I know very well that Euthydemos will defeat him in discussion. Speak then. πότεροι … ἤ … A double question. thus ἀ-μαθεῖς. ‘So be it’. but answer boldly. I said. ἀποκρίνομαι. 11 πάνυ γε ‘certainly’. and answer when you have listened. he said. seeing him blush. I said: ‘Do you. Dionysodoros. ᾖστε What verb does this come from? See vocab. ‘the fact is that. But why don’t you question the young man closely. wanting to hear their arguments. ‘are they … or …?’ … ἠπόρησεν. line 17.’ And Euthydemos said: ‘Tell me then. Euthydemos.
. talking here in front of us?’ Euthydemos immediately answered boldly: ‘We are certainly willing to talk here.Section 7E
18 21 23 27
ἀποκρινοῦμαι Tense? Cf. For his friends often go to him.. ‘Then you must turn this young man to philosophy and virtue. Kleinias happened to answer that the people who learn are the clever people. and question me.’ ‘But’. and I found Euthydemos and Dionysodoros conversing with many others. He is young. … ἐγέλασεν. ἀπορήσας δ᾽ … Cf. and don’t be afraid. For while Dionysodoros was saying this. said: ‘Don’t worry.
3 6 7 10 ὡμολόγει ‘he agreed’. Therefore. #167. They call him Kleinias. ὁμολογέω is another common word in Plato. I. asking questions and discussing. enjoys answering. lines 17 and 23. Socrates. Kriton. the clever or the ignorant?’ And the young man – for it really was a big question – was at a loss. But the young man must answer.’ And Euthydemos said: ‘Listen then. which people learn. I said. γελάσας δέ … Cf. and they always question him closely while he is speaking and answering.
Translation for 7D
Yesterday I went to the Lyceum.
the past tense of οἶδα (see GE p. if you were not clever. indeed. he said: ‘What then. 2–3 ἐξεδέξατo … ἐκδεξάμενος δὲ … Aor. were you pupils?’ He agreed they were. but not the ignorant. ‘Then it is the clever who learn. ‘I said’ (GE pp. when you were pupils you knew nothing. by Zeus! For since we were pupils we knew nothing.’ ‘So then.
. 7 ἄρα Climax again. having received it. #168). Kleinias? Let’s suppose the teacher speaks some words. and. 146. Kleinias. praised this cleverness. ‘And when you were pupils. the teacher. aor. were silent.
Translation for 7F
So said Euthydemos.’ said Kleinias. σϕαῖρα = ‘sphere’. Who learns these words. indic… . mid. falling into perplexity. immediately praised this cleverness. part… . said Kleinias. when you knew nothing?’ ‘No. 146–147. ‘Then it is the ignorant who learn. the clever or the ignorant?’ ‘The clever. but not the clever. you knew nothing yet?’ ‘No. as you believe. The students. and you did not answer well just now.
Do not forget to learn ᾔδη. ‘And when the teacher was teaching you as children. 4–5 πότεροι … ἤ … ‘are they … or …?’: a double question. making a din and laughing at the same time. And Dionysodoros at once caught up the argument.92
12 ἄρα This particle shows that you are reaching the climax of the argument – see also in line 14. like a ball. mid. ὥσπερ σϕαῖραν ‘just like a ball’. #167). we were certainly not clever since we knew nothing’. were you ignorant?’ ‘Certainly. but being ignorant you were learning?’ The young man agreed.’ ‘Were you then clever.’
2 ἐπῄνεσαν From ἐπ-αινέω. But we. laughing vigorously and making a din.’ At this point the students. ἔϕην ‘I say’.
Translation for 7E
And Euthydemos said: ‘But who teaches those who learn. or someone else?’ He agreed that the teacher teaches those who learn. and ϕημί. ‘Therefore.
Revision exercises for section 7D–F
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7D–F
AORIST PARTICIPLES 7D–F: 1
1. 5. 9.
m. 10. 2. Achilles burned with passion. m. m. 3. 10. φησίν 9. nom. ποιήσας βοηθήσας ἀπορήσας 4. (b) While he gazed at Penthesilea. 2. 9. nom. Achilles burned with passion. f. 5. 7. pl. ᾖσαν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7D–F
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. 3. 3. m. 2. ἔφατε 10. 4. οἶσθα
6. s. pl. 4.
m. 1. ἔφη 7. 5. acc. f. ἴσμεν 2. pl. 4. 5. acc.
βλέψασαν θαυμάσας τρεψάμενον διωξάσας ποιήσαντες
βιασάμενοι κολάσαντας μισήσασα δουλωσαμένους δεξαμένη
(a) With one look at Penthesilea. f. m. 7. s.
βλέπω δηλόω πείθω βοάω τρέπομαι
1. and φημί I say 7D–F: 4
1. ᾔδη 8. nom. 8. 8.
ᾖδη I knew. nom. s. 2. ἐλευθερώσας τολμήσας θεασάμενος βλέψας φροντίσας ῥίψας σώσας παυσάμενος 6. 10. ᾔδεσαν. 1. nom. ᾔδει 4. 3. m. 8. pl. nom. s. 4. φαμέν 5. 9. δεξάμενος βιασάμενος λογισάμενος μαχεσάμενος ἀποκρινάμενος
. 6. pl. acc. 7. s. acc. ἔφασαν 3.
παύω λύω ζητέω ζητέω δέχομαι
ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ. ‘and my friends went there too. ‘when the plague fell upon the city and destroyed it. ‘does a philosopher who says that we must not praise all the opinions of men speak the truth? What do you say? Do you think he is speaking the truth (lit. ‘question [me] carefully. does he seem to you to speak the truth) in saying this. ‘εὐθύς αὐτούς.’ he said.’ said Socrates. shall obey. ‘and if you have anything to object. ὁ Διονυσόδωρος γελῶν/γελάσας τὸν λόγον ἐξεδέξατο. where did you go.’ ‘The truth. ὁ διδάσκαλος ἀποκρινόμενος εἶπεν ὅτι ἀρετή τις ἐστὶv ἡ ϕιλοσοϕία. c.’ I said. and I.’ said Socrates. ‘So we shouldn’t praise and respect the opinions of the many about the plague. it was necessary) I said. and to no one else?’ ‘I did. being more skilled than the others. ὁ σοϕιστής. ἀποροῦντες βλέψας ἀκούσαντες γελῶν ἐκδεξαμένη ἀποκρινόμενος
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. The suppliants hurried to the shrine and prayed to the gods. e. but not bad ones?’ I agreed.
E – TEST EXERCISE 7D–F
‘You. laughed. ἐπαινέσας αὐτοὺς ‘προτρέπετε’.’ I said. 3. and I shall reply. Socrates.94
Revision exercises for section 7D–F
The students said in answer that lawlessness is not just.’ ‘You seem to speak well.’ (lit. or not? Answer. but that of any skilled doctor who happens to be [available].’ said Socrates. the woman was silent. f.’ I said. b. ‘So did you have to go to the doctor.’ ‘Consider then. a. Do we agree so or not?’ ‘We do by Zeus. 5. ὡμολόγησεν.
2. ἀπορήσας ὁ μαθητὴς ἐπειρᾶτο ϕεύγειν. for my part. d.᾽ Having stolen the money the young man shouted loudly. then. make your objection. 4.’ I said. With a glance at me. to your friends or to the doctor?’ ‘I went to the doctor. πρὸς ἐμὲ βλέψας. Socrates. ‘Come then. hearing the argument. ‘as I think.’ ‘The doctor seemed to be most skilled. For the doctor knew about the plague. ‘So should we praise and honour good opinions.’ ‘Well then.’ I said.
7G–H Herodotus: Histories 4.
1 εἰσπεσόντες Nom. participle of περίειμι ‘I survive’. 12 ἀνελόντες What verb is this from? ἀν-αιρέω. but the syntax will usually follow the sequence of events. the Amazons
Now we change to Herodotus and the narrative style. with a series of participles leading on to the ﬁnal event in the main verb. λαβόντες δ’ αὐτάς Note the ‘echo’ effect. the aorist participle is γνοῦς γνόντος. and aor. / main verb).Section 7G
1. ἀπέκτειναν line 5. #169–171: e. fem. λαβών aorist participle. therefore the participle is ἰδών.
5 ἰδοῦσαι εἶδov (second aorist of ὁράω) drops the augment to give the stem ἰδ-. part. 13 γνόντες From γιγνώσκω.
(b) future indicative (d) imperfect indicative (b) acc. 10–12 Note the structure: οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι / οὐ γιγνώσκοντες τὴν ϕωνὴν / καὶ ἄνδρας νομίζοντες τὰς Ἀμαζόνας / ἐμπεσόντες καὶ μαχεσάμενοι / τοὺς νεκροὺς ἀνεῖλον (subject / pres. / pres. pl. λαμβάνων present participle. the Greeks preferred to have only one main verb and to say ‘having attacked them. acc. ἔλαβον. Aorist participles are frequent. 153. You will often ﬁnd that the sentences are longer. second aorist ἔγνων. see GE p. Cf. (c) acc. part. Note: participle … participle … main verb.g. 153–155. pl. 2–3 τὰς ἐκ τῆς μάχης περιούσας περιούσας agrees with τὰς Ἀμαζόνας and is the acc. they fought them’.
. part. second aorist εἷλον. 2. stem ἑλ-. 8–9 ἀϕικόμεναι … ἀποβᾶσαι Remember that the Amazons are feminine. #172–173.110–116. part. (e) m. GE pp. of εἰσπίπτω (second aor. ἰδόν. 151–152. 2 αὐτάς ‘them’. 6 ἀποκτείνασαι Cf. 7D lines 17 and 23 and 7F lines 2–3. masc. (f) s. aor. The second aorist participle has the same endings as the present participle. ἐξ αὐτῶν ‘from them’.
(a) present indicative (c) imperfect indicative (a) acc. for where in English we would write ‘they attacked them and fought them’.. but has the aorist stem. There are other uses and meanings (GE pp. / aor. #174–176) which will be gradually introduced. ἰδοῦσα. ἔπεσον). (d) nom. part.
And the Amazons. on taking up the corpses. 15 εἵποντο What verb? What had they been told to do? 16 ἀπῆλθον … ἀπελθοῦσαι The pattern as before. however. the young men followed [them] and made camp. they found a herd of horses. seeing that the men were not guarding [them]. 4 τὸ αὐτό ‘the same thing’. they discovered that they were women. coming near. having killed the men. the Amazons became quiet.
Translation for 7G
When the Greeks came upon the Amazons and were ﬁghting them. emphatic. They did not. and the men ﬂed. not knowing the language. But the Scythians. Be careful to distinguish between αὐτόν ‘him’ and ἑαυτόν (or αὑτόν) reﬂexive ‘himself’.96
14 τοὺς ἑαυτῶν νεανίσκους ‘their own young men’ (lit. they went away in three ships. Finally having arrived at the land of the Scythians and having disembarked from the ships. but on going away they saw the men following. they defeated them in the battle. and so. So the Amazons gave chase. they sailed where the wind carried [them]. then. they captured the Amazons who survived the battle. having learned that the men were not hostile. 8 ἐποίουν τὸ αὐτὸ καὶ αὐτοί Cf. Dative of time when. having attacked and fought) took up the corpses. See GE pp. In this way. So. And having captured them. 153–155. ordering them not to ﬁght. they sent their own young men to them. ἕπεσθαι Note the rough breathing. But the Amazons were not experienced in seafaring. and not wanting to kill [them] any more. attacked and having fought a battle (lit. Seeing the men ﬂeeing. the young men of themselves). agrees with the subject: ‘coming himself …’ 6 τὴν Ἀμαζόνα αὐτήν ‘the Amazon herself’ (emphatic). #172–176 for the different uses of αὐτός.
3 εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ χωρίον ‘to the same place’. For while they were on the sea they did not guard the Amazons. Having discovered this. then. arrive at their native land. and thinking the Amazons were men. And ﬁrst the Amazons went away. αὐτός preceded by the article always means ‘the same’. ἄξει What tense? What verb? 5 τῇ δ’ ὑστεραίᾳ ‘on the next day’. And having defeated them. but to have children by them. αὐτός ‘himself’. and taking the horses they laid waste the land of the Scythians. lines 4 and 5 ‘they did the same thing themselves also’. killed [them].
. they did not worry about them any longer. Thus. It is from ἕπομαι ‘I follow’. but to follow and to make camp near the Amazons.
The two young men.’ But they said to this: ‘We cannot live with your women. did the same thing themselves also. but by means of a sign she ordered the young man to come to the same place on the next day and to bring another young man. But if you want to have us as your wives.
. For our customs and the Scythians’ customs are not the same. on coming across an Amazon who was alone. on ﬁnding the Amazons and having had intercourse with them. So having got up and left. bringing another young man. After this the Scythians and the Amazons began to live together. For we use bows and arrows and ride horses. why don’t we get up and go off from this land and. 156. on coming himself to the same place.preposition. and make sure that you understand GE pp. then.
Don’t forget to learn δύναμαι. giving a sign that she herself would do the same thing and would bring another Amazon.e. And she was not able to speak [his language]. therefore the stem is οἰκ. augmented or). But if you want to have us as your wives. live there?’ And the young men obeyed these things too. on obtaining their portion of the possessions. So the Amazons said to them: ‘But a great fear holds us.from οἰκέω. Why. The men could not learn the language of the Amazons. staying in the wagons and not using bows and arrows or riding horses. For we cannot live in this region. and on the next day. but the women learned that of the Scythians. and then come back and live with us.Section 7H
9 συνῴκουν If you cannot identify it. 153–155. they inhabited it. and we have not learned women’s tasks.’ 18–19 δεῖ ὑμᾶς There are two sets of actions which they must perform: (i) ἐλθόντας … μέρος and (ii) καὶ ἔπειτα … ἡμῶν. But your women do none of these things. αὐτός / ἑαυτόν / ὁ αὐτός. came back again to the Amazons. crossing the river Tanais. he found the Amazon herself who had brought another Amazon. And the Amazon did not prevent [him]. 14–15 οὐ γὰρ oἱ αὐτοὶ οἵ τε ἡμέτεροι νόμοι καὶ oἱ τῶν Σκυθῶν ‘For our customs and the Scythians’ customs are not the same (oἱ αὐτοί). -ῳ. But the rest of the young men. don’t we go away to our people? We shall have you as our wives and no others. try taking it apart: συν.
Translation for 7H
So then a young man. you must go to your parents and obtain [your] portion of the possessions. immediately had intercourse with her. GE p.= ε + οι (i. and having arrived at the place. And the young man went away and told this to the others. #177. At last the young men said to them: ‘We have parents and possessions. on learning what had happened. but do women’s tasks. So the young men. having laid waste the land. they convinced the young men.’ Having said these things. #172–176. went away.
The Amazons came across the young men and conversed with them. 4. οἱ γενόμενοι 6. 2. εἷλov ἑλών ἀϕικόμην ἀϕικόμενος 9. I myself saw the same man 6. οἱ αὐτοὶ νόμοι 8. a. 2. 3. τὸν αὐτὸν ἄνδρα 2.98
Revision exercises for section 7G–H
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7G–H
SECOND AORIST PARTICIPLES 7G–H: 1
1. τοῖς γενομένοις 7. I saw him 3. αἱ ἰδοῦσαι
5. ἔπεσον πεσών ἦλθον ἐλθών The young men went away and said these things to the rest. τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτήν 7. 4. τὰς ἀφικομένας 7. He himself did the same thing
1. τὸν λαβόντα 2. αὐτοὶ ἀφίκοντο 6. 5. I myself saw the same man 7. ἀπελθόντες b. I saw the man himself 4. εἶδεν αὐτό
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7G–H
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
τῷ μαθόντι τῆς τυχούσης ταῖς δραμούσαις τοῦ ἀφικομένου
5. ἔλαβεν αὐτόν
5. αὐτὴ ἦλθεν 4. τῇ εἰπούσῃ/λεξάσῃ 6. καταλαβοῦσαι c. He himself saw him (someone else) 8. τὴν μαθοῦσαν 4.
2. τῷ εὑρόντι 8. I myself saw the man himself
5. τοὺς ἐλθόντας 3. ἆρ’ εἶδες αὐτάς; 3. The young man saw the Amazon and went towards her. I saw the man 2. τοῦ λαβόντος
ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS: αὐτός-ή-όν 7G–H: 3
1. ηὗρον εὑρών εἶδov ἰδών 8. τὸ πεσόν 8. ἔλαβον λαβών ἔμαθον μαθών 7.
. ἡ ἑλοῦσα
ἐγένομην γενόμενος 6.
were amazed. I compel I laugh. laughter. After this the boy ran into the house and looked for his father. αὐτάς. οἱ ἄνδρες ἀνελόντες τοὺς τῶν γυναικῶν νεκροὺς ἀπῆλθον. The Scythians ﬁnd the Amazons and come closer. αὐτούς τοὺς νεανίας i. seeing the old man. The young men came closer and pitched camp. the agreement I try. τὴν αὐτήν e. περὶ τὰ αὐτά g. the crossing I destroy. the destruction I am able. force/power I praise. αὐτός h. having picked up the corpses and found them to be women. oἱ νεανίαι ἐθαύμασαν. the young men wanted to learn. On discovering the men. the praise a possession. ϕίλοι γενόμενοι. αὐτός f. went away. 3. the women stopped worrying. 5. SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
1. necessary. the sailor laughed εὑρόντες ταύτας τὰς γυναῖκας. the reasoning I agree. laughable I cross.
1. the guard (person). powerful. αὐτή d. Having become pupils. the (act of) possessing I reason.Summary exercises for section 7
3. the guard (act of guarding). ὁ αὐτός c. ἀϕικόμενοι f. 2.
d. αὐτούς b. oἱ νεανίαι δύνανται διαλέγεσθαι πρὸς ἐκείνας τὰς γυναῖκας. ταῦτα εἰποῦσαι αἱ γυναῖκες ἔπεισαν τοὺς νεανίας. The Scythians. I possess. unguarded
. εὑρόντες e. Saying this/with these words. necessity. 4. ἀvελόντες. αὐτούς
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
The women. διὰ δὲ ταῦτα oἱ νεανίαι πρὸς τὰς οἰκίας ἐπανελθόντες τὰ κτήματα ἔλαβον. the attempt I guard. μαθόντες a.
‘For’. So they ordered their young men never to ﬁght. σοϕός wise. taking their possessions and crossing the river. and becoming friendly [with her]. ‘οὐ βουλόμεθα οἰκεῖν. σοϕία wisdom. ἀλλὰ ἔδει τούς τε νεανίας καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας διὰ τὸν ποταμὸν διαβαίνειν καὶ ἄλλην τινὰ χώραν οἰκεῖν. and. μάχη battle.
(a) aorist (e) present (a) imperfect
(b) aorist (f) aorist (b) aorist
(c) present (c) imperfect
(d) aorist (d) aorist
.’ So. and falling on the land they laid it waste. they said. μάχομαι I ﬁght. οἰκία house. ἀληθής true. ϕάσμα apparition. αἱ δ᾽ Ἀμαζόνες ταῦτα ἰδοῦσαι αὐταὶ ἡσύχαζον. So the others obeyed. The Amazons. Then a Scythian. οἰκέω I live. νέος young. advised the others to do the same. and taking up their corpses and ﬁnding them to be women. ἀλήθεια truth. διαβάλλω I slander. λογίζομαι I reason. ἡδέως with pleasure. on seeing them following close by but not ﬁghting. διαβολή slander. ἀϕικόμεναι δὲ καὶ ἵππους εὑροῦσαι πρὸς τοὺς Σκύθας ἐμαχέσαντο. to become friends. δοκέω I seem. they found a land near by and lived in it. τέλος δὲ ϕίλοι γενόμενοι συνῴκησαν ἀλλήλοις.
1. coming across an Amazon who was on her own.100
Summary exercises for section 7
2. οἱ οὖν νεάνιαι πλησίον ἑπόμενοι οὐκ ἐμαχέσαντο. The Scythians defeated them in battle. ‘τὴν γὰρ ὑμετέραν γῆν’. and they sent them towards the Amazons. οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι αὐτὰς νικήσαντές τε καὶ περὶ αὐτῶν γνόντες ϕίλοι γίγνεσθαι ἐβούλοντο. if they came on any Amazons. δόξα reputation
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
αἱ δ’ Ἀμαζόνες τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἀποκτείνασαι πρὸς τὴν τῶν Σκυθῶν γῆν ἀϕίκοντο. For our customs and those of the Scythians are not the same. and eventually the Scythians and the Amazons began to live together. but to go closer and become friends. λόγος word. ἀποϕαίνω I reveal. ἐπειδὴ ἀϕικόμεναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐμαχεσάμεθα. ‘we cannot live with your women. But the Amazons did not wish to go back to the mass of the Scythians. ϕαίνομαι I appear. 2. wanted to have children by them. νεανίας young man. ἔϕασαν αἱ Ἀμαζόνες.’
E – TEST EXERCISE 7
Some Amazons arrived in the land of the Scythians and disembarked from their boats. ἥδομαι I have pleasure. no longer worried about them. argument.
86.Section Eight: Aristophanes’ Birds
Now we return to Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode. ‘Who are you to take hold of…?’ 13 τυγχάνω + participle ‘happen to be …’ 19 ὑμῶν ἕνεκα ἕνεκα follows the word it governs.
1 Look for the subject and the two aorist participles before you go on to the main verb. κατ-. 167–169. #181–182) as well as the optative mood (GE pp. the ‘being’ verb does not. is deeply serious. This section introduces the genitive case formally. You have already met it frequently. The genitive is used because he takes hold of part of his tunic (not the whole thing). 20 περιμενοῦμεν Tense? Cf. 21 φθάνω + participle ‘to do something before someone else’. κατιδών If you remove the preﬁx. you should be able to recognise the verb. 160–161. but the meaning should be clear. The ‘going’ verb has an iota. See GE p. #117. ἰδ is the stem of the second aorist εἶδoν. however amusingly expressed. and to an episode based on another play of Aristophanes. The social comment.
11 τίς ὢν σύ … Note the idiomatic use of the participle. This is called a partitive genitive. 104. 163–165. #95. #180). but now all forms of it are laid out (GE pp. You will need to supply verbs in English. where he escapes into fantasy from the bitter realities of life in Athens during the Peloponnesian War. 4 ἀπιόντα Remember the difference between ὤν (‘being’) and ἰών (‘going’). 3–4 καθορᾷ …. 8 λαμβάνεται τοῦ ἱματίου He takes hold of his tunic. You will also meet other forms of the comparative (GE pp. 23 ποῖ δὴ καὶ πόθεν. #183–186).
. #178–179) and the main uses are listed (GE pp. καθ-. περιμένομεν: which is future and which is present and how can you tell? See GE p. 165–167.
the son of Polemarchus. Cf. He gets there before Peisetairos and taking Dikaiopolis’ hand he greets him. κύριος is a word with a wide range of meanings. my good fellow? SL. he is coming up behind.102
25 κυρία ἐκκλησία There was a ‘sovereign’ assembly once a month unless additional emergency ones were needed. but you may want to start making a chart to ﬁll in. or ‘trouble-free’.
. Here he is. and why are you holding my tunic. 31 ἂν ἀκούοιμι Another one. having observed the lawlessness of the Eleven and having heard the words of the suppliant. and the word is also used in the New Testament for Jesus Christ. goes away through the crowd of citizens towards the agora with the rhapsode. 30 λέγοιτ᾿ ἄν This is a new mood. But wait! DIK. DIK. It is called the potential optative. the son of Stilbonides. I was the cause of the shouting. ἀπράγμονα ἀ-πράγμων = ‘not busy’ or more often ‘not meddlesome’. Who are you. Wait. Dikaiopolis. But where is he? SL. Peisetairos. greets you. Joke! Cf.
Translation for 8A
Dikaiopolis. πράττω and πρᾶγμα. I am the slave of Euelpides. Thus Euelpides’ slave approaches Dikaiopolis and shouts.in the ending. SL. You can usually recognise it easily because of -οι. But whose slave are you? Who sent you? SL. 6A line 4 βάλλ᾿ εἰς κόρακας. #183–186). Euelpides runs up. all of which are concerned with authority or power. Don’t try to learn it now. We will wait. DIK.
27–28 μῶν εἰς κόρακας. The optative + ἄν means ‘could’ or ‘would’. The head of the family is ὁ κύριος. as he comes up. he sends his slave to them. It is clear that he is running after you. Do you not see him. 32 λέγοιμι ἄν And another. I am a slave. For Euelpides. wait! DIKAIOPOLIS What shout is that? Who is responsible for that shout? The slave runs up and grabs his tunic. It is the opposite of πολυπράγμων ‘meddling’. holding a basket in his hand. 29 ἀνιστάμεθα See GE p. 170. and he happened to send me. #187. 167–169. running through the crowd of people? And a friend of his is following with him. called the optative (GE pp. And Euelpides the son of Polemarchos sees him going away with the rhapsode towards the market-place. Having seen them. DIK.
There is no greater city than this one. my friends? Please tell me.
1 μείζονα Comparative. are you leaving?’ 13 τοιοῦτον τὸ πάθος πάθος is a neuter noun 3c. We are looking for a peaceful place. where are you going and where have you come from? DIK. 136–138. But why do you want to leave like this. Greetings to you too. 4 εὐδαιμονεστέραν This is another form of the comparative. see GE p. our fatherland. τοιοῦτον = ‘such’. From the Piraeus. Literally ‘having experienced what. #182. We shall go there. This crow is guiding us. 9 τί παθόντες Aorist participle of πάσχω. 16 κατεψηϕίσαντο ψηϕίζομαι means ‘I vote’. Meanwhile Peisetairos comes up. we shall settle in a peaceful city. For Athens is the wealthiest.
Translation for 8B
Are you looking for a greater city than Athens? No. It will be a sovereign assembly today. 137. 13–14 εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον Note the -ηριον ending which denotes a place where an activity takes place. καταψηϕίζομαι means ‘I condemn’. Note that there are two ways of saying more … than …: GE pp. Peisetairos. 30 ἀποκρινοῦμαι What is the tense? Cf. Cf. my dear Dikaiopolis. where Strepsiades cannot believe that it is Athens on the map because there are no jurors sitting. But why do you want to carry that crow on your wrist? EU. 20 οἱ μὲν γὰρ τέττιγες … For the Athenian love of litigation see also Section 6B lines 23–24. and I am on my way to the assembly. and wanting what. 164. and when we get there. I do not mean that. with a crow on his wrist. 166. He is certainly the best guide. I will tell you. ἔπαθον. #154–160 for more forms. ἀποψηϕίζομαι means ‘I acquit’. for I would be very glad to know the reason. RHAPSODE Are you looking for a wealthier city than this one? EU. #180(e). Athens is clearly the greatest. For. #158 and GE p.
. For who can lead us to the crows better than a crow? DIK. but where on earth are you going with that crow? Could it be that you are going to the crows? PEISETAIROS Of course! We are leaving the country. DIK. There is no city wealthier than this one. in the name of Zeus. and we are following it. DIK. ϕροντιστήριον.Section 8B
Greetings. DIK. by Zeus. See GE pp. ἀποκρίνομαι. as is the superlative which follows in the next line. It is easily recognisable. second aor. EU. my friend.
Do the orators show pity for the people? Do they pity them or not? Tell me. 21 τὸ ἀγαθόν Plato’s lectures on ‘The Good’ were said to be the ultimate in obscurity. So great was the misfortune we suffered when we entered the lawcourts. but the jurors condemned us. βελτίους Not what it seems at ﬁrst glance – see GE p. love the city and I shall never cease to love the city. Peisetairos here and I have had a terrible experience. even though we were innocent. but they will destroy the city. You are doing this with reason. For we ﬁnd the affairs of the city hard to bear. Why are you silent? You will not say? They do not pity them. PEI. Why not? PEI. But the remark was made by a slave in comedy. or what is it that you want that makes you leave the city? EU. Tell me then. and he was re-elected the following year. The war drags on. and so we want to go away. but the people are full of distress.
3–4 13 15 16 οἴκοι μέν … ἐν δὲ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ … Note the contrast.104
DIK. I am not surprised that you are setting off to ﬁnd another city. RΗAP. or what wrong did you do so that you suffered this misfortune? EU. What sort of misfortune? What had you done. what happened to you. His conviction was largely a political move. I will answer for you. Dikaiopolis. 166. my friends. For the crickets sing for a little while in the branches. especially the lawcourts. For I. DIK. since you give a just account of the lawcourt and the jurors. by Zeus. what are you saying? Do you really think that the orators love the city? DIK. we do not hate the city itself. everywhere there is lamentation and funeral pyres because of the plague: everywhere there are corpses. We did nothing and we did no wrong. but the Athenians sing all the time in their lawsuits. and should not perhaps be taken too seriously. because of the false testimony of the witnesses. They were found to be ﬁve talents adrift and he was convicted. there is much lawlessness. I do. you know it well. 23 γνούς Aorist participle of γιγνώσκω. The land is full of their audacity. #181. Dikaiopolis. DIK.
What then? What do you have in mind? Do you perhaps hate the city? PEISETAIROS No.
. the assembly is full of it and the lawcourts are full of it. But how do the orators show their love for the people? Consider. from the second aorist ἔγνων. χείρους What case is it? βελτίους What case is it? κλοπήν Pericles was suspended from his ofﬁce of strategos and ordered to submit his accounts for inspection. like the orators. And it is with reason that I shall not do this.
Peisetairos. you and I. for ‘the good’.
Translation for 8C
You seem to speak the truth. For the good citizen makes the others better. Who will save the city? A man who loves the city will save it and not destroy it. ‘would’. DIK. What must we do? RHAP. 25–26 οἱ μέν … οἱ δέ … ‘some … others …’ 27–30 A rather touching personal view. Odyssey 1. but no one can discover it. 32 ἂν βουλοίμην ἄν + optative again – ‘could’. and others think
. as you say. PEISETAIROS But the good citizen makes the citizens better instead of worse. The vocabulary should give you all the help you need. It is probable that they were.Section 8C
25 δύναται GE p. I know it well. But what is the good. therefore. DIK. worse. Did Pericles do this or not? RΗAP. but when they became better. rhapsode? For I don’t know what it is that is the good [of the city]. RHAP. they condemned him for theft. Dikaiopolis. You don’t know what ‘the good’ is? But on the ship you seemed to be some sort of a philosopher. you must seek the good of the city. don’t say that! For the people are most skilled at home. that at ﬁrst Pericles was well thought of when the Athenians were. since the orators seem to be worth nothing? Perhaps the people themselves? E U E L P I D E S Ο Herakles. ἀναπείσω What verb does this come from? Try πείθω. He did it. 33 εἶμι (not εἰμί) ‘I shall go’. and a glimpse of the pre-war Athens. 34 ἄλλο τι πλήν … ‘anything else but …’ 42–44 Note ἄν + optative repeatedly. and it is clear that he was a villain. Some think that it is virtue. DIK.267.
46 A quotation from Homer. 156. but absolute idiots in the assembly. Don’t speak of Pericles! RΗAP. knowing their jargon. Don’t mock me. But who will save the city. because of him. PEI. were the Athenians worse. You speak the truth. by Zeus! PEI. as I hear. What do you mean. It shows Aristophanes’ sympathy with ‘honest country folk’. so they say. rhapsode! For the philosophers search. 48–49 Two lines from the Homeric Hymn to Demeter 216–217. But we know clearly. and when he died were they better? RHAP. When Pericles began to speak in the assembly. R H A P S O D E But if Pericles – DIK. #177. my friend? Pericles seemed to be the best of them all.
though grieving. τῶν πολιτῶν τοῦ δικαστοῦ. if I am going to make a treaty? But I shall go. τῶν τριηρῶν τοῦ Σωκράτους τοῦ συγγενοῦς. I do not know if anyone else wants to make a treaty and to live at peace. ‘We men must endure the gifts of the gods. children.
lawlessness peace market-place assembly battle voice virtue. τῶν εἰρηνῶν τῆς ἀγορᾶς. Yet we are setting off for a place that is peaceful. a sophist
τοῦ πολίτου. τῶν ποιητῶν τοῦ σοφιστοῦ. 4. I wouldn’t do that. nor would I want to ﬂee from my own country. myself. health. For war is full of events. 5. relations. I think these men are stupid. τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν τῆς μάχης. but they do not know. Come on now. Pericles
τῆς τριήρους. But how shall I alone persuade the people? What shall I say or shout or order. Farewell! RHAP. τῶν ἀγορῶν τῆς ἐκκλησίας. They have found it in the ﬁelds. 3. perplexity and plague and ﬁtting out ships. τῶν ἀνομιῶν τῆς εἰρήνης. But the farmers know what is good. 2. courage
τῆς ἀνομίας. For the yoke lies upon our necks. ready to shout and abuse anyone who speaks about anything else except peace. poet 4. Don’t they know that the poet spoke truly who said ‘These matters lie in the lap of the gods’ For we must accept the gifts of the gods with resignation. but I would like to. both the bad and the better. + PEI. but peace is full of weddings.’ EXERCISES FOR SECTION 8
THE GENITIVE CASE 8A–C: 1
1. I wouldn’t hurry off to the assembly. wealth. Dikaiopolis. It is peace. feasts. kinsman 4. Socrates 3. juror 3. off to the assembly! EU. 6. 7. τῶν ἀρετῶν
1. trireme 2. food. wine and pleasure. τῶν μαχῶν τῆς φωνῆς. τῶν σοφιστῶν
1. friends. τῶν δικαστῶν τοῦ ποιητοῦ.106
Exercises for section 8
that it is justice. citizen 2. τῶν συγγενῶν τοῦ Περικλέους
. relation. τῶν φωνῶν τῆς ἀρετῆς.
τῆς ἀξίας. τῶν νεανίσκων τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.) greatest
9. τῆς αὐτῆς. τῶν ἑτοίμων τοῦ αὐτοῦ. τῶν δαιμόνων τῆς γυναικός. 3. τῶν πραγμάτων τοῦ κήρυκος. 6. τοῦ αὐτοῦ. τοῦ ἀξίου. τῶν τειχῶν
1. 5. 4. τοῦ ἑτοίμου. τῶν ποταμῶν τοῦ νεανίσκου. τούτων τῶν
1. τῶν φροντίδων τοῦ χρήματος. τῆς βελτίστης. 7. τῶν ὑμετέρων τοῦ μεγίστου.
food a philosopher the people lawcourt time river young man heaven.) 11. τῶν οὐρανῶν
1. τούτου τοῦ. τῆς πολλῆς. 5. τῶν ῥητόρων τοῦ γέροντος. much 12. τῆς σῆς. 4. τῶν κτημάτων τοῦ ῥήτορος. τῶν γυναικῶν
. 10. 4. τῶν χρόνων τοῦ ποταμοῦ.
worthy that right ready himself difﬁcult your (pl. τοῦ μεγίστου. 6. τῶν πολλῶν τούτου τοῦ. best 10. τῶν ποδῶν τῆς φροντίδος. τῶν αὐτῶν τοῦ χαλεποῦ. 3. ταύτης τῆς.
thing. τῶν παθῶν τοῦ πλήθους. τῶν γερόντων τοῦ ποδός. 2. ἐκείνου τοῦ. 3. 8. ἐκείνων τῶν τοῦ δεξιοῦ.Exercises for section 8
1. τῆς χαλεπῆς. τῶν δήμων τοῦ δικαστηρίου. 2. τοῦ δεξιοῦ. τῶν πληθῶν τοῦ τείχους. τῆς ὑμετέρας. τοῦ πολλοῦ. τῶν δεξιῶν τοῦ ἑτοίμου. sky
τοῦ σίτου. τῶν χαλεπῶν τοῦ ὑμετέρου. τῶν σίτων τοῦ φιλοσόφου. τῶν βελτίστων τοῦ σοῦ. number. 7. τῶν φιλοσόφων τοῦ δήμου. 9. 8. this
τοῦ ἀξίου. τῶν χρημάτων τοῦ δαίμονος. τῶν δικαστηρίων τοῦ χρόνου. τῶν σῶν τοῦ πολλοῦ. object god woman
τοῦ πράγματος. affair herald possession speaker old man foot thought thing. τῆς μεγίστης. your (s. 6. τοῦ χαλεποῦ. 8. τῆς δεξιᾶς. ἐκείνης τῆς. crowd 3. 2. τοῦ βελτίστου. wall
τοῦ πάθους. τοῦ ὑμετέρου. τοῦ σοῦ. 7. τῶν μεγίστων τοῦ βελτίστου. τῶν ἀξίων ἐκείνου τοῦ. τῆς ἑτοίμης. suffering 2. 5. τῶν κηρύκων τοῦ κτήματος.
Exercises for section 8
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
ill-fated going being better having set free worse someone
κακοδαίμονος, κακοδαίμονος, κακοδαιμόνων ἰόντος, ἰούσης, ἰόντος, ἰόντων ὄντος, οὔσης, ὄντος, ὄντων βελτίονος, βελτίονος, βελτιόνων λύσαντος, λυσάσης, λύσαντος, λυσάντων χείρονος, χείρονος, χειρόνων τινός, τινός, τινῶν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Zeus I ship king you eyebrow old woman
τοῦ Διός ἐμοῦ, μου, ἡμῶν τῆς νεώς, τῶν νεῶν τοῦ βασιλέως, τῶν βασιλέων σοῦ, σου, ὑμῶν τῆς ὀφρύος, τῶν ὀφρύων τῆς γραός, τῶν γραῶν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
juror child, slave sun dwelling possession plan temple, shrine city
τοῦ δικαστοῦ, τῶν δικαστῶν τοῦ παιδός, τῶν παίδων τοῦ ἡλίου, τῶν ἡλίων τῆς οἰκήσεως, τῶν οἰκήσεων τοῦ κτήματος, τῶν κτημάτων τῆς διανοίας, τῶν διανοιῶν τοῦ ἱεροῦ, τῶν ἱερῶν τοῦ ἄστεως, τῶν ἄστεων
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
μετὰ τοῦ Σωκράτους ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας διὰ τοῦ πλήθους ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου καταδικάζω τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀκούω τῆς γυναικός λαμβάνομαι τοῦ πολίτου
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
ἄξιος τῆς ἀρετῆς αἴτιος τῆς ἀνομίας μετὰ τοῦ κήρυκος διὰ τοῦ ποταμοῦ περὶ τοῦ νόμου ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀθηνῶν ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας
ALTERNATIVE COMPARATIVE FORMS 8A–C: 12
1. τὸν βελτίονα, βελτίω ναύτην 2. τοὺς βελτίονας, βελτίους λιμένας
the better sailor the better harbours
Exercises for section 8
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
τὴν βελτίονα, βελτίω θεάν αἱ βελτίονες, βελτίους νῆες οἱ βελτίονες, βελτίους γεωργοί τὰς βελτίονας, βελτίους γυναῖκας τὸ βέλτιον ἄστυ τὰ βελτίονα, βελτίω πλοῖα
the better goddess the better ships. the better farmers the better women the better city the better ships
COMPARING ADJECTIVES LIKE εὔφρων 8A–C: 13
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
ὁ εὐδαιμονέστερος, εὐδαιμονέστατος ναύτης the more fortunate, most fortunate sailor τὸ κακοδαιμονέστερον, κακοδαιμονέστατον ἄστυ the more unfortunate, most unfortunate city τὴν εὐφρονεστέραν, εὐφρονεστάτην θεάν the more gracious, most gracious goddess τὰς κακοδαιμονεστέρας, κακοδαιμονεστάτας γυναῖκας the more unlucky, most unlucky women ἡ εὐδαιμονεστέρα, εὐδαιμονεστάτη νῆσος the more fortunate, most fortunate island τοὺς κακοδαιμονεστέρους, κακοδαιμονεστάτους διδασκάλους the more unfortunate, most unfortunate teachers
THE OPTATIVES 8A–C: 14
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
they ﬁnd he/she examines we reckon he/she becomes you (s.) marvel
εὑρίσκουσιν ἐξετάζει λογιζόμεθα γίγνεται θαυμάζεις
εὑρίσκοιεν ἐξετάζοι λογιζοίμεθα γίγνοιτο θαυμάζοις
1. you (s.) love 2. they intend 3. he conquers 4. he/she tries 5. they dare
ἄν + OPTATIVE 8A–C: 16
φιλεῖς διανοοῦνται νικᾷ πειρᾶται τολμῶσιν
φιλοίης διανοοῖντο νικῴη πειρῷτο τολμῷεν
1. φέροιεν ἄν 2. διαλεγοίμεθα ἄν 3. σκοποίη ἄν
4. 5. 6.
πέμποιμι ἄν δέχοιο ἄν ἀδικοῖεν ἄν
Summary exercises for section 8
7. ὁρῷη ἄν 8. πείθοιτε ἄν
ἀνίσταμαι, I LEAVE, EMIGRATE 8A–C: 17
9. φυλάττοιμεν ἄν 10. πείθοιντο ἄν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
you (s.) leave he/she is able leaving (n.m.s.) to be able you (pl.) leave, leave!
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
they are able being able he/she leaves we are able to leave
SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 8
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
I wrong I stand up worthy people/I am powerful leader I am powerful I send citizen difﬁcult hand
the wrongdoing the awakening, resurrection important the power of the people the leadership most powerful the procession constitution I am difﬁcult/angry I set my hand to something, I try
I engage in government
political/to do with the city
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. A Β
But who is responsible for this war and this perplexity? (τούτου τοῦ πολέμου, ταύτης τῆς ἀπορίας) The orators are responsible for this matter, I know it well. For the city is full of noise and shouting because of the war and the boldness of the orators. For who does not know about their boldness? (τούτου τοῦ πράγματος, θορύβου, βοῆς, τῶν ῥητόρων, τῆς τόλμης, αὐτῶν) But I don’t think the orators are responsible for these matters, but [I consider them] the best of men. For they always ﬁght for the people and the city, as they themselves say. (τούτων τῶν πραγμάτων, ἀνθρώπων, τοῦ πλήθους, τῆς πόλεως) Yes. But they tell lies. For the mass of these men is bad and no one is worse than an orator. For the orators seize the assembly and the
Summary exercises for section 8
lawcourt, (τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν, ῥήτορος, τῆς ἐκκλησίας, τοῦ δικαστηρίου) 2. 1. μένοις ἄν You could wait 5. ἀποκρίνοιο ἄν You could answer 2. λέγοιμι ἄν I might speak 6. κελεύοις ἄν You would order 3. βουλοίμεθα ἄν We would like to 7. παυοίμην ἄν I could stop 4. πείθοισθε ἄν You would obey 8. ϕέροιμεν ἄν We would carry 3. a. i(i) The foreigner sits on the altar. (ἐπί + gen.) (ii) The ship goes towards the enemy. (ἐπί + acc.) b. (i) I shall go tomorrow into the agora with my friends. (μετά + gen.) (ii) After this I shall go back home. (μετά + acc.) c. (i) The ship sails past the island. (παρά + acc.) (ii) The sophist receives much money from the pupils. (παρά + gen.) d. (i) The slave ran towards us, forcing his way through the crowd. (διά + gen.) (ii) My wife is afraid of the city because of the plague. (διά + acc.) 4. 1. Διονυσόδωρος καλλίων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 2. Διονυσόδωρος μείζων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 3. Διονυσόδωρος κακοδαιμονέστερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 4. Διονυσόδωρος εὐϕρονέστερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 5. Διονυσόδωρος ἀμείνων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 6. Διονυσόδωρος μωρότερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 7. Διονυσόδωρος σοϕώτερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. 1. The herald’s son listens to the speaker. ὁ παῖς ὁ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς τῆς τοῦ ῥαψῳδοῦ χειρὸς λαμβάνεται. 2. Who is responsible for this lawlessness, which is so dreadful? τίς ἐστιν αἴτιος ἐκείνων τῶν βοῶν, μεγίστων οὐσῶν; 3. Since we are Athenians we are worth much. σοϕιστὴς ὤν, οὐδενὸς ἄξιος εἶ. 4. Why do you say that no one is wiser than Socrates? διὰ τί οἱ ῥήτορες πλουσιώτεροί εἰσιν ἢ τὸ τῆς πόλεως πλῆθος/[no ἢ] τοῦ τῆς πόλεως πλῆθος; εἰπέ μοι. 5. We made our way through the city of the Lacedemonians. πολλὰ κακὰ παθόντες πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας ἐμαχεσάμεθα ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας.
Summary exercises for section 8
2. ἰδού, ὁρῶ γὰρ παῖδά τινα πρὸς ἡμᾶς προστρέχοντα. τίνος εἶ σὺ παῖς; παῖς ὢν τυγχάνω τοῦ Eὐελπίδου, τοῦ σοῦ ϕίλου. εἴποις ἂν ὅτι βούλῃ, καὶ τί βουλόμενος πρὸς ἐμὲ προσέδραμες; ΔΟΥ. ὅ τι; εἴποιμι ἄν. δεῖ γὰρ ἐμέ, ὡς ἐκέλευσεν ὁ Eὐελπίδης, κελεύειν ὑμᾶς μένειν. ΔΙΚ. μενῶ οὖν. χαίρετε, ὦ Eὐελπίδη καὶ Πεισέταιρε. τί βουλόμενοι ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἀπέρχεσθε; ποῖ διανοεῖσθε ἀπιέναι; ΠΕΙΣΕΤΑΙΡΟΣ πρὸς πόλιν τινὰ νέαν καὶ χρησιμωτέραν δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἀπελθεῖν.
E – TEST EXERCISE 8
A slave, going through the crowd of citizens, ran towards Dikaiopolis and, taking hold of his hand, asked him to wait. Then those who had sent the slave, Euelpides and Peisetairos, who were friends of Dikaiopolis, came towards Dikaiopolis and greeted him. He, however, since he did not know what their object was in leaving the city, asked them where they intended to go and for what reason. They answered that they had to look for Cloud-Cuckooland, and, when they had found it, to live there. Dikaiopolis thought that Athens was the most prosperous, and that no city was better than Athens. So at ﬁrst he could not understand why they were leaving, then having heard about the dikasts and the lawcourt and the politicians, he agreed. For the dikasts seemed to be wronging the good men, and the politicians (as it seemed) were actually destroying the people and not pitying them. So Dikaiopolis’ friends went away. But he, ﬁnding the affairs of the city and the people hard to bear and thinking that peace was best, decided to make a treaty in the assembly. But the rhapsode, who thought that the men were ignorant and stupid, did not himself want to accompany him, but went away alone.
(a) aorist (e) aorist (a) genitive (e) genitive
(b) aorist (f) present (b) genitive (f) accusative
(c) present (g) present (c) accusative
(d) aorist (h) present (d) nominative
then with the spectators. #190 (e)). τοῖς θεαταῖς. the inﬁnitive is εἰδέναι. the aorist imperative (GE pp. They ﬁrst converse with each other. do you … ?’ ἀπολεῖς με … ‘you will destroy me’. the aorist inﬁnitive (GE pp. 176–177.) 20–21 κάτειπε…. #195–197). What part of the verb is οὖσιν? Can you recognise it? It is the dative plural of the participle ὢν οὖσα ὄν. being many indeed’.180. 18 τυγχάνεις εἰδώς εἰδώς -ότος is the participle of οἶδα. 202. #190. 22 καταλέξω From καταλέγω. #209). 11 βοῇ χρῶμαι χράομαι (‘I use’) takes the dative (GE p. The meaning is the same as if βοῶ had been written. 189–191. but it pays to learn the new grammar carefully after each section in which it is introduced. 201. #198–200). 176–180. and the principal parts of common and very irregular verbs (GE p. γιγνώσκω (GE p. #211). what is the matter with you? I’m talking to you. ‘you will be the death of me’. (Note that the neuter is τουτί ταυτί. ‘These spectators here’. Notice the predominance of ι: in -ᾳ -ῃ -ῳ -ι -ει in the singular in -αις -οις -σι in the plural The various uses of the dative are well described in GE pp. 187–189. what is the matter with you? (what are you suffering?) Hey you. πολλοῖς δὴ οὖσιν ‘Tell the spectators. the dative case (GE pp. 17 ἐμπεσεῖται Future of ἐμπίπτω – πίπτω πεσοῦμαι ἔπεσον.
10 τί βουλόμενος As before. The future of ἀπόλλυμι. Before you start you may like to look at the table (GE pp. #103) where the forms of the dative are set out. Xanthias. 179–180.
Hey you. #189–190).Section Nine: Aristophanes’ Wasps
This is a long section with a lively story which introduces several important items of grammar. 20 οὑτοιί οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο + ι is even more demonstrative.
. ‘wanting what. What tense?
Translation for 9A
In front of the house are two slaves. None of this is difﬁcult.
’ 6 ἐνέπεσεν For the principal parts of πίπτω see 9A line 17. having asked. #209. a pun on the name of Philoxenos. ἔγνω What is it? Aorist of γιγνώσκω γνώσομαι ἔγνων: see GE p. Sosias? Wanting what do you shout thus? You will destroy me by shouting. 9 ὑμεῖς δ’ ἀποκρίνεσθε ἡμῖν ἐρωτῶσιν Note the dative plural of the participle agreeing with ἡμῖν. Come now. Don’t you happen to know what sort of beast we are guarding? I certainly think I know. So tell the story of the play to the spectators. SOS. For the master will kill you. ‘That is our master there. All right. None the less ‘love-’ is the beginning of this evil. But I say to the man that it is clear that he is speaking nonsense. and it’s for your sake that I’m shouting. 18 ϕιλόξενος … Φιλόξενος This is the joke we have been working up to. and responsible for many evils.114
XANTHIAS SOS. #190 (b). SOS. since he knew that he was more wicked than the others in the city. But the master has a very old father. I’ll tell the large number of spectators the story of our play.
1 ἐκεινοσί Compare οὑτοιί (line 20). answering such things. ‘You answer us asking. who are many. So don’t sleep. What would you like to say to me? I’d like to say to you that a great evil will befall you. ‘We obeyed him ordering. see GE p.
XΑΝ. Can’t you see him sleeping? So this is our master here. 201. spectators. and unlucky. what does this man say? He in answering us thinks that the old man is ‘a lover of dice’. 180. ἐπιθόμην is the second aorist. For the master’s father has a certain illness. with all the words beginning ϕιλ-.
Translation for 9B
That is our master there.
. XAN. But what are you suffering? I’m sleeping with pleasure. and we obeyed his orders. who is sleeping above peacefully. I’m talking to you. The master ordered us to guard his father. ΧAN. So I ask you. You’re sleeping? But I would like to say something to you. unlucky Xanthias. XAN. For the master fell into perplexity about his father. ill-favoured man that you are. SOS.’ 4 τῷ δὲ δεσπότῃ Possessive dative. 5 κελεύοντι ἐπιθόμεθα πείθομαι takes the dative.’ 16 οὗτος δέ μοι ἐρομένῳ ἀποκρίνεται ‘This man answers me.
What’s the shouting? To whom are you speaking.’ Note the aorist participle ἐρόμενος from ἐρωτάω ἐρωτήσω ἠρόμην. what happens to be the name of this illness? You answer us asking. But these spectators here don’t know.
on seeing and approaching. since Philoxenos. ‘during the day and during the night’. be silent now. #389). writes alongside near by ‘Kemos (a voting funnel) is beautiful. See GE p. 181. he is not a lover of strangers (philoxenos).
Yes. For I shall tell you. or does Aristophanes say this simply for the ridiculous picture of him sitting in court banging his tambourine? 15 ἐμπεσών What is it? It should be familiar by now! If not see 9A line 17. if you want to know what the illness is that has befallen the father. the illness of the old man. and learn the principal parts of πίπτω. at any rate. Indeed. Was it just to take his mind off being a juror. ὑμῖν ἐν ἀπορίᾳ οὖσι Note that οὖσι agrees with ὑμῖν ‘you being in perplexity’. being in perplexity.Section 9C
XAN. 8–9 ἐπεὶ τὸν πατέρα ἔμαθεν ϕιληλιαστὴν ὄντα ‘When he learned that his father was ϕιληλιαστής’. having asked. look up εὑρίσκω in the list of irregular verbs (GE pp. #191 for time phrases. spectators. He is a lover of being a juror in the court of the Eliaia. sitting in the lawcourt during the day and dreaming of cases during the night. ‘learned his father being …’ The rest of the story will explain why his father’s mania was such a bad thing. 436–442. By the dog. For he is always being a juror and loves the lawcourt. old fellow. that he thinks the father is ‘a lover of sacriﬁces’ or ‘a lover of strangers’. But what does this man say? This man answers me.’ 14 ἐκορυβάντιζεν We do not know why he enrolled his father as a Korybant. 2 ἐμπεσοῦσα What verb does this come from? What is it? Try the aorist participle of πίπτω. Indeed.’ So we are guarding this man. 13 ὁ δὲ πατήρ ‘But his father did not obey him (αὐτῷ) persuading (ἀναπείθοντι) him not to go out. Verbs of knowing and perceiving are often followed by a participle. lovers write on a door ‘Demos is beautiful’. but this man. like no man.
Translation for 9C
You will never ﬁnd [it] out. SOS. 12 παύσῃ Can you recognise this? (2nd person singular future indicative middle.) πείσῃ Can you recognise this? It comes from πείθω. the old man loves something. You will ﬁnd this very helpful when you need to hunt for an unfamiliar form or if you are not quite sure which verb it comes from. is a homosexual. 4–5 τῆς μὲν ἡμέρας … τῆς δέ νυκτός Genitive of the time within which. XAN. having shut him in with these bars which are
1 ἐξευρήσετε What tense? What verb? If you do not know.
But the father. Bdelykleon is saying something to us. 20 καπνῷ ἐξιόντι οὐχ ὅμοιος εἶ ὅμοιος takes the dative (‘like to’): ‘You are not like smoke coming out. Sosias. but is already standing and shouting. ﬁnding the illness hard to bear. The name of the old man is Philokleon. Xanthias.
6 τίσι Dative plural of τίς. But to whom is the man speaking? XAN. while the name of this son is Bdelykleon. drum and all. poor me! SOSIAS What is it? XAN. but in practice he wants to go out. saying such things: ‘Why’. will destroy [us]. having gone into the oven. SOS. What need? In theory my father is quiet.’
Translation for 9D
(Shouts to the slaves from the roof. who are you? PHILOKLEON Me. my father. ‘in theory … in practice …’ a very frequent contrast. The master is no longer sleeping. having fallen [headlong] into the lawcourt. as it seems to me. ‘To whom is the man speaking?’ 7 ὡς ἐμοί δοκεῖ This is the impersonal use of δοκεῖ. 11 λόγῳ μέν … ἔργῳ δέ … ‘in word … in deed …’. whatever noise is the chimney making? Out of the chimney comes Philokleon.116
many and big. in the lawcourt? Won’t you stop being a juror in the Eliaia court? Won’t you obey your son?’ But the father didn’t obey him persuading [him] not to go out. For when his son learned that his father was a lover of being a juror in the lawcourt of the Eliaia. is seeking a hole with great zeal. but more like …’ 22 oὐδενὶ … ἤ … ‘He seems to me to be more like to no one than Philokleon.) Xanthias and Sosias. And our master. ‘as it seems to me’. But now. master? ΒDΕL. ‘happening upon’. as it seems to me at any rate. Lord Poseidon. You. ‘meeting with’. From that time. He seems to me too to be saying something.
. he said. SOS. ‘do you always judge cases. was a juror. we have been guarding him with these nets. I’m smoke coming out. And my father always uses audacity when he wants to go out. having shut him inside. Father. Then the son introduced the father into the Korybantic rites. But wanting what are you standing up/what need makes you stand up. on happening upon us sleeping. 8 ἐντυχών τυγχάνω takes the dative in the sense of ‘ﬁnding’. are you asleep? XANTHIAS Oh dear. ﬁrst he tried to persuade him not to go out of the house.
Father. since I want to sell the mule in the market-place. (See Homer. By Zeus. I could do this better than you. 17 εἰσιών. 11 τὸν ἡμίονον The ‘half-donkey’ is a mule. XAN.) 27 Ἰθακήσιος Odysseus came from Ithaka. #95. Well. 180. PHIL. ‘lithograph’. ‘megalith’.
Smoke? But you are not like smoke coming out. but I am coming out. ΒDΕL. PHIL. See GE p. by Zeus. 15 ἄμεινον ἢ σύ Both this phrase and σοῦ ἄμεινον in the next line have the same meaning. #190 (h). PHIL. This man is preparing a great mischief. Xanthias? XANTHIAS It seems so to me too. ἔξαγε Note the preﬁxes.’ 35 λίθων From λίθος we get ‘monolith’. never at all. ΒDEL. 37 ἐνέπεσε What tense? What verb? Try πίπτω. pack-saddle and all.Section 9E
ΒDΕL. ΒDEL. as it seems to me at any rate. PHIL. No. Xanthias? He seems to me to be more like to no one than Philokleon. go in and lead out the mule. What do you think. 41 ϕθήσεται The future of ϕθάνω. But it is the ﬁrst of the month today.
. ΒDΕL. 12 αὐτοῖς τοῖς κανθηλίοις ‘pack-saddle and all’.
6 νουµηνία The ﬁrst day of the month was market day.
Translation for 9E
But open the door. ‘going in. Odyssey 9 for the story. etc. The picture of Odysseus escaping from the Cyclops under a ram should make the reference clear. master.
25 Οὖτις Odysseus also tricked the Cyclops by telling him that his name was Οὖτις ‘Nobody’. 86. look for some other scheme. What do you think. as it seems to me. pack-saddle and all? But I could do this. You want to sell the mule. For the meaning of ϕθάνω and of λανθάνω + participle see GE p. BDELYKLEON By Poseidon. but more like Philokleon. but I [could do it] better than you. but he was not ‘the son of runaway horse’! 31 γιγνώσκω γάρ σε πάντων πονηρότατον ὄντα ‘I know you are (participle) the most wicked of all men. Here now. bring out …’ 20–21 εἰ μὴ φέρεις Ὀδυσσέα τινά ‘If you are not carrying an Odysseus’. offspring of a horse and a donkey. not at all.
The man is becoming a sparrow. ταῖς ἐλευθερίαις 4. daring τῇ τόλμῃ. τοῖς συγγενέσιν
. τοῖς ποιήταῖς τῷ κυβερνήτῃ. where is my net? Shoo. Socrates 3. ταῖς ὁμονοίαις 8. push the mule and yourself into the house with. captain 4. ΒDΕL. ΧΑΝ. master. Sosias. victory τῇ νίκῃ. ταῖς νίκαις 7. For my father is most like Odysseus. Who is the mule carrying? Who are you.
SOS. spectator 2. and the old man will not again give trouble to us who have shut him in and are guarding him. What is this affair? Why are you groaning. But. ταῖς τόλμαις
1. ταῖς θαλάτταις 2. Since we have shut him in. push many of the stones towards the door with your hands. sophist
τῷ θεατῇ. You then. all urgency. harmony τῇ ὁμονοίᾳ. You. Alas poor me! What is this? From wherever did the clod of earth fall on me? Look. Drag him from beneath.
Exercises for section 9A–E
SOSIAS ΒDΕL. poet 3. τοῖς θεαταῖς τῷ ποιητῇ. ταῖς σωτηρίαις
5. sea τῇ θαλάττῃ.) Come now. shoo. relation
τῇ τριήρει. shoo back! (He pursues the father with the net. safety τῇ σωτηρίᾳ. at any rate. PHIL.118
ΒDEL. Alas wretched me! For it does not escape my notice that my father is becoming a sparrow. ταῖς τριήρεσιν τῷ Σωκράτει τῷ συγγενεῖ. mule? Is it because today we are going to sell you? But don’t groan any longer. fellow? Nobody by Zeus. I know you are the most wicked of all men. Ο most foul man. goddess τῇ θεᾷ. as it seems to me at any rate. Where.
SOS. τοῖς σοφισταῖς
1. Nobody? From which country are you? An Ithakan. ταῖς ἀπορίαις 3. ΒDEL. trireme 2. why don’t we sleep for a little while? EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9A–E
DATIVE CASE 9A–E: 1
1. if you are not carrying an Odysseus? But by Zeus it is carrying this certain someone underneath. ταῖς θεαῖς 6. perplexity τῇ ἀπορίᾳ. mule.
But suffering what are you groaning. Father. τοῖς κυβερνήταις τῷ σοφιστῇ. nor will he escape our notice by running away. But he will anticipate us by escaping. ΒDΕL. the son of runaway horse. PHIL. freedom τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ.
τῇ σώᾳ. τῇ μιαρᾷ. τῷ σώῳ τοῖς σώοις. τῷ ὁμοίῳ τοῖς ὁμοίοις. τῷ μεγίστῳ τοῖς μεγίστοις. τοῖς σώοις τῷ μεγίστῳ. wall
τῷ πάθει. τῇ δήλῃ. 8. drama. ταῖς δήλαις. τοιαύταις. τῷ πολλῷ τοῖς πολλοῖς. τῷ σῷ. τοιαύτῃ. 6. much 11. τοῖς τείχεσιν
1. τοῖς λόγοις τῷ θεῷ. τῇ σῇ. τῇ πολλῇ. τοῖς μιαροῖς. τοῖς πονηροῖς ἐκείνῳ τῷ. τοῖς δήλοις τῷ σῷ. play 2. τοῖς φίλοις τῷ λόγῳ. lord. ταύταις ταῖς. τοιούτοις
1. ταῖς μιαραῖς. ἐκείνοις τοῖς. king
τῷ δράματι. τοῖς πλήθεσιν τῷ τείχει. ἐκείνῃ τῇ. 8. 3. ταῖς μεγίσταις. ταῖς σαῖς. τοῖς ἡμιόνοις τῷ πλοίῳ. 5. 2. τοῖς πονηροῖς. τοῖς πλοίοις τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ. τοῖς δικαστηρίοις τῷ χρόνῳ.
mule ship man lawcourt time friend word god
τῷ ἡμιόνῳ. 4.Exercises for section 9A–E
1. 12. this such
τῷ πονηρῷ. 3. ἐκείναις ταῖς. τῇ ὁμοίᾳ. τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τῷ δικαστηρίῳ. 5. τοῖς χρόνοις τῷ φίλῳ. τοῖς πάθεσιν τῷ πλήθει. τούτοις τοῖς τοιούτῳ. τῷ πονηρῷ. suffering 2. τούτῳ τῷ τούτοις τοῖς. 2. τῇ κακῇ. ἐκείνοις τοῖς τῷ μιαρῷ. ταῖς πονηραῖς. τῷ μιαρῷ. 7. τῇ μεγίστῃ. τῇ πονηρᾷ. τοῖς θεοῖς
1. ταῖς πολλαῖς. τοῖς σοῖς. ἐκείνῳ τῷ. crowd. ταῖς κακαῖς. ταῖς ὁμοίαις. τοῖς ὁμοίοις τῷ κακῷ. τοῖς κακοῖς τῷ σώῳ. τοῖς πολλοῖς τούτῳ τῷ. τοιούτῳ τοιούτοις. τοις μιαροῖς τῷ ὁμοίῳ. mass 3.) 10. ταύτῃ τῇ. 6. ταῖς σώαις. τῷ κακῷ τοῖς κακοῖς. 4. τοῖς δράμασιν τῷ ἄνακτι. τοῖς σοῖς τῷ πολλῷ.
wicked that disgraceful like bad safe greatest clear
9. τῷ δήλῳ τοῖς δήλοις. 7. τοῖς μεγίστοις τῷ δήλῳ. τοῖς ἄναξιν
. your (s.
τῷ ὀνόματι. ταῖς ναυσίν τῷ βασιλεῖ. 8. τοῖς δικασταῖς τῷ παιδί. τοῖς παισίν τῷ ποταμῷ. τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν τῇ γυναικί. going 3. 10. having sacriﬁced 5. 7. 7. σοι. ταῖς πατρίσιν τῷ ἡγεμόνι. τοῖς χρήμασιν τῷ γείτονι. 6. slave river dwelling possession battle temple. 6. fortunate 6. οὖσιν θύσαντι. 5.) eyebrow old woman
τῷ Διί ἐμοί. ἰόντι. 8. ἀμείνοσιν ἰόντι. 4. ταῖς νυξίν τῇ πατρίδι. οὖσιν. 3. τοῖς κτήμασιν τῇ μάχη. θυσᾶσιν εὐδαίμονι. ταῖς λαμπάσιν τῇ νυκτί. 2. τοῖς ὀνόμασιν τῷ χρήματι.
Zeus I ship king you (s. ὄντι.120
Exercises for section 9A–E
3. ταῖς οἰκήσεσιν τῇ κτήματι. ταῖς γραυσίν
1. θυσᾶσι. τοῖς γείτοσιν τῇ λαμπάδι. ἰούσῃ. 3. better 2. ἰοῦσιν ὄντι.
δοκεῖ τῷ Σωκράτει ἕπομαι ὑμῖν ἐντυχάνω τῷ βασιλεῖ ἐν ταῖς ναυσί(ν) δοκεῖ ἡμῖν πρὸς τοῖς θεαταῖς
name thing. θύσαντι. ταῖς γυναιξίν
1. torch night fatherland leader. 3. 4. τοῖς ποταμοῖς τῇ οἰκήσει. τοῖς ἄστεσιν
1. (pl. 9. 4. 5. 7. someone
ἀμείνονι. ὑμῖν τῇ ὀφρρύι. μοι. 6. 5. 12. θυσάσαις. 2.
juror boy. 6. 4. ταῖς μάχαις τῷ ἱερῷ. εὐδαίμοσιν τινί. being 4. ἰοῦσιν᾽ ἰούσαις. ἡμῖν τῃ νηί. οὔσῃ. τοῖς ἱεροῖς τῷ ἄστει. shrine city
τῷ δικαστῇ. 8. 10. 9. οὔσαις. 2. θυσάσῃ.) money neighbour lamp. τισίν
1. 11. 5. ταῖς ὀφρύσιν τῇ γραί.
σὺν ἡμῖν χρῶμαι σοί ἕπομαι αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ πλήθει ἐπὶ τῇ νίκῃ λόγῳ μὲν … ἔργῳ δέ
. τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν σοί.
. Tell the spectator the plot of the play with full (all) enthusiasm. He is my father. He met the man on the ﬁrst day. We must obey those who give orders.
ἀνισταῖτο ἄν ἤρετο. He was shouting all night. λέγει ὑμῖν καὶ τοῖς θεαταῖς. They are speaking to us and our children/slaves. 4. since you are accursed. ἠρώτησεν ἐροῦσι(ν) δύναιντο ἄν ἠρόμεθα. a very wicked man. χαλεπῶς οἴσουσι καθίζοντες ἐν τῷ δικαστήριῳ.Revision exercises for section 9A–E
TIME PHRASES 9A–E: 12
1. 2. κακοδαίμοσιν οὔσιν 3. The suppliant stayed in the shrine for two days. ὑμῖν. ἠρωτήσαμεν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR 9A–E
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. Α great evil will befall you. but in fact no one is worse. On the next day the son chased his father back into the house with the big nets. 9. I shall go within two days. 10. ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ 7. 2. The sailors happened to be on the ships. 7. In theory no one in the city is better than your father. τῷ κελεύοντι 8. 2. 3. 3. ἡμῖν 2. τοῖς θεαταῖς 5. He was bringing the man on to the ship with the help of the sailors.
PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS 9A–E: 13
1. 5. 5. ἠρώτησαν δύναιτο ἄν ἐροῦμεν ἔλαθεν
6. 8. ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν. 3. τὸ ὄνομα τούτῳ τῷ θεατῇ ἐστι Φιλόξενος. Why do you (pl.
This woman’s plan is dangerous/terrible.
λήσει ἤροντο.) try to persuade me with this argument? τούτοις τοῖς λόγοις 10. We shout loudly (use great shouts). 4. μεγάλῃ βοῇ 6. What is the name of the king? τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν 9. τῷ μεγάλῳ δικτύῳ
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
We went away in the night. 4.
‘You must (χρή) stay here (present inﬁnitive = all the time.
. a process) and obey me [now] (aorist inﬁnitive denotes a single event). Remember that the aorist indicative has an augment. ἐνέκλεισα τὸν πατέρα πολλοῖς δούλοις χρώμενος.
Translation for 9F
Bdelykleon speaks to the father. He is destroying Socrates with a wicked slander. 5 οὐκ ἐάσας What is this? Compare it with εἴασας. But nevertheless I want to be a juror. 25 λήψῃ What tense? What person? What verb? Try the future of λαμβάνω. The participle has not. Father. δυνήσῃ The future of δύναμαι: ‘you will be able’. γενέσθαι What is this? What are the principal parts of γίγνομαι? 19 ἐξευρεῖν What is it? Try the principal parts of εὑρίσκω. Get up. Cf. I shall not allow you to go out to the courtroom any longer. 17 κατάσκοπον κατά. Father. and obey me. the various English ‘-scope’ words.122
4. PHILOKLEON What’s this? But you will destroy me. Therefore aorist inﬁnitive active.
I stole the money with (using) my right hand. Here the aorist is used to emphasise the aspect. 40 ἐξήνεγκον For the principal parts of φέρω see GE p. 202. λαβεῖν What is it? Try the principal parts of λαμβάνω. ΒDΕL. from ἐπίσκοπος an ‘overseer’ or a ‘bishop’ in Christian Greek. since today you will be able to be a juror. 11 μοι … ἐνθάδε μένοντι Note the agreement: ‘How will it be possible for me remaining here to be a juror?’ ‘How will it be possible … if I stay here?’
16 παύσασθαι First aorist inﬁnitive middle. You must stay here. For aorist inﬁnitives see GE pp. 5. PHIL. Father. 187–189. 28 ποιῆσαι ποιέω ποιήσω ἐποίησα. Listen. σκοπέω.’ 10 δικάσαι First aorist inﬁnitive active from δικάζω. ΒDΕL. Most relevant here is ‘episcopal’. #195–197. 3 λήσεις The future of λανθάνω. καλοῖς λόγοις ἔπεισαν τὸν δῆμον οἱ ῥήτορες. Remember that the inﬁnitive does not have an augment. not allowing me to go out. nor will you escape my notice by trying to go out. 7 πιθέσθαι Aorist inﬁnitive from ἐπιθόμην (second aorist of πείθομαι). #211. 47 ἐσθίειν Another very irregular verb: ἐσθίω ἔδομαι ἔφαγον ‘I eat’.
2 ἐάσω The future of ἐάω ‘I allow’.
and check that you can recognise the aorist inﬁnitives active and middle. with all eagerness. Come then. For at last I have brought out the things of the lawcourt. So wouldn’t you like to do this.
ΒDΕL. But you have not yet said this. Indeed. but the son goes into the house. Wouldn’t you like to reveal the matter? You will get it from me. The old man waits around. Hurrah. ΒDΕL.
. So you must become a spy of the affairs which happen in the house. I think at any rate that I have brought everything. You speak well. PHIL.
PHIL. For the speeches of the prosecutors are long. being clever at eating.
ΒDΕL. carries the things of the lawcourt in his hands with difﬁculty. 189. Look. and having discovered them to exact justice. but you know well that the slaves do not want to stop doing wrong. have you brought out everything? [Yes] by Zeus. ΒDEL. #198. I shall bring everything out. on coming out. See GE p. PHIL. What do you say? But in what way and about what? About many things. ΒDEL.
Make sure that you have learned the principal parts of the irregular verbs you have met in this section before you go on further.
ΒDEL. And I have brought out this ﬁre. Look. PHIL. Hold on now. For you have many household slaves. PHIL. Note this form of the aorist imperative active in -σον.Section 9G
PHIL. For I shall come quickly bringing the things of the lawcourt in my hands.
4 ἄκουσον What is it? 2nd person singular of the aorist imperative. although sitting in the lawcourt. ΒDΕL. And it will be possible for you being a spy to discover these evils today. as it seems to me. and you are clever at sleeping. And you would be willing to do this? I would do this. For you convince me with your words. And by Zeus I shall eat it. hurrah! For it will be possible for me to eat the lentil-soup while I am judging.
But how will it be possible for me to be a juror if I stay here? There will be a courtroom for you in your own house and you will be able to judge the members of the household. near the ﬁre there is some lentil soup for you. and to force the household slaves to cease from their evils and become better? I certainly would like to. But wanting what have you brought out the cockerel? What? The cock will be able to wake you up with its voice. After a short while Bdelykleon. ΒDΕL. but are responsible for many bad things.
PHIL. from where I shall be able to get the pay. at least. By Zeus.
λέξον Another aorist imperative. ΒDΕL. child. you. ΒDEL.preﬁx suggests ‘I speak against’. but listen. So don’t go away.
ΒDΕL. ‘prosecute’. (Again begins to run out. Where are the voting-urns? For I cannot place the vote without voting-urns. PHIL. Don’t call the case. father. PHIL. where are you hurrying? I’m running out because of the urns.
Translation for 9G
BDELYKLEON PHILOKLEON ΒDEL. speak. 17 παῦσαι 2nd person singular of the aorist imperative middle of παύω. Note πιθοῦ. PHIL. though without the augment. ΒDΕL. I must look for the voting-urns and place my vote. Where is the water clock? Bring it to me. εἶμι and οἶδα. The 2nd persons plural are much easier to recognise than the 2nd persons singular. I’m listening.
24 ἡ κλεψύδρα The water clock was used to measure the time allowed for the prosecution speech and the defence speech.)
ΒDEL. The old man begins to run out. Look.
Does everything please you. know that well. BDEL. Everything does indeed please me.124
5 ἴθι See GE p. because they are like the 2nd person plural of the aorist indicative. one for guilty and one for innocent. Look! (He shows his father’s chamber-pot. But. Father? Tell me. Note all the other aorist imperatives that follow. 32 παῦσαι See the note on line 17 above. Hey. Father. since I happen to have these cups. all right. child. but the context will almost always make the meaning clear. 14 ἔασον The -σον ending again from the aorist imperative of ἐάω. but obey me and listen. ὦ πάτερ More imperatives. Father. Fine! For everything of the lawcourt is here – except – Speak. know it well.) Stop running out. 12 μὴ ἄπιθι μηδαμῶς. 191. But let [me]. ἀλλ’ ἐμοὶ πιθοῦ καὶ ἄκουσον. Father. #201 for the imperatives of εἰμί. 34 κατηγορεῖτε The κατά. what is it? Except the water clock. 11 κάδων ἕνεκα There were two voting-urns. PHIL. Jurors placed their pebbles in one or the other. I am calling the ﬁrst case. PHIL. the 2nd person singular second aorist middle imperative from ἐπιθόμην. The spelling is exactly the same as the aorist inﬁnitive active παῦσαι from ἔπαυσα. PHIL. Well. What do you say? Go on. Don’t go away in any way. ‘accuse’. Therefore sit down.
5.Exercises for section 9F–G
Make sure that you know these forms of the imperative before you go on to the next section. aor. then.
to make. Listen. aor.)
. 8. stay (pl. Sit down. and bring out the ﬁre.
to judge to see to begin to become to go to lead. do to wrong (someone) to consider to guard to turn towards to sacriﬁce
μαθεῖν ἐκδραμεῖν ἄρξασθαι ἐξαγαγεῖν ποιήσασθαι ἀδικῆσαι νομίσαι φυλάξαι προτρέψαι θῦσαι
1. 4. 11. what is this? Do you not think that this chamber-pot is an excellent water clock? Everything is now here. 4. 9.) 4. 8.
to learn to run out to begin to lead out to make. aor. 10. drive
aorist aorist present aorist aorist present
AORIST IMPERATIVES AND MORE PRESENT IMPERATIVES 9F–G: 3
1. speak (s.) let go.) stop (pl. aor. 10. 5.)
7. 2. 12. aor. aor) 5. 9. 7.) obey (s. and after praying.) 6. Father. 8. 11. stop (s. aor. 9. do to conquer to speak to set free to learn to run
aorist present present aorist present aorist
7. aor. and obey me. After bringing out the ﬁre all the slaves go away. while those present pray to the gods.) ﬁnd (pl. aor. aor. 10. pres. pres. 3. loose (s. You pray to all the gods. speak (s. and stop worrying.) 3. prosecute. 6. 6. 12. 2.) receive (s.
become (s. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9F–G
AORIST INFINITIVES 9F–G: 1
1. 3. seek (s. learn (pl. slaves.
) 2. 10. see (s. 4. 9.
4. 8. 2. 1. all you women are going It was possible for you all to bear everything Everyone be brilliant at selling. know. 3. pres.) 6. 2. voc. aor..)
1. voc. 8. ﬂee (pl. arrive (pl. nom. show (s. pres.) and carry all the equipment
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9F–G
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
ἐπαυσάμην παύσασθαι ἤκουσα ἀκοῦσαι ἐποίησα ποιῆσαι ἠδίκησα ἀδικῆσαι εἶπoν εἰπεῖν ἤνεγκον ἐνεγκεῖν ἐγενόμην γενέσθαι ἔμαθον μαθεῖν ἔλαβον λαβεῖν ἀϕικόμην ἀϕικέσθαι εἶδoν ἰδεῖν ἐπιθόμην πιθέσθαι ἔπεσον πεσεῖν 2. know All of you women. voc voc. 5.. 7.. nom. 5.126
Revision exercises for section 9F–G
VOCATIVES 9F–G: 4
1. (Only the accent shows it is imperative) All of you leave and do not remain but go It will be possible for all to leave Everybody come and carry everything It is not possible for me to carry all these things Get up and go (s) Go (pl. 10. be (s. 4. 3. look. voc. nom. voc.
voc. aor. 9. pres. 6. voc.
πᾶς παντ. voc.)
Be. aor) 5. go!... 12. 6. WHOLE. nom. bring (s. 11. nom. voc..ALL.. EVERY 9F–G: 5
1... nom. run away.
You (s. μαθεῖν 10. #206–207 for the full paradigm. λαμβάνειν 11. pres) 9. ἐλθεῖν 6. I shall not allow him to reach the lawcourt.) must become a juror in the house.’
This section introduces the 3rd person of the imperative.. It is possible for me to listen to the orators. They must learn the words of the play. aor. be afraid (pl. but I do not understand everything. Look at the ships. Why aren’t you willing to bring out Philokleon. πάντα πάρεστιν ἐνθάδε πλὴν τοῦ πυρός. The 3rd person endings of the imperative are easy to recognise:
Active Singular Plural -έτω -όντων -άτω -άντων Middle -έσθω -έσθων -άσθω -άσθων
. mule? ἐξενεγκεῖν 8. pres) 10. δικάσαι δικάζειν 2. ‘Tell me. I learn many things. father. what did you want when you knocked on the door?’ ‘What did I want? The master. cease (s. go (s.. ἐξενέγκετε τὰ πυρά/τάς λαμπάδας.. we must stay here and ﬁght. ἀφικνεῖσθαι 12. ἐξέσται πᾶσιν ὑμῖν πωλεῖν τοὺς ἡμιόνους. 2. 197–199. It is permissible for Philokleon to prosecute. λαβεῖν. 5. aor) 1. τί βουλόμενος ἐξέδραμες;’ ‘ὅ τι; τὰ πάντα. What must you do? ποιῆσαι 4. I want to be a juror in the house.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1.’ ‘εἰπέ μοι. How shall I persuade you. κατηγορεῖν 5. γενέσθαι 9. ἐξιέναι 3. boys/slaves.. which we have to translate as ‘let him/her …’ or as ‘let them …’ See GE pp. ὦ πάτερ. 4. look (s. but my son does not allow me to be a juror here. δεῖ σε μένειν ἐνθάδε και δικάζειν.) 8. He himself wants to keep taking the whole fee from his son. ὦ παῖδες. 3. We must all go out into the market-place.
3. to listen to all the speeches? ἀκοῦσαι 7. The son did not allow his father to go out to the lawcourt. It is possible for me both to take the whole reward here and eat it.
35 προσιόντων πάντες What is προσιόντων? What makes sense in the context? See introduction to 9H. 3 ὁ ϕεύγων ‘the defendant’. 24 ὅτε ‘When’. 23 οὗτος ὁ ἀδικήσας ‘the one having done wrong’. Cf. 11–12 ἐξαπατήσειν µ’ ἐλπίζεις ἐλπίζω is normally followed by a future indicative: ‘You hope to deceive me. and ἀκούσαντα is accusative agreeing with σε. 5 ἀκούσατε ‘Listen to …’ This must be imperative because there is no augment. ‘the criminal’. i.128
But it is easy to confuse the active endings -όντων and -άντων with the genitive plural of the present and aorist active participles which are the same in spelling. Note that αἰτοῦντι agrees with μοι. Cf. This usually means ‘to take’ (middle ‘to choose’). 29–30 δεῖ σε … ‘You must hear them both. aorist imperative of βαίνω is βῆθι. ἀδικήσας is the aorist participle of ἀδικέω. the politician. Compare ἠκούσατε ‘you heard’. 16 ‘This seems to me to be another Labes (i. τóτε ‘then’.
Translation for 9H
If any juror happens to be outside. on that basis (οὕτω) cast your vote. 25 οὐ παρεῖχέ μοι αἰτοῦντι ‘did not give it to me asking’. but in the context of a lawcourt it will usually mean ‘to convict’.e. 3 εἰσίτω and προσίτω Note the 3rd s.
1. Grabber. There is probably a topical reference here to a case which Kleon.e. Once again only the context will help you. The dog is called ‘Grabber’. having heard them. Note μονο. ἔργῳ δέ … Note the contrast.
18 ἀναβάς This is the aorist participle.’ λόγῳ μέν…. Note that the 2nd s.
.and ϕαγ. 19 ἀναβῆναι Aorist inﬁnitive of ἀναβαίνω.’ 14 Dogs say αὖ αὖ. 27 ἑλεῖν αἱρέω αἱρήσω εἶλoν. This is part of the evidence for the pronunciation of vowel sounds in the ﬁfth century BC. and do not confuse it with ὅτι ‘that’. 8D line 11. 40 κατάβηθι ‘get down’. 7 Λάβης From λαμβάνω. may have been intending to bring against a man called Lakhes. let him come in and make haste. Cf. thief).’ σε is accusative after δεῖ. Note the principal parts βαίνω βήσομαι ἔβην.and the superlative ending. and sheep say βῆ βῆ. 31 ὡς ὄντα … ‘as being …’ ‘on the grounds that he is …’ κυνῶν … ἄνδρα An intentional absurdity. ᾔτησα From αἰτέω αἰτήσω ᾔτησα ‘I ask’. like μονο-ϕαγίστατον. The two inﬁnitives are governed by δεῖ. ‘because’. ὁ διώκων ‘the prosecutor’ in line 11. imperative of εἶμι ‘I go’. and. Who is the defendant? Let him come forward.
I shall stop prosecuting.
PHIL. father. Be quiet. who is in word innocent. For it cries out. For he doesn’t know how to speak. DOG
PHIL. the cup. good fellow. men of the jury. dog. comes forward. Punish him. and good at eating all the cheese. the dog from the deme of Kydathenaion? Come.
DOG ΒDΕL. Get down. Listen now to the charge. So I must cast my vote. dog. but in deed himself also a thief. he did not give [it] to me asking. Come. by the gods. PHIL. Come. the matter is clear. obey me and don’t prejudge. I know that you are a thief. Ο foul one here. at the same time as judging. since he is moreover much the most selﬁsh eater of all dogs. For the defendant has done wrong by eating up the cheese on his own. and convict him. But you hope to deceive me. You have heard the charge. But I.
. This one seems to me to be another Labes. τοσαύτης διαβολῆς ‘such a great slander’. ΒDEL. runs away.
2 This is a typical beginning for a speech in a lawcourt. 3 γιγνώσκω αὐτὸν … γιγνώσκω is followed by accusative and participle. not wanting to come up. Woof woof! He is here. Hurrah. and convict him. For it is possible. the one who has done wrong. For I intend to make the speech for the defence.Section 9I
ΒDΕL. make the speech for the defence. and indeed you must make the speech for the defence. who is a dog. For at last the dog has come up. dog. Judge. Let him come forward. Suffering what are you silent? You should speak. Do not confuse τοσοῦτος ‘so great’ with τοιοῦτος ‘of such a kind’.
PHIL. come up and prosecute. the cooking-pot. But the dog. and all the other equipment. come up. But you. as I know well about legal matters. ΒDΕL. But. For you must hear both. as it seems to me. I know it. ΧAN. And when I asked for a share. Let all the witnesses of Labes come in. dog. and I shall listen to the prosecution while eating. Dog of the deme Kydathenaion has indicted dog Labes of the deme Aixone for theft. But this one at least is not able. will eat all the lentil soup. the cheese-grater. escaped my notice by going off alone and eating all the cheese. DOG ΒDEL. For this dog. But where is the prosecutor. ΒDΕL. And indeed the defendant Labes here is present. and having heard on that basis place your vote. ὦνδρες = ὦ ἄνδρες ‘gentlemen’. sit down. Now I for my part shall call in the witnesses.
suggests stealth. Answer clearly. my good fellow. ΒDΕL. BDEL. PHIL. or even. ΒDEL. For by staying here he hopes to steal the food from the others. The meaning is ‘he is not educated’. eats it up? ΒDΕL. if he steals the cheese and. and indeed expected. the more milk. and having convicted him. I beg you. Come. The middle of αἱρέω means ‘to take for oneself’. cheese-grater. For this Labes never stays in the house. Father. The better the sheep are guarded. rather this one seems to me to be a thief and worthy of death. So what is the use. ‘he has not had a good education’. but goes out of the house looking for food. Come up. It is difﬁcult. 12 κιθαρίζειν γὰρ οὐκ ἐπίσταται Literally ‘he does not know how to play the lyre’. PHILOKLEON No. weeping to arouse the pity of the jurors. And when he steals nothing.
. It was normal. puppies. but I know she is lying. did you grate the cheese for both the dogs? She says that she grated it all for both. wretched ones. in the Athenian courts to smear your opponent’s character and to build up your own. pity those who suffer evil things. As most cheese was made of sheep’s milk. pity him. and speak loudly. and the more cheese. but he is the best of all the dogs now [alive]. the children are. gentlemen. forgive him. In this case. Listen. he bites. What use? For he also guards the door. This is a character reference. By Zeus.130
7 ἑλεῖν … ἑλόντα … From αἱρέω meaning ‘convict’. For you happened to be guarding the cheese. It was normal practice in an Athenian lawcourt to parade the children of the defendant. For I know that he is good and chases the wolves. But. good fellow. to the witnesses. Where are the children? Come up. 10 ὑϕαιρεῖται The preﬁx ὑϕ. Arghh! Whatever evil is this? An evil surrounds me. See RGT 9H line 27. But the other dog only guards the house. 9 ‘Able to guard many sheep’. but none the less I shall speak. and the speaker persuades me with his words. For he does not know how to play the lyre. So I must convict him as a thief. judge another case as well. PHIL. this is not a completely irrelevant characteristic. to reply on behalf of a dog who has met with such a great slander. 30 ποῦ τὰ παιδία. since he is able to guard many sheep. of course. and acquit him. having stolen it. beginning the defence. ask and plead weeping.
Translation for 9I
Bdelykleon speaks. But if he stole the cheese. By Zeus. who has suffered evil things. The cheese-grater comes up. PHIL.
See ἀγωνίζομαι. Did you recognise this form of the comparative? τά should have provided a useful clue. Place the voting-pebble. (So taking him round a big walkabout.
Translation for 9J
Go to hell. This has the same meaning as ἄκων ‘unwillingly’ (line 34). This is it. Taking this voting-pebble in your hand. #211. ΒDΕL. then when he has got down. get down. 7 βελτίω = βελτίονα. It is difﬁcult for me to know. 22 ἠγωνισάμεθα. Come. This voting-pebble is in here. 9 ὑστέρῳ Juries ﬁled past two urns: the one they came to ﬁrst (the earlier or nearer) was for condemnation and the next (the later or further) for acquittal. How bad (not good) I consider the lentil soup. and acquit (him). by putting the voting-pebble in the further voting-urn. Daddy dear. PHIL. It must have disagreed with him. he walks to the further voting-urn ﬁrst. get down. ΒDΕL. 21 οὐχ ἑκών ‘not willingly’. they ﬁnd him guilty. BDELYKLEON The dog is acquitted. No indeed. 202. ΒDΕL. ἀνίστασο 2nd persons. PHIL. 27 ἔπαιρε σεαυτόν ‘Lift yourself up’ from αἴρω ἀρῶ ἦρα ‘I raise’.Section 9J
2 ἀπεδάκρυσα Philokleon cannot bear to admit that he could pity a defendant. imperative of ἀνίσταμαι. put it into the further voting-urn. For the jurors order the defendant to get down. 14 περίπατον Cf. Come now. get down. Father. ‘peripatetic’. PHIL. so he has to blame the lentil soup. 33 πείσομαι Can be the future of either πάσχω or πείθομαι. And yet. turn to better things. this ‘get down’ deceives many very much. But none the less I shall get down. How then have we contested?
. then? PHIL. The context will give you the right meaning here. Here it is almost in the sense of ‘to settle a contest’. See GE p. For I do not know how to play the lyre. ΒDEL. let me take you round this way. Is this the nearer? ΒDEL.) Hurrah! I have deceived him. For Philokleon has acquitted the dog unwillingly. (Speaks to himself. I shall get down.
Get down. For I burst into tears as I ate this lentil soup.
let him/her hear let them retreat let him/her converse let him/her learn let them be silent
ΒDEL. 2. 6. 2. 5. my good fellow. forgive me. 3. What are you suffering? Alas. let it be impossible to ﬁnd these things in the harbour.
Exercises for section 9H–J
I intend to reveal [it]. 9. ΒDΕL. let him/her carry 8. 5. let him/her learn everything. 4. because I did that by placing my voting-pebble involuntarily and not convicting. let him/her know. It is possible to see everything in the house. 2. stand up. 6. 10. 3. Ο much-honoured gods. let him/her/it begin 10. 7. has he really been acquitted? You will destroy me with the word. where is water? Lift yourself up. put all these things here. BDΕL. let him/her/it go. let them leave and let them not remain/ let them leave without waiting.) 7. PHIL. Now tell me that. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9H–J
THIRD PERSON IMPERATIVES 9H–J: 1
1. But did I acquit the man who was the defendant with the voting-pebble? What do I suffer? Whatever shall I suffer? But. but stand up.
let him/her/it be.
FUTURE INFINITIVES 9H–J: 3
1. Then I am nothing. be victorious (pl. You have been acquitted. let everyone carry the man out. 5. let them release 9. PHIL. Father. Don’t worry. PHIL. 3. Father. [Yes] by Zeus. 4. Labes. let every one arrive.
κελεύσειν κωλύσειν ζητήσειν πείσεσθαι δέξεσθαι ἐξαπατήσειν
to be about to order to be about to hinder to be about to seek to be about to obey to be about to receive to be about to deceive
. 8. let them turn
nom. μαχέσασθαι.) γίγνομαι δραμεῖν run (aor. inf. 3.Revision exercises for section 9H–J
7. ὑπισχνεῖται ἀπιέναι 8. masc. part. ἐλθών -οῦσα -όν γενοῦ. ἐλθεῖν. inf. βαλών -οῦσα -όν παῦσον. παῦσαι.) λαμβάνω ἀπέθανε die (aor.) γίγνομαι ἐρόμενος ask (aor. βαλεῖν. part. κωλῦσαι. βοηθῆσαι. 3 s. κατηγορήσειν 9. λήσειν escape notice (fut. inf. s. λήψεσθαι.) ἔρχομαι λήψεσθαι take (fut.) ἐρωτάω μαθόντες learn (aor.) λανθάνω ἐλθέ go (aor. nom. part. part. κρατῆσαι. ἀποχωρεῖν. δέξασθαι. δεξάμενος -η -ον δρᾶσον. inf. εἷλετο 11.) ὁράω λαθών escape notice (aor. pl. nom.) τρέχω
1. 2. 4. ὀλοϕυρεῖσθαι. ἀπολογήσεσθαι 8. s. ἔβης
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9H–J
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
πλεῖν. σπεύδειν. inf. ἀϕικέσθαι. ποιήσειν. imperative s. ἔπαθον 9. s. μαθήσεσθαι.
αἱρήσω ἐπίστανται πείθειν ἐλπίζει αἱρήσεσθαι εἷλον ἔβη πείσονται
7. ἔσεσθαι. ἔπεισαν 10. indic.) ἀποθνῄσκω γενήσεσθαι become (fut. παύσεσθαι. m. ὀϕείλειν.) λανθάνω λάβετε take (aor. nom. m. γενέσθαι. δέξεσθαι. 2. 6. 5. imperative pl. γράψεσθαι 10.) λαμβάνω ἑλεῖν take (aor.) αἱρέω ἰδών see (aor. βιάσεσθαι
IRREGULAR PRINCIPAL PARTS 9H–J: 4
to be about to defend oneself to be about to accuse to be about to write/ indict to be about to use force
1. δέξαι. κωλύσας -ασα -αν ἐπαίνεσον. παύσας -ασα -αν 3.
. γενόμενος -η -ον κώλυσον. ἐπαινέσαι. δράσας -ασα -αν ἐλθέ. εἷλεν 12. imperative pl. δρᾶσαι. ἐπαινέσας -ασα -αν βάλε. m. βιάσασθαι Future: ϕροντιεῖν.) μανθάνω γένεσθε become (aor. διώξειν.
part. SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9
A – WORDS
I take I write down I hope I know how to witness name wretched
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
I destroy letter hope knowledge. 5. inf. gen.134
Summary exercises for section 9
οἴσει τυχούσῃ ἐνέγκατε εἶναι ἰόντος ᾔδεσαν ᾔεισθα βαλεῖν εἰδότες εὑρήσειν πεσόντι σχές πεσοῦμεν ἕξειν
will carry (3 s.) go (fut. This woman intends to listen to the stranger.) know (past indic.) fall (aor. dat.
Let the children play. part. masc. γέρων ὤν. οὐδέποτε γὰρ ἐπαύσατο βουλόμενος δικάζειν ἐν τοῖς δικαστηρίοις. ὁ διώκων ἀρχέσθω κατηγορεῖν. fem. I bear witness I name wretchedness
1. nom. pl. imperative s. part. s. understanding evidence. s. masc. ἐλπίζω τοὺς ϕεύγοντας καλῶς ἀπολογήσεσθαι.indic./neut.) carry (aor. εἰσελθόντων οἱ κύνες. 4.) happen (aor. οὗτος ὁ δικαστὴς τὸν θάνατον μέλλει καταδικάσειν τοῦ κυνός. part. 3.) ﬁnd (fut. fut. part. inf. νεανίᾳ τινὶ ἦν πατήρ.) know (pres. s. s. dat. inf.) be (pres. τῷ δὲ γέροντι Φιλοκλέων. He expects/hopes to pursue/prosecute the wicked citizen./neut. 2 Let the herald enter the city. τὸ δ’ ὄνομα τῷ μὲν νεανίᾳ ἦν Bδελυκλέων.) throw (aor.) fall (fut. ὁ κλέπτης ὑϕελέσθω τὸ μέρος τὸ τούτου τοῦ κυνός. masc.) have (fut. 3 pl. 2 s. inf.)
ϕέρω τυγχάνω ϕέρω εἰμί εἶμι οἶδα εἶμι βάλλω οἶδα εὑρίσκω πίπτω ἔχω πίπτω ἔχω
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. dat./neut.) go (impf. ὁ δὲ
. Let the suppliants pray to the gods.) have/hold (aor. imperative pl. masc. ὁ δὲ γέρων ἐτύγχανεν ἔχων νόσον τινὰ δεινήν.
Summary exercises for section 9
νεανίας ἐπειρᾶτο αὐτὸν πεῖσαι μὴ δικάζειν, ὁ δὲ γέρων αὐτῷ οὐκ ἐπείθετο καίπερ πολλὰ πείθοντι. τέλος δὲ ὁ μὲν νεανίας αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἐνέκλεισεν, ὁ δὲ ἀπορῶν ἐπειρᾶτο φεύγειν, πολλοῖς λόγοις χρώμενος. ἀλλὰ οὐκ ἐδύνατο λαθεῖν τοὺς δούλους τοὺς τὴν οἰκίαν φυλάττοντας. 2. ΒΔΕΛYΚΛΕΩΝ ἄκουσον γάρ, ὦ πάτερ, καὶ ἐμοὶ πιθοῦ. οὐ γάρ ἐάσω σε λιπόντα τὴν οἰκίαν ἐν τῷ δικαστηρίῳ δικάζειν. ΦΙΛΟΚΛΕΩΝ ἀλλὰ διὰ τί οὐκ ἐάσεις ἐμέ; ἐλπίζω γὰρ σέ μοι πάντα λέξειν. ΒΔΕΛ. διότι πονηρότατος εἶ τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. ΦΙΛ. τί οὖν ἐάσεις με ποιεῖν; τί μέλλεις ποιήσειν; ΒΔΕΛ. ἔξεσται σοι δικάζειν ἐνθάδε ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ. ταῦτα δὲ βούλοιο ἂν ποιῆσαι; ΦΙΛ. βουλοίμην ἂν ἔγωγε. εἰπέ μοι ταχέως, τί δεῖ με ποιεῖν; ΒΔΕΛ. μεῖνον ἐνθάδε. ἐξοίσω γὰρ τὰ τοῦ δικαστηρίου. (ἐκφέρει μὲν τὰ σκεύη. τὸ δὲ δικαστήριον ποιεῖται.) προσελθέτω ὁ ἀντίδικος. ἡ δὲ δίκη ἀρχέσθω. ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ κατήγορος; δεῦρο ἐλθέ, ὦ κύον, καὶ κατηγόρησον. ἀνάβηθι καὶ εἰπέ. λέγε ἡμῖν τίς καὶ τί βουλόμενος τὴν γραφὴν ἐγράψατο. ὦ πάτερ, ἐλπίζω σε προσέξειν τὸν νοῦν. ΦΙΛ. μὴ φρόντιζε. ἄγε δή, ὦ κύον, εἰπὲ δή.
E – TEST EXERCISE 9
JURORS PHIL. JUR. PHIL.
Come, all [my] friends, come. For I hear you singing, but am not able to sing myself. What shall I do? For these men are guarding me, although I want to come with you to the lawcourt and make some trouble. But, Ο Zeus, stop giving me troubles and become my friend and pity my suffering. Save me, Ο Zeus. Either make me suddenly into smoke, or indeed make me a stone, on which they count the votes. Lord, dare to save me. Who is it who is shutting you in? Speak, we beg you. My son, know it well. But don’t shout. For he’s actually to be asleep here in front. Why isn’t it possible for you to come along with us and listen to the prosecutors and those defending themselves? Men, my son doesn’t allow me to pass judgement or to do anything bad. But look for some device, I beg you. For I intend to hear both the prosecutors and the defendants today. We can’t save you, friend. For all the members of your family are guarding you, and it is not possible for you to escape. Therefore I must pray to the gods, in hope of escaping. May the gods hear, then, and help. Ο lord Lykos, neighbouring hero – for you love the lawcourt – pity me and save me in my perplexity. You too, slaves, run and shout and tell Kleon this and order him to come. For Bdelykleon says that it is necessary not to pass judgement on cases. So let Kleon come and become a saviour to the old man.
Summary exercises for section 9
(a) 2nd s., aor. (e) 2nd pl., pres. (a) voc. (e) voc.
(b) 2nd s., aor. (f) 3rd pl., pres. (b) acc. (f) dat.
(c) 2nd s., aor. (g) 2nd s., aor (c) voc.
(d) 2nd pl., pres. (h) 3rd s., aor (d) nom.
Section Ten: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata
We now embark on one of Aristophanes’ most famous and delightful plays. With its female lead (though played by a man, of course), it brings back women into the text, alive and very decidedly kicking. The grammatical input here is challenging, consisting of the aorist optative active and middle (GE pp. 210–211, #212), δίδωμι (GE pp. 212–214, #214), ἀμελής and γλυκύς (GE pp. 214–215, #215) and the relative pronoun (GE pp. 216–219, # 216–219). It is worth mastering this material very thoroughly. δίδωμι, of which GE says comfortingly that ‘there is little here that is difﬁcult to recognise’, is the valuable gateway to a family of verbs which end in -μι.
1 ἥ Your ﬁrst relative pronoun: feminine because it goes with Lysistrata, nominative because it is the subject of the verb in its clause. 3 καταλύσασαι What part of the verb is this? Women are the subject of the sentence. 5 ἴδοιμι From ὁράω. The second aorist is εἶδον, the aorist stem is ἰδ- and this is the aorist optative. 6–7 καὶ Κλεονίκη … κἀμοί = καὶ ἐμοί; what does καί mean in both these phrases? 8 οὔσαις What part of the verb? It’s a participle, and we are still talking about women. οἵ What gender, what case? Why? See GE p. 216, #216. Note that in the nominative case m.s., f.s., and pl. the relative pronoun has an accent, whereas the article has none. 11 ἀναγκάσειν What inﬁnitive? Cf. ἀναγκάζειν. 12 λέξον Aorist imperative from λέγω. ἔλεξα is an alternative form for the aorist. ἐκεῖνο ὅ Literally ‘that which’. 15 τῶν ἀϕροδισίων Cf. Aphrodite, the goddess of sex, and ‘aphrodisiac’. 16 οὕς You have now met seven forms of the relative pronoun. Learn it (GE p. 216, #216). 19 ποιήσαιμι We now meet the ﬁrst aorist optative. Note that -σαι- is a characteristic element of this. Contrast with -οι- in the present optative (and in
the second aorist optative – see GE pp. 210–211, #212 and cf. ἴδοιμι in line 5 on this page). Don’t overlook the ἄν. ἑρπέτω What part of the verb is this? See GE pp. 197–198, #206–207. 20 κέλευσον If you cannot recognise this, see GE p. 189, #198 . 21 ἐθελήσαιμι 1st person singular aorist optative. Note the ἄν. μᾶλλον … ἤ ‘rather than …’ 25 ποιήσειας Which part of the aorist optative is this? (GE p. 210, #212).
27 ποιήσειε Which part of the aorist optative is this? 29–30 συμψηϕίσαιο, σώσαιμεν Look at the aorist optatives active and middle of παύω (GE pp. 210–212, #212) and learn them. Note that the endings of the second aorist optative are identical with those of the present optative. 31 ναὶ τὼ σιώ This is a particularly Spartan oath. ‘The Two’ are Castor and Pollux, the divine brothers of Helen of Troy, who were born in Sparta to Leda in an egg, as the result of her liaison with Zeus in the guise of a swan.
Translation for 10A
Lysistrata, who is an Athenian woman, comes forward and speaks. Do you hope, women, to bring the war to an end with me? For you know well that once we have brought the war to an end we shall see peace again. MYRRHINE (Myrrhine, who is a friend of Lysistrata, agrees.) By the gods, I would gladly see peace after bringing the war to an end. KLEONIKE (Kleonike, who is another friend, also agrees.) To me also it seems a good idea to bring the war to an end. But how is this possible for us, women that we are? Do you have some plan? For it is necessary that the men, who ﬁght the battles, should bring the war to an end and make a treaty. LYS. Let me speak. For one mustn’t keep silent. But, women, if we are going to force the men to make peace, we must refrain from … ΜYR. From what? What is the plan? Say what you have in mind. LYS. So will you do what I order? ΜYR. We shall do everything you tell us to. LYS. Then we must refrain from sex. All the women, after hearing the words which Lysistrata says, begin to go away. LYS. Where are you going? Why are you weeping? Will you or won’t you do what I order? Or what do you intend? ΜYR. I couldn’t do what you say, Lysistrata; instead let the war take its course. KLE. By Zeus, I won’t either; instead let the war take its course. Order me to go through ﬁre. I would be willing to do that rather than to refrain from sex. For nothing is like sex, my dear Lysistrata. I won’t do it – no way. LYS. What about you then? Would you do what I tell you?
LAMPITO LYS. ΜYR.
I too would be willing to go through ﬁre. No, by Zeus, I would not do it. Oh how totally lascivious is all of our sex! Will no one do what I propose? But, my dear Spartan, would you vote with me? For if so, we might still save the whole business. By the two gods, it’s difﬁcult for us to sleep without sex. But we must bring the war to an end and have peace. I would vote with you. Ο you my dearest friend and the only true woman among them. Then if these things seem good to you, they seem a good idea to us too.
2 πεῖσαι What part of the verb? GE pp. 187–188, #195–196. Triremes and the silver to ﬁnance them were the basis of Athenian naval power. 5–6 αὐτῷ τῷ ἀργυρίῳ ‘with silver and all’. The Athenian reserves of silver were kept in the treasury on the Acropolis. 9 τῆς θεοῦ Don’t worry about the apparently masculine ending of θεοῦ. The word θεός can refer either to a god or to a goddess. 16 ὡς ‘to’, ‘towards’, normally only with persons. 21 ἔγνω The paradigm for this aorist (of γιγνώσκω) is in GE p. 201, #209. Learn it. 22 ᾤμωξε Take the augment out of this (so that ω becomes ο) and put the iota subscript back above the line (οἰ-). You should then be able to identify the word. 24 γνῶναι The aorist inﬁnitive of γιγνώσκω, GE p. 201, #209. 27 συνοικεῖς This is the normal word for a man and woman living together in marriage.
Translation for 10B
So we shall persuade our husbands and force them to make peace. In what way will you be able to persuade your men, who have the triremes and the silver? By money or gifts or by doing what? LYSISTRATA Oh, but we have prepared this well too, because today we shall take the Acropolis, by seeming to be sacriﬁcing. Having taken it we shall guard it, money and all. Suddenly Lampito hears a shout and, having heard it, she speaks to Lysistrata. LAM. Who shouted? Who was responsible for the shout? LYS. This is what I was talking about. For the old women, who had to take the Acropolis of the goddess, now hold it. But, Lampito, you go off home and put affairs among you [Spartans] in good order, while we go into the Acropolis, which the old women have just taken, and guard it. Lampito, going away, walks along the road which leads to Sparta, while the other women go into the Acropolis and guard it. Suddenly Lysistrata shouts having spotted a man who is approaching. LYS. Oh, oh, women! Come here to me quickly. KLEONIKE What is it? Tell me, what is the shout?
poor me. Myrrhine. For after seeing him and recognising him she cried ‘My god!’ LYS. 7 ἀνὴρ δῆτα ‘Indeed I am a man. 134–136. 22 εὐξαμένῳ Agrees with μοι: ‘to me having prayed’.
2 σπασμός GE gives ‘discomfort’.
I see a man approaching. I’ll join you in tricking him by waiting here after sending away the old women whose job it is to guard the Acropolis. 18 ἐκ-κάλεσον ‘call out’. It’s clear. 30 νὴ τὴν Ἀϕροδίτην Who else would she swear by?
54 οἷον τὸ τεκεῖν ‘What it is to be a mother!’. Look. Does any one of you recognise the man who is approaching? MYRRHINE My god! KLE. and as he approaches. Lysistrata.
. 12 πρὸς ἑαυτὸν λέγων ‘speaking to himself’. 26 The gift of an apple could be an erotic token. Speak. LYS. LYS. Remember the reﬂexive ἑαυτόν or αὑτόν. whose wife I am. It’s your job now to trick and love and not to love this man who you live with.140
LYS. 27 τοῦτ᾽ ἂν διδοίην You should be able to work out that this is an optative and to guess what verb it comes from. #131. MYR. he laments.
Oh.’ Kinesias conﬁrms the obvious. aorist imperative from ἐκ-καλέω. what discomfort tortures me! (Speaking from the wall. Learn GE pp. literally ‘What a thing it is to bear a child!’
Translation for 10C
The old women go away while Kinesias arrives.
KIN. δίδωμι now makes many appearances. For he is Kinesias. I shall do these things. οἷς εὔχομαι … ‘the gods to whom I pray …’ δώσουσι ‘will grant’. Does Kleonike speak the truth? Have you recognised the man? For to me as well you seem to recognise the man. that Myrrhine has recognised him. I do recognise him. Comic actors wore a padded costume with a large phallus attached. MYR. By Zeus. 13–14 oἱ θεοί. Look. so Kinesias’ condition would be clear for all to see. Presumably Kinesias’ problem was a massive erection.) Who is this man who has forced his way through the guards without our noticing? It’s me. a man.
(She goes down from the wall. A guard. LYS. Oh by the gods. What then? Will you give me something? KIN. LYS. pray to all the gods. Lysistrata. MYRRHINE (Inside. when some discussion concerning men arose. Don’t go away. to whom I am praying. which a servant carries. My god! (Speaking to himself. In that case I do pity it. For I don’t want to go down.) You there.) By the gods. Taking an apple. I’ll give you something. the gods have granted that I can see Myrrhine. Indeed. won’t you call mummy? BABY Mummy mummy mummy.) KIN. call her. You there.) LYS. By Zeus. ‘How gladly would I give this to Kinesias. Quickly. your wife said. (He gives what he has in his hand to Lysistrata. I must go down. she says.
. to whom I give this. For you are always on your wife’s lips. I have this. a man. Yes. Well then. even yesterday. call Myrrhine out here now. KIN. Myrrhine baby. LYS.) It’s clear that I must. So what I have I give you. (The man prays.) Don’t you call me to him. ‘I consider Kinesias the best of all. will grant that I can see my wife. Who are you.
Are you a man? KIN. By Zeus.) Ο all you gods. unlucky as I am. Perhaps the gods. [Yes] by Aphrodite. dearest Kinesias. Hello.) Hurrah! Because I’ve prayed. I’ll go away instead. Then go and call her. LYS. KIN. (He speaks to the baby. I’ll go down and call her for you. Kinesias of the deme Paionis. KIN. Her husband. what’s up with you? Don’t you pity the baby.’ KIN. Who are you? KIN. Won’t you get the hell out of here then? KIN. For we too know your name well. ΜYR. ΜYR. (Speaking to himself.’ KIN. with whom she lives. What it is to be a mother. So you. who are chucking me out? LYS. my dear lady. am I the man to whom Myrrhine wants to give apples? LYS. grant that I may see my wife. which is unwashed? ΜYR. (Again he addresses Lysistrata. Come down then. KIN. but listen to our baby at any rate. KIN. for the sake of our baby.Section 10C
LYS. why are you doing this? Come down with all haste and come here. I won’t.
You love me? So why don’t you lie down? You silly fellow. he speaks. Come. Cf. KIN. ὡς here means ‘that’. I’ll kiss you. you bad woman. ‘incline’. ‘recline’. Your mother is sweet too. goes off home. (She goes out. or ‘having been persuaded by’.
MYR. (Stretching out his hand to his wife. This one is middle. but you do not have a sweet father. KIN. and don’t stretch out your hand to me. MYR. Not at all. Child.
KIN. MYR. τοιαύταις ‘by such women’. the men must cease from the war and make a treaty. Won’t you come back home? By Zeus. βαδιοῦμαι. I won’t go home. 215. in front of the baby? [You’re right] by Zeus. but an uncaring one. By Apollo. I ﬁnd fault with your father since he’s uncaring. as in the next line. since it is possible for us to lie down on the ground. coming down and reaching the gate. 15 βαδιῇ (What part of the verb is this?). so won’t you lie down? But where should one do this? For ﬁrst I must bring a little couch. But do you call your husband uncaring? For there’s no one more uncaring than you and no one more unlucky than me. #215). take the baby home. the baby is out of the way. Before I do. ‘having obeyed’. For your mother’s kiss is sweet. 20 ἐρῶ ‘I shall say’.) Oh what good luck! It’s clear that my wife loves me.
. γλυκύς and ἀμελής are used frequently. Many -ιζω verbs have futures of this type. MYR. For γλυκύς cf.
MYR. The servant. Look. Will you do this? Why won’t you lie down with me for a short time? No. how sweet you are.) What is it that you want. Manes. KIN. 11 πιθομένη Second aorist participle middle from πείθω. obeying such women? Stop.
Translation for 10D
Myrrhine. KIN. Learn these adjectives either now or at the end of this section (GE p. 19 κατακλίνῃ Notice also κλινίδιον ‘bed’. how unlucky you appear to be because of your father. KIN. that you do these things. MYR. 13 παῦσαι The context will tell you whether this is aorist imperative middle or aorist inﬁnitive active. speaks to the baby. who is carrying the baby. I shan’t allow you to lie down on the ground despite the state you’re in. ‘glucose’. you vilest of men. And yet I won’t say that I don’t love you.
35 ἡ ἄνθρωπος This is a derogatory expression here. What kind of mattress? Don’t bother just for me. an imperative of ἀμελέω.
Myrrhine returns bringing a little couch. a mattress. and ὦ ϕίλτατε should help you to recognise the person. ‘Now I’ve got everything I want. 46 διατριβῆς ‘delay’. jump up. strictly speaking. ταχύ The neuter (singular or plural) of the adjective is often used in place of the adverb. You should now be able to recognise the tense.
Translation for 10E
MYRRHINE KINESIAS ΜYR. And yet I must bring a mattress. And yet you don’t have a pillow. Why don’t you lie down? And indeed I’m undressing.
40 μυριῶ Future of μυρίζω. ‘waste time’ and thus ‘delay’. (After kissing her husband she goes out again. so it must express a wish. ‘May he perish most wretchedly. so ‘Never mind’. (She goes out again. She returns bringing a pillow. Let me kiss you instead. 53 ψηϕιεῖ From ψηϕίζομαι. I’m undressing. but I need one. By Zeus.’ 32 ἀμέλει This is.) Look. but it comes to be used as if it were an adverb: ‘of course’. 19 Literally ‘Now I have all things. 50 ἔα From ἐάω ‘I allow’ or ‘let pass’. She comes back very quickly bringing a mattress. goddess of chastity. But I don’t need one.) Stand up. as many as I need’ (δέομαι takes the genitive). hence ‘I spend time’.
. ΜΥR. 57–58 τί πάσχω. who ﬁrst …’ 52 νὴ τὴν Ἄρτεμιν An ominous change of oath from the goddess of love to the virgin huntress. i. 55 ψηϕιοῦμαι See above. Present followed by future.Section 10E
11 προσκεϕάλαιον How does this word come to mean ‘pillow’?
17 ἀνίστασο ‘stand up’. ‘quickly’. Look. Perhaps translate ‘Forget it!’ κάκιστ᾽ ἀπόλοιτο There is no ἄν with this optative.e. There. The verb διατρίβω means ‘I wear away something’.
KIN. τί πείσομαι.
Shall I anoint you with myrrh? By Apollo. MYR. ΜYR. KIN. For I’m coming back quickly. Myrrhine runs away. Now I’ll love you. ποιήσειαν ἀπέχοιντο. By Zeus. KIN. ΜYR. Of course you’ll do this. MYR. ΜYR. Good. σώσειεν ποιοῖεν. 3. my dearest husband. KIN. But. not me. (Suddenly she stops undressing. By Zeus. Myrrhine returns bringing a blanket. may I die [if I cheat you].144
KIN. Stretch out your hand and take what I shall give you and anoint yourself. ὅσπερ and ὅστις. I’ll do this. Who shall I screw now? Alas! I’m the unluckiest man alive. Poor me. Hang on. KIN. 219.) You don’t have a blanket.
he saved they make/do they refrained from
σῴζοι. Everything? Come here then. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 10
AORIST OPTATIVE 10: 1
1. by Artemis. KIN. You have met them a few times. I’ve brought the myrrh from Rhodes. the wife will destroy me. ΜYR. For it smells of delay. Let it be. but I want to screw you. I’m undoing my shoes at any rate. KIN. What’s going on here? The wife’s gone off and left me. KIN. 2. May the man who ﬁrst made myrrh die very horribly. Look. But lie down and don’t bring me anything. what am I suffering? What shall I suffer? Oh dear. #219 to master two further forms of the relative pronoun.) The creature will kill me with her blankets. my dear lady. KIN.
Exercises for section 10
ΜYR. Notice that both parts of ὅστις decline. But take care not to cheat me over the treaty which we recently discussed. I don’t need one. The myrrh which you have given me is not pleasant.
I’ve now got everything I need. Oh dear. (She goes out. I shall do this. but it doesn’t smell of marriage. will you vote to make a treaty? I’ll vote. ἀπόσχοιντο
. By Aphrodite. Now I’m untying my sash. Myrrhine baby.
Now learn GE p. MYR.
he ﬁnishes we lived together I voted we cease you compelled he blamed I ﬂee
καταλύοι. 5. βραχέσι ἀληθεῖς. ἧστινος αἷς. 3. 5.
ἀληθεῖς. δώσουσι 5. βραχεῖς ἀληθοῦς. you (s. ἅστινας. 4. μέμψαιτο φεύγοιμι. δοίη 4. 7.)
6. δώσετε 9. δώσεται 3. 2. participle) 8. ἔδοτε
ἀμελής and γλυκύς 10: 4
you were giving he/she gives he/she gave to give (aor. pres. ἅττα ὧν.) will give 9. βραχέων
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 10: 5
1. οὕστινας. ἅστινας οἵ. ἅς. ἔδοτο 2. δοῖτο 10. 5. γλυκέα παίδια τοῖς ἀμελέσι. 8. 6. ἅ. βραχείας ἀληθῆ. 6. giving (f. ψηφισαίμην παυοίμεθα. to give (pres. 4. οὕστινας ἧς.s. 2.) giving (m. 5. 10. αἷστισι(ν) ἅς. part.
who whom whose to whom whom who (those) whom whose
ὅς. 2. βραχεῖς ἀληθῶν. φύγοιμι
δίδωμι 10: 2
1. παυσαίμεθα ἀναγκάζοις. δώσομαι 7. οἵτινες οὕς. 6. 7.
τοὺς ἀμελεῖς. βραχέα ἀληθέσι. δώσεσθαι
1. ὧντινων. ὅτων
. 9.) 10.Exercises for section 10
4. pres. 3. καταλύσειεν συνοικοῖμεν. ἀναγκάσειας μέμφοιτο. 8. γλυκέων υἱέων
7. s. ὅστις οὕς. δούς 8. give! 7. γλυκεῖς φύλακας τῆς ἀμελοῦς. γλυκεῖς μάρτυρες τῶν ἀμελῶν. γλυκέσιν ἀμφοτέροις οἱ ἀμελεῖς. δότε. γλυκείας μητρός τὰ ἀμελῆ. 4. συνοικήσαιμεν ψηφιζοίμην. 3. they were giving
ὃς ἀνήρ ἐστι Μυρρίνης. δούς a.
3. ὧντινων. ὅτων 4. Kinesias goes to the Acropolis. προσαγορεύσαις I would gladly give up the war.146
Revision exercises for section 10
9. ἐδίδoυ Why are you not willing to give me what I ask for? διδόναι Why are you giving me this apple. c. Κινησίας. ποιήσαιμι I could see the city. bribe I plan.
You could speak to me. serious. b. παυσαίμην We should like to make a truce with great eagerness.
a. ὅτων REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 10
1. The men do not in any way want to end the war. 2. haste I live with a wall
it concerns I give back the gift. ἐθελήσαιμεν I could not do this. e. αἱ γυναῖκες. marriage I fortify
the act of giving (dose) I give a present. ἅτινα. d. ἴδοιμι Will you give me what you have? δώσεις He was giving the money to the woman. important
giving in return. The women are on the Acropolis. the man went away. d. βοῶσιν. αἵ εἰσιν ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλει. Kinesias is the husband of Myrrhine. ὧντινων. ὧντινων. Mother. e. ὅτι.
. c. repayment (antidote)
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. The men are ﬁghting the battles. what 10. c. ᾗτινι 2. ὧν. ᾧ. ὧν. βαδίζει πρὸς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν. b. ὧν. what
ὅ. contrive I am zealous. ᾧτινι. ἅτινα. ἅττα ὅ. ὅτων 3. ὅτῳ 5. ὅτι ἅ. busy a living together. I bribe eager. ἅ. ᾗ. Myrrhine? δίδως Suddenly giving (aorist participle) the woman the money which she demanded. ἅττα
uncaring I give a gift a scheme zeal. b. a. The women are shouting.
The old women hold the Acropolis. ὧν τὸ ἔργoν ἐστὶ μάχεσθαι. ποῦ ἐστι Κινησίας οὗ Μυρρίνη ἐστὶν ἡ γυνή. i. καὶ πίθεσθε. e.
oἱ ἄνδρες. δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰρήνην ἄγειν ἣ αἰτία ἐστὶ πολλῶν καλῶν. j. ἆρ᾽ οὐδεὶς ἀναγκάσει τοὺς ἄνδρας παύεσθαι τοῦ πολέμου. oἳ τὰς μάχας μάχονται. δός μοι τὴν χεῖρα. 4. ΛΑΜ. h. Where is Kinesias? Myrrhine is his wife.Revision exercises for section 10
d. δεῖ τοίνυν ἡμᾶς ἀπέχεσθαι πάσας τῶν ἀϕροδισίων. σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι. ἆρα αἱ γυναῖκες ἀϕέξονται τῶν δώρων ἃ oἱ ἄνδρες δώσουσιν αὐταῖς. αἱ γρᾶες μηχανὴν μηχανῶνται ᾗπερ τὰ τείχη λήψονται. ΛΑΜΠΙΤΩ ἀλλὰ δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰρήνην ἄγειν. ἀκούετε οὖν τοὺς λόγους οὓς λέγω. τὸν πόλεμον καταλυσάσας. 1. παυσάσας τοὺς ἄνδρας οἳ τὰς μάχας μάχονται. ποιεῖν ἃ ἐθέλομεν. ὦ ϕίλη Λαμπιτώ. f. ἆρ᾽ ἐστὶν ἥτις ποιήσει ἃ κελεύω. ΛΑΜ. ἆρα γιγνώσκεις τὸν ἄνδρα ὃς προσέρχεται. γυναιξὶν οὔσαις. I can see the old women. ΓYΝΑΙΚΕΣ ποιήσαιμεν ἄν. οὐδεμίᾳ σπουδῇ ϕυλάττουσιν. ΚΛΕΟΝΙΚΗ οὐδ᾽ ἐγώ. We must keep peace. 3.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. δεῖ ἡμᾶς. Peace is the cause of many good things. καὶ πείσομεν τοὺς ἄνδρας. ΛYΣ. ἐγὼ οὖν συμψηϕιοῦμαί σοι. τοῦτο ποιεῖν. 2. ἄπιθι δῆτα πρὸς τὴν Λακεδαίμονα. ἀλλὰ πῶς (τίνι τρόπῳ) ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν. What is this? What do you want to say? τί ἐστι τοῦτο ὃ ἐθέλεις λέγειν. καταλῦσαι τὸν πόλεμον. ποῦ αἱ γρᾶες ὧν τὸ ἔργον ἐστὶ ϕυλάττειν τὰ χρήματα. ἀμελεῖς ὄντες. αἳ γυναῖκές ἐσμεν (γυναιξὶν οὔσαις). νὴ Δία. ΜYΡΡΙΝΗ οὐ ποιήσω τοῦτο οὐδαμῶς. αἱ γρᾶες ἔχουσι τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ἃς ἐγὼ ἰδεῖν δύναμαι. ἀλλ᾽. The women want to hear the words. Do you recognise the man? The man is approaching. ΛYΣ. 2. αἱ γυναῖκες ἐθέλoυσιν ἀκούειν τοὺς λόγους οὓς λέγει Λυσιστράτη. Lysistrata speaks the words. οὐκ ἐθέλoυσιν οὐδαμῶς τὸν πόλεμον καταλῦσαι. ἰδού. 5. οὗτοι οἱ ϕύλακες. g. ΓYΝΗ κἀγὼ δὴ ἐθελήσαιμ᾽ ἄν. ΛYΣ.
. ἣν ἐν νῷ ἔχω. εἰπέ μοι ἃ ἐν νῷ ἔχεις. καὶ πεῖσον τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους. εὐθὺς δ’ ἄπειμι. ΛYΣ. ΛYΣ. ἆρα ποιησαιτ᾽ ἂν ἃ κελεύω. χαλεπὴ οὖσα τυγχάνει ἡ μηχανὴ. Where are the old women? It is their task to guard the money. δοκεῖ ἡμῖν.
Why then don’t we call Lysistrata. LYS. by the twin gods. And then let each one take his own wife and go off home. and why do you not cease from your nastiness. And yet we ask for no other gift than to be able to make love. Why are you ﬁghting now in this way. therefore. you who have the same altars and the same sacriﬁces? Why do you destroy Greek men and cities. Oh. All of you. But what is happening in Lacedaemonia? Could you say? LAC.148
Revision exercises for section 10
F – TEST EXERCISE 10
Where is the Athenian Council? I would like to report something new. I know what you mean. ‘to whom it is possible …’) to see peace and to be friends and allies? LAC. by the twin gods. for here she is herself. but I have sense. walking with such great eagerness? LAC. having heard what we were saying. when instead of this it is possible for you (lit. What is this thing of yours which you have got in your hands? LAC. It is a Spartan code-staff. which they themselves will tell us to make. I would gladly tell you. by the twin gods! Who could tell us where Lysistrata is? ATH. I am really suffering severely. LYSISTRATA Come. ATHENIAN Who are you who come here to the wall. make a treaty and end the war. LAC. ATH. Listen to the words which I speak. I am a woman. and I have just come from Sparta about peace. Therefore. And how are you getting on? You are suffering severely.
. there is no need for us to call her. we must obey the women and make the truce. ATH. ATH. I am a herald. For a great evil has befallen us. who alone could make a treaty for us? For we too have suffered this evil. Yes. and Lampito is responsible. coming. from what you say. & ATH. ATH. LAC. and end the war. men. who came back from Athens and persuaded the women to refrain from sex.
To ﬁnd out what the present stem is. remove the ς from the ξ and you will be left with three possibilities. the genitive absolute (GE p. If you now check with the vocabulary or a dictionary. 10 The Prytaneis: ‘presidents’ acting as chairmen for the meetings of the assembly. ἥγω or ἥχω. οὑτοσί. Cf. 231. εὐ-δόκιμος) mostly fall into this category. 13 ἐντὸς τοῦ καθάρματος A puriﬁcation ceremony was held before each meeting of the βουλή and the ἐκκλησία. comparative adverbs (GE pp.
1 κυρία ἐκκλησία See RGT p. could be ﬁned for arriving late. 91. each tribe having a spell of providing these presidents.Section Eleven: Aristophanes’ Akharnians
There is relatively little grammatical input in this section. 230–231. 226–227. The concept of the passive will present no problem to Latinists.g. ἀ-θάνατος. Section 8A line 25 and the map on RGT p. See GE pp. you will ﬁnd ἥκω ‘I come’. The Assembly itself was proclaimed by a trumpet call. ἥκω. You learn the present and imperfect tenses passive (GE pp. any citizen arriving with vermilion dye. #221 will be useful.e. οὑτοιί See note on line 2 about the extra demonstrative. 227. 228. The ten tribes between them subdivided the year into ten parts. #225) and the optative of ϕημί (GE p. 92. ἥξουσιν This is a future tense.
. and therefore touched by the rope. 229–230. Compound adjectives (e. which are the same as the middle. #220). #227). #222). 2 ἡ Πνὺξ αὑτηί αὑτηί is the extra demonstrative form. It holds out a tantalising vision of peace. as well as a number of other adjectives. i. GE p. #226. it has no separate feminine ending. It involved the sacriﬁce of a pig. ἐρῆμος Why no feminine ending? It’s a two-termination adjective. Aristophanes’ comedy Akharnians tells us much about Athenian politics and the feelings of the countrymen of Attica cooped up inside the city during the Peloponnesian War. 5 σχοινίον A rope with vermilion dye was swept across the agora to push people towards the Pnyx (the hill on which the ecclesia was held).
Amphitheos. But I always come into the assembly and sit down ﬁrst. No. Don’t worry too much about this construction. I know it well. This is precisely what I was saying. HER. 32 ἀπαγόντων … αὐτῶν ‘them leading him away’. But the Pnyx here is empty. The prytaneis will come in late. 31 oἱ τοξόται ‘the bowmen’: these were Scythian mercenaries. One of their duties was keeping order in the ἐκκλησία. AMPHITHEOS Has anyone spoken yet? Amphitheos waits. who obeyed the orders of the state executives. The men in the agora are talking to each other as they run from the rope all over the place. loving peace but hating the city and longing for my own deme. HER. For the prytaneis don’t give them to me. ‘when all had come forward’. ‘as they lead him away’. but the herald doesn’t answer.
Translation for 11A
But what’s this? For I know that the sovereign assembly is going to be held today. It occurs mainly in stage directions in this section and is thoroughly revised in Section 12. When all have come forward. But here are the prytaneis coming in late. Who wishes to speak? AMP (Again he addresses the herald. So I hope to receive the travelling expenses … A SPEAKER Know well. HERALD (He makes a proclamation. The Athenians praise this and raise a clamour.e. But since I’m an immortal. Come forward inside the puriﬁed place. Who are you? AMP.e. All those present come forward to the front. So don’t listen to this man unless he speaks about war. 228–229. #222–223 – ‘all having come forward’. i. gentlemen. and on my own I look out to the country.) Come forward to the front.e.
. hired by the state.) I do. HER. 26 Amphitheos claims to be a god. As Amphitheos waits he continues his proclamation. but he complains that the prytaneis are not granting him his travel expenses. I don’t have the travelling expenses which I need. But nobody thinks how peace will happen. Not a man? AMP. ‘since Amphitheos stays there’. i. that I am well disposed to the people. Athenians. suddenly someone called Amphitheos addresses the herald. i.150
14 παρελθόντων … πάντων The genitive absolute – see GE pp. 18 μένοντος … Ἀμϕιθέου Another genitive absolute – ‘Amphitheos remaining’. but an immortal whom the gods have ordered to make a treaty with the Spartans.
’ The verbs are passives. 4 ‘For we are always being deceived and wronged and ruined by them. χρηματίζετε Indicative or imperative? 36 δεῖται + genitive = ‘needs’. τοῦ Δικαιοπόλεως δόντος Note the aorist participles of δίδωμι. A further statement of Pericles’ policy at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. Dikaiopolis becomes angry. I won’t. 23ff. ἐκδικάζετε.Section 11B
HER. By Apollo. Write out this sentence in English with the verbs in the active beginning with ‘For they …’ At this stage all passives are used with ὑπό + gen. HER. Learn GE p. or with the dative when it is a thing. you wrong the assembly by leading off the man who was going to make a treaty for us. GE p.
Archers! The archers come in and lead off Amphitheos. What verb? Note that there is no ἄν with the optative and therefore this is a wish. ἀπολλύμενοι Present passive participle of ἀπόλλυμι: ‘being destroyed by …’ The datives here mean ‘by’ (dative of instrument). 22 ἐξισταμένοις What verb?: Hint: -στα-. meaning ‘by’ when it is a person.
. DIK. ‘realising’) followed by acc. Prytaneis. 13ff. #227. 31 δούς. 170. ἀπόλοιντο in line 4). 14 ἄκοντες ‘unwilling’. 12 ἔστω ‘so be it’. ἐξαπατώμενος. The ambassadors from the king.(cf. the opposite of ἕκοντες. 33 πρεσβεύεσθε. then the main clause ἐγὼ … οὐ πολεμήσω. 6–7 πειθόμενος. but the structure is clear: γνούς (a participle. You could translate it ‘please tell me’. διαϕθειρόμενος These are passive participles: the ﬁrst one means ‘being persuaded’. Shut up and sit down. HER. then a genitive absolute τῶν ἄλλων πολεμούντων. sometimes called the dative of the person concerned. and participle (twice) ἐμαυτὸν … ὄντα. #187. but you do business about peace. As they are leading him off. 231. θωπευόμενος. ἀλλ᾽ εἰρήνην ἄξω (future of ἄγω). What do the others mean? 10 ϕαίη Optative of ϕημί. This is quite a complicated looking sentence. 25 μοι This is an ethic dative. and οὐκ ἀναγκαζόμενον … ποιεῖν ἃ μὴ ἐθέλω.
DIK. 28. 5 ἀδικουμένοις Passive participle: ‘being wronged’.
1 ὄλοιντο Note the stem ὀλ.
(Giving to Amphitheos eight drachmas. But the city needs neither triremes nor dockyards if it is going to be happy.
Amphitheos is now back from Sparta. nor great numbers nor great size. For in this city nobody is ever forced by anyone to do what he doesn’t want. Amphitheos. then do business about the war and about ways of raising money and about making laws and about allies and about triremes and about dockyards and about sacriﬁces. But please. Realising that I am free and not being forced by anyone to do what I don’t want to. without peace. either about the people or the speakers or the war or the written or unwritten laws. then make judgements. DIK. For what do we farmers not suffer at their hands? For we are always being deceived and wronged and ruined by them.) You take these eight drachmas and make a treaty with the Spartans for just me and my children. who as they go along the roads love to bump into the travellers who don’t get out of their way. angry old men eager to go on with the war because their vineyards are being burnt by the Spartans. being destroyed by the way they live. After Dikaiopolis has given him the travelling expenses. I myself shall not make war but shall live in peace. then.152
Translation for 11B
Death to all the Athenians who praise and obey what the prytaneis say. so be it. I consider utterly free the horses and the mules in the city.’ But I answer.
.’ All right. come here. But perhaps someone may say. but the good man who gives good advice is never honoured by them. You deal with ambassadors. where is Amphitheos? AMPHITHEOS Here I am. Amphitheos goes away. ‘And yet the sailors have power in the assembly while the farmers are forced against their will to live in the city. If they want to be deceived and persuaded and ﬂattered by the speakers. For the man who says ‘I am well disposed to the crowd’ is always honoured by the people.’ Perhaps this man might answer ‘But aren’t you free? So don’t worry at all. But what can we do when we are always being wronged by them in this way? For the people seem to enjoy being persuaded by the speakers and being ﬂattered and cheated and ruined by their words. their lack of provisions and the plague. He is being hotly pursued by Akharnians. while the others are making war. ‘So what? The people are free and rule themselves and are not ruled by any other. and the worst death of all to those speakers who ﬂatter the people and always deceive them.
AMP. 23 ὀξύτατα Superlative adverb. DIK. What’s up? AMP. ‘You foulest of creatures. i. It doesn’t please me because it smells of equipping of ships. Amphitheos keeps running. being ﬁghters at the battle of Marathon. ‘the Spartans having destroyed our land’. #225. For I must ﬂee and escape from the Akharnians. (He gives him one sample. Learn the comparative and superlative adverbs. Let them shout.e. DIK. we often have to supply a word (e. But they were following me and shouting.) This is for ﬁve years. I ran away. (After Amphitheos has given it him. And when they took up stones. 229–230.g. What is it? DIK. ‘although’) in English and create a clause.
.) You take this ten-year treaty instead and taste it. then. ‘when’. Amphitheos. It smells too – very pungently of ambassadors to the cities. DIK. I was hurrying here bringing a treaty for you. What English word should we supply here? 11 βοώντων GE #206–207. Dikaiopolis. DIK. ‘since’.
26 The Rural Dionysia was a festival held in winter. Note how.) Yuk! AMP. But here is a thirty-year peace by both land and sea. the moment they spotted me bringing the treaty. ‘most sharply’. Those old men. Greetings. Dikaiopolis tastes it. I’ll say.Section 11C
2 Δικαιοπόλεως δὲ ταῦτα εἰπόντος Genitive absolute. But are you bringing the treaty? AMP. Though Dikaiopolis has said this. (Giving him another sample. In Akharnians Dikaiopolis emerges from his house leading his family in a mini-procession of the Rural Dionysia. ‘although the Spartans have wrecked our land’. are you bringing a treaty when the Spartans have destroyed our land?’ And they took up stones. in the genitive absolute construction. But I didn’t evade the Akharnians. AMP. The central feature was a procession bearing a phallus to promote the fertility of the autumn-sown crops. Here are three samples. AMPHITHEOS Not yet. ‘when Dikaiopolis had said this …’ 9 Genitive absolute. all shouted.
Translation for 11C
But here’s Amphitheos back from Sparta. Take it and taste. 9–10 λίθους δὲ λαβόντων αὐτῶν See note above. GE pp.
bidding a long farewell to the Akharnians. by the men. 6. but the important thing is that agents (people) are in the genitive with ὑπό. ἐδίδοτο he is/was being given ἀναγκάζομαι.
GENITIVE ABSOLUTE 11: 3
1. ἐξηγόμεθα we are/were being driven out
1. 4. we were prevented by the teacher. by the men. this smells of ambrosia and nectar. ἠλευθερούμεθα we are/were being freed τιμᾶσθε. κατελύετο it is/was being ended διώκονται. 9. they were loved by the herald. by the guards. κηρύττεται ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος. They are persuaded by the arguments. ἐφιλοῦ you (s. 5. 6.
κηρύττεται. τῇ ἀληθείᾳ. 8. There are a number of possible answers in this exercise.) are/were being honoured δίδοται. I’ll choose this with the greatest pleasure. without a preposition. (Seeing the Akharnians approaching. ἐφυλαττόμην ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων.
Exercises for section 11
AMP. 2. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. ἐκωλυόμεθα ὑπὸ τοῦ διδασκάλου. with the words. 5. ἠναγκαζόμην I am/was being compelled καταλύεται. by the wall. 2.
ἐφιλοῦντο ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος. 2. by the truth N.) are/were being loved ἄρχονται. ἐτιμᾶσθε you (pl. Ceasing from war and its evils I intend to go in and celebrate the country Dionysia.154
DIK. πείθονται τοῖς λόγοις. 3. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 11
THE PASSIVE 11: 1
1. ἤρχοντο they are/were being ruled ἐλευθερούμεθα.B. while instruments are translated by the dative alone. ἐξεφέρετο ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. 7. τῷ τείχει.) And I’ll run away from the Akharnians. 10. it was carried out by the men. ἐδιώκοντο they are/were being pursued ἐξαγόμεθα. τοῖς λόγοις. 3. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων. ἐκηρύττετο it is/was being announced φιλῇ.
Ο festival of Dionysos.
ἡμῶν φυγόντων εἰς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν τῶν ῥητόρων ἀκουσάντων τῶν λόγων
. I was guarded by the guards. it is announced by the herald. 4.
It was called the tholos. ταῖς μηχαναῖς ταῖς τῶν γυναικῶν ἠναγκάζοντο oἱ ἄνδρες σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι. δούσης μοι τὸ ἀργύριον τῆς γυναικός. for 10A)
perception willing the prytaneion (the building in which the prytaneis lodged during their term of ofﬁce. b. g. ἡ ἐκκλησία θωπεύεται τοῖς ἡμετέροις λόγοις.
I perceive unwilling the prytanis (see vocab.
σοῦ δόντος ἡμῖν τὰ σῖτα τῶν δούλων ἐλευθερουμένων τῶν σοφιστῶν τοὺς νεανίσκους διδαξάντων λαβόντων τῶν Περσῶν τὰς ναῦς ἐλθόντος ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν τοῦ δώρου διδομένου τῇ γυναικί
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 11
A – WORDS
1. The politician deceives the people. c. The woman gave me the money.Revision exercises for section 11
3. j. 4. 8. oἱ πολῖται πείθονται ὑϕ᾽ ὑμῶν εἰρήνην ἄγειν. 5. 6. ἡ ἐκκλησία ἠδικεῖτο τοῖς λόγοις τοῖς τῶν ῥητόρων.
. 7. a. and I went away.)
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. ἡμεῖς πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐπορευόμεθα. h.
a. oἱ χρηστοὶ τιμῶνται ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου. ἀδικεῖται ἡ πόλις ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. f. ἐπείθετο τοῖς δώροις ὁ δῆμος. We ﬂatter the assembly with our words/speeches. b. The people honour good men. ἀπῆλθον. 2. Lysistrata compels us to make peace. e. The men went away. You persuade the citizens to maintain peace. ἀπελθόντων τῶν ἀνδρῶν. The schemes of the women compelled the men to make a truce. The gifts/bribery persuaded the people. The orators/politicians wrong the city. i. ἀναγκαζόμεθα σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῆς Λυσιστράτης. ἐξαπατᾶται ὑπὸ τοῦ ῥήτορος ὁ δῆμος. The walls used to guard the city. d. The speeches of the politicians were unjust to / wronged the assembly. ἡ πόλις ἐϕυλάττετο τοῖς τείχεσιν. but we went on towards the city.
but the god was silent. I started to run away (imperfect).
E – TEST EXERCISE 11
This is a difﬁcult passage based on a later extract from the Akharnians when Dikaiopolis has persuaded the chorus to listen to his anti-war argument. but the Athenians do not care. τῆς πόλεως ἀδικουμένης ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. e. Amphitheos presented treaties. ὁ Δικαιόπολις οὐδὲν ἐϕρόντιζεν. 1. ἡμῶν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων ἐξαπατωμένων.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. 3. 2. οἱ δὲ τἀληθῆ οὐ λέξουσιν. οἱ πρυτανεῖς εἰσέβαινον εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν. ὁ Δικαιόπολις ἐδέξατο. τῆς ἐκκλησίας ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἀρχομένης. and Dikaiopolis received them. ἡσυχίαν ἄξομεν. καὶ ἡκόντων αὐτῶν. τῶν ἄλλων πολεμούντων. 2. τοῦ κήρυκος κηρύξαντος. ἐγὼ οὐ πολεμήσω. τῶν γεωργῶν πρὸς τοὺς ἀγροὺς βλεπόντων. The city is wronged by the politicians. ὁ δῆμος ἐπείθετο πολεμεῖν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. h. 5. He also refers to an occasion when Kleon had indicted Aristophanes for abusing the
. ἀλλ᾽ οἱ πρυτάνεις οὑτοιὶ ἥκουσιν. The rest are at war. οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι διαϕθείρουσι τὴν γῆν. οὐδεὶς ἑκὼν χρηματιεῖ οὔτε περὶ τούτων οὔτε περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης. 4. The Akharnians picked up (aorist) stones. but I shall not go to war. ἡ ἐκκλησία ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἄρχεται. τοῦ κήρυκος κηρύττοντος.156
Revision exercises for section 11
c. γεωργοὶ ὄντες. ἐγὼ ἔϕευγον. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι οὐ βούλονται ἀκούειν. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι οὐδὲν ϕροντίζουσιν. but the Athenians do not want to listen. The assembly is ruled by no one and the people do what they like. εἰς τοὺς ἀγροὺς βλέποντες. g. τῆς δὲ πόλεως ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν διαϕθειρομένης. The god is waiting. τοῦ θεοῦ μένοντος. τοῦ Ἀμϕιθέου δόντος τὰς σπονδάς. ἄκοντες μὲν γὰρ ἀναγκαζόμεθα ἀκούειν τὰ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν λεγόμενα. The herald made a proclamation. j. λέγεται ὅτι οἱ ῥήτορες εὐνοῖ εἰσι τῇ πόλει. τῆς ἐκκλησίας περὶ τοῦ πολέμου χρηματιζούσης. ἀεὶ γὰρ λέγουσιν ὅτι ἡ πόλις ἄρχεται αὐτὴ ὑϕ᾽ αὑτῆς ϕιλουμένη ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ῥητόρων. ὁ δῆμος ποιεῖ ἃ ἐθέλει. εὖ οἶσθ᾽ ὅτι οἱ ῥήτορες παρίασι. ὁ θεὸς ἐσίγησεν. d. λέγειν βουλόμενοι. i. ἡμεῖς δέ. oἱ δὲ οὐδενὶ ἀλλῷ ἢ ἑαυτοῖς εὐνοῖ ὄντες τυγχάνουσι. οὐκ ἀρέσκει μοι οὐδαμῶς τὸ πρᾶγμα. f. τῶν Ἀχαρνέων λίθους λαβόντων. The assembly was discussing/doing business about the war but Dikaiopolis did not care.
I hate the Lacedaemonians very much. most particularly Pericles. themselves. My vineyard is being cut down by them. But (for you who are here are friends) how are the Lacedaemonians responsible for these disasters? There are men among us (I do not mean the city. That was at the City Dionysia. their wives and their children. and no strangers are here yet. the big spring festival. remember this. though the Megarians and the Lacedaemonians often asked and begged us to withdraw the decree. May they perish. and we are shut up in the city against our will. For we are on our own. spectators. if I come as a beggar and begin speaking among Athenians about the city.
Don’t make a noise. nor on the mainland. nor on the sea. who proposed the law that Megarians must not remain on land. This was the start of the war. this is at the Lenaia. that I do not mean the city) who are responsible. For even comedy knows what justice is. nor in the market. a festival held in winter when few foreigners could sail to Athens. And. For Kleon will not now abuse me for speaking ill of the city when strangers are present. even though I am taking part in a comedy. the Olympian. And I shall tell you terrible but just things. we were not willing to do so. For it was not pleasing to Pericles.
.Revision exercises for section 11
Athenian people in public when there were foreigners in the audience. being destroyed by the plague and always gazing out at our ﬁelds.
Translation for 12A
When the herald summons them the dikasts come into the courtroom. μέλλουσι δικάσειν μέλλω + future inﬁnitive. A great deal of new grammar and syntax is introduced in these sections and so it is wise to do the exercises when they occur to consolidate your learning with practice. they immediately greet one another. 15 ὄλοιο 2nd. Rhetorical Greek is often elaborately structured and you may ﬁnd that you have to analyse the sentences carefully as a whole.
. aorist optative of ὄλλυμι: ‘may you perish’. 9 οὐκ ἤλπιζον ἐντεύξεσθαι ἐλπίζω + future inﬁnitive. before you can translate them in detail. shaking hands. When Komias and Euergides come into the lawcourt – where they are going to judge a case about Neaira – they greet one another.
Section Twelve: Neaira as slave
1–2 ἄλλος ἄλλον ὡς ὁρῶσιν ἥκοντα ‘as they see one another coming’. ‘I did not expect to meet. 3 οὗ ‘where’. The case is also fairly confusing. Cf.Sections Twelve–Fourteen: The prosecution of Neaira
The next three sections are taken from a lawcourt speech. 11 ἐξέσται The future of the impersonal verb ἔξεστι: ‘it will be possible’. ποῦ ‘where?’ interrogative. ﬁnish reading Section 12 and then go back to revise the grammar and do the exercises. The speech throws some interesting light on the position of women in Athenian society.’ 9–10 Στρυμοδώρῳ … διατρίβοντι … νέῳ ὄντι καὶ ἀπείρῳ All agree. ‘I am about to do something’. so it is well worth reading the introduction before you start. s. or. with imaginary conversations between three jurors at intervals. relative. if you ﬁnd that makes you lose track of the story. which ingeniously reinforce the new points of grammar and syntax that have been introduced. And as they see one another coming in.
12 πάνυ δεινὸν λέγειν ‘very clever at speaking’.
5 oὐδεν διαϕέρει ‘it makes no difference’. Oh what luck! But I did not expect to meet Strymodoros spending his time in the lawcourt. For we must show common goodwill for the contestants and listen in the same way to the arguments which each of them uses. ὁ διώκων = ‘the pursuer’. Sit down.Section 12B
Greetings. he will say. by Zeus. neighbours. 260. EU. And indeed Apollodoros seems to himself and to many others to be beneﬁting the city and making the laws valid by bringing a charge against Neaira for being an alien. But I know that you. since he is a young man and without experience in judicial matters. But who is that. EUERGIDES But it makes no difference if his nature is meddling or not. ἄν + optative expresses a polite request. 16 οὐκ ἂν σιγῴης καὶ προσέχοις τὸν νοῦν. Perhaps Apollodoros is naturally patriotic. Strymodoros! STRYMODOROS Greetings. 20 καὶ προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν See above on line 16. and ‘The defendant did me the greatest
. Oh the size of the crowd! (He is pushed by a juror who is holding his tunic. according to the oath which we swore. Euergides. ὁ ϕεύγων = ‘the ﬂeer’. and he has a meddlesome nature. it is indeed the man himself. What a big crowd! But who is this? It’s not really our neighbour Strymodoros. And Apollodoros.
Translation for 12B
Apollodoros the prosecutor comes in. I know it well. ‘I did not begin the enmity’. who is approaching the rostrum. #245). Komias. an idiomatic use of δεινός + the inﬁnitive. ‘Won’t you be quiet and concentrate?’ 19 ὅπως σιωπήσεις ὅπως. KOMIAS And [greetings] to you too. Strymodoros. ὅπως μή + future indicative expresses a caution ‘see that you …’ (GE p. Euergides. Well done. KOM. as a prosecutor are very clever at speaking. walking quickly? KOMIAS This happens to be the prosecutor in the trial. is it? Yes. Why don’t you call him over here? It will be possible for him to sit with us. KOM. what did you mean by holding my tunic? To hell with you! (May you perish!) EU. will say the same things. For such things are always said by the accusers. whose name is Apollodoros. ‘prosecutor’. A good suggestion (you speak well) and we will call him. ‘the defendant’.) You.
11–12 τίς γὰρ οὐκ ἂν βούλοιτο … ‘Who would not want?’ Potential expressed by ἄν + optative. and he is standing up. which I am now pursuing.
14 ὅπως μὴ … πιστεύσεις ‘See that you don’t trust …’ (see note on 12B. Similarly. some have not and are intransitive. not only myself. I want to give you a preliminary outline of everything we suffered and [to tell you] how.
injustice’. if it does not have an object it will mean ‘stand’.160
EU. genitive of ὅς. Strymodoros. 17 ἡδέως ἄν τι μάθοιμι Cf. but Stephanos did. and concentrate. 236–237. [although] he had not been wronged in any way yet by us in word or deed. aorist passive of ἀδικέω: ‘I was wronged’ (GE pp. Euergides. ‘set up’. For I did not begin the enmity.
KOM. 2–3 οὗ γυνή ἐστιν … ‘Whose wife is …’ oὗ = ‘whose’. It is therefore for the sake of revenge that I am engaging in this contest.’
Translation for 12C
Apollodoros speaks. I shall be silent. But see that you are silent too. καθίστημι εἰς + object means ‘I put someone into a state’. If it has an object it will mean ‘place’. gentlemen of Athens. Reasonably. ‘be set up’. See GE p. ‘set myself up’. and ‘I want to be revenged on him. having been placed in such danger. pl. aorist passive participle of ἀδικέω. having been wronged by him.’ But I am not always persuaded by such statements. line 21. and to come before you. but καθίσταμαι εἰς (without an object) means ‘I get into a state’. #234. we were placed in extreme danger of poverty and loss of citizen rights. s. line 19). But now won’t you be quiet and concentrate? For Apollodoros is already clearing his throat. potential ἄν + optative. #228). I wanted to bring this charge against Neaira. but my daughters and my wife. For I was greatly wronged by Stephanos whose wife this Neaira is.
For many reasons. as people do who are starting to speak.
. I was placed in extreme danger. 7 ἀδικηθέντες Nom. 242.
2 ἠδικήθην 1st s. 3 κατέστην From the verb ἵστημι. ‘I would gladly learn something. m. Some tenses are transitive and have an object. ἀδικηθείς Nom. And having been wronged by him. m. aorist passive participle of ἀδικέω.
But I would gladly learn something. and having brought false witnesses. And now with all my friends encouraging me
. Aorist passive. and thus began our enmity. The grammar of this is explained later in GE pp. m. s. 247–249. to deprive me of my citizen rights. For he was seeking. as it seems. KOMIAS Take care that you do not easily trust the contestants. having placed me in extreme embarrassment. 9 oἳ οὐκ ἐπείσθησαν ‘who were not persuaded’. 4 ὃ οὐχ οἷός τ᾽ ἦ ἐκτεῖσαι ‘Which I was not able (οἷός τ᾽ ἦ) to pay’. STR. aorist indicative from αἰτέω. For Apollodoros is continuing to speak about the beginning of the conﬂict. For who would not want to take vengeance on an enemy? Everyone wants to do good to their friends and harm to their enemies. For Apollodoros says that being wronged by Stephanos he was placed in danger of poverty.
Translation for 12D
When I was acting as a member of the Council I proposed a decree which I brought before the people. having secured a conviction against the decree. I am deeply grateful to the jurors who were not persuaded by Stephanos. Strymodoros. 7–9 μοι … καταστάντι … οὐ δυναμένῳ … ὀϕείλοντι Note the agreement of all the participles with μοι. The disaster and the disgrace was going to be great for me in regard to my wife and daughters if I had been bankrupted and could not provide a dowry and owed the amount of my ﬁne to the state. who was wronged by Stephanos. Therefore we were all going to be placed in poverty. For. is a clever speaker. aorist participle of αἱρέω from εἷλον. ᾔτησε 3rd s. he asked for a large ﬁne which I could not pay.
19–21 ϕάσκω Στέϕανον τοῦτον συνοικεῖν … εἰσαγαγεῖν … ἐγγυᾶν … ἀσεβεῖν ‘I allege that Stephanos does …’ (a series of things in the inﬁnitive). Stephanos therefore became the cause of such great evils for us all. I feel goodwill towards him because it was Stephanos who began the enmity. but who inﬂicted a lesser penalty on me. What did Stephanos do to bring Apollodoros into this danger? EUERGIDES Listen. because I owed money to the state and was unable to pay. For when they stand up in court the contestants use every art to win the goodwill of the jurors.
3 ἑλών Nom.Section 12D
Apollodoros. But this Stephanos indicted my decree as illegal. though he had never been wronged by me. #235–236.
mid. It may be helpful if you look back over the passage you have just read in this section and see how it has been used. aor. and that he has introduced alien children into the phratries and to the demesmen. mid. mid. For my friends reproach me and call me the most cowardly of men if I do not exact vengeance on behalf of my daughters and my wife. Thus I have come to you and I declare that this Stephanos is living with a foreign woman contrary to the law. This is easy to recognise because of ‘θ’ but make sure you also read the notes! 2. by whom I was so wronged. #228–229) indicative and participle. this I want to prove to you clearly. The aorist passive (GE pp. mid. #230–233. she who is irreverent to the gods.
. That I was formerly wronged by Stephanos you know well. aor. Act. then go on and try the exercises to conﬁrm your understanding. 1st aor. act. Below is a simpliﬁed version in chart form. Therefore I bring this Neaira before you and charge her. I set X up for myself so 1st aor. 238–242. and that he gives in marriage the daughters of prostitutes as if they were his own daughters. and that he is committing sacrilege against the gods. I bring this case before you.. act. Act. Fut. (intrans. becomes transitive and ‘true’ middle. For Stephanos was trying to deprive me of my family against the laws.
The verb ἵστημι
Transitive Pres. Fut. This is difﬁcult and seems complicated at ﬁrst.
You should now learn the grammar for 12A–D before you go on. 1. See GE pp. That Neaira is an alien and that she is living with Stephanos against the laws. The verb ἵστημι ‘I set up’. Imperf. insulting to the city and contemptuous of your laws. Imperf. Intransitive ἵσταμαι (ἱστάμενος) I am standing up στήσομαι (στησόμενος) I will stand up ἱστάμην I was standing up ἔστην (στάς στᾶσα στάν) I stood up
ἐστησάμην (στησάμενος) 2nd. 1st aor.) has taken place of 1st aor. 236–237. act. mid. Act. mid.162
and urging me to take vengeance on Stephanos. 2nd. ἵστημι (ἱστάς) I am setting up στήσω (στήσων) I will set up ἵστην I was setting up ἔστησα (στήσας) I set up Pres.
5. εἰς κίνδυνον κατέστη περὶ τῆς πενίας.g.) were persuaded I was given he was guarded you (s. 2. ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. 2. ‘I become’. 9. 6. 3.
we are setting up to set up
τοὺς πολεμίους πεισθέντας τῷ δούλῳ λυθέντι τῶν χρημάτων δοθέντων αἱ γυναῖκες κελευθεῖσαι τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἀδικηθέντος
1. ‘I am made’.) were made
1. 8. e. τί ποιῶν ὁ Στέϕανος κατέστησε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον εἰς τοῦτον τὸν κίνδυνον. 4. ‘elect’. 5.g. 3. 2. 146–147) εἰς κινδύνους τοὺς ἐσχάτους κατέστην. κατέστησα αὐτὸν εἰς πενίαν ‘I reduced him to poverty’ (‘I placed him in poverty’). καταστὰς εἰς τοιοῦτον κίνδυνον … εἰς τοὺς ἐσχάτους κινδύνους κατέστημεν περί τε τῆς πενίας καὶ περὶ ἀτιμίας. 4. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12A–D
THE AORIST PASSIVE 12A–D: 1
ἐκωλυθήσαν ἐπέμφθημεν ἐλύθη ἐπείσθητε ἐδόθην ἐφυλάχθη ἐδιώχθης ἐγράφησαν ἐτιμήθη ἐποιήθητε
they were prevented we were sent he/she was set free you (pl.
3 5 8–9 17–18 18–19
12C (pp. 10.Exercises for section 12A–D
Note on καθίστημι In its transitive forms it means ‘I put someone in a certain position’.) were chased they were indicted/ written he/she was honoured you (pl. κατέστην εἰς πενίαν ‘I was reduced to poverty’ (‘I was placed in poverty’). 7. e. In its intransitive forms it means ‘I am put in a certain position’ or ‘I am elected’.
owing the ﬁne to the city. pres. set yourselves up they will set themselves up he set up for himself I set myself up. Then. 4. ἵσταντο 3. 2. pres.) were setting up setting up (n. 3.pl. and being placed (καταστάς intrans. ἀνέστησαν c.) in the position of loss of citizen’s rights. 9. a.1st aor.) he/it was set up he/she/it is being set up
ἵστης ἱστᾶσα ἱσταίη
you (s. 8. ἐστάθη 5. But you. having left (ἀναστάς lit. therefore.
he/she/it stood up they were setting up for themselves. 2 aor. κατεστήσατε
1. part. having got up from) my fatherland. κατέστη b. inﬁnitive active)
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12A–D
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
Apollodoros wronged me greatly and placed (κατέστησεν transitive) us all in great despair. we were setting up (if iota is long) stand up! (you pl. I remained for two years. 5. 7.) from the city. part. I stood up to set up for oneself (1st aor. imperative.) we are setting up. ἱστάμενοι
Revision exercises for section 12A–D
3. imperative). Therefore the Athenians move the Aeginetans from Aegina.) may he set up
. For.) to a state of poverty. ἵστασθαι 2. having set up (ἀναστήσας trans.s. 6. For my daughter is getting into a state of poverty because of this case.f. ἵσταται
to be being set up they were setting themselves up/being set up being set up (n. gentlemen of the jury. 4. I went to Megara. are placing my daughters in great despair by condemning (having condemned) me. where. he convicted me and asked for a large ﬁne.) lying witnesses in the lawcourt.m. they were being set up setting up for himself. 5. being set up set up! (2. pass. emigrated (ἐξανέστην intrans. I. reduced (καταστάς intrans.s.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. For this speech was made by the opponent. her husband despised her. οὗτοι oἱ λόγoι ἐλέχθησαν d.) were condemned καταδικάζω ἐξηλέγχθης you (s.) were deceived ἐξαπατάω ἐπείσθην I was persuaded πείθω 4. ὁ μὲν δικαστὴς οὐκ ἐπείσθη … ἡμεῖς δὲ κατεδικάσθημεν b.Revision exercises for section 12A–D
d. ἐκλήθησαν they were called καλέω ἐλήϕθη he was taken λαμβάνω ἠπορήθην I was at a loss ἀπορέω κατεδικάσθητε you (pl. ἀνέστη κατέστησεν 3. 2. exacted the penalty. Since the woman had been deceived by the one who had lost his citizen’s rights. being persuaded by the opponent. ἐξαπατηθείσης d.) were convicted ἐξελέγχω ἐξεδόθημεν we were given in marriage ἐκδίδωμι ὑβρίσθη he was insulted ὑβρίζω διηλλάχθησαν they were reconciled διαλλάττομαι ἐγράϕην I was written γράϕω ὠργίσθητε you (pl. a. and I was condemned. πεισθέντες c. This prosecutor stands up in court and terriﬁes (brings to fear) the defendant.
. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἔμελλε καταστήσεσθαι εἰς τὴν ἐσχάτην ἀπορίαν. My friends helped me when I lost my citizen’s rights and was in despair. We. We gave many drachmas to the old men who had been deceived by Kleon. a. my daughter became hostile. σὺ δὲ ἠδικήθης 5. βιασθέντος e.) were made angry ὀργίζομαι ἐλέχθη it was said λέγω ἐβιάσθημεν we were forced βιάζομαι κατηγορήθη he was accused κατηγορέω ἀπελύθης you were acquitted. τίμημά τι μέγα ᾐτήθη ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. ἀδικηθέντα b. released ἀπολύω ἀπεπέμϕθησαν they were sent away ἀποπέμπω ἐξηπατήθης you (s. I am well disposed towards the man who was wronged by Stephanos. You were greatly wronged by this man. When I was forced to introduce the child to the clan. ἀπελύθητε κατεδικάσθητε c. 3. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἠδικήθη μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου καὶ Nεαίρας. The jurors were not persuaded by the defence. But indeed it makes no difference to me if you were not acquitted but condemned. ἀπορηθέντι f.
All this is what you said. #235–236). Then he said that Stephanos and Neaira were contemptuous of the laws and irreverent to the gods.166
4. But about the laws and the gods I do not know clearly. About poverty I would agree. of course. ὁ Στέϕανος κατέστησε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον εἰς κίνδυνον μέγαν. The contestants always say such things. When trustworthy evidence is brought by Apollodoros we shall ﬁnd out in detail. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἐπείσθη τιμωρεῖσθαι τὸν Στέϕανον. But I am not persuaded by them. ‘How could Apollodoros not be ashamed …?’
Translation for 12E
Don’t you see? This is just what I was saying. and then the nominative (αὐτός) and inﬁnitive (ἀγωνίζεσθαι) construction. by Zeus.
This section introduces the accusative (or nominative) and inﬁnitive construction to express an indirect statement after verbs of saying and thinking (GE pp. STRYMODOROS Rightly. indeed. 247–249. Who would not be concerned about this? STR.
3 ϕησὶ γὰρ ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος Followed by the accusative (τὸν Στέϕανον) and inﬁnitive (ἄρξαι) construction. A series of potential optatives (‘could’ or ‘would’). For how could Apollodoros not feel ashamed at having unmarried daughters? And who would marry a woman from such a father who did not have a dowry? EU. But perhaps Komias would not agree? KOM. For ﬁrst of all Apollodoros said that he had been put in danger of poverty and loss of citizen rights. Komias. ἄν + the optative. and that he would not be able to give his daughters in marriage. ‘Apollodoros says that Stephanos began the enmity. No one. EUERGIDES These things were said by Apollodoros. 5. myself. but I think that perhaps Apollodoros is saying something important. For Apollodoros says that Stephanos began the enmity and that he himself is bringing the action for revenge because he has been wronged by him.
. and that he (Apollodoros) is bringing the case for the sake of revenge …’ 6–7 ἀλλ᾽ ἡγοῦμαι … Introduces more accusative and inﬁnitive: ‘I think that Apollodoros …’ 7–9 πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ ἔϕη Ἀπολλόδωρος … καταστῆναι … οὐ δυνήσεσθαι … This time the construction is nominative and inﬁnitive with the nominative left out: ‘Apollodoros said that he (Apollodoros) had been in danger …’ 11ff.
ἡγούμην ἀεὶ λέγειν τι δεινὸν τoὺς ἀντιδίκους. I consider that the antagonists always say something clever. ‘He is wise. I said I would arrive.
I said to be about to arrive.
3. I said that the prosecutor was the most eager of men. They did not think that Stephanus had deceived the woman. He says that I was placed in great danger. ἔϕη ἐμὲ εἰς μέγαν κίνδυνον καταστῆναι. He thought he (himself) was wise. ‘Stephanos did not deceive the woman.’ I said that man to be about to arrive.
4.’ He thought him to be wise. ‘That man will arrive. ϕησὶν ἐμὲ εἰς μέγαν κίνδυνον καταστῆναι. ‘I am wise. He thought he (someone else) was wise.
5.Revision exercises for section 12E
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12E
INDIRECT SPEECH USING THE INFINITIVE 12E: 1
1. I said that man would arrive.’ We think not to be able to see. I was placed in great danger. 2. ἡγοῦμαι ἀεὶ λέγειν τι δεινὸν τoὺς ἀντιδίκους.’ He thought himself to be wise. 3.’ They thought Stephanos not to have deceived the woman. ‘We cannot see.
The prosecutor is the most eager of men. ϕημὶ τὸν κατήγορον σπουδαιότατον εἶναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων.
2. He said that I had been placed in great danger. 4. I considered that the antagonists always said something clever. I say that the prosecutor is the most eager of men. ϕασὶ τὸν Στέϕανον εἰσαγαγεῖν εἰς τoὺς ϕράτερας τoὺς ἀλλοτρίους παῖδας. ἔϕην τὸν κατήγορον σπουδαιότατον εἶναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων.’
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12E
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. We think we cannot see. Stephanos introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. The antagonists always say something dreadful/clever. ‘I will arrive.
She had been brought up by her from the time when she was a small child. For Nikarete had another slave called Metaneira.’
9 10 13 16–18 ἔδoξεν αὐτῷ ‘It seemed good to him to’. And this is clear and reliable proof of this. the sophist Lysias. For Neaira was ﬁrst of all a slave of Nikarete in Corinth. We said that we wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. τίς οὐκ ἂν οἴοιτο τὴν Νέαιραν οὐκ αἰσχύνεσθαι καταϕρονοῦσαν τῶν νόμων.168
They say that Stephanos introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. judges. τούτων ὑμῖν αὐτὸν τὸν Φιλόστρατον μάρτυρα καλῶ ‘that (ὡς) I am speaking the truth [when I say] that (ὅτι) … I call Philostratos himself as witness to you of these things (τούτων)’. ἔϕαμεν βούλεσθαι τότε τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐχθρούς. 5. he decided to make her an initiate and to spend a lot of money on the feast and on the ceremonies.’ ὡς οὖν ἀληθῆ λέγω. That Neaira is not only an alien but also a slave and a prostitute. ᾐσχύνετο γὰρ τὴν γυναῖκα ‘He felt ashamed in respect of his wife. ἔϕασαν τὸν Στέϕανον εἰσαγαγεῖν εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας τoὺς ἀλλοτρίους παῖδας. They said that Stephanos had introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. nor to have children. ὅτι …. Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws. ϕαμὲν βούλεσθαι τότε τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐχθρούς. And Nikarete was persuaded to go
. Who does not think that Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws? 6. Now then. whose lover. We say that we wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. you have heard the law. paid many drachmas for her. Note that the main clause is delayed to the end of the sentence.
2–4 ὅτι … τοῦθ’ ‘That Neaira is not only … this is what I want to prove. I want to prove to you in detail from the beginning. wanting to spend his money on Metaneira and not on Nikarete. this law which does not allow an alien woman to live with a male citizen nor a female citizen to live with an alien man. βουλομένῳ Dative in apposition to αὐτῷ in line 9.
Translation for 12F
Apollodoros continues. But since all the money which he had paid for her had been taken by Nikarete. Who would not think that Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws? τίς οὐκ οἴεται τὴν Nέαιραν οὐκ αἰσχύνεσθαι καταϕρονοῦσαν τῶν νόμων. We wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. ‘he decided to’.
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12F
τίθημι 12F: 1
1.) were putting we gave he was placed to give (aor. 7. 3. #239.) are placing we shall show they placed he was showing placing (n. being herself also the slave of Nikarete and already working with her body.) to place you (pl.)
. 4. 3. GE pp.
he gives you (pl. to have put he gave having put give! (s.)
δείκνυτε θήσομεν ἔδειξαν ἐτίθη δεικνῦσαι
you (pl.) are showing we shall put they showed he was placing showing
ἐδείχθημεν ἐτέθησαν ἐδεικνύμεθα δειχθέντες
we were shown they were placed we were being shown (could be middle) having been shown (n. 2. #237–238 and δείκνυμι (less important) GE pp. who was an old woman and lived in the house).) to give (pres. 10.) will place
τίθησι(ν) ἐδίδοτε ἔθεμεν ἐδόθη θεῖναι ἔδωκε θέντες δός τιθέναι δώσετε
he puts you (pl.
you (pl.) you (pl. 5.) put (s. 8. 6.) he placed having given (n. Lysias did not take them to his own house (for he felt shame before the wife whom he had and his mother.pl. I call Philostratos himself as witness.Exercises for section 12F
to the mysteries taking Metaneira.m.) were giving we placed he/it was given to put.) will give
δείκνυμι 12F: 2
1. Lysias established them in the house of Philostratos. Neaira came with them to Athens. who was still a bachelor and was a friend of his. 5. When they arrived. 4. 9. but being somewhat younger. 254–255.f. 2. 251–253. That I am telling the truth and that Neaira was the property of Nikarete and came with her.pl.
You now need to learn τίθημι (very important).pl.
I shall put down this money on behalf of Metaneira herself.170
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12F
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1.’ ἔθηκα e. ‘see to it that …’ ‘take care that you don’t …’
1 ἀπολοίμην The optative is used to express a wish ‘may ‘I perish’ Cf. 258–259. Although the sophist was paying money on behalf of Metaneira. 257–258. but she was reducing the girl to despair.
. he said. *The negative is always attached to φημί (GE p. ἔθηκε b. establishes Nikarete and Metaneira at Philostratos’ house. εἴθε + optative expresses a wish (GE p. #245: ὅπως. the sophist decided to pay many drachmas for the mysteries. Note also GE p. Note also μὴ. when the girl had been reduced to despair. 212. however …’ 7 εἴθε μνημονεύοιμι ‘Would that I could remember’. τιθείς κατέστησε
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. θέντος δίδωσι κατέστησεν c. the proper negative in a conditional clause. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρός ϕησι τὸν Στέϕανον δούλῃ συνoικεῖν ὡς γυναικί. 6–7 βουλοίμην μεντἂν μεντἄν = μέντοι ἄν. ‘But’. ‘If he does not remember the arguments?’ Note that a participle is used instead of an ‘if’ clause: ‘not having remembered’. καθισταμένης θεῖναι d. #244) by the imperfect indicative. Therefore we have the optative + ἄν and therefore the meaning is potential: ‘I would like. 247. Nikarete did not give her anything. #243). ὅπως μή + future indicative expresses a caution. πολλοὶ πολλὰ χρήματα ὑπὲρ τῆς Nεαίρας ἔθεσαν. having gone to Athens and paid many drachmas. 259.
a. 260. ‘I am damned if I can remember’ (GE p. #240–241) and ἄν + the imperfect indicative (GE pp. 3. ὁ Στέϕανος ϕήσει τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον ὑπάρξαι τῆς ἔχθρας.
This section introduces conditional (‘if’) sentences with ἄν + the optative (GE pp. 2. Lysias. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἔϕη βούλεσθαι τιμωρεῖσθαι τὸν Στέϕανον. Wishes for the future are expressed by the optative without ἄν and wishes for the past (GE p. 8 πῶς γὰρ ἄν δικαίως τιθεῖτό τις ‘For how could anyone justly cast his vote?’ Potential ἄν + optative. 5. But then. The sophist pays many drachmas on behalf of Metaneira. 4. ‘acting thus. 259. 9 μὴ μνημονεύσας τοὺς λόγους. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος οὐ* ϕήσει ἀδικῆσαι τὸν Στέϕανον. #224). #213). #244).
πῶς ἂν ἐδίδασκέ με. πλουσίος ἂν ἦ τὸ νῦν An unfulﬁlled condition in present time. and how would I learn?’ 23 εἴθε ταῦτα εἰδείην A wish. 23–24 εἰ ταῦτα ᾔδη ἐγώ. I would be rich now. I would like to remember what the contestant says. how would he teach me.Section 12G
10 χαλεπὸν δή ἐστι τῷ δικαστῇ διακρίνειν τὴν δίκην. if he does not remember (lit. you would be able’. ῥᾳδίως ἂν μνημονεύσαις … καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἐπιλάθοιο ‘If you became a sophist you would easily remember … and would not forget. you would easily remember
. The imperfect indicative is used to express present time and the aorist indicative to express past time. ‘see that you …’. οὐκ ἂν οἷοί τ᾿ εἶεν ‘If all the sophists taught me. 15 εἴθε Ἱππίας γενοίμην ἐγώ cf. but tell me what is perplexing you.’ 11–13 εἰ μέντοι σοφιστὴς γένoιo σύ. I will tell you. This is called a remote future condition. 16 εἰ νῦν Ἱππίας ἦσθα. Strymodoros. #245). A remote future condition. ἄν + the indicative expresses an unfulﬁlled condition (GE p. καὶ τί ἂν ἔλεγεν. 20 εἰ πάντες οἱ σοϕισταί με διδάσκοιεν. ‘If I knew this. and I am damned if I can remember. #151. ἄν + imperfect indicative. And. οἷός τ᾽ ἂν ἦσθα ‘If you were Hippias.’ 26–27 εἰ δέ τις ἐπιλάθοιτο. 167. 21–22 ἀλλ᾿ εἰ Ἱππίας ἡμῖν νῦν συνεγίγνετο. if he cannot remember the arguments? It is difﬁcult for the juror to judge the case if he can’t remember everything which the prosecutor says. 260. Would that I could remember everything he says. 19 εἴθε μνημονεύσαιμι A wish. 154 line 7.’ A conditional sentence with optative and ἄν. what is perplexing me. If you were a sophist. καὶ πῶς ἂν ἐμάνθανον ἐγώ. ‘take care that you …’ 33 ἀπόλοιντο … ‘May they perish!’
Translation for 12G
STR. RGT 12G p. and what would he be saying. by Zeus. ‘If Hippias were with us now. 258–259. A series of unfulﬁlled conditions in present time. #242). feeling ashamed in front of Euergides. they would not be able’. not remembering).
KOM. For how could anyone cast his vote justly. See GE pp. πῶς ἂν δικάσειε What sort of condition? 28–29 οὐ γὰρ ἂν γένοιτο … εἰ μὴ μνημονεύσειε What sort of condition?
30 ἀλλ᾿ ὅπως προθύμως προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν ὅπως + future indicative (GE p. εἴθε + optative (no ἄν) expresses a wish. Komias. Why did Apollodoros mention Lysias and Metaneira? For I don’t remember. μὴ μνημονεύοντι μνημονεύοντι agrees with τῷ δικαστῇ: ‘It is difﬁcult for a juror to judge the trial. Don’t cover up your perplexity.
I’m damned (May I perish!) if I can remember – You seem to me to be in some perplexity.
2. For he would never be a good juryman if he could not remember the things said by the prosecutor … But see to it that you concentrate on the arguments and the laws and the evidence. οὐκ ἂν μένοιμι. you would remember everything.) do not go. 3. like an old man. like a Hippias. Oh dear! For. used to remember ﬁfty names. εἰ μὴ ζητήσειας. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12G
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES 12G: 1
1. having heard them once. STR. Strymodoros. εἰ γὰρ ἐξεφεύγομεν 2. 2. εἴθε ἔδωκε. whoever are jurors and forget what the contestants say. Strymodoros. Strymodoros! For if I knew that I would be rich now. ὤφελε στῆναι 4. ὤφελε δοῦναι 3. εἰ μὴ ἐτρέχομεν. See to it that you (pl.) listen.
all the arguments. What skill! Would that I could (if only I could) remember so much! But I am not clever by nature. and what would he be saying? And how would I learn? I wish I knew this. εἰ ὑμεῖς ἐκελεύετε.172
Exercises for section 12G
STR. But. If all the sophists taught me. εἴθε ἀπεθνῄσκον
ὅπως + FUTURE INDICATIVE 12G: 3
1. KOM. But if Hippias were here.
εἰ μὴ ἀκούοις. of the laws and the arguments and the evidence. φιλοίην ἂν ἐγώ.
STR. For Hippias. SΤR. ἐπειθόμην ἂν ἐγώ. εἴθε ἐτίθεσαν 5. and you would not forget the things that have been said. See to it that you (s.
KOM. If anyone forgets so much. εἰ μὴ φιλοίης. having heard it once. οὐκ ἂν ἐφεύγομεν. ὅπως ἀκούσεσθε. For by doing this the jurors cast their votes easily.
1. ὅπως μὴ εἶ. they would not be able to make me a sophist. how could he judge the case and cast his vote? I do not know. Like Hippias? Would that I were Hippias! If you were Hippias now. 4. and not a poor man and a juror. you would be able to list all the archons from Solon. οὐκ ἂν εὕροις. as it seems. I forget everything I hear. εἰ γὰρ ἔστη. how would he be teaching me. May they perish.
I want you to put down money for me. I don’t want my family to be rich. εἴθε δικαστὴς καθισταίμην καὶ τιθείμην τὴν ψῆϕον. εἰδεῖμεν 4. I want him to remember the evidence. See to it that you (s. εἰ ἐτίμων τίμημα μέγα. εἴθε πλούσιοι εἶτε (εἴητε). He wants to make the boy a sophist. j. ὅπως εἴσῃ (fut. I want to be appointed as a juror and to cast my vote. The jurors are persuaded by the prosecutor / they condemn the defendant.) are.Revision exercises for section 12G
3. i. You want to be a sophist. εἴην. I do not want to perish. τοῦ ϕεύγοντος ἂν κατεδικάζον. εἰδείη. μὴ ἀπολοίμην. τοῦ ϕεύγοντος ἂν καταδικάζοιεν. εἰ oἱ δικασταὶ πείθοιντο ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου. εἴθε μνημονεύσειε τὴν μαρτυρίαν. εἶεν. You (pl. d. ὅπως μὴ γενήσῃ.
. εἰμί ‘be’). δίκην ἐλάμβανεν ἂν ὁ ἀντίδικος. ἐπιλάθοιντο τούτων τῶν λόγων.) want to be rich. εἴθε θείης χρήματα εἰς ἐμέ. 2. εἰ ἐπείθοντο oἱ δικασταὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου. e. I receive a big ﬁne / the opponent exacts the penalty. f. ἴοι 5. h. ταῦτα μὴ εἰδεῖτε.
a. ὅπως κολάσεις. I don’t want you to know this. εἰ τίμημα μέγα τιμῴην. εἰδείην REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12G
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. b. εἴθε σοϕιστὴς γένοιο. ἴοις 2. 5. 4. I want them to forget these arguments. a.) punish. g. see to it that you (s. σοϕιστὴν τὸν παῖδα ποιήσειεν. εἶμεν. δίκην λαμβάνοι ὁ ἀντίδικος.) do not become. εἴθε οἱ ἐμοὶ οἰκεῖοι μὴ πλούσιοι εἶεν.) know/see to it that you (s. b.
1. c. οἶδα ‘know’) or ὅπως ἔσῃ (= fut. See to it that you (s. εἰδείης. ἴοιεν 3.
g. b. f. Don’t forget the arguments. εἰ παιδοποιοῖντο oἱ ἀστοὶ ἐξ ἑταιρῶν. ᾔδει γὰρ ‘For she knew’: a verb of knowing followed by three participles. Recite the plot of the play. σαϕῶς ἂν εἰδεῖμεν. c. εἰ μὴ oἱ πλούσιοι ταῖς ἑταίραις συγγίγνοντο. 264–265. and the future passive (GE pp. εἰ μὴ oἱ πλούσιοι ταῖς ἑταίραις συγγίγνοιντο. 265–266. δοῦσα … πάντα τὰ αὑτῆς ‘Giving all her own things (lit.
This section introduces accusative (or nominative) and participle construction after verbs of knowing or perceiving (GE pp. Remember the words. ὅπως μὴ καταϕρονήσεις τοῦ ἑταίρου. f. ὅπως κατερεῖς (καταλέξεις) τὸν τοῦ δράματος λόγον. οὐκ ἂν ἐπελανθάνετο ὁ κατήγορος. h. e. ϕανερὰ ἂν εἰή τὰ τεκμήρια. ὅπως μὴ παιδοποιήσεσθε ἐκ τῶν ἑταιρῶν. Don’t ﬂatter the jurors. οὐκ ἂν ἐπιλανθάνοιτο ὁ κατήγορος. ὅπως μὴ ἐπιλήσῃ τῶν λόγων. ᾤετο Past tense of οἴμαι. the things of herself)’. Arrange the affair well. εἰ ὑπάρχοιτε τῆς ἔχθρας. a. d. τοὺς πένητας ἀσπάζοιντ᾿ ἂν ἐκεῖναι. You begin the enmity / the evidence is clear. σαϕῶς ἂν ᾖσμεν. Don’t have children from prostitutes.174
. The citizens have children from the prostitutes / we know clearly. ὅπως εὖ θήσεις τὸ πρᾶγμα. The rich men do not have dealings with prostitutes / those women welcome the poor men. #248). εἰ μνείαν ποιοίης τῶν ἀστῶν. d. #247). εἰ ὑπήρχετε τῆς ἔχθρας. Concentrate your mind and listen. e.
1 4 12 14 ᾤχετο Past tense of οἴχομαι. 3. ὅπως μνημονεύσεις τοὺς λόγους. εἰ ἐποίεις μνείαν τῶν ἀστῶν. τὰ τεκμήρια ἂν ἦν ϕανερά. Don’t despise your friend. εἰ oἱ ἀστοὶ ἐξ ἑταιρῶν ἐπαιδοποιοῦντο. You mention the citizens / the accuser does not forget. ὅπως προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν καὶ ἀκούσῃ. ὅπως μὴ θωπεύσετε τοὺς δικαστάς. τοὺς πένητας ἠσπάζοντ᾿ ἂν ἐκεῖναι.
Then this Stephanos travelled to Megara and lodged with her. and that he had a pompous and contemptuous character. Neaira. 4 ὡς αὑτοῦ ὄντας ‘as being his own children’. παραλαβὼν … ἦλθεν … ὡς ἄξων αὐτήν (ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose. 2 ἐκόμπαζε Followed by accusative and inﬁnitive: ‘He boasted that Phrynion would not touch her’. but being afraid of Phrynion.Section 12I
Translation for 12H
Apollodoros resumes. taking her with him.e. 3–4 ἔϕη δὲ ‘he said that he’. went to Athens. Note that αὑτοῦ = ἑαυτοῦ ‘of himself’ i. but at ἀδικηθήσεσθαι αὐτήν the subject of the clause is someone else. collected all Phrynion’s belongings from the house. unless he …’ 12–14 Note the structure of the sentence: ὁ δὲ Φρυνίων. and so appears in the accusative. 7–8 παρὰ τὸν ψιθυριστήν ‘next door to the Whisperer’. and then by nominative (αὐτός) and inﬁnitive (ἕξειν) ‘that he would have her as his wife’. Phrynion. as she thought. But when he arrived in Athens. belonging to the subject of the sentence. then. since she was being treated like dirt in a shameful way by Phrynion. and two slave girls. So this awkward sentence will mean ‘Although Stephanos claimed her as free according to the
. 14–15 ἀϕαιρουμένου δὲ … εἰς ἐλευθερίαν A genitive absolute. he treated her disgracefully. 10–11 εὖ γὰρ ᾔδει Στέϕανος … Followed by nominative and participle ‘For Stephanos knew very well that he had no other income. she was not loved. Thratta and Kokkaline. ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι τινα εἰς ἐλευθερίαν has the technical meaning ‘to claim as free’. ‘by his promise’.
1 τῷ λόγῳ ‘by his word’. and since. being very eager to live here. There are several more examples of this usage in this passage. as she was a hetaira. having paid the money on behalf of Neaira for her freedom. πυθόμενος … (followed by accusative and participle). Neaira therefore gave everything she had to Stephanos and made him her protector. and the clothes and the gold jewellery which Phrynion had given her. Neaira. she ran away to Megara. gave Stephanos all the things she had brought with her when she came from Athens. taking her. Taking all these. This was the title of a statue of Hermes. ‘in order to take her’). and always went to riotous parties with her. For she knew that Phrynion had been wronged by her and was angry with her. having described the whole affair and the insolence of Phrynion. and he used to go to dinners everywhere. She spent two years in Megara but she could not make an adequate income for the management of the household (to meet the household expenses). followed by inﬁnitive (the nominative is omitted).
believing that she was his own (αὑτῷ) slave. For Stephanos knew very well that he had no other income or livelihood. Although Stephanos claimed her as free in accordance with the law. since he had paid money for her. He found out the enemy had ﬂed. + fut. + inﬁnitive construction.
We say that politicians do not speak the truth. and that he himself would take her as his wife. 3. having found out that Neaira was living in Athens and with Stephanos. between the house of Dorotheos the Eleusinian and the house of Kleinomachos. But Phrynion. And he brought her and the children to a little house which he had in Athens next to the Whisperer Hermes. He said he would be present. We learned they were ﬂeeing. and she would not be harmed by anyone. regarding her as his slave since he had put down money on her behalf. and they would become citizens. 4. Proxenos and Ariston and a girl child who is now called Phano. This Stephanos ﬁlled Neaira with great hope in Megara by this promise.
Translation for 12I
Apollodoros goes on speaking. Phrynion compelled her to give securities before the Polemarch. b. ὅτι + indicative clause. after verb of hoping or expecting. 2. acc. c. Phrynion compelled her to give securities to the polemarch.’ καταθέντι (dative) agrees with αὑτῷ. Having said this he arrived here from Megara. He came with her for two reasons: so that he would have a beautiful hetaira for free and so that she would work and look after his household. nom. d. And he said that her children would be introduced into the phratries as if they were his own. unless he earned something by informing. For he boasted that Phrynion would never touch her. nom. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12H–I
INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE IN REPORTED SPEECH 12H–I: 1
a. inﬁn. I know you are not foolish. + participle construction.
. took young men with him and went to the house of Stephanos to take her away. They heard that we had gone. They hoped to arrive quickly/they hoped they would arrive quickly.
I know I am wise.176
Exercises for section 12H–I
laws. bringing her with him and her three children with her.
He thought that the prostitute’s children would become citizens.Revision exercises for section 12H–I
5. I shall be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. The prostitute’s children will become citizens.) will be compelled ἀναγκάζω he will be angry ὀργίζομαι to be going to be ﬁned ζημιόω they will be wronged ἀδικέω a. He says that I will be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. He thinks that Stephanos and Neaira will arrive in Athens from Megara. οἴεται τοὺς τῆς ἑταίρας παῖδας πολίτας γενήσεσθαι. ᾤετο τοὺς τῆς ἑταίρας παῖδας πολίτας γενήσεσθαι. We said that the woman would not be wronged by anyone.
He knew that they (the women) had obeyed. 2. ἡγεῖται τὸν Στέϕανον καὶ τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕίξεσθαι ἐκ τῶν Μεγάρων Ἀθήναζε. 3. b. οὐκ ἔϕαμεν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ᾿ oὐδενός. οὔ ϕαμεν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ᾿ oὐδενός. Stephanos and Neaira will arrive in Athens from Megara. c.
. 5. He thought that Stephanos and Neaira would arrive in Athens from Megara. + participle construction
THE FUTURE PASSIVE 12H–I: 3
1. The woman will be wronged by no one. ϕησὶν ἐμὲ ἀναγκασθήσεσθαι παρὰ Φρυνίωνος τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι. 4.
ἀκουσθήσομαι δουλωθήσεται δοθήσονται τεθήσεται σταθήσεται
I shall be heard he will be enslaved they will be given he/she/it will be placed it will be set up
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12H–I
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
I shall be brought into εἰσάγω we shall be convicted ἐξελέγχω you (s. acc.
2. ἡγήσατο τὸν Στέϕανον καὶ τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕίξεσθαι ἐκ τῶν Μεγάρων Ἀθήναζε. d. He thinks that the prostitute’s children will become citizens. We say that the woman will not be wronged by anyone.
They perceive that we were wronged by the prosecutor and condemned by the jurors. οἶδα τὸν Φρυνίωνα ἀδικηθέντα ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ ὀργισθέντα ἐμοί. εἰ δυναίμην μνημονεύειν τὰς μαρτυρίας. We were wronged by the prosecutor and condemned by the jurors. ᾔδεισθα ἑταίρα οὖσα καὶ παιδοποιουμένη ἐξ ἀστῶν. You know you are a prostitute and that you are having children by citizens. ᾔδη τὸν Φρυνίωνα ἀδικηθέντα ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ ὀργισθέντα ἐμοί. You are a prostitute and you are having children by citizens. Neaira was living in town (imperfect) and went to Stephanos. were despising the laws and were being irreverent to the gods.
D – TRANSLATE INTO GREEK
1. ἐμνημόνευον ἂν τούτους τοὺς λόγους.
. 2. I knew that Phrynion had been wronged by me and had been angry with me. εἴθε μνημονεύσαιμι τοὺς λόγους τοὺς τοῦ κατηγόρου. εἶδε τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ ἐλθοῦσαν ὡς Στέϕανον. They perceived that we had been wronged by the prosecutor and had been condemned by the jurors. ᾔσθοντο ἡμᾶς ἀδικηθέντας ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου καὶ καταδικασθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν. 3.
e. Phrynion was wronged by me and was angry with me. οἶσθα ἑταίρα οὖσα καὶ παιδοποιουμένη ἐξ ἀστῶν. He said that I would be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. εἰ σοϕιστὴς ἦν.
b. You knew you were a prostitute and that you were having children by citizens. ἔγνωτε ἀδικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν νόμων καταϕρονοῦντες καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες εἰς τοὺς θεούς. αἰσθάνονται ἡμᾶς ἀδικηθέντας ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου καὶ καταδικασθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν.
Revision exercises for section 12H–I
3. He sees that Neaira is resident in the town and has gone to Stephanos. γιγνώσκετε ἀδικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν νόμων καταϕρονοῦντες καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες εἰς τοὺς θεούς.
a. ὁρᾷ τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ ἐλθοῦσαν ὡς Στέϕανον. You wronged the city and despised the laws and were irreverent to the gods. You know that you have wronged the city and are despising the laws and are being irreverent to the gods. He saw that Neaira was resident in the town and had gone to Stephanos. δικαίως ἂν θείμην τὴν ψῆϕον.
d. You knew that you had wronged the city.
ἔϕη ἐμὲ ἀναγκασθήσεσθαι παρὰ Φρυνίωνος τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι. I know that Phrynion was wronged by me and was angry with me.
Pittalakos. By Zeus. Finally they persuade him to get up from the altar. He went regularly to visit Pittalakos who was a fellow-gambler. This man. Hegesandros. For when this Timarkhos here was released from Antikles. if I were to speak in your presence of the things that this man did. καὶ ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος λέγει ὅτι σαϕῶς ἐπιδείξεται τὸν Στέϕανον αὐτὰ ταῦτα ποιεῖν. if only Pittalakos would get up (genitive absolute). took him to his home and kept him with him. which I know clearly were inﬂicted on Timarkhos by this man. 5.
. εἰ γὰρ ὁ Στέϕανος ταῦτ’ ἐτύγχανε ποιῶν. One of the gamblers is a certain Pittalakos. to be unjust and disdainful. For. gentlemen of the jury. he used to spend his days in the gambling-den. being angry about the affair. οὐ γὰρ ἐῶσιν oἱ νόμοι ἑταίρᾳ ὡς γυναικὶ συνοικεῖν ἀστὼν οὐδένα. And Timarkhos himself kept declaring that everything would be done by him. See that you listen carefully. Pittalakos was angry. went naked into the market-place and sat on the altar of the mother of the gods. and ﬁrst seeing Timarkhos there. seeing Timarkhos in the gambling-den. claiming that the whole affair had been a drunken brawl. Hegesandros and Timarkhos hurried to the altar and standing beside it they kept begging Pittalakos to get up. ὁ Στέϕανός οὔ ϕησι τὴν Νέαιραν ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ’ οὐδενός. And. ὁ Φρυνίων ᾔδει τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ τὰ χρήματα ἔχουσαν. εἰ γὰρ καὶ νικῴη οὗτος. χαλεπώτατον ὂν ἂν ἐϕαινετο. But when Hegesandros and Timarkhos got angry with him for coming so often. ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου καὶ εἰς κίνδυνον καταστάς. For he thought that he was close to his own nature. if I mention such things. Meanwhile Hegesandros is sailing here from the Hellespont. and ﬁnally beat up Pittalakos himself for a long time. ἀγαθὸν ἂν εἴη τῇ πόλει. and they ﬁrst of all smashed up the furniture. I would not be able to go on living. a slave of the city. Prose ὁ δὲ Ἀπολλόδωρος. When a crowd ran up. by Zeus the Olympian. On the next day. as for the outrages. may I perish most miserably. whose character you know even better than I do. When Timarkhos had been detached from Pittalakos and taken up by Hegesandros. ἀγωνίζεται ταύτην τὴν δίκην. realising that he had spent so much money on Timarkhos in vain. they forced their way during the night into the house where Pittalakos lived. 2. I would not dare to speak of them before you.
E – TEST EXERCISE 12
But I shall tell you what came next (the things after this). wanted to take him to his own home. and he kept visiting the house of Hegesandros.Revision exercises for section 12H–I
4. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν ἐλπίζω ἔγωγε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον νικήσειν τὴν δίκην.
ἢ οὐκ ἂν ἐξέβαλεν αὐτὴν … ἢ ἀπέδωκεν … An unfulﬁlled condition in past time: ἄν + the aorist indicative. or to continue reading to the end of Section 13 and then go back to revise the grammar and do the relevant exercises. 272–273. #252: ‘Before she came to Athens’. 25–26 γνοὺς δὲ Στέϕανος ὅτι ἐξελεγχθήσεται … καὶ ὅτι ἐξελεγχθεὶς κινδυνεύσει … διαλλάττεται … ‘Stephanos. You will meet lots of examples of this in 13A and B. Note the breathing: αὐτοῦ could have meant someone else’s daughter αὑτοῦ or ἑαυτοῦ ‘his own’ belongs to the subject of the main verb. + participle twice) …. Note that this is a genitive absolute construction. realising that he would be convicted.’ 17 πρὶν εἰδέναι ‘Before he knew that …’ Followed by accusative and participle construction. 18–20 εἰ … μὴ ἐξηπατήθη ὁ Φράστωρ καὶ Φανὼ γνησία ἦν. Once again you may decide to do the exercises when they occur. 10–11 καὶ δὴ ἴστε τὴν Φανώ … μαθοῦσαν Accusative and participle: ‘You know that Phano had learned’. either he would not have divorced her or he would have given back the dowry’. 8–9 ὥσπερ αὑτοῦ θυγάτηρ οὖσα ‘as his own daughter’. These clauses are all subordinate to the main clause.
1–4 The main clause (δῆλά ἐστι τὰ τεκμήρια ‘There are clear proofs that …’) is delayed until the end of the sentence. 14–16 Note the structure: ‘Phrastor seeing (ὁρῶν) that (acc. The subordinate clauses (ὅτι μὲν … δούλη ἦν Nέαιρα … καὶ ἀπέδρα … καὶ ὁ Φρυνίων … κατηγγύησε …) come ﬁrst. 8 πρὶν Ἀθήναζε ἐλθεῖν πρίν + inﬁnitive. Note the negative in the ‘if’ clause is μή and in the main clause οὐ: ‘if Phrastor had not been deceived and if Phano had been legitimate.Section Thirteen: Neaira as married woman
This section continues the story of Neaira. and having found out (ἅμα δὲ πυθόμενος) that (acc. and
. 21 ἐκπεσούσης δὲ Φανοῦς ἐκπίπτω is used as the passive of ἐκβάλλω. As in Section 12 there are long exercises which practise the grammar which has been introduced. + participle) … was very angry (ὠργίσθη μάλιστα) … considering (ἡγούμενος) that he … (nominative + inﬁnitives). GE pp.
Phrastor of the deme of Aigileia. either Phrastor would not have divorced her or he would have given back the dowry. Stephanos would not have been reconciled. before the case came to court. and that she ran away from Phrynion to Megara and that when she returned to Athens Phrynion demanded securities from her before the polemarch on the grounds that she was an alien. to an Athenian man. she did not know how to make herself pleasing to Phrastor’s ways. Therefore when she went to Phrastor. and at the same time having found out clearly that Phano was not the daughter of Stephanos but of Neaira. Phrastor also
. Therefore he divorced Phano. Phrastor. Stephanos. seeing that she was neither well behaved nor willing to obey him. who was a working man and reckoned his income with precision. And when they came to Athens they called the girl Phano. thinking that he had been insulted and tricked by Stephanos. #254. before she lived with Phrastor. he would be in danger of … was reconciled with …’
28–29 ἀλλ’ εἰ ἀστῆς θυγάτηρ ἦν Φανώ.Section 13A
that. If Stephanos had not deceived Phrastor and if Phano had been legitimate. before she came to Athens. [of all this] there is clear evidence. Stephanos brought a suit against Phrastor. as if she had been his own daughter from a citizen wife.
Translation for 13A
That Neaira was from the beginning a slave and a hetaira. and he did not give back the dowry.’ See GE p. realising that he would be convicted of doing wrong and that having been convicted he would risk meeting with the most severe penalties (for Phano was the daughter of an alien woman). in accordance with the law which requires a man who divorces his wife to give back the dowry. But when Stephanos had brought this suit. When Phano had been divorced. This girl was given in marriage by Stephanos here. having been convicted. For he had married Phano before he knew that she was the daughter of Neaira. 276. Phrastor brought a charge against Stephanos here in accordance with the law which does not allow anyone to betroth the daughter of an alien to an Athenian man. For Neaira had a daughter. Formerly she had been called Strybele. And furthermore you know that Phano. was very angry. she was pregnant. And Stephanos gave her a dowry of thirty minas. οὐκ ἂν διηλλάχθη Στέϕανος What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? ‘If Phano had been the daughter of a citizen. having lived with her for a year. had learned her mother’s character and extravagance. Now I want to demonstrate to you that Stephanos himself provides evidence against Neaira that she is living with him as his wife although she is a foreigner. was reconciled with Phrastor and gave up his claim to the dowry and withdrew the charge. whom she brought with her to the house of Stephanos. And.
270.’ See GE p. And Phrastor was childless. jurors. This was the child which Phano had borne when she had been sent away in a pregnant state by Phrastor. #250) and that you can recognise ὡς + the future participle used to express purpose (GE p. to look after him and to care for him enthusiastically (for Phrastor had no one who would look after him). but he wanted to take back Phano’s child before he died (although he knew that he was not legitimate). 4 διετέθη What tense? It comes from διατίθημι. 17–18 εἰ γὰρ ἄπαις ἀπέθανε Φράστωρ. and anger and hatred. But if Phano had been the daughter of a citizen woman. his relations would have got his property. But in his state of need he was courted by Neaira and Phano. before he got better. Before he was ill there had been a long-standing difference with his relations.
Translation for 13B
I want to provide you with another piece of evidence from Phrastor and the members of his phratry and of his clan that this Neaira is an alien. #252). 272–273. nor did he want to die without a child. making the natural and reasonable calculation that he was in a poor condition and did not expect to survive. For not long after Neaira’s daughter was divorced. since he did not want his relations to inherit his property.’ Note the future inﬁnitive. to take back Phano’s child and to make him his son. Before he got better. 271–272.182
withdrew his charge. #251) and πρίν + the inﬁnitive = ‘before’ (GE pp. 271. Since they were doing this. Phrastor promised that he would do this. Phrastor fell ill and was in a very bad way and was in total need. 271. For they went to him. Stephanos would not have been reconciled. #254. #251): ‘They went to him to look after him and …’ 13–14 καὶ πρὶν ὑγιαίνειν ὑπέσχετο δὴ τοῦτο ποιήσειν ὁ Φράστωρ ‘And before he got better. Phrastor was persuaded. his relatives would have taken his property. οἱ οἰκεῖοι ἔλαβον ἂν τὰ αὐτοῦ What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? ‘For if Phrastor had died childless. how valuable is a woman in time of sickness when she is at the side of a man who is suffering. and they brought remedies (things useful) for the illness and visited him. For if Phrastor had died without a child. I am sure you know yourselves.
Now make sure that you know the aorist inﬁnitive passive (GE p. 7 ὡς θεραπεύσουσαι καὶ … ἐπιμελήσομεναι ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose (GE p. #249) and the future participle passive (GE pp. Phrastor promised that he would do this. 276.
3 ἐξεπέμϕθη What tense? It comes from ἐκπέμπω.
ὡς ληψομένη αὐτήν 2. ἐκβαλεῖν
. win οἰσθησόμενος/ἐνεχθησόμενος -η -ον about to be carried στήσων -ουσα -ον στησόμενος -η -ον σταθησόμενος -η -ον ληψόμενος -η -ον ληψόμενος -η -ον ληφθησόμενος -η -ον
ὡς + FUTURE PARTICIPLE 13A–B: 3
about to set up about to stand. πεισθῆναι. PASSIVE 13A–B: 2
λύσων -ουσα -ον λυσόμενος -η -ον λυθήσομενος -η -ον πείσων -ουσα -ον πεισόμενος -η -ον πεισθησόμενος -η -ον
about to loose about to ransome about to be loosed. ransomed about to persuade about to obey about to be persuaded
οἶσων -ουσα -ον about to carry οἰσόμενος -η -ον about to carry off for oneself. φαγεῖν 4. πρὶν ἐσθίειν. take hold of about to be taken
1. ὡς πείσων αὐτήν 4. ὡς δώσοντες
πρίν + INFINITIVE 13A–B: 4
1. set up for oneself about to be set up about to take about to take for oneself. πρὶν ἐκβάλλειν.Exercises for section 13A–B
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13A–B
THE AORIST INFINITIVE PASSIVE 13A–B: 1
δοθῆναι. πεισθῆναι 2. ἐνεχθῆναι. λυθῆναι. MIDDLE. πρὶν τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπιέναι. τεθῆναι
FUTURE PARTICIPLES ACTIVE. ὡς σώσοντας ἑαυτούς 3. πρὶν π(ε)ίθεσθαι. ἀπελθεῖν 3.
πείθω ἐκπέμπω ἐξαπατάω ἐξελέγχω ὑβρίζω ἐκβάλλω διατίθημι εἰμί οἶδα ἀποδίδωμι τίθημι δείκνυμι ἀπόλλυμι ἀποδίδωμι ἀϕίστημι τίθημι
Exercise 3 is on the use of ὡς + future participle to express purpose. prove I ﬁnd out I die I receive from I fall out. while Exercise 4 gives you practice in πρίν + inﬁnitive = ‘before’. get divorced
2. set up I provide I give in marriage I speak.
. I am thrown out. divorce I meet I introduce. tell I place I take away I know I escape notice I am I compel I show.184
Revision exercises for section 13A–B
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13A–B
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
ἐκβαλοῦντι ἐντευξομένῃ εἰσαχθησόμενος καταστήσοντι παρέξοντες ἐκδώσοντα ἐρῶν θησόντων ἀϕαιρησόμενος γνωσομένην λήσουσαν ἐσόμενον ἀναγκασθησομένῳ ἐπιδειξουσῶν πευσομένων ἀποθανουμένῃ παραληψομένῃ ἐκπεσούμενοι Aorist passive inﬁnitives πεισθῆναι ἐκπεμϕθῆναι ἐξαπατηθῆναι ἐξελεγχθῆναι ὑβρισθῆναι ἐκβληθῆναι διατεθῆναι Other inﬁnitives εἶναι εἰδέναι ἀποδιδόναι θεῖναι δεικνύναι ἀπολλύναι ἀποδοῦναι ἀϕιστάναι τιθέναι
ἐκβάλλω ἐντυγχάνω εἰσάγω καθίστημι παρέχω ἐκδίδωμι λέγω τίθημι ἀϕαιρέω γιγνώσκω λανθάνω εἰμί ἀναγκάζω ἐπιδείκνυμι πυνθάνομαι ἀποθνῄσκω παραλαμβάνω ἐκπίπτω
I throw out. lead in I establish.
The women went off to Athens to live (spend time) in Stephanos’ house and to work. #257. Those men came to the house of Stephanos to take away Neaira.’ 2 ὡς … τάχιστα ‘as soon as …’ 4–5 ὅτι οὐχ ἑκὼν ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον οὐχ ἑκών ‘not willingly’: ‘that he did not willingly take back the child’. a. Note that a whole accusative and inﬁnitive phrase can be used in this way (GE p. 276. This example is followed by three more: διὰ τὸ ἄπαις εἶναι καὶ τὸ θεραπεύειν αὐτὰς αὑτὸν καὶ τὸ τοὺς οἰκείους μισεῖν. εἰδότες … καὶ ἀκούσαντες … ἀποψηϕίζονται τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ οὐκ ἐνέγραφον … There is an
1–2 ὅτι οὐκ ἂν ἔπραξε τοῦτο ὁ Φράστωρ. See GE p. 279.
a. 4. Stephanos brought Phrastor to the lawcourt ii(i) πρὶν τὸν Φράστορα γράψασθαι γραϕήν before Phrastor indicted him i(ii) πρὶν τὸ τῆς Φανοῦς παιδίον γενέσθαι before Phano’s child was born (iii) πρὶν τὸ παιδίον ἀναληϕθῆναι ὑπὸ Φράστορος before the child was taken back by Phrastor (iv) πρὶν γνῶναι ὅτι ἐξελεγχθήσεται ἀδικῶν before he knew that he would be convicted of wrong-doing. 5 ἀλλὰ βιασθεὶς διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν ‘but forced by his illness’. εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε ἄν + the aorist indicative expresses an unfulﬁlled condition in past time (GE p. Phrastor withdrew the charge ii(i) πρὶν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον before he came to court i(ii) πρὶν ἐκπέμψαι τὴν Φανώ before he divorced Phano (iii) πρὶν ὑπισχνεῖσθαι ἀναλήψεσθαι τὸ παιδίον before he promised that he would take back the child (iv) πρὶν λεχθῆναι τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας before these words were spoken by Neaira. 6–7 εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε … οὐκ ἂν ἀνέλαβε … What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they?
10 εἰδότες Can you recognise this participle? It comes from οἶδα. ὡς ἀπολογησόμενος καὶ ἀπολυθησόμενος 4. #258). 10–13 The structure of the sentence is as follows: ἀλλὰ οἱ γεννῆται. Here the inﬁnitive is used as a noun with the article.Section 13C
3. Therefore I am going to him to speak the truth and listen to lies. 280. #254): ‘Phrastor would not have done that if he had not been ill. b. ὡς ἐρῶν… καὶ ἀκουσόμενος d. The man went into the lawcourt to defend himself and to be acquitted. ὡς ἄξοντες b. ὡς διατρίψουσαι καὶ ἐργασόμεναι c.
had then taken back the child. But if Phano had been the daughter of a citizen. b. But if his son had been legitimate and born from a citizen wife.186
Revision exercises for section 13C
13–14 14 16–17 18
accusative + participle clause depending on εἰδότες and an accusative + participle + inﬁnitive clause depending on ἀκούσαντες. εἰ ἄπαις ἀπέθανε Φράστωρ.
. and having heard that Phrastor. he took a citizen wife according to the laws. Stephanos would not have been angry. But the members of the clan. the members of the clan would not have voted against the child. For Phrastor. and having heard that Phrastor had divorced her and had then because of his illness taken back the child. If Phrastor had died childless. of whom Phrastor is a member. he would have sworn. Phrastor abandoned the oath and went away before he could swear that his son was legitimate. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13C 1. προκαλουμένων δ’ αὐτὸν τῶν γεννητῶν Another genitive absolute. when he was ill. Therefore when Phrastor brought a suit against them. a. I want to show you another proof that this Neaira is an alien. For as soon as Phrastor recovered from that illness. introduced Phano’s son into the phratries and into the Brytidae. the sister of Diphilos. If Phano had been the daughter of a female citizen. he would not have taken back the child. voted against the boy and …’ Note that this is another unfulﬁlled condition. When the members of the clan challenged him. For if Phrastor had not been ill. the legitimate daughter of Satyros of the deme of Melite. but was forced to do it because of his sickness and the fact that he was childless and because the women were looking after him and because he hated his relations. the members of the clan challenged him to swear by the sacred mysteries that he truly believed the child to be his own son from a citizen wife legally married in accordance with the law. his relatives would have taken his possessions. λαχόντος οὖν τοῦ Φράστορος Genitive absolute. voted against the child and did not register him in the clan. knowing that the woman was the daughter of Neaira. This is proof for you that he did not willingly take back the child. having divorced her. knowing that his wife was the daughter of Neaira. οὐκ ἂν ὠργίσθη Στέϕανος. but would have registered him in the clan. ‘But the clansmen. εἰ ἀστῆς θυγάτηρ ἦν Φανώ. because of his illness. οἱ οἰκεῖοι ἂν ἔλαβον τὰ αὐτοῦ. ἀλλ’ εἰ ὁ παῖς … What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? What mood and tense are the verbs?
Translation for 13C
Now I shall prove to you by a great and clear piece of evidence that Phrastor would not have done this if he had not been ill. And furthermore.
Phano would not have been sent away. εἰ Φανὼ ξένης θυγάτηρ ἐκλήθη. and Phrastor bears witness that he divorced the daughter of this Neaira and did not give back the dowry.B. οὐκ ἂν ἐγράψατο Φράστωρ αὐτὸν γραϕήν.
3–4 ὁ μὲν γὰρ Στέφανος … ‘For Stephanos bears witness against Neaira through his unwillingness (διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι) to engage in litigation on behalf of her daughter about the dowry. These actions are perfectly clear and form great proofs that they knew that this Neaira was an alien. εἰ μὴ ἔλαχε Στέϕανος τὴν δίκην ταύτην. to take back the child and to make him his son. and then was himself persuaded by Neaira and Phano. but he did not swear that … and that later he married a citizen woman …’ 11–13 Look to see if there is an ἄν and note the mood and tense of the verbs. Neither εἰμί nor οἶδα have an aorist. both Stephanos here who has her now and is living with her and Phrastor who married her daughter. N. to take back the child and make him his son. εἰ ᾔδει Φανὼ Nεαίρας οὖσαν θυγατέρα ὁ Φράστωρ. so the context will determine the translation. αὐτὸς δὲ εἰσαγαγεῖν … ἀλλ’ οὐκ ὀμόσαι … ὕστερον δὲ γῆμαι … A string of inﬁnitives depends on μαρτυρεῖ: ‘Phrastor bears witness that he divorced … and did not give back the dowry. was persuaded by … on account of his illness and because he was childless and because of his hostility to his relations. Phrastor would not have been deceived. and he himself introduced the boy to the members of the clan. If Stephanos had not brought this suit against him. Φράστωρ οὐκ ἂν ἐξηπατήθη. on account of his sickness and childlessness and his hatred of his relations. but then. For if Neaira had been a citizen. d.’ 5–9 Φράστωρ δὲ μαρτυρεῖ ἐκβαλεῖν … καὶ οὐκ ἀποδοῦναι … ἔπειτα δὲ αὐτὸς … πεισθῆναι διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν καὶ τὸ … οἰκείους ἀναλαβεῖν τὸ παιδίον καὶ … ποιήσασθαι. he would have thrown her out (divorced her) as quickly as possible. ἐξέβαλεν ἂν ὡς τάχιστα. If Phrastor had known that Phano was the daughter of Neaira. Phrastor would not have brought this accusation against him.Section 13D
c. If Phano had been called the daughter of a foreigner. and that he later married a citizen wife according to the law. And furthermore.
Translation for 13D
Therefore I clearly demonstrate to you that the very members of Neaira’s own family have furnished proof that she is an alien. For Stephanos bears witness against Neaira because he was not willing to go to court on behalf of her daughter about her dowry. e. if
. but did not swear that he was the son of a citizen woman.… and that he himself introduced him to the clan. For Phano would have been a citizen.
8. διὰ τὸ τοὺς γεννήτας ἀποψηϕίσασθαι αὐτοῦ καὶ μὴ ἐγγράψαι εἰς τὸ γένος e. διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν καὶ τὸ μισεῖν τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ τὸ ἄπαις εἶναι c. 5. οὐκ ἂν ἀνέλαβεν ἐκεῖνος τὸ παιδίον. τῷ ἀπορεῖν διὰ τὸ βοᾶν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13D
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
Revision exercises for section 13D
Phano had been a citizen. that he was weak and that he was depressed and that he was being looked after by Neaira.
. τὸ ἀσθενεῖν b. τῷ βιάζεσθαι
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13D
VERBS IN THE INFINITIVE USED AS NOUNS 13D: 1
1. 3. because they knew that he was not legitimate. τὸ θεραπεύειν g. and because the members of the clan voted against the boy. The clansmen were forced to vote against the child. διὰ τὸ μὴ ὀμόσαι d. 2. Stephanos was clearly doing wrong because he did not swear. Care is a good thing. 2. Phrastor took back the child on account of his illness and his hatred of his relations and his childlessness. τοῦ ἀσθενεῖν τε ἕνεκα καὶ εἰς ἀπορίαν καταστῆναι καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας θεραπεύεσθαι h. Because of the fact that Phrastor was not willing to swear an oath. ὁ Στέϕανος ἦλθε πρὸς τὸν Φράστορα ὡς ἐγγυήσων αὐτῷ τὴν Φανώ.
a. Impiety is a great evil. τὸ ἀσεβεῖν i. 10. Illness is an evil.
ἄνευ τοῦ μισεῖν διὰ τὸ διανοεῖσθαι τοῦ θορυβῆσαι ἕνεκα. 7. And he made mention of these facts. the clan members would not have voted against her son.
διὰ τὸ φυγεῖν μετὰ τὸ μέλλειν ἀντὶ τοῦ παύσασθαι τῷ μάχεσθαι τοῦ φυλάξαι ἕνεκα
6. Stephanos is clearly committing an injustice towards the city and irreverence towards the gods. εἰ μὴ ἐθεράπευσε τὸν Φράστορα ἡ Φανώ. ὁ Φράστωρ ἔγημε τὴν Φανὼ πρὶν εἰδέναι αὐτὴν Νεαίρας θυγατέρα οὖσαν. The child clearly belongs to an alien woman. I was compelled to go in by force (being forced). διὰ τὸ εἰδέναι f. because the clansmen voted against him and did not register him in the clan. 4. 3.
gave the daughter of Neaira to Theogenes as a wife and betrothed her as being his own daughter. Stephanos. everyone knew that Phano was clearly an alien and not a citizen. ποῖ ‘where to?’ 15–16 οὐ μόνον … ἀλλὰ καί … ‘not only … but also …’ 15–20 A series of examples of the perfect tense! 18 ἐκδούς Can you recognise this? It comes from ἐκδίδωμι and agrees with the subject. Notice that ξένῃ οὔσῃ is dative agreeing with αὐτῇ. #260–262. 282–283. becoming his assistant by giving him money.
2 σκοπεῖτε τοίνυν ‘Consider then’. And this woman made the secret sacriﬁces for you on behalf of the city. Cf. these actions will prove. Stephanos gave him money so that he would become his assistant and share in his position. 5. εἰ γνήσιος ἦν ὁ παῖς. this Stephanos. see GE pp.’
Translation for 13E
Because of this. For Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor what sort of habits she had. For they openly dared to allege that the daughter of Neaira was a citizen. followed by two clauses. If you want to ﬁnd out about it before you meet it in reading. So greatly did this man despise you and the laws. being an alien’. being well born but poor and inexperienced in affairs. 4 ἦν γάρ ποτε Θεογένης τις … ‘There was a man called Theogenes. 9–10 οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει ὁ Θεογένης ὅτου θυγάτηρ ἐστὶ οὐδὲ ὁποῖά ἐστιν αὐτῆς τὰ ἔθη ‘for Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor what sort of character she had’ (‘what sort were the characteristics of her’). Φράστωρ ἂν ὤμοσεν. ξένῃ οὔσῃ ‘and she saw what it was not ﬁtting for her to see. being a foreigner. It is very easy to recognise. When Theogenes took up ofﬁce. and saw what it was not ﬁtting for her to see. Consider then what shamelessness Stephanos and Neaira showed and how they wronged the city. There was once a certain Theogenes who was elected as basileus (King Archon). 20 ὅτι δ’ ἀληθῆ λέγω. Before Theogenes entered on his ofﬁce.
Φράστωρ ἀνέλαβε τὸ τῆς Φανοῦς παιδίον διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν καὶ τὸ τὴν Φανὼ θεραπεύειν αὐτόν. ὁποία … Nεαίρας and ὅπως … ἠδίκησαν: ‘what sort of shamelessness …’ and ‘how they wronged the state’. the perfect active (I have -ed). αὗται αἱ πράξεις δηλώσουσιν Note the rhetorical inversion of the clauses again: ‘That I am speaking the truth. 11 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν οἷ ‘and that she went in to where’.Section 13E
4. And she went into the place where no other Athenian goes except the
In this section you will meet a new tense.’ 6 ὡς πάρεδρος γενησόμενος ὡς + future participle expresses purpose. 11–12 καὶ εἶδεν ἃ οὐ προσῆκεν αὐτῇ ὁρᾶν.
#266).) have lived in ἐπιδημέω ἐπιδεδημήκατε I have written γράϕω γεγράϕαμεν you (pl.κεκτεθ. and she performed on behalf of the city the ancestral rites to the gods which are numerous. which is easily recognised by -θ.πεπ.πεπ.γεγ2.πεϕ. but for respect towards the gods.γεγ.
wife of the basileus.τεθ. #264 (this is worth studying before you go on reading).
2–3 γενομένων … ἱερῶν. 2.μεμ.γεγ. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13E
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. For he has made the laws invalid and has shown contempt for the gods. these events will prove.λελνεν. ἀναβάντων … ἀρχόντων Two genitive absolutes. 287.) have shouted βοάω βεβόηκας he has ordered κελεύω κεκελεύκασι(ν) we have done πράττω πέπραχα I have loved ϕιλέω πεϕιλήκαμεν you (s.and -είην (GE p. 3. by giving the daughter of Neaira as a wife to Theogenes when he was holding the ofﬁce of basileus.βεβ. The use of the optative in indirect speech (GE pp.ἐκπεπ.ἐπιδεδ. The aorist optative passive.
. they have set free λύω λέλυκεν you have borne witness μαρτυρέω μεμαρτύρηκας he has conquered νικάω νενικήκασι(ν) we have honoured τιμάω τετίμηκα you (s. The future optatives (GE p.ἐπιδεδ. These are formed just as you would expect by adding the optative endings to the future indicative stems. and she was presented to Dionysos as his bride. 285. That I am speaking the truth. I want to tell you in greater detail about these things.πεπ.ἐκβεβ.κεχ. 285–286. Followed by two indirect questions: τίς αὐτὰ ποιήσειε and πῶς πράξειαν οἱ ἄρχοντες. And then this woman has performed the rites and sacriﬁces on behalf of the city. 3–4 ἤρετο ἡ βουλή ‘the council asked’.) have gone χωρέω κεχωρήκατε they have worried ϕροντίζω πεϕρόντικεν
Here you will meet: 1. #263).λελ. I have shown you then that Stephanos has acted most irreverently. For you will be casting your vote not only on your own behalf and on behalf of the laws. sacred and secret.πεϕ.
then. + inﬁnitive. genitive absolute. And immediately the Council started to ask who was this wife of Theogenes. it showed concern about the rites and proposed to punish Theogenes./acc. When Theogenes came down from the Areopagos. 7–10 The structure of this sentence is: genitive absolute. ἐπέσχεν (main verb). main verb (ἐδεῖτο) subject + participle + participle. who had performed them and how the archons had acted. But on account of his inexperience in affairs and his naivety he had made Stephanos his assistant so that he could administer the ofﬁce. 23 ἐξαπατηθέντι ‘granted a pardon to him having been deceived’. but he had been deceived by Stephanos. and this woman performed these holy rites. because of this he had allied himself to him by marriage before he found out clearly what sort of person he was. Greek does not repeat ‘he said’. but shows by the use of nom. Theogenes began to beg them.
Translation for 13F
Stephanos. 10 ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὅτι ‘for he said that’. ‘on the grounds that he had been deceived’.’ Since Theogenes promised that he would do this and was entreating. the Council of the Areopagos. genitive absolute + ὅτι clause with two verbs in the optative (λάβοι. + inﬁnitives that this is indirect speech. ἐάσειε) + inﬁnitive. For he said that he did not know she was the daughter of Neaira. the Council on the Areopagos inquired about the sacred rites. and what sort of things she had done. I shall send the woman away from my house. he immediately banished the woman. ‘That I am not lying’ he said ‘I shall demonstrate to you by a great proof./acc.Section 13F
5–7 The pattern continues. the
. When arguments had taken place and the Council of the Areopagos was angry and punishing Theogenes on the grounds that he had taken such a wife and allowed her to perform the secret rites on behalf of the city. married his daughter to Theogenes while he was holding the ofﬁce of basileus. 7 ἐζημίου This is a special use of the imperfect tense. ‘proposed to punish’. held back. and had himself accepted Phano as being his (Stephanos’) legitimate daughter in accordance with the law. ‘was inclined to punish’. When these sacred rites had taken place. He said that Stephanos appeared to be well disposed towards him. and the nine archons had gone up onto the Hill of Ares (Areopagos). ἡ βουλή (subject) ἅμα μὲν ἐλεήσασα … ἅμα δὲ ἡγουμένη + inﬁnitive. Note that the verbs in the ὅτι clause are all in the optative. imploring and entreating. This shows that they are part of what he said. And when it found out whose daughter Theogenes had as a wife. But the sentence starts with an inﬁnitive which follows διὰ … τὸ: ‘because of his inexperience in affairs and his innocence he had made Stephanos …’ 17–19 The structure is: genitive absolute. at once pitying him for his innocence and at the same time thinking that he had truly been deceived by Stephanos. 13–14 Here the construction changes to nom. since she is not the daughter of Stephanos but of Neaira.
2. διαφθαρείην. δοθείην. ὅτι οὐκ εἰδείη ὁποῖοι εἶεν. κελευθείην. You (pl. the Areopagites ceased judging Theogenes and being angry with him. ὅ τι πράξειεν ὁποία εἴη ὅπως ἀδικήσειεν b. You (pl. ὅτι Φανὼ ἐκδοθείη. εὑρεθείην. For Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor that she had worked with her body.
a. from his house. τεθείην.
He answered that the king had died. 6. I knew why he would punish the slave. 5. 3. I know why he does not obey/ is not persuaded. ὅτι πεισθείη d. The jurors asked what Stephanos had done. δουλωθείην. from the council board. ὡς τὰ ἱερὰ πραχθείη
. πεισθείην. The council was annoyed at the affair. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13F
THE AORIST OPTATIVE PASSIVE 13F: 1
βληθείην. ὅτου θυγάτηρ εἴη.) will see why they are angry. ὅτι ἐργάζοιτο c.
THE FUTURE OPTATIVE 13F: 2
I shall vote ψηφισοίμην you (pl. When Phano had been sent away. and what was the impiety of Neaira and how she had wronged the city. τιμηθείην. that Phano had been given in marriage to Phrastor and that the sacred rites on behalf of the city had been performed by a foreigner.) will blame μέμψοισθε Ι shall run δραμοίμην
he will be guarded φυλαχθήσοιτο they will be given δοθήσοιντο we shall invite προσκαλοῖμεν we shall carry οἰσοίμεθα
ἀποθάνοι παρέσοιντο συνίοιεν κολάσοι
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13F
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. πεμφθείην.) will be saved σωθήσοισθε you (pl. ληφθείην. ποιηθείην. who had deceived him. Theogenes said that he did not know what were Phano’s habits and that he had been persuaded by Stephanos to do this.192
Revision exercises for section 13F
daughter of Neaira. and removed Stephanos. and pardoned him because he had been deceived.) knew where the enemy were assembling. 4. He said that the citizens would not be present.
e. From where (for what cause) did Theogenes divorce his wife? ἠρόμην ὁπόθεν ἐκβάλοι τὴν γυναῖκα ὁ Θεογένης. 291–295. a. Who did this? ἠρόμην ὅστις ταῦτα ποιήσειεν. 304–305. ‘For many people have borne witness that they have shown contempt for the city and for the gods. 12–13 οἳ ἂν ἀποϕαίνωσι ‘whoever show’: ἄν + subjunctive makes the relative clause ‘indeﬁnite’. Who was Theogenes’ wife? ἠρόμην ἥτις εἴη ἡ γυνὴ ἡ Θεογένους.
2 πεποιήκασι What tense?
4 καταπεϕρονήκασιν What tense? 5 μεμαρτυρήκασιν What tense? καταπεϕρονηκέναι What is it? Perfect inﬁnitive active. #267–273). For they have shown contempt for the laws of the state (lit. ὡς καταδικασθεῖεν. ἅττα λεχθείη 2. EUERGIDES If indeed Apollodoros is speaking the truth. d. #270. The rest of this section is full of various forms of the perfect active and middle. See GE pp.
Here you will meet the perfect middle and passive. The inﬁnitive shows that this is an indirect statement. γεγένημαι These are perfect middle (GE pp. Didn’t you hear that we went into the lawcourt and that those men were condemned and didn’t you hear what was said in the prosecution? ὡς εἰσέλθοιμεν. b.’ 8 πεπολίτευμαι. on behalf of the state) and the gods. c.
. τὸν Στέϕανον is the subject of all the participles. Stephanos and Neaira have done the most sacrilegious things. #267–268). What sort of woman was Phano? ἠρόμην ὁποία γυνὴ εἴη ἡ Φανώ. the perfect inﬁnitives and participles and some important irregular perfects (GE pp. 14 ἀλλ’ εὖ ἴσμεν ‘But we know very well that’ is followed by a series of accusative + participle phrases. 292–293. You will meet this construction later in GE pp.
Translation for 13G
Oh what lawlessness! For Stephanos committed many disgraceful acts. How did the archons behave? ἠρόμην ὅπως πράξειαν οἱ ἄρχοντες. 291–292. #282. The perfect middle and passive are the same. e.
3 κέχρηται What tense? What verb? It comes from χράομαι. I wonder what Stephanos will ever say in his defence. 295. #272. Reasonably. and was not born a citizen. nor has he been a good citizen. See list at GE p. STR. So that it is clear that Stephanos will be convicted of lying. For the children. 5 ἐξελεγχθήσεται What tense? What verb? Try ἐξελέγχω. Stephanos will say the sort of things which all defendants say in their defence. at least. nor has he been appointed choregos. 295.
It is probable. This shows clearly how close the perfect is to the present in meaning.
8 Στέϕανος αὐτὸς ὑϕ’ αὑτοῦ ‘Stephanos himself has been condemned by himself. and who were introduced to the phratries by Stephanos.’ For you know well that all the defendants claim that they have performed their state duties patriotically and that they have won many glorious victories in the games (contests) and that they have accomplished much good for the city. But we know well that Stephanos is not rich. #272. nor has he been a trierarch.
Translation for 13H
What then? What will Stephanos say in his defence? Will he say that Neaira was a citizen and that he lives with her in accordance with the laws? KOMIAS But Apollodoros has employed the strongest evidence. and the
. proving that Neaira was a hetaira and became the slave of Nikarete.
EU. 7 εἴληϕε This is an irregular perfect from λαμβάνω. nor has he done any good to the city. ‘they are born to make mistakes’. i. For many people have borne witness that they have shown contempt for both the city and the gods. if he says such things. who were Neaira’s.194
SΤR. which takes the dative. 15 πεϕύκασι ‘They have been born’. that ‘I have been a good citizen’ and ‘I have been responsible for no disaster in the city. What then? That he did not take Neaira as his wife but as a concubine in his house? EUERGIDES But Stephanos has brought evidence against himself. ‘they exist’.e. For the dikasts have often acquitted those who have done wrong who can point out the virtues of their ancestors and their own good services.’ 12 εἴρηται Perfect passive from λέγω: see GE p.
Before you pass judgment. these clearly prove that Neaira was living with Stephanos as his wife. as it seems to me. fem. You will need to learn these by heart. and make sure also that you look at the lists in GE pp. For I have proved that he. 3–4 ὁ Στέϕανος ἄξιός ἐστιν οὐκ ἐλάττω δοῦναι δίκην … ἀλλὰ καὶ πολλῷ μείζω ‘Stephanos is worthy to pay no less penalty than …. and you have learned in detail that Neaira is an alien and has shown a lack of reverence towards the gods.
EU. 291–294. and that you yourselves have been greatly wronged and insulted.’
8 πεϕυκότας Cf. by declaring himself to be an Athenian. and it is clear that the truth has been spoken by Apollodoros. s. know that this Stephanos deserves to pay no lesser penalty than this Neaira. has thus shown much contempt for the laws and you and has been irreverent to the gods. p. and some irregular perfects. #267–271). And Stephanos also is done for.
Now make sure that you know both active and passive forms of the perfect indicative. and their participles and inﬁnitives (GE pp.Section 13I
STR. judges. Note the form of the reduplication when the verb starts with a vowel. of the perfect participle of ἀσεβέω. You must therefore take vengeance upon those who have been impious to the gods and you must punish those who have wronged the city and are disposed to sacrilege rather than to piety. who was given in marriage to an Athenian man. all men indeed are born to make mistakes. Therefore Neaira has been put in the most terrible danger on account of the things that have been done by Stephanos. 2 ἠσεβηκυῖαν Acc. followed by two sets of nominative + participle phrases. which show awkward cases where you cannot use an ordinary reduplication. 173. Yes.
1–3 μεμαθήκατε This is followed by two sets of accusative + participle phrases. #272–273. 294–295. also ἠδικημένοι and ὑβρισμένοι. but a much bigger one.
Translation for 13I
You have heard the evidence. line 15 ‘those who have been born to …’: ‘those who by nature are more inclined to impiety rather than piety’. but a much greater one for what he has done.
γεγαμῆσθαι.) have hurled you (s.) have suffered. he has gone.196
Exercises for section 13G–I
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13G–I
PERFECT INDICATIVE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE 13G–I: 1
κεκώλυται τεθύμεθα γεγάμημαι τετιμημένοι εἰσίν δεδήλωσθε
he has been prevented we have been sacriﬁced I have been married they have been honoured you (pl. δεδηλῶσθαι
κεκωλυκότος κεκωλυκότες κεκωλυμένου κεκωλυμένοι τεθυκότος τεθυκότες τεθυμένου τεθυμένοι γεγαμηκότος γεγαμηκότες γεγαμημένου γεγαμημένοι τετιμηκότος τετιμηκότες τετιμημένου τετιμημένοι δεδηλωκότος δεδηλωκότες δεδηλωμένου δεδηλωμένοι
κεκωλυκυίας κεκωλυκυῖαι κεκωλυμένης κεκωλυμέναι τεθυκυίας τεθυκυῖαι τεθυμένης τεθυμέναι γεγαμηκυίας γεγαμηκυῖαι γεγαμημένης γεγαμημέναι τετιμηκυίας τετιμηκυῖαι τετιμημένης τετιμημέναι δεδηλωκυίας δεδηλωκυῖαι δεδηλωμένης δεδηλωμέναι
κεκωλυκότος κεκωλυκότα κεκωλυμένου κεκωλυμένα τεθυκότος τεθυκότα τεθυμένου τεθυμένα γεγαμηκότος γεγαμηκότα γεγαμημένου γεγαμημένα τετιμηκότος τετιμηκότα τετιμημένου τετιμημένα δεδηλωκότος δεδηλωκότα δεδηλωμένου δεδηλωμένα
it has been announced. he has been wronged.
. τεθύσθαι. τετιμῆσθαι. they are standing.) have been shown
κεκωλῦσθαι. you (pl.
a. ϕάσκω ὑμᾶς τεκμηρίῳ ϕανερῷ κεχρῆσθαι. οἶδα ὑμᾶς τεκμηρίῳ ϕανερῷ κεχρημένους. gentlemen. ἠδίκημαι These words have been spoken by Neaira. πεπόνθαμεν. e. i. h. ϕάσκω ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ταῦτα διαπεπρᾶχθαι. κέχρησαι I myself have been condemned by myself (lit. and you have been greatly wronged. e. j. h.
2. οἶδα ὑμᾶς μεγάλα ὑβρισμένους καὶ ἠδικημένους. οἶδα ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ταῦτα διαπεπραγμένους.
a. εὖ πεπολίτευσθε We have been greatly wronged by Stephanos. ἀφῄρηται. a. I have had witness borne against me by myself). ἕστηκα. ϕάσκω ὑμᾶς μεγάλα ὑβρίσθαι καὶ ἠδικῆσθαι. εἰργασμένοι εἰσίν οἶδα σε εὖ πεπολιτευμένον. j. διαπέπρακται Phano’s son has been introduced to the brotherhood by Stephanos. Stephanos has never paid the penalty. ϕάσκω καταμεμαρτυρῆσθαι αὐτὸς ὑπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. d. οὔ ϕαμεν τὸν Στέϕανον δίκην ποτε δεδωκέναι. ἴσμεν τὸν Στέϕανον οὐδέποτε δίκην δεδωκότα. ϕάσκω σε εὖ πεπολιτεῦσθαι.
3. d. g. οἶδα τοῦτο εὶργασμένον τὸν κατήγορον. καταμεμαρτυρήμεθα Those men have done these things. f. c. ϕάσκω τοῦτο εἰργάσθαι τὸν κατήγορον. ἐζήτηκας.Revision exercises for section 13G–I
εἰρήκασι. εἰσηγμένοι εἰσίν These men have been the cause of many evils in the city. b. c. ϕάσκω τούτους αἰτίους γεγενῆσθαι πολλῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει.
You have governed well. ϕάσκω ἡμᾶς ἠδικῆσθαι μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. οἶδα τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας εἰρημένους. εἴρηται You have used clear proof. ἐστέρηται. ὕβρισαι ἠδίκησαι The prosecutor has accomplished this. ϕάσκω τὸν Φανοῦς παῖδα εἰσῆχθαι ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας. οἶδα ἡμᾶς ἠδικημένους μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. οἶδα καταμεμαρτυρημένος αὐτὸς ὑπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. οἶδα τὸν Φανοῦς παῖδα εἰσηγμένον ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας. οἶδα τούτους αἰτίους γεγενημένους πολλῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. γεγένηται You have been treated most violently. gentlemen. i. b.
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13G–I
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. f. ϕάσκω τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας εἰρῆσθαι.
Menekles began to take thought so that he might not be childless. ἡ βουλὴ ἤρετο ὁποίαν γυναῖκα ἔγημεν ὁ ἄρχων βασιλεύς. καὶ διὰ τὴν ἔχθραν τὴν πρὸς τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι αὐτοὺς λαβεῖν τὰ αὑτοῦ. ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον πρὶν ἀναστῆναι. e. then. 4. Since. ἔϕασκες τὴν Νέαιραν ἠσεβηκέναι εἰς τοὺς θεούς. Stephanos has given Phano in marriage as his own daughter. d. he praised his words and said that because Menekles was an old man and alone he needed me to look after him. οὐ βουλόμενος ἄπαις τελευτᾶν. ‘who is always at home. 2. But. meaning me. καὶ οὐ διὰ πολλοῦ ἠσθένησεν ὁ Φράστωρ. Phano is an alien by birth (has been born). εὖ ἴσμεν πάντες ὅτι οὐδὲν καλὸν οὔτε εἴρηται οὔτε πεποίηται οὐδέποτε ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. 2. and who would bury him when he had died and would carry out the customary tasks on his behalf in the period after his death. will look after your affairs and mine. δῆλον ὅτι. ϕημὶ τὴν Φανὼ ξένην πεϕυκέναι. he started to enter into an agreement with us and he said ‘Fate did not allow me to have children with your sister. Στέϕανος εὖ πεπολίτευται καὶ πολλὰ καὶ καλὰ πεποίηκεν. Neaira has been irreverent towards the gods. he found no other relation closer to him than us. ἐπιδέδειχα τὴν Φανὼ τεθυκυῖαν τὰ ἱερὰ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως. ‘For’. ἀναστὰς γὰρ γυναῖκα γνησίαν κατὰ τοὺς νόμους ἔγημεν. οἶσθα τὸν Στέϕανον ὡς τὴν αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα τὴν Φανὼ ἐκδεδωκότα. c. he said. Therefore I want to make one of you my son. You have been appointed jurors.198
Revision exercises for section 13G–I
b. as you know. ϕατὲ δικασταὶ καθεστηκέναι. Make him your son. εὖ οἶδα τὴν Φανὼ ξένην πεϕυκυῖαν. but my brother here’. ᾔδεισθα τὴν Νέαιραν ἠσεβηκυῖαν εἰς τοὺς θεούς.
. εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε. ἴστε δικασταὶ καθεστηκότες. βουλομένη τὸν Φράστορα τὸ παιδίον ἀναλαβεῖν. ἡ δὲ ἐκβεβλημένη ὀλίγον χρόνον ἔμεινεν.’ And when my brother heard this. 5.
E – TEST EXERCISE 13
1. if I had been able. but that he might have a child who would look after him before he died. Θεογένης ἔϕη ἐξαπατηθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. ὁ γὰρ Φράστωρ οὐδέποτ’ ἂν ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον. ‘I am always abroad. 3.
After this.’ And Menekles said that it was a good idea (that he was speaking well) and so adopted me. Prose τὴν οὖν Φανὼ τῆς Νεαίρας θυγατέρα οὖσαν ἐπιδεδειγμένην εὐθὺς ἐξέβαλεν ὁ Φράστωρ. ϕὴς τὸν Στέϕανον ὡς τὴν αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα τὴν Φανὼ ἐκδεδωκέναι.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
Sentences 1. indeed I would have had children from this family.
Do not therefore.
. help us and that man who is now in the house of Hades. and bearing in mind the law and the oath which you have sworn and the things that have been said about the matter. since the matter has come to you and you have become responsible for it. Instead. take away the name from me. being persuaded by him. vote for justice in accordance with the laws. gentlemen of the jury.Revision exercises for section 13G–I
My opponent here wishes now to disinherit me and to render the dead man childless and nameless.
she who has openly prostituted herself throughout the whole of Greece? For where has she not worked with her body? Or where has she not gone for her day-to-day earnings? Now that Neaira is clearly known by all as the kind of woman she is. to the crimes). Try ‘or’. will you vote that she is a citizen? And if you vote in this way. so it cannot be a relative pronoun. Do not translate πρότερον. of the relative pronoun: ‘she whom …’ ἥ What is this? ἤ This has a smooth breathing. what ﬁne thing will you say that you have accomplished to those who ask you? For [formerly] her crimes existed. since you have found out and since you all know. ἐλήλυθεν What tense? What verb? Learn it! ψηϕιεῖσθε This comes from ψηϕίζομαι. 304–305. ἥν This is accusative s. 10 ἐπειδὴ δὲ πέπυσθε καὶ ἴστε … Notice the present force of the perfect ‘since you have found out and you all know (now. which prepares for πρίν. and before you did z’. whose future is ψηϕιοῦμαι. #274–281) and one of its commonest uses with ἄν. you yourselves will be acting impiously towards the gods if you do not punish this woman. and since you are able to punish her. But. #282).
. fem. and the city was indifferent (lit.Section Fourteen: Guarding a woman’s purity
ἐάσετε Future of ἐάω. [this woman] who was neither left a citizen by her parents nor was she made a citizen by the people? Will you allow her to act irreverently towards the gods with impunity. will you then allow this Neaira to insult the city so disgracefully and so contemptuously. 300–304. 8–9 πρίν is followed by two accusative and inﬁnitive clauses ‘before she did x and y.
You now meet the subjunctive (GE pp.
Translation for 14A
1 2 3 4 5 6
Gentlemen of the jury. νομίζω νομιέω. Cf. before this woman was charged by me and brought to trial and before all of you found out who she was and what sort of impiety she had committed. at this moment)’. This makes a clause indeﬁnite (GE pp.
#282). 4–6 Look carefully at all the tenses here. 3. she lived with a citizen against the law and because she married her daughter to Theogenes when he was basileus and she performed the sacred and secret rites on behalf of the city and was given as a bride to Dionysos. 9 ἐπειδὰν πύθωνται ‘When they ﬁnd out’.’ (And you will go through the other things about the charge saying how well and carefully and accurately on each point she was prosecuted. though an alien. l. 304–305.
Translation for 14B
And what would each one of you say when you go back to the house to your wife or your daughter or your mother if you have voted (having voted) to acquit Neaira? For when (whenever) someone asks you ‘Where were you?’ and you say ‘We were trying a case’. 6 διηγήσεσθε What tense is this? 7 κατηγορήθη What tense is this? 8–11 οὔκουν ἤδη αἱ σωϕρονέσταται τῶν γυναικῶν and καὶ δὴ καὶ ταῖς ἀνοήτοις γυναιξί.e. that someone will immediately ask ‘Whom were you trying?’ and you will say ‘Neaira’ (of course) ‘because. This gives the predicted reaction of thoughtful women and foolish women. m. ‘whenever he says’. Cf. which is potential and means ‘could’ or ‘would’ (GE #283) or ἄν + indicative in unfulﬁlled conditions. For you will seem to be contemptuous and yourselves to be in agreement with Neaira’s standards of behaviour. Note that ἀνόητος is a compound adjective and has only two terminations. and f. i. hearing this. ἀτιμώρητος p.’ Will not the most self-controlled of women. you will seem to be granting licence to foolish women to do what(ever) they like. will ask ‘What then did you do?’ and you will say ‘We acquitted her. #389 of GE.
1 τί δὲ ϕήσειεν ἄν ἄν + optative: ‘What would each of you say …’ 2 ἐπειδὰν γάρ τις ἔρηται ὑμᾶς ἄν + subjunctive ‘when someone asks (if they actually do ask). be angry with you because you thought it right that Neaira should equally with them have a share in the business of the city and in the sacred rites? And moreover. 4 ὅτι should probably be translated as ‘because’.Section 14B
‘when he says’.’ ὅ τι ἂν βούλωνται Another indeﬁnite clause: ‘what(ever) they like’.
. endings are identical. 176. This is the indeﬁnite construction expressed by ἄν + the subjunctive (GE pp. when they ﬁnd out.) And they. 436–442. Do not confuse this ἄν with ἄν + optative. 11 ἄδειαν διδόναι ποιεῖν ‘To grant licence to do.’ 3 ἐρήσεται What tense is this? You may ﬁnd it useful to look up the principal parts of ἐρωτάω in the irregular verb list on pp.
My concern is with female citizens. Consider. who does not enjoy listening? STR. 19–20 What sort of condition is expressed here by ἄν + imperfect indicative?
Translation for 14C
But why are you silent. but there is also the fact that the established laws will become powerless.
. What then? Must we condemn Neaira? EU. Strymodorus. and you would be concerned about female citizens. What do you say. and hetairas will have the power to do whatever they like. pleased by his words? EUERGIDES I am certainly very pleased. but I don’t understand. Of course. with the speech which Apollodoros made. Your concern is with female citizens? How do you mean? Perhaps you are saying something important. More indeﬁnite clauses.
This section is full of future conditions (ἐάν + subjunctive) and indeﬁnite relative and adverbial clauses (‘whoever’. κύριαι. KOM. Euergides. 12–13 Note the opposites ἄκυροι.
1 ἀπορηθῇ Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. For whenever anyone speaks well and truthfully. but I am concerned with none of these things. 10–11 ἄν + subjunctive. 198. Strymodoros. it will be possible’: see GE p. too.) expressed by ἄν + the subjunctive. Euergides. now I have heard the speech which Apollodoros has made. STR. For if we acquit Neaira it will be permissible for prostitutes to live with whoever they like. and why do you neither praise nor criticise the arguments? For I am very pleased. ‘however’. Not only that. ‘in whatever way’. It is normal to express a future condition as an indeﬁnite. What do you say about what he has said? Are you. If you were a woman.202
6 ἐπειδὰν γάρ τις καλῶς λέγῃ An indeﬁnite clause: ‘when anyone speaks well’. of the aorist passive subjunctive of ἀπορέω. and to declare that their children belong to whoever they happen to ﬁnd [to father them]. #176. etc. then. Strymodoros. 9 ἐὰν γὰρ ἀποψηϕισώμεθα Nεαίρας. Komias? Do you think the laws will become powerless? KOMIAS You are concerned with hetairas and the laws. ἐξέσται ‘For if we acquit Neaira. you would understand. STR.
If nature grants a girl moderate beauty. it will be permissible for the Athenians to live with hetairas and have children however they please. even if a woman is in dire straits and her father has fallen into poverty and cannot give his daughter a dowry. Apollodoros has delivered his speech well. aorist active subjunctive of ἀποδίδωμι. EUERGIDES What then? KOM. διελήλυθε 3rd s. -ῃ indicates the subjunctive. of the aorist passive subjunctive of ἀπολύω. But if the Athenians have children however they please. as it does in ἀπορηθῇ.Section 14E
8 10 21
καθεστήκῃ Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. for Apollodoros is ending his speech. even if that citizen is poor. But be quiet. the law provides a sufﬁcient dowry. of the perfect active subjunctive of καθίστημι. If someone wants to rear children that are citizens. In this way the lawmakers take care that the daughters of citizens will not be unmarried – STR. ἐὰν δὲ ἀπολυθῇ Nέαιρα ‘If Neaira is set free’. ‘acquitted’: ἀπολυθῇ is the 3rd s. friends. it will not be necessary for Athenians to marry citizen women. EU. ‘take care that …’ ἀποδῷ 3rd s. how will it be possible for us to distinguish between the citizen and the alien? And if we cannot distinguish between the citizen and the alien. σκοποῦσιν ὅπως + future indicative: ‘see to it that …’. πένητος ὄντος is genitive in apposition to ἀστοῦ in the previous line. who do not have a dowry? The function of prostitutes will come completely to the daughters of citizens because they have no dowry and the reputation of free women will come to hetairas. but they will be able to marry whomsoever they like. perfect indicative of διέρχομαι. ‘has gone through the argument’. ἐάν τις βούληται ‘If someone wants’: ἐάν + subjunctive. 6 καὶ ὅταν μὲν τοῦ κατηγορεῖν γένησθε ‘and whenever you are concerned with prosecution’. If Neaira is acquitted (freed). if Athenians marry whomsoever they like. STRYMODOROS What do you mean? KOM. This is why I am concerned about citizen women. For hetairas will be allowed to have children with whomever they like and to share in mysteries and sacred rites and honours in the city. Therefore. εἰ καὶ πένητος ὄντος ‘Even if he is a poor man’. who will marry the daughters of poor men. he must marry the daughter of a citizen. but this matter has been expressed by Komias even better and more sincerely. The perfect is used because ‘he has been placed in a situation’ = ‘he is in a situation’.
3 ὁμοίως Nεαίρᾳ τῇ πόρνῃ ‘in the same way as Neaira the prostitute’.
Translation for 14D
So great then is the prosecution which Apollodoros has delivered. STRYMODOROS But what shall I say when my children and my wife ask whether I condemned or acquitted her? EU. another on behalf of his daughter. the laws through which we live in the city. How then will it be possible for me to judge the trial? ΕU. she has done these things. I cannot remember the prosecution. Strymodoros.
10 ὡς ἀπολογησόμενος ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose. And when you look upon the face of Neaira. and if she is acquitted. and puts me in great perplexity. Of course. STR. But. as it seems. you will say that you condemned her. one of you on behalf of his wife. First listen and then decide (judge). gentlemen of the jury.
Translation for 14E
I want each one of you to know that you are casting your vote. STR. But when we have cast our vote. for the prosecutor leads me round in a circle. Look after them.
There are many more examples of the use of ἄν + the subjunctive in this section. look after them with much good discipline and care. and by which you have sworn to give judgment. But Neaira with her many disgraceful ways has had intercourse with many men many times each day. σιγῴης ἄν … προσέχοις ἄν ἄν + optative = a polite request. ‘would you be quiet and concentrate?’ 11–12 ὅπως + the future indicative: ‘Take care that you…’
Translation for 14F
Good. Good. think only of this one thing. If Neaira is condemned. STR. you will say that you acquitted her. And when you are concerned with prosecution. whether. being Neaira.204
8 ὅταν δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀπολογεῖσθαι ἦτε ‘and whenever you are concerned with the defence’. remember the condemnation of the laws and the proof of the things which have been said which you have heard. another of his city and its laws and its religion. although I am eager to do it. another of his mother. and give them in marriage in accordance with the laws. like a sophist. Strymodoros. Do not show respect for these women in the same way as for Neaira the prostitute. But now we must hear the defence of Stephanos and when we have heard it we must cast our vote. listen to the laws themselves. what next?
. And when you are concerned with the defence. KOMIAS And the defendant too will drag you round in a circle.
Strymodoros. μαρτυρῶσι λέγωσιν
. Whatever evidence the witnesses give and whatever they say. see above) ἐνέγκῃ
ἐὰν ὁρῶσιν/ἰδῶσιν ἐπειδὰν ἀκούω/ἀκούσω ὅστις ἂν ἴῃ/ἔλθῃ. ὅστις ἂν ὦσιν.
What next? When we have got up from our seats and cast our votes. Strymodoros. ὅπου ἂν ᾖ ἐπειδὰν ἀπίωσιν/ἀπέλθωσιν ἐὰν δουλῶμεν/δουλώσωμεν. subj. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 14
THE SUBJUNCTIVE 14: 1
he made a mistake he was stopping he will persuade/you (s. ἐπειδὰν εἰδῶ. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 14
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. Komias.) will obey he fell out/was thrown out they had
ἁμάρτῃ the imperfect subjunctive shares the expect of the present subj. see that you remember the things said by Apollodoros and that you pay attention to everything which Stephanos may say. and all the household welcome me because of the three obols.
a. Would you please be quiet and pay attention. we shall receive our three obols. And as for you. we always judge carefully. For Stephanos is now standing up to make his defence. With reason! But stop chattering. It is very pleasant when I go home with my three obols in my mouth.
EU. is διδῶσιν.Revision exercises for section 14
KOM. παύῃ no future subjunctive ἐκπέσῃ σχῶσι(ν)
I have married he will go they are we have become they placed we make/do (for ourselves) they see they knew they were giving he carried
γεγαμήκω ἴῃ ὦσι(ν) γεγενημένοι ὦμεν θῶσι ποιώμεθα ὁρῶσι(ν) γνῶσι(ν) imperfect (pres.
your enemies will always take vengeance on you. ὅταν γυνή τις χρήματων λάβηται. If an evil man loses his citizen’s rights (is placed in loss of citizen’s rights). πρόσσχητε προθυμῆσθε j. ϕήσει. δῆλον ὅτι. Whoever is not condemned but acquitted by the jurors. You may. εὖ πεπολιτεῦσθαι καὶ πολλά τε καὶ ἀγαθὰ διαπεπρᾶχθαι. the laws are preserved. When(ever) a citizen goes to law or the clansmen reject (vote against) a child born from an alien. you will condemn (vote against) Neaira. therefore. that is the penalty that the man who has been condemned owes to the city. δώσουσί σοι ὅ τι ἂν βούλῃ. Whatever ﬁne you think just and inﬂict. ὅταν οἱ δικασταὶ οἴκαδε ἔλθωσιν. we regard as innocent. ἀγωνίσηται ἀποψηϕίσωνται d.206
Revision exercises for section 14
b. 2. 5. If you concentrate your mind carefully on the prosecution and are eager. For there they think the citizens ought to observe the long-established laws and preserve tradition. When you enter the house and your wife meets you. χαλεπὴ γίγνεται. But if it does not. οὔτε γὰρ οὑτοσὶ οὔτε οἱ πρόγονοι πρὸς τὸ εὐσεβεῖν πεϕύκασιν ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὸ ἀσεβεῖν. This is only one of them. καίτοι εὖ ἴσμεν πάντες ὅτι οὐδὲν οὔτε καλὸν οὔτε ἀγαθὸν διεπράχθη ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ οὐδέποτε. καταστῇ f. μὴ δῷ i. βούλῃ δηλοῖς g. ἐὰν προσέχῃς τὸν νοῦν πρὸς τὴν ἀπολογίαν. we condemn. So that. The law provides an adequate dowry to any woman whose father does not give a dowry.
I want to tell you how they frame the laws in Lokris (among the Lokrians). ἀπολύσεις τὸν ϕεύγοντα. λέγῃ πείθῃ c. he proposes it with his neck in a noose. ἢ τοιοῦτό τι πρᾶγμα ἀκηκόατέ ποτε. ἐπειδὰν οἱ κατήγοροι λέγωσιν. 3. see that you ﬂatter her. Prose ἀπολογούμενος οὖν τί λέξει ὁ Στέϕανος. ἐὰν ϕιλῇ ὑπὸ τῶν θυγατέρων. ﬁnd that you have constructed a different version and are still perfectly correct. αἱ γυναῖκες ἀσπάζονται αὐτοὐς. but they observe the ancient laws
. the proposer lives and gets away. μὴ καταδικασθῇ ἀπολυθῇ e. Whenever you want to say something terrible and you reveal the truth. Note that it is possible to translate this passage into Greek in a number of different ways. if someone wants to make a new law. he is killed when the noose is drawn tight. 4. ἡγῆσθε τιμᾶτε h. ἀεὶ τὰ αὐτὰ λέγουσιν. all the citizens are pleased. And if the law seems to be good and useful. In fact they do not dare to propose new laws. οὐ δῆτα. When(ever) the prosecutor speaks and persuades us. 2. εἰσίῃς ἐντύχῃ
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
E – TEST EXERCISE 14
the one who knocked out the eye must offer his own eye to be knocked out in return. if a man knocks out an eye. he is said to have dared to put forward the following law: if anyone knocks out the eye of a one-eyed man. that he would knock out this one eye.
. he will have to give both his eyes to be knocked out in return. When this threat had been made. and thinking that his life would be unliveable if he suffered this. only one new law is said to have been passed. who happened to have one eye. the one-eyed man was upset. In the course of many years. An enemy is said to have threatened his enemy. For in this way they would both suffer the same injury. And the Lokrians are said to have passed this law alone in more than two hundred years. For there is a law established in Lokris that.Revision exercises for section 14
SERVANT Of course [she is] the best. 4–5 Difﬁcult. 13 ‘Εστία Hestia is the goddess of the hearth. #286.
1 ἴστω The third person singular imperative of οἶδα (GE #207). but it is not always easy to recognise whether the preposition is there in its own right or if it is a case of ‘tmesis’. (literally ‘for how not?’ = ‘of course’) has appeared from Section 1 onwards. This squashing together of two separate words (τὰ ἐμά) is called ‘crasis’. 3 πῶς δ’ οὐκ …. οἶδα is followed by a participle (‘know that …’. ‘gloriously’. 310. crucial for the continued existence of the home. 16 τἀμά See GE p. Note (e) here contains the warning: ‘Word order in verse can be far more ﬂexible than in prose. Consult the translation. again. #286 for a list of tragic usages. see GE #247).
Translation for 15A
Let her know then [that she] is going to die gloriously and by far the best woman of those under the sun.’ While it is probably true that you will ﬁnd an increase of difﬁculty in this section. Who will disagree? What should this outstanding woman be called (how should she be described)? How could anyone declare more [clearly] that she holds her husband in honour than by
. εὐκλεής = ‘a glorious [woman]’. πῶς γὰρ οὔ. It is quite common in verse authors.Section Fifteen: Alkestis in Euripides’ play
In this section you are introduced to the verse of Greek Tragedy in a touching scene from Euripides’ Alkestis (produced in 438 BC). utterances can be far more oblique and tightly packed with meaning. 310. 11 ἐκ … ἑλοῦσα This splitting of a verb from its prepositional preﬁx is called ‘tmesis’ (‘cutting’). Consult GE p. The vocabulary tells you that κατθανουμένη is the future participle of καταθνῄσκω. 15 πίτνω This form of πίπτω is very common in poetry. We have tried to keep the translation as literal as possible throughout. It is easiest to translate it as an adverb. the Greek should prove manageable.
309–310. And join a dear wife in marriage to the boy and a noble husband to the girl.e. #286). 6 ᾽δάκρυσε The ﬁrst syllable (ε) is elided (struck off) after the vowel at the end of the previous word (prodelision).(‘not weeping. but perhaps [will be more] fortunate. and.’
. As you will remember. and the coming disaster did not change the graceful nature of her complexion. 3 Note the preﬁx ἀ. Some other woman will have you for her own. where I lost my virgin maidenhood to this man for whose sake I die. having taken out from their cedar home (i. I die. she could not be more chaste. adds a sense of grandeur. she prayed: ‘Mistress – [I am addressing you] for I am going beneath the earth – appealing to you for the last time. without lamentation. not lamenting’). 5 κἄπειτα Crasis (GE p. for shrinking from betraying you and my husband. You will see that it is middle or passive. Here means ‘from the action of …’ περί + gen. she washed her white skin in waters from the river. and standing before the Household Hearth. but may they happily complete a pleasant life in their father’s land. 4 μεθίστη Imperfect (GE #230–234). Here means ‘for the sake of …’ 11 κεκτήσεται Future perfect. chest) clothes and decoration. And may the children not die – as I their mother am being destroyed – before their time. the vowel at the end of a word disappears. elision usually works the other way round. farewell. she adorned herself becomingly. #284–285.Section 15B
being willing to die for him? And the whole city knows these things. Then rushing into her bedroom and [falling onto] her bed. which is fairly common in poetry. i.
Translation for 15B
She approached all the altars which [are] throughout the house of Admetos and she garlanded them and addressed them in prayer. but this use of the plural. but you will wonder as you hear what she did in the house.e. you have destroyed me alone. 310. For when she realised that the appointed day had come. 8 ἐκ + gen. has reduplication and uses future endings.’
1 δόμους Poetic plural – the house is in fact singular. then indeed she wept and said these things: ‘O bed. For I do not hate you. unweeping. I shall beg you to look after my orphaned children. Have a look at this rare form at GE pp.
5 πολλά Neuter plural used as an adverb. betray) him. Her children. having died). at another time another’. Exhausted. trying to bring out the iambic rhythm first of all. he weeps. throwing herself from (lit. clinging to their mother’s robes. 10 ἄλλοτ’ ἄλλον ‘at one time one. For she is dying and wastes away through the disease.
Translation for 15C
CHORUS F. 309–310. She stretched out her right hand to each of them. She. now the other. Translate ‘in both hands’. but nevertheless still breathing (although [just] a little). and often going out of the bedroom she turned back and ﬂung herself back again on the bed. meaning ‘often’. 12 κοὔτις Crasis of καὶ οὔτις. a pathetic weight in his arms. You will have this explained to you in Section 17. she kissed it and bedewed all the bed with a ﬂood [of tears] welling from her eyes. Here it gives the answer ‘I suppose he does’ to the question the Chorus ask.
16 λελήσεται Future perfect of λανθάνομαι (GE pp. Then read it naturally. if he must be deprived of a good woman? Yes. to be sure.
And embracing [the bed]. she went headlong. seeking the impossible. taking them into her arms.
. But when she had had enough of many tears. and begs her not to forsake (lit. and no one was so low-born that she did not speak to him – and was addressed by him in return. Such are the evils in the house of Admetos. falling out of) the bed. #287–290 and try to scan the ﬁrst four lines of section 14B. #284–285). 22 χειρός Literally ‘of his hand’. she wishes to look towards the rays of the sun – as [she] never [will] again – but now for the last time. if he had died (lit. Translate ‘in his hands’. All the servants were weeping throughout the house. have perished. holding his dear wife in his arms. Does Admetos grieve over these evils. And. were weeping. 19 χεροῖν This is a dual ending. embraced now one. 311–313. 17 που The enclitic που can mean ‘I suppose’. pitying their mistress.
Tragic verse metre
Read GE pp. but escaping death he has so much grief – which he will never have forgotten. Then read aloud to yourself as much of 14B as you can. as she was on the point of dying.S. he would.
walking along the road outside the wall. and ϕοβοῦμαι μή + subjunctive = ‘I am afraid that something may happen’ (GE #293). 13 ἐπεποιήκει What tense? see GE p. or about burial?
. Tell me then. What do you say? Did you go to them about puriﬁcation. beneath the wall itself. καλῶς ἔχω ‘I am well’. Also there are verbal nouns ending in -τέος which express obligation (‘must’). as it seems. 315. for what purpose were you spending your time in the agora? AR.g. Apollodoros. addresses him.Section Sixteen: Ofﬁcial justice – ships. state and individuals
In this section you will meet a number of different features of grammar and syntax that are clearly described in GE pp. I went to the ofﬁcials. For you seem to be upset about something. GE #294–295. κακῶς ἔχω ‘I am in a bad way. Apollodoros.
Translation for 16A
Apollodoros is going straight towards Ilisos. #291–294. my friend. there he meets Aristarchos the son of Ariston.’ 10 τοὺς ἐξηγητάς These were state ofﬁcials who advised what to do in cases of murder. But. Where are you going to and where have you come from. Apollodoros. who is very depressed.
3 ἀθύμως ἔχοντι Agrees with Ἀριστάρχῳ. #291. e. Apollodoros’ next question shows two of the procedures which they might advise on. 315–318. ἠδικήκει What tense? 17 διεξελθόντι δέ μοι … οὐκ ἔϕασαν ἐξεῖναι … Literally ‘to me having related … they said that it was not possible to …’ ἐπεπόνθη What verb? What tense? Try πάσχω πείσομαι ἔπαθον πεπόνθα. AP. ἔχω + adverb expresses the state that someone is in. When he is at the gate. Notice particularly μή + aorist subjunctive = ‘don’t …’ (GE #292). and I am going home. AP. you seem to me to be depressed. seeing Aristarchos coming towards him. Aristarchos? ARISTARCHOS From the agora.
15 βοηθήσω What mood and tense is this? compare ἀπολέσω. and do not conceal anything. For I have time to spare (leisure). for you are a clever prosecutor and reasonably experienced in legal matters. Tell me therefore. The future is ἀπολῶ. For you must not be upset by what has happened nor be despondent. Fears for the future in primary sequence can be expressed by μή + subjunctive. Speak now. 6 ϕοβοῦμαι μὴ σ’ ἀπολέσω See GE p. That is what we have here. One must not despair but take heart. Then I must tell everything from the beginning. concentrating in every way on this. 2 ἀθυμητέον. how you will relate the affair to me as clearly as possible. it is ﬁtting for you to hear it (the hearing is ﬁtting for you). the ﬁrst aorist indicative is ἀπώλεσα and its subjunctive is therefore ἀπολέσω. 317–318. Apollodoros. for what he had done.212
AR. προθυμητέον See GE pp. my friend. Note that although this looks like a future indicative at ﬁrst sight.
1 μὴ ἀπορήσῃς. AP. they said that it was not possible to take revenge in the way I had in mind. Taking this tragedy to heart and wanting to take revenge on this man. Don’t be afraid that this will happen. Verb forms in -τέoς mean ‘must’. 5 διέξει What tense? What person? This is the second person singular of διέξειμι. and don’t be despondent any longer. What then? Do you want to listen while we go for a walk or while we sit down? The path along the Ilisos is in every way suitable for us to speak and to listen as we go.
. I went for this reason (thus) being angry with a violent man. but when I had told them what I had suffered and what Theophemos had done. #292). ἵνα + subjunctive expresses purpose. going into the farm and offering violence to my family and what is more killing an old woman who was a freedwoman. μηδὲ ἀθυμήσῃς μή + aorist subjunctive = ‘Don’t …’ (GE pp.
Yes. but take heart. For it is not a short story. We must consider this matter from the beginning. #293. ARISTARCHOS But I am afraid that I may ﬁnish you off in telling you. AR. And indeed. For this man had wronged me particularly. #294–295. I went to the ofﬁcials. it is in fact the aorist subjunctive. 315–316. 316. Therefore don’t regard me without respect (do not hold me in dishonour). Aristarchos. as it seems. 18 συμβουλεύσωμαι What mood and tense after ἵνα? 19 χάριν γὰρ εἴσομαι Have you remembered that εἴσομαι is the future of οἶδα?
Translation for 16B
Don’t despair. Theophemos by name. my friend. and don’t hold back.
so that I can help you in your despair and despondency. The gratitude would be twofold.) fall. 3. if you listen.Exercises for section 16A–B
AP.) stay 4.) had conquered.
they are afraid he came. I shall be grateful to you. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16A–B
THE PLUPERFECT 16A–B: 1
ἐτετιμήκης ἐτεθήκει ἐτεθνήκεμεν ἐβεβλήκεσαν ἐβεβήκη ἐπεφιλήμεθα ἐδεδούλωντο ἐκεκρατήκετε
μή + SUBJUNCTIVE 16A–B: 2
you (s. I am very eager to listen.) do this 2.
Why not? For it is not yet the stiﬂing midday heat. Certainly. held power
1.) run 3. I shall not stop accompanying you. arrived φοβοῦνται μὴ ἀφίκηται we are afraid they ﬂed φοβούμεθα μὴ φύγωσιν he is afraid we stayed φοβεῖται μὴ μείνωμεν you (pl.) had honoured he had placed we had died they had thrown I had gone we had been loved they had been enslaved you (pl.
AR. don’t (pl. You speak.) say this
VERBS OF FEARING 16A–B: 3
μὴ τοῦτο ποίει μὴ δράμητε μὴ μένετε μὴ πέσῃς μὴ λέγετε ταῦτα
1.) are afraid he was enslaved φοβεῖσθε μὴ δουλωθῇ I am afraid they did not ﬁght φοβοῦμαι μὴ οὐ μάχωνται
. don’t (s. 5. die 5. AR. then. So that. so that when I have heard I can take counsel with you. don’t (pl. don’t (s. 4. 2. Listen. AP. don’t (pl. so that I can learn what has happened. if in your walk you go all the way to Megara. And indeed I shall be grateful to you if you speak.
. Despise the gods. c. μὴ μνημονεύσητε πάντας τοὺς λόγους. e. d. hearing this. ὅτε … ‘There was at that time. d. used impersonally ‘although it being necessary …’ (GE p. 6 καίπερ δέον καίπερ + participle = although … δέον is the neuter singular of the participle of δεῖ. ἵνα μάθῃς ‘so that you may learn’. 4–5 ἐξιούσης τῆς ἀρχῆς Genitive absolute. The man must endure the disaster. μὴ παραλάβῃς τοὺς νεανίσκους. b. Forget this matter. c. ἵνα + subjunctive expresses purpose. 14–15 ἵνα … προστάττωμεν καὶ ἀναγκάζωμεν Purpose clause. i. We must consider these things in detail. I am afraid that Demosthenes did not save the men. c. 321. βοηθητέον αὐτοὺς/αὐτοῖς. μὴ τιμωρήσησθε τοὺς ϕίλους. οἴκαδε πεμπτέον σέ. b. σοὶ/σὲ ἰτέον οἴκαδε. Take care (see that) you do not tell lies to the jurors about what happened. Be eager. μὴ ἐπιλάθησθε τούτου τοῦ πράγματος. You must make war. ὑμᾶς/ὑμῖν πολεμητέον. Cast your vote. Remember all the arguments. Restrain yourself. d. μὴ κατείπῃς τὸν τῆς ἀπολογίας λόγον.
1 ὅθεν ‘from where’.214
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16A–B
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. Take revenge on your friends. the man may be disheartened.
Prevent the man. 10 ὡς τάχιστα See GE p. g. τῷ ἀνδρὶ/τὸν ἄνδρα οἰστέον τὴν συμϕοράν. #297. j.
a. You must go home. Hold back. Be despondent. this is the relative form of the interrogative πόθεν ‘from where?’. 7 ἦν τότε. Take the young men. 13 ἐξῆν What verb does this come from? Imperfect of ἔξεστι. μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς. a. 3. μὴ θῇ τὴν ψῆϕον. It is necessary to send you home. a. b. k. ἡμᾶς/ἡμῖν ἀκριβῶς σκεπτέον περὶ ταῦτα. μὴ ἐπίσχῃς. when …’ Note τότε and ὅτε. μὴ καταϕρονήσῃς τῶν θεῶν. I am dreadfully despondent in case my friend may not do this. They must help. μὴ κωλύσητε τὸν ἄνδρα. ‘the ofﬁce ﬁnishing (going out)’. οὐκ ἐξόν Accusative absolute ‘it not being possible …’ 14 γράϕει Χαιρέδημος Note the change to present tense for vividness. #296). f. f. 320. e. We are afraid that. Tell the argument of the defence. 2. h. ὡς + superlative = ‘as … as possible’. μὴ ἐπιθυμήσητε.
‘It being necessary …’
Translation for 16C
I want therefore to tell you the origin of the enmity towards Theophemos (from where it arose) so that you may learn what happened and know that he wronged not only me but also the people and the Boule (Council). 19 δέον Accusative absolute again. tow and rope. Note that as the main verb is now in the past we are in historic (or secondary) sequence and so the verbs in the ἵνα clause which follows are in the optative mood. #265. great danger to the city because of the rebellion of the allies. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16C
THE ACCUSATIVE ABSOLUTE 16C: 1
1. having prepared it. Chairedemos proposes a resolution so that we who have been appointed as trierarchs may order and compel those who had been trierarchs (whoever had not given it back) to give back the equipment. when I was about to become a trierarch. 286. I received none of the equipment from him. there was at that time. I went to Theophemos in order to get the equipment. so that it was not possible to buy them. For I happened to be holding the ofﬁce of trierarch. for you know very well that it is necessary for someone who has been a trierarch. there was no supply of equipment for the ships in the dockyard. But although it was necessary for us to send out the ships as quickly as possible.
ἐξὸν ἡμῖν ἀπιέναι it being possible for us to go away since we can go away
. there was not in the Piraeus an unlimited supply of sailcloth.Exercises for section 16C
15 ὃς ἂν μὴ ἀποδιδῷ Indeﬁnite clause: ‘whoever does not return them’. In addition to this. And since it was not possible to buy them. to hand over the trireme and its equipment to the person who is going to become trierarch. and the people who owed them had not given them back. But although it was obligatory for Theophemos to hand over the equipment. And the resolution orders us to get the equipment in whatever way we can so that we may prepare the ships as quickly as possible and send out the rescue mission. so that it was necessary for the trierarchs to send out a rescue operation of triremes quickly. so that he too can prepare the ship. as they were before. in primary sequence. Since it was necessary for me to do this. send it out as quickly as possible. and as trierarch I had to receive the equipment and the trireme from Theophemos. 18 ἦν Back to the past tense. when his term of ofﬁce expires. Therefore there was great necessity for me to get the equipment so that I could prepare the ship and. See GE p. And moreover. For those who owed it had not given back the equipment. among whom was Theophemos. not in the subjunctive.
It is necessary for the one who owes it to the city to give back the equipment to the one who is about to become trierarch. οὐκ ἐξὸν ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ οὐδὲν πρίασθαι ὧν ἔδει. δέον ἡμᾶς παρασκευάζειν ὡς τάχιστα τὰς ναῦς. χείριστος
the best possible the least/smallest possible the clearest possible the most prudent possible the most frightening possible the most unjust possible the biggest/greatest possible the worst possible
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16C
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
δέον ὑμᾶς θεραπεύειν τὰς γυναῖκας it being necessary for you to look after the women since you must look after the women 3. I went to the Council. δέον τὸν ὀϕείλοντα τῇ πόλει τὰ σκεύη παραδιδόναι τῷ τριηραρχήσοντι. Then it is not possible for me to prepare the trireme. d. It was necessary for us to prepare the ships as quickly as possible. τοῖς παῖσιν ἐξὸν παίζειν it being possible for the children to play since the children are allowed to play 5. δόξαν/δοκοῦν μοι ποιῆσαι τοῦτο it seeming best to do this because I thought it best to do this 4. δέον τοὺς ἄνδρας ἐκδοῦναι τὰς θυγατέρας it being necessary for the men to give their daughters in marriage since the men/husbands must give their daughters in marriage
. I went to Theophemos. οἱ τριήραρχοι οὐκ ἐδύναντο παρασκευάζειν τὰς ναῦς. It was not possible to buy any of the things needed in the Piraeus. Chairedemos proposes a resolution. βέλτιστος ὡς ἐλάχιστος ὡς σαφέστατος ὡς σωφρονέστατος ὡς φοβερώτατος ὡς ἀδικώτατος ὡς μέγιστος ὡς κάκιστος. ἐγὼ ὡς τὸν Θεόϕημον προσῆλθον.216
Revision exercises for section 16C
a. προσῆλθον πρὸς τὴν βουλήν. b. εἶτα οὐκ ἐξόν μοι τὴν τριήρη παρασκευάζειν. γράϕει Χαιρέδημος ψήϕισμα. The trierarchs were not able to prepare the ships. c.
325. ἵνα λάβοι αὐτήν 2. See GE p. 5 Note the use of the imperfect. ὁπότε + ἄν denotes an indeﬁnite clause. whenever the people who owe it do not return it. For there is a resolution of the Boule to get the equipment in whatever way we can. ὅπως σώσειαν αὑτούς
. secondary – optative. I saw the men ﬂeeing with the intention of saving themselves. where the verb in the subordinate clause is indicative in primary sequence and optative in secondary sequence. the brother of Theophemos.Exercises for section 16D
You have already met the idea of sequence of tenses in clauses in indirect speech introduced by ὅτι. going to Euergos. having taken as many witnesses as possible. therefore. 323. I asked for the equipment and told him to tell Theophemos. and p. I went to the house of Theophemos to see him. from somewhere else where Theophemos lived. The situation was continuing until the action in the next sentence. In purpose clauses (and indeﬁnite clauses and fears for the future) the sequence of tenses is: primary – subjunctive. 6–7 ἠρόμην … πότερον … εἴη. Having found out.
The woman came to take her. See GE p. but kept abusing me. 2 ἐκέλευoν αὐτὸν ϕράσαι ‘ordered him to tell’ (aorist inﬁnitive). and when I asked. 10 ἦλθον … ἵνα ἴδοιμι Purpose clause in secondary sequence: ‘so that I might see him’.
1 Note genitive absolute followed by accusative absolute followed by aorist participle agreeing with the subject of the verb. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16D
PURPOSE CLAUSES 16D: 1
1. 3 ὁπόταν ‘when(ever)’.
Translation for 16D
But since Theophemos was not there and it was not possible for me to see him. #299. 286. I asked him whether the property was shared or not. Euergos answered that the property was not shared and that his brother lived separately. #300. and taking an ofﬁcial from the board of ofﬁcials. #265. but Euergos did not give back the equipment. Therefore I made my request and delayed for some days so that Euergos might tell Theophemos. ἀπεκρίνατο … ὅτι … εἴη Two clauses in indirect speech in secondary sequence with the verb in the subordinate clause in the optative. So.
after the woman had fetched him. Note that in primary sequence the indeﬁnite clause has subjunctive + ἄν. whenever someone did not give back the equipment. I asked where he was. οὐ δύναμαι ἀναγκάζειν αὐτὸν ταῦτα ποιῆσαι. ἵνα μάρτυρές μοι εἶεν … Purpose clause in secondary sequence. I asked him for the register of the equipment and showed him the resolution of the Boule. Finding that he was not inside. wherever he happened to be.218
3. ὦ βέλτιστε. and Theophemos kept refusing. 11–13 ἐκέλευον … ἢ … ἢ … ‘I ordered him … either to … or to …’ 13 ληψοίμην Notice the future optative. 10–11 καλέσαντος δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ παρόντων μαρτύρων τῶν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ κληθέντων Genitive absolutes.
1–2 Note the use of the imperfect. and the woman answered that ‘he was not inside. ἵνα πείσαι αὐτήν 4. here and later in this section. #300 about indeﬁnite clauses in primary and secondary sequence.
. καίπερ τὸν Θεόϕημον δέoν ἀποδοῦναι τὰ σκεύη. which ordered me to get the equipment in whatever way I could. the sequence being historic (secondary). in secondary sequence it has the optative without ἄν. Aristarchos was in the process of making his demands. 2 ὅπου ἂν νῦν γε τυγχάνῃ ὤν Primary sequence. Where shall we go to give the food to the poor? ὅπως διδῶμεν REVISION EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16D
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. representing a future indicative in direct speech. 3 ὅπου ὢν τυγχάνοι Secondary sequence. ἦλθον πρὸς τὴν ϕίλου τινὸς οἰκίαν ἵνα πυθοίμην ὅπου οἰκοίη ὁ Θεόϕημος.
Translation for 16E
Having knocked at the door. 5. I told the woman who answered to go after him. 10 εἴ τινας ἴδοι Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. πρόσειμι πρὸς τὴν βουλὴν ἵνα ψήϕισμα γράϕωσιν. 4. And indeed I was not the only one who acted in this way. 325. 3. μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς.
Notice GE p.
The man gave money to the woman in order to persuade her. ἆρα ϕοβῇ μὴ αὖθις πάσχῃς τι ὑπὸ τούτων τῶν πονηρῶν. wherever he now happened to be’. 2. but others of the trierarchs [did] too. And when Theophemos arrived.
κελεύω τὸν παῖδα καλέσαι τοὺς πολίτας. so that they might be witnesses for me of what had been said. (i) I asked the slave where his master was. Therefore. if he could see any. or to return the equipment. ἵνα τὴν τριήρη παρασκευάζῃ. before I did anything else. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16E
INDEFINITES IN SECONDARY SEQUENCE 16E: 1
1. c. Theophemos did not hand it over. When(ever) I learn … ἐπειδὴ μάθοιμι… 5. I began to request Theophemos again either himself to follow me to the Boule. so that they might be witnesses for me of what had been said. a. he used to see the woman sitting down. If you give me those things … εἴ μοι διδοίης ταῦτα… REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16E
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. (ii) The master ordered him to give back to the city whatever he happened to have. (ii) I was asking the woman to fetch her master.
a. βούλεται κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη. d. and the register had been requested. ἵνα τὰ γεγενημένα μάθοιεν. b. (i) The slave summoned all the citizens whom he could see from the road so that they could be witnesses. ἵνα μάρτυρές μοι ὦσι τῶν λεχθέντων. If he does not do this … εἰ μὴ ποιοίη τοῦτο… 2.
. (ii) When he came in. They do not cease following so that they may learn what has happened. he saw the woman sitting on the altar. οὐκ ἐπαύοντο ἑπόμενοι. d. I am afraid that Euergos may not explain the matter to Theophemos. If not. I said that I would take securities from him in accordance with the laws and the resolutions. ἐϕοβούμην μὴ Εὔεργος οὐ δείξειε τὸ πρᾶγμα τῷ Θεοϕήμῳ. b. c. and when the witnesses summoned by him were present. if he said that he did not owe the equipment. i(i) Whenever he came in. wherever he was. When(ever) I see him … ὁπότε ἴδοιμι αὐτόν… 3. I ordered my slave to summon the citizens from the road. (i) I had already found out that he happened to be married. I was telling the slave to summon the citizens. 2.Revision exercises for section 16E
But when the resolution had been shown to him. He wanted to collect the equipment so that he could prepare the trireme. And when the boy had summoned them. Who(ever) they order … ὅντινα κελεύοιεν… 4.
As I went in. being annoyed at what I had suffered and seeing what state I had been reduced to by Theophemos. ‘to be captured’ or ‘to be convicted’. (i) It seemed to us that each word we spoke about Love should be as beautiful as possible. so that I might have a witness. #302 for the principal parts of ἁλίσκομαι. Therefore I was ordered by the Boule to impeach him on the grounds that he was committing a crime and hindering the expedition. Theophemos struck me on the mouth with his ﬁst and I. And before going in. I started to lead away the woman who had been standing at the door. 329. And although it was possible for him to
. 5 ἐπεπύσμην What tense is this? It would have been a gross breach of good manners and of social conventions for a man to enter another’s house without invitation if that house contained a wife. and I had been struck by him. the securities were taken away by Theophemos. having collected as many of them as he could.
Translation for 16F
Since he was willing to do none of these things. I had found out that he was not married. the one who had gone to fetch him. wanted him to be convicted and ﬁned. then. gave back the city to the Aeginetans. 9 ἐπεπόνθη This is the usual form of the pluperfect indicative. This convention is further illustrated in Section 17. having arrived in Aegina. Then when the judgment was passed in the Boule. #301. 328. Since.220
(ii) The slave was ordered to summon any citizens he saw from the road to be witnesses e. γεγαμηκὼς εἴη This is the perfect optative. defended myself. and I let the woman go. (ii) Lysander. And the Boule. See GE p. Theophemos was convicted and ﬁned. having called those present to witness. made up of the perfect participle + the optative of εἰμί. For indeed the Boule knew very well that once Theophemos was impeached he would be convicted and ﬁned. For the door happened to be open (to have been opened). And Theophemos took her away from me. For the Boule considered that it was not I who had been insulted but itself and the people and the law. made up of the perfect participle + the imperfect indicative of εἰμί: ‘all I had suffered’. 8 πεπονθὼς ἦ This is the equivalent of the pluperfect indicative. but went into the house to get some security for the equipment. although he was ordered by me. 10 ἁλῶναι See GE p. I went to the Boule to show my bruises and to tell all that I had suffered while trying to fetch the equipment for the city.
2 ἑστηκυῖαν Perfect participle of ἵστημι: ‘standing’. and when the members of the Boule found out that the city had been offended and that I had been wronged.
I shall ﬁnd myself in a state of great distress. Aristarchos. #303. ‘let us cease’. Lead on then. was moderate and reasonable and agreed to a ﬁne of twenty-ﬁve drachmas. 330–331. διακεῖμαι + adverb describes someone’s attitude or state of mind.
ἔγνω βάντες ἁλοίη βῆναι γνῷ
ἔβη γνόντες βαίη γνῶναι βῇ
ἑάλω ἁλόντες γνοίη ἁλῶναι ἁλῷ
4 παυώμεθα See GE p. #304. if we like. although I had been wronged. καθιζώμεθα. Would you lead on? By Hera. AP.
. Of course. 4.
15 πῶς πρὸς σε διέκειτο ὁ Θεόϕημος. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16F
ἁλίσκομαι 16F: 1
be ﬁned ﬁve hundred drachmas. let us remain until I recover from my weakness. 5. ‘How was Theophemos disposed towards you? What was his attitude to you?’ κακῶς Answers πῶς in the previous sentence. ἕως ἄν + subjunctive. AP. I. See GE pp. 2. (This must be done if it seems good to you. so that we can sit and rest.) Let us stop therefore and sit in peace beside the Ilisos. until I can recover myself from my weakness. 15–16 τεκμαιρομένῳ Agrees with ἔμοιγε: ‘it seems to me inferring …’
Translation for 16G
You were indeed moderate and reasonable about the things which Theophemos had done. and if I walk more. 330. But why don’t we stop walking? For the heat is now stiﬂing. until the heat becomes gentler. Now that we have got here. 3. ARISTARCHOS We must certainly do this if you want. ‘until (ever) …’ 4–6 παυώμεθα. ἕως ἂν … γένηται Note the subjunctives. Do you see that very tall plane tree? AP. it is a beautiful spot. AR. AR. Let us stop then. and let us consider where we shall sit down. There is shade there and a slight breeze and grass to sit on. Let us go there then.
ἀκούσωμεν μὴ ἀπίωμεν λαβώμεθα στῶμεν μὴ δῶμεν
ἕως ἄν ‘UNTIL’ 16G: 2
1. Why then do you not ﬁnish telling me the story. so that you may learn more clearly. What [happened] after that? How was Theophemos disposed to you? (What was his attitude to you?) Badly. 4. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16G
‘LET US…’ (SUBJUNCTIVE) 16G: 1
1.) hand over the witnesses ἕως ἂν εὑρίσκω τὴν ναῦν until (such time as) I ﬁnd the ship
1 ἐνενικήκη Tense? 2–3 Notice the use of the participles in the narrative. if nothing prevents you? Since it seems to me that I shall keep you here until you tell me everything. 4. until everything has been told. They match the order of events: ἐνθυμούμενος … βουλόμενος … ἔλαχε … ϕάσκων … (the main verb is underlined). as it seems to me judging from the evidence of your despondency. as you were saying.222
AR. 2. 3. 6–8 More participles: παρασχόμενος … ὑποσχόμενος … ἐξηπάτησε … 9–10 Again: ζημιωθείς … προσελθὼν … ἐκέλευον … 11 ἀντὶ τοῦ καταδίκην ἀπολαβεῖν Here ἀντί + genitive is followed by the inﬁnitive used as a noun: ‘instead of accepting the ﬁne’. 3. Aristarchos.
But you. 2. 5. won the impeachment case. Listen then.
ἕως ἂν ὁρῶμεν τοὺς ἄνδρας until (such time as) we see the men ἕως ἂν ὑπισχνῆται ἀκούσεσθαι until (such time as) he promises to listen ἕως ἂν διδῶσι τὰ χρήματα until (such time as) they give the money ἕως ἂν παραλαμβάνητε τοὺς μάρτυρας until (such time as) you (pl. But naturally nothing prevents me from going through the story. 5.
as they say. ὁπότε οἱ τριήραρχοι καταλάβοιέν τινα μὴ ἀποδιδόντα τὰ σκεύη. I listen. When I had incurred a ﬁne in this way. 4. ἐκεῖ καθιζώμεθα ἕως ἂν ἠπιώτερον γένηται τὸ πνῖγος.
1. 4. τὸ ψήϕισμα ἐκέλευσε τοὺς τριηράρχους κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη ᾧ τρόπῳ ῥᾷστα δύναιντο. 5. But Theophemos instead of collecting the ﬁne went to my farm. I kept quiet. declaring that I had begun the blows at the door. was the start of the trouble. he brought a suit for assault against me. εἴ σοι πείθοιμι πείσοιο ἂν σύ. παυώμεθα πορευόμενοι καὶ καθιζώμεθα. 2. not fearing that the jurors would condemn me. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16F–H
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. He was afraid that anyone might escape. For Theophemos at once took the ﬁne very much to heart and. 2. ἐπανῆλθον πρὸς τὴν βουλήν. having produced lying witnesses.Revision exercises for section 16F–H
Translation for 16H
I had in fact won the impeachment case. you would persuade me. Euergos his brother and Mnesiboulos his cousin. They are afraid that he may punish them. not many days later. For I least of all expected that I would be convicted. But Theophemos. ἀκούω ἀκούσομαι If you speak. 5. 3. ἐνταῦθα μενοῦμεν ἕως ἂν ἐκ τῆς ἀσθενείας συλλέγωμεν ἡμᾶς αὐτούς.
. but this. ἐφοβεῖτο μή τις ἐκφύγοι. and promising that he would hand over [for torture] the body of the woman who had been standing at the door (which he has not done). ᾖα ἵνα εἰσαγγείλαιμι τὸν μάρτυρα. wanting to be revenged. who were persuaded to cast their vote for Theophemos. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16H
SEQUENCE OF TENSES 16H: 1
φοβοῦνται μὴ αὐτοὑς ζημιώσῃ. 3.
Sentences 1. Ι will listen. ἐὰν εἴπῃ. If I were to persuade you. deceived the jurors. going to Theophemos I asked him to accompany me to the bank to collect the ﬁne. I went to summon the witness. πρὶν οἰκάδε ἐπανιέναιι. since I was innocent.
For I had written down all the expenses in detail. Prose οὐκ ἐξὸν κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη. for it is no longer my business to be trierarch. if he objected to anything.
E – TEST EXERCISE 16
When this man arrived in Thasos. I told him to take over the ship from me as my successor. you who alone of the trierarchs have your own private equipment and pay a great deal of money to the sailors? You have become a teacher of bad habits in the army. Polykles]. when you ought to be doing the same as the other trierarchs. I went in immediately in front of the general and began to speak with him [i. Having found Polykles there and the trierarchs and their successors and some others of the citizens. I wanted to calculate this with him in detail while witnesses of what had been spent were with me. ἐϕοβούμην μὴ τὰ σκεύη οὐκ ἀποδιδοίη. and to pay me the expenses for the extra time that I had served. I collected as many of the citizens as I could as witnesses.’
. so that. When I challenged him in this way. he answered that his joint-trierarch had not come to the ship: ‘I will not therefore take over the ship on my own. and I went to him in the agora in Thasos. and the marines. I could refute his objection at once. I asked him to take over my ship from me. ὥστε ὁ μὲν Χαιρέδημος ψήϕισμα ἔγραψεν.’ When I said this. τὴν βουλὴν ἔδει πράττειν τι ἵνα τριήρων βοήθειαν ὡς τάχιστα παρασκευάζοιμεν. if you say they have been corrupted by me. take the trireme yourself and provide sailors and marines for yourself who will sail with you without receiving any money. καὶ αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔνδον ὄντα καταλαβών. ἐδείκνυον τὸ ψήϕισμα. and to pay me the expenses for the period which I had served as trierarch beyond my time. Polykles answered that he could not care less what I said (that there was no concern to him of what I said).’ When he said this. corrupting the sailors and the marines. But when I made this challenge. καὶ τῆς πολέως ἐν μεγάλῳ κινδύνῳ οὔσης. Take the ship. I answered him: ‘As for the sailors and the marines. he said: ‘Who could endure your madness and extravagance. ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν προσελθὼν πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Θεοϕήμου οἰκίαν.224
Revision exercises for section 16F–H
2. εἴ τινα εὕροιεν.e. οἱ δὲ τριήραρχοι τῷ μὴ ἀποδίδοντι.
but going off. ἕως (‘until’) (ever) can introduce an indeﬁnite clause with. An indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. See GE p.e ‘having been freed’ (GE p. For he did not wait until I produced the money. 12 ἃ βούλοιντο Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence: ‘whatever they wanted’. ‘having been released free’. before the exercise on it. look up (ἐκ) βάλλω in the list of irregular verbs on GE pp. ὅσα ἔτι ὑπόλοιπά μοι ἦν ‘all the furniture. 10 ἐκβληθείσης δὲ τῆς θύρας Genitive absolute. 336. #308). 338.
Translation for 17A
Theophemos then did not allow me to pay him the money. An important item of grammar is the verb (ἀϕ)ἵημι (GE pp. 11–12 πάντα τὰ σκεύη. #308). he took ﬁfty soft-ﬂeeced sheep of mine. #307. Before I knew what had happened. 436–442 #389. See also GE p. in secondary.
1–2 ἕως τὰ χρήματα παρέχοιμι See GE p. This is the aorist passive participle. #307. as much as was still left to me’. ἕως ἅλοιεν. Compare this with Hagnophilos’ punctilious attitude in 17B. There will be more about this after 17A. 341. #309–310
8 ᾖξαν This comes from the verb ᾄσσω ‘to dash’ or ‘to dart’. which were being pastured by the shepherd. i. ἐλευθέρα ἀϕειμένη: perfect passive participle. 22 ἕως εἰσέλθοιεν ‘until they came in’.Section Seventeen: Private justice – trouble down at the farm
This continues the story begun in Section 16. Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. 15–16 Note the parts of ἀϕίημι. 10–11 εἰσελθόντες ἐπὶ τὴν γυναῖκά μου Notice the disgraceful intrusion into the women’s quarters. See vocabulary. 336–339. ἄν + subjunctive and. Can you recognise the verb it comes from? If not. in primary sequence. secondary – optative pattern. 336. Much of the syntax introduced continues to illustrate the primary – subjunctive. optative without ἄν. Theophemos had taken not only the sheep but also everything that was
Compare some of the tenses:
Present Active Middle Participles τίθημι ἵημι τίθεμαι ἵεμαι τιθείς ἱείς Imperfect ἐτίθην ἵην ἐτιθέμην ἱέμην Future θήσω ἥσω θήσομαι ἥσομαι θήσων ἥσων Aorist ἔθηκα ἧκα ἐθέμην εἵμην θείς εἵς Aorist pass. thus in compounds the difference can be clearly seen. It was obligatory for me to look after her.) ἀπεῖναι or ἀπιέναι. before they entered the house.
ἵημι (stem ἑ) behaves exactly like τίθημι (stem θε) but it looks more complicated because its stem starts with a vowel instead of a consonant. When all these things had been taken.g. the rest of the women servants (for they were in the tower. and carried out all the furniture that was left to me in the house. taking whatever they liked. they rushed in on my wife and children. and I have lived there since I was a youth). εἰμί and εἶμι do not have rough breathings and ἵημι does. try the following exercise.)
. since she had been my nurse). But when her husband died. While the furniture was being seized by them. elderly now. But when the household slaves did not wait to be caught but escaped ﬁrst (anticipated them escaping). did not wait until they came in. but closed the tower before they charged it. ἐτέθην εἵθην τεθείς ἑθείς
It is worth taking a great deal of trouble to learn ἀϕίημι. she had lived with her husband. and ﬁrst of all they dashed at the household slaves. And when the door had been broken down. they went to the house and broke open the door that leads into the garden. and to avoid confusing it with both εἰμί and εἶμι. where they lodge) when they heard the tumult and the shouting. who was returning a bronze water jar that had been borrowed from a friend and was very valuable. and they went off. since she was an old woman and there was no one to look after her. 17A: 2. While they were having breakfast in the courtyard. NB. these men charged in and found them and seized the furniture. she came back to me. When you have learned it. Theophemos and Euergos went into the farm (I farm near the racecourse. When she was freed by my father. and with her was my old nurse. whereas parts of εἰμί and εἶμι will appear as (e. (You may prefer to leave this until you have ﬁnished reading the whole section. as for example in the inﬁnitive ἀϕιέναι.226
accompanying the herd. In addition to this. and the shepherd along with them and then also a boy servant. a kindly and loyal creature who was a freedwoman (for my father had freed her. my wife happened to be having breakfast with the children in the courtyard.
σταθῆναι 19. ἐμάχοντο ἕως νικῷεν. You (s.acc. They are willing to run until they are unable to stand. δραμεῖν βούλονται ἕως ἂν στῆναι μὴ οἷοί τ’ ὦσιν. LET GO. 2. δοῦ 20. We are staying until he comes. They are debating until such time as they agree.pl. 3. 7.) ἀφῇ to set up (for oneself) you (s.
(ἀφ)ἵημι ‘RELEASE. SHOOT’ 17A: 2
1. τεθήσεται 18. 2. 4. 3.Exercises for section 17A
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17A
ἕως ‘until’ 17A: 1
1. 13.pl. 12. 6. 14. βουλεύονται ἕως ἂν συγχωρήσωσιν. 16. 11. They were ﬁghting until they were victorious. δώσεις ἔθεντο ἐστάθη δεδώκασιν θείη ἱστάμενοι δοῦναι
he gave put! they will set up ἀφιείη to place he is rising it is being set up having given (m. στήσασθαι 10. ἔδει σε εὔχεσθαι ἕως σωθείης. θῇ 9.
ἔδωκε θές στήσουσιν διδοίη τιθέναι ἵσταται δόντας
8. 4. 5.) ought to have prayed until you were saved.pl. θεῖσαι
.) will let go they let go he/it was released they have released letting go to release/have released he/it will be released to have been released let go! having released
μένομεν ἕως ἂν ἔλθῃ. 15. to give/have given it will be placed to have been set up give! having put (f. 5.)
ἀφῆκε ἄφες ἀφήσουσιν ἀφιέναι ἀφίεται ἀφέντας
he let go let go! they will let go to let go he is being released having released
ἀφέσθαι ἀφήσεις ἀφεῖντο ἀφείθη ἀφείκασιν ἀφιέμενοι ἀφεῖναι ἀφεθήσεται ἀφεθῆναι ἀφοῦ ἀφεῖσαι
to release (for oneself) you (s.) will give they placed it was set up they have given ἀφείη setting up (for oneself) m.
She knew the sheep had been taken because a neighbour had told her. The Athenians released the slaves who had fought in that seabattle. #311. διατίθημι + adverb is a common idiom. which here means ‘valued’ or ‘reckoned’. #313. ‘the fold of a garment’. 2–5 The words in parenthesis explain how Aristarchos’ wife knew the facts which she is speaking about.) / was releasing / will release) c. (was set free (aor. f. 10 ἀϕείλοντο What verb does this come from? Try ἀϕαιρέω. ‘lap’.)) d. 10–11 οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν γραῦν ὥστε … ‘They treated the old woman in such a way that …’. 342. The slave girl has been set free by my father. 13–14 οὕτω πονηροὶ ἦσαν ὥστε … ‘They were so wicked that …’ οὕτως … ὥστε …./m. pass. 342–343. act. and optative without ἄν in secondary sequence. See GE pp. part. having been set free by my father.)) (while being set free / while being released (present passive participles f. 9 εἰς τὸν κόλπον The basic meaning of κόλπος is ‘a curve’.) / will be set free / is being set free / was being set free) b./m. as a result …’ This expresses a result clause. ‘a bay in the coastline’. See GE
. pass. married a man who had also been released by his master (perfect passive participles). The slave girl.
7 οὐ παύονται πρὶν ἂν λάβωσι For πρίν meaning ‘until’ see GE p. Hence it can mean ‘breast’. My father released the slave girl.
a. It follows the normal pattern for indeﬁnite clauses. (is releasing / has released (perf. with subjunctive + ἄν in primary.)) (being about to be set free / being about to be released (future passive participles f. cf. and she knew that the money was at the bank because she had heard it from Aristarchos. (having been set free / having been released (aor. (have released / are releasing / will release / were releasing)
2 τετιμημένα Perfect passive participle from τιμάω./m.228
EXERCISE FOR 17A
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. Latin sinus. ‘so … that.
and then they took the cup from the fold of her dress. παρόντος δὲ τοῦ κυρίου. 341. They were so shameless that they did not stop trying to strangle the old woman and beating her until she fell to the ground. And Hagnophilos came. if the master had been present. and said that ‘You have the ﬁfty sheep and the boy and the shepherd.Section 17B
pp. as if he were a household slave. who is my neighbour. and was being throttled by them and her chest was bruised.’ Although my wife said this. until Hermogenes.
Translation for 17B
So they did not get in there.
. when she saw them inside. and put it in the fold of her dress. But Theophemos and Euergos.’ (For she had heard this from me. When the neighbours’ servants heard the noise and the shouting. but he did not enter my house (for the master of the house was not present. but also leading my son. 19–21 Notice that Hagnophilos.’ (For one of the neighbours had knocked on the door and reported this. εἴη The optative is used because this is indirect speech in secondary sequence. he saw the furniture being carried out and Euergos and Theophemos coming out of my house. met them and said that he was my son. 345–346. going into the other road. summoned by Anthemion. See GE p. being in Anthemion’s farm. but. 24–25 ἕως … εἶπεν ‘until he told them’. εἰσῆλθεν ἄν ‘If the master had been present he would have gone in. he would have gone in). observes the conventions and will not enter Aristarchos’ house while he is absent. which are equal in value to the ﬁne. there is a genitive absolute. seeing her. and others.) ‘And the money is waiting for you at the bank. #309. they did not stop until they had taken very many things. in contrast with the unprincipled brothers. one of my neighbours. but instead of the ‘if’ clause. My wife told them not to do this. The use of indicative shows that the result actually happened. particularly as you also have the value of the ﬁne.) ‘Therefore do not take the rest of the furniture before my husband returns with the ﬁne. they saw my house was being plundered by them. #314–317. Some of them called to the passers-by from their own roof-tops. his brother. and seeing Hagnophilos passing. but they carried out the furniture from the rest of the house.’ This represents an unfulﬁlled condition in past time (ἄν + aorist indicative). saying that the furniture was hers and was valued as part of her dowry. told him to stand by. And they were going away not only taking my furniture. so that they should not take it. But the nurse. And she had scratches on her throat. Here ἕως is followed by the indicative because this is a deﬁnite time (not an indeﬁnite time). took the cup which was lying beside her from which she had been drinking. snatched it away and treated the old woman so badly that her arms and wrists were blood-stained when she was pinioned and dragged along by them.
2.) διακείμενοι 3. b. διατίθεσθe you (pl. until such time as we fall Indeﬁnite in primary sequence. indicative shows it happened. and I did not go home until the things that had happened were reported to me there. All the διατίθημι items have been treated as passive.
διετίθετο he was treated διέκειτο 2. 5. ‘For these men are violent and will not cease plundering the house until they have taken everything away.
.pl. I was in the Piraeus while my house was being robbed. until such time as he falls Indeﬁnite in primary sequence. ‘But do not ask this either’.230
Revision exercises for section 17B
EXERCISES FOR 17B
ἕως ‘UNTIL. but could equally well be middle. c. until he fell Used deﬁnitely. before falling πρίν + inﬁnitive. The woman asked Theophemos not to take the furniture until her husband returned.
διατίθημι. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17B
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. 2. 3 and 5 might change in poetry by dropping the ἄν. therefore in the past. said the neighbour. The old woman was in a bad way because she had been beaten up. 4.
1.) are being treated /be treated! διακεῖσθε 5 διατίθενται they are being treated διακεῖνται NB. a.n. should fall Used indeﬁnitely. The slave girls stayed in the tower until the men went away. WHILE’ and πρίν ‘UNTIL’ 17B: 1
until he fell. Nos. e. διατιθέμενοι being treated (m. Before I left my house.’ d. διατιθεῖτο optative διακέοιτο 4. διάκειμαι ‘TREAT. I had told my wife that the money was lying at the bank. BE TREATED’ 17B: 2
1. 3. ἡ γραῦς κακῶς διέκειτο διὰ τὸ συγκοπῆναι. optative shows this must be in secondary sequence.
also μύριοι and myriads. kilometre) as well as correspondence between the cardinal.
. See GE pp. octagon. 346–347. ‘to abuse someone’. NB. Θεόϕημος καὶ Eὔεργος οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν γραῦν ὥστε ὕϕαιμοι ἐγένοντο oἱ βραχίονες. #313 for the relationship between διατίθημι and διακεῖμαι.Section 17C
b. 9 κακά με πολλὰ εἶπεν Note that κακὰ λέγειν. ‘ordered him to …’ 8 ὃν βούλοιντο Why is the optative mood used here? See GE p. and the thing heard (the happenings) are in the accusative.
1 τὰ γεγενημένα This is the neuter plural of the perfect participle of γίγνομαι. 17 τὰ ἡρπασμένα What participle? What verb? Try ἁρπάζω. 3–4 τὴν γραῦν οὕτω διακειμένην ὥστε … See GE pp. decimal. #314–317 for the use of ὥστε + inﬁnitive to express a result clause: ‘in such a state that (as a result) she was in danger of her life’. 4–5 καὶ ἀκούων τῆς γυναικὸς τὰ γενόμενα Remember that after ἀκούω the source of the sound (his wife) is in the genitive. 15–16 This might be the moment to learn the numerals at GE pp. Note that αὑτῷ = ἑαυτῷ (the reﬂexive form) and so has a rough breathing. 345–346. 3 τὰ ἐκπεϕορημένα Perfect passive participle. ἡ γραῦς ἐνέθηκεν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τὸ κυμβίον ὅ παρέκειτο αὐτῇ. Note that ὥστε + the indicative stresses that the result actually happened. You will ﬁnd useful resemblances to Latin and to mathematical terms (pentagon. hexagon. in the fold of her dress. The old woman put the cup.’ 6–8 ἐκέλευον δ᾿ αὐτὸν … ἀπολαμβάνειν … ἀκολουθεῖν … θεραπεύειν … εἰσάγειν … ἐκέλευον is followed by a series of inﬁnitives. 342–343. ordinal and adverb forms. which was lying beside her. 325. #318. #300 for indeﬁnite clauses in secondary sequence. takes a double accusative: ‘to speak bad words [to] someone’. Cf.
11 μεθ᾿ ἑτέρων ὁμοίων αὑτῷ ‘with others like himself’. Theophemos and Euergides treated the old woman in such a way that her wrists were blood-stained. c. ἡ γυνὴ εἶπε τῷ Θεοϕήμῳ ὅτι τὸ ἀργύριον κεῖται ἐπὶ τῇ τραπέζῃ. ‘He heard the words of the woman. ‘the having happened things’. The woman told Theophemos that the money was lying in the bank. d. like κακὰ ποιειν (53).
check ἐκτίνω in the vocabulary. and I asked him to give back the sheep and the slaves and the furniture which had been seized by him. But this Euergos immediately set out from the city with others like himself to go to my farm. causing delays and saying that he wanted to get witnesses himself. and the old woman in such a state that she was in danger of her life.
Don’t forget to learn the numerals. 23 οἴχοιτο Why is the optative used here? Because it is indirect speech in secondary sequence. But then Theophemos came along with reluctance.
. I was very angry and went to Theophemos on the next day at dawn in the city. But Theophemos was so grasping that he took the ﬁne and kept the sheep and the slaves and the furniture. but I was not now able to catch these men (for I did not arrive until they had gone). but seeing all the things that had been carried off from the house. in the presence of many witnesses. the moment the ﬁne had been paid. and hearing from my wife what had happened. You should be able to recognise the participle from the context. a messenger came to me. had been carried down by me because of our need. meaning ‘He refused …’ or ‘He denied …’ 20 εἰσεληλυθότα Can you recognise this? If not. and I paid the ﬁne. The remaining furniture. taking witnesses. saying that Euergos had gone away again.436–442. Euergos. I told him ﬁrst to accept the ﬁne and to follow (me) to the bank. but I paid the ﬁne at once. one thousand. I went to the country. then to look after the old woman whom they had beaten and to bring in whatever doctor they liked. three hundred and thirteen drachmas and two obols. said many bad things to me).232
17–18 οὐκ ἔϕη ἀποδώσειν … ‘He said that he would not give back …’ Note the position of οὐ. I made those present witnesses of this reply. when these events were reported to me in the Piraeus by neighbours. but Theophemos refused to give them back to me (said he would not give them back to me) . While I was saying this and earnestly entreating him. went off taking my furniture. If not. Theophemos got angry and abused me vigorously (lit. GE pp.When he gave this answer. look up the principal parts of ἔρχομαι. #389. whatever had been in the tower on the day before and did not happen to be outside. 21 οὕτως ἐπλεονέκτει … ὥστε … A result clause is introduced: ‘was so grasping that…’ 22 ἐκτετεισμένης τῆς δίκης Genitive absolute. a stonemason who was working on the monument near by. For I did not know that Euergos had gone to my house on that day.
Translation for 17C
Well then. breaking open the door (which they had broken open on the previous day as well). Meanwhile I was paying the money to Theophemos. and. after carrying off the rest of the furniture from the house. It is always placed before ϕημί (rather than before the inﬁnitive).
The men were wicked enough to beat the woman and take away the cup from her. he (actually) dragged a suppliant away from the altar. The fellow reached such a pitch of impiety that. 1. The fellow reached such a pitch of impiety as to come into the shrine and drag a suppliant away from the altar. They are doing everything so that they do not (as a result) pay the penalty. ὥστε εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἱκέτην ἀϕελκύσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ βωμοῦ. ‘after …’
. d. and the distinction between the ‘potential’ and the ‘actual’ result is a valid one. ἐδυνήθην See GE p. which is the commonest way to express result in English. #324 for a list of deponent verbs which have their aorists in passive form. Note that GE pp. c. ὥστε μὴ δίκην διδόναι. b. just as ὥστε + inﬁnitive is the commonest way to express result in Greek. ὥστε τύπτειν τὴν γυναῖκα και ἀϕελέσθαι ἀπ᾿ αὐτῆς τὸ κυμβίον. while ὥστε + indicative states a matter of fact and therefore has negative οὐ. Those men were so abominable that they were (actually) not ashamed to rush in to my wife. a. 6 ἕκτῃ oὔσῃ ἡμέρᾳ Dative expressing a point of time: ‘on the sixth day’. 350.
1 Note that ἔδει is past: ‘What then was I to do?’ or ‘What ought I to have done?’ 3–4 συνεκόπη Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s.e. Those men were so wicked that they (actually) beat the woman and took away the cup from her. coming into the shrine. ὥστε μὴ αἰσχυνέσθαι εἰς τὴν γυναῖκα εἰσιόντες. Those men were so abominable as not to be ashamed at going in to my wife. 345–346.Section 17D
EXERCISE FOR SECTION 17C
RESULT CLAUSES B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
Note that ὥστε + inﬁnitive has negative μή. 4–5 ἐβουλήθη. no θ). but in practice it will often sound more natural to translate ὥστε + inﬁnitive by ‘so that’. ὕστερον ἤ ‘later than …’. second aorist passive (i. They do everything so as not to pay the penalty. This may be useful for the exercise. #314–317 suggest that ὥστε + inﬁnitive should be translated by ‘so as to’ and ὥστε + indicative by ‘so that’.
and take vengeance in any other way you like. on the sixth day after they had charged into the house. 332. the fact that they had charged into the farm and reached such a pitch of depravity that they had not been ashamed to burst in on my wife and children. 9 τό τε ὁρμηθῆναι αὐτούς … καὶ ἐλθεῖν τό is followed by two inﬁnitives used as nouns with the subject in the accusative: ‘the fact that they had charged … and that they had come …’ εἰς τοῦτο ἀσελγείας ἐλθεῖν ὥστε … ‘to reach such a pitch of depravity that …’ Literally ‘to reach this [point] of depravity that …’ See GE pp. the ofﬁcers gave this advice: ‘Since you yourself were not present. and I went early (as I have said) to the ofﬁcers to ﬁnd out what should be done about this. εὐλαβήθητι μή … ‘take care lest …’ The construction is the same as after a verb of fearing. Purpose clause in secondary sequence. 12 διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀϕεῖναι Once again the inﬁnitive is used as a noun: ‘owing to the fact that she did not give up the cup’.’
. #321. I was at once very angry. But yesterday. See GE p. ‘because she would not give up the cup’. But having puriﬁed yourself on behalf of your household and yourself. 15 εὐλαβήθητι Aorist passive imperative. and I told them all that had happened.
Translation for 17D
What should I have done. since the furniture had been carried off. #305. my old nurse died. bear the tragedy as easily as you can. #293 and p. Apollodoros.234
7–8 ἵνα εἰδείην ‘so that I might know’. and the ﬁne had been paid? But then. But when Theophemos was not willing and I could not persuade him. and try to think up some other means of vengeance. take care that you do not make a public denunciation of anyone by name. For the woman is not one of your family. I ordered Theophemos to look after the old woman who had been beaten and to bring in whatever doctor he wished. from what you say. and to beat up the old woman for the sake of a cup. See GE p. Therefore Aristarchos could not legally bring a case against Theophemos and Euergos for her murder. 345–346. In addition to this I recalled the goodwill of the woman and that she had died because she would not give up the cup. All he could do was to go through a ritual of puriﬁcation to free himself and his household from the pollution of the death. nor is she a slave. but your wife and children. The old woman was neither family nor slave. and where should I have turned. #317. Having heard the story from me. and that you do not bring a suit for murder before the king archon. I brought in a doctor whom I had used for many years. 316. and to carry off the furniture. and since other witnesses did not appear for you. the old woman was in danger of her life. ὅ τι ποιητέον ‘what must be done’. if nothing else. 349. 16 The case for prosecution could only be brought by a relation or the master of the deceased.
) be written (pl. #325–327). or Reference Grammar 404. τράπωμαι. γράφητε
let him/her be set free (s. λήφθητε 4. 351. 3 οὐδ᾿ ἄν … ‘Nor would I dare to lie even if I knew well that …’ Here you need to understand ‘dare to lie’ repeated from the previous line. 4–5 οὐ γὰρ οὕτω τούτους μισῶ ὡς ἐμαυτὸν φιλῶ For the use of correlatives see GE pp. even in retaliation. κολασθέντων 3. #325. #328. 351. What effect does it have? 7–8 The desire to inﬂict vengeance on one’s enemies was regarded as natural and proper by the majority of people in the ancient world.) let them be punished be taken (pl. λυθήτω 2. 351. See GE p. and correlatives (GE pp.)
. 7 δεινὸν ἂν εἴη Note the ἄν. ἄν + optative expresses potential: ‘could’ or ‘would’.
1 ποιήσω. ‘Where am I to turn?’ etc.) be honoured (s. #328). μὴ φοβηθῇς μή … ‘Don’t be afraid lest …’ μή + aorist subjunctive expresses the prohibition. Otherwise it brings in as much as it can of the syntax that you have learned in Sections 16 and 17.)
1.’ 5 τί δρῶμεν Why is the subjunctive used here? 6 σκοπῶμεν ‘Let us consider’.
This section introduces two new pieces of syntax. #327). ‘What am I to do?’. 351–352. βῆθι
3. and #293.Section 17E
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17D
MORE IMPERATIVES 17D: 1
5. τιμήθητι 5. (Socrates was unusual in taking the opposite view that it is never right to do wrong. στήτω 4. γένωμαι All these are deliberative subjunctives. 2 χρῶμαι χράομαι + dative means ‘to use’ or ‘to treat someone’. ‘I do not hate them in such a way as I like myself. Here ‘I do not know what to do with myself’ (GE p. the deliberative subjunctive (GE p.’ ‘I do not hate them as much as I like myself. 351–352. and the second μή introduces the fear for the future with its verb in the subjunctive in primary sequence (optative in secondary): GE #292. γνῶτε 2. Make sure that you have digested it and fully understand it all. 2–3 οὕτως … ὥστε … + inﬁnitive indicates result.
I will come to you tomorrow. by the Gods. my good friend. ποίησον. For surely I would not be so foolish as to dare to lie to the jurors. #402. Let us be going. AP. Let us do this. ἀϕικοῦ What part of the verb is this? Revise aorist imperatives. I am delighted by what you say. and I agree that I must do nothing before I have consulted with you. Thus a friend could be expected to give all possible help in making plans for revenge. See GE Reference Grammar p. For I do not dislike them as much as I like myself.’ See GE p.g. APOLLODOROS Let us consider together. Indeed I shall be grateful to you. #398. But you act thus for me. and do not be afraid that I won’t share your enthusiasm. and. Consider then what we are to do. if God wills it. if you are not sure: GE #198–199. but it is frequently used to beg someone to do what you suggest: e. For indeed it would be a terrible thing for a good friend not to share his friends’ desire to be revenged on their enemies. 460. 304–305. not even a dog should be wandering about now.’ ‘Not even a dog should be wandering about. 317. even if I knew that I would convict my enemies of doing wrong. 457.’ ἵνα βουλευσώμεθα Why the subjunctive? It is the verb in a purpose clause in primary sequence. then. so that we can take counsel about these very things. AP. please come (and don’t do otherwise). Come to my house tomorrow at dawn. Reference Grammar p. and #206–207. See GE #298–299 or Reference Grammar #399.
. and for conditions in general. my excellent friend.
Translation for 17E
So be it. But let us do this later and resume our talk. for sharing my enthusiasm. #294 for verbal nouns expressing obligation. AR. χάριν εἴσομαι What tense of οἶδα is this? ποιώμεθα. vengeance was just as much a matter of honour for the man in the street as for the Homeric hero. Apollodoros. The idea comes from the opening of Menander’s Misoumenos. nor would I do so. For it is raining. the Greek for ‘Do please come’ would be ‘Come and don’t do otherwise.236
10 11 12
In general. What am I to do? Where am I to turn? What will become of me? For I do not know what to do with myself. πρὶν ἂν συμβουλεύωμαι For πρίν meaning ‘until’ see GE #311–312 and compare this with indeﬁnite clauses in general. You have the story. καὶ μὴ ἄλλως ποιήσῃς Literally this means ‘Don’t do otherwise’. AR. ἀναλάβωμεν What mood and why? οὐ κυνὶ πλανητέον ‘It ought not to be wandered by a dog.’ For future conditions see GE pp. ἐὰν θεὸς ἐθέλῃ ‘If god is willing. So it is necessary for me most of all to help you in your perplexity. #282.
For I really am unaware of it. as it seems. περιμένετε δή· οὐ γὰρ δεῖ ὑμᾶς ἀπελθεῖν πρὶν ἂν ἐπανελθῇ ὁ ἐμὸς ἀνήρ. τῇ δὲ ὑστεραίᾳ. ἐκινδύνευσα οὕτως ὀργισθῆναι ὥστε τὸν Θεόϕημον αὐτὸς παίειν. 2. αἱ θεράπαιναι οὐκ ἔμειναν ἕως ἅλoιεν. my dear Phaedrus. For. But if they see us talking and sailing uncharmed past them as if they were the Sirens. before the Muses existed. like most people. οὕτως ὠλιγώρουν ὥστε εἰσελθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν ἐκϕορεῖν τὰ σκεύη. they would rightly laugh at us. οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο ἐκϕοροῦντες τὰ σκεύη ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας πρὶν πάντα ἁρπάσειεν (ἁρπάζοιεν). 5. certainly we have the time. Prose There are a several alternative ways of translating the English into Greek.
TEST EXERCISE 17
Let us talk then. for example. then some men of that time were so astounded and listened with such delight that while singing they neglected food and drink and did not
. SOC. there is leisure. And at the same time the cicadas seem to me to be watching us. I am afraid that you may appear to be uncultured if you are ignorant of such matters. or to choose a different Greek word in some places. What am I to do? It is clear that I must tell you. 2. ‘μὴ τὰ σκεύη λάβητε’. ἐκέλευσα ἀκολουθεῖν ἐμοὶ ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν ἵνα τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἐνταῦθα κείμενον συλλάβῃ. If they were to see us. regarding us as slaves who sleep like sheep round the spring. 3. ἔϕη. 4. ‘ἆρ’ οὐκ ἤδη πεντήκοντα ἔχετε πρόβατα. πάντ᾿ ἀκούσας. ὠργίσθην ὅτι ὑβρισταὶ ὄντες οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν τίτθην ὥστε περὶ ψυχῆς ἐκινδύνευεν.Revision exercises for section 17
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. perhaps they would be pleased and grant us the gift which they have from the gods to give to men.
Sentences 1. It is said that once upon a time cicadas were men. ἡ δὲ ἐμὴ γυνὴ ὀργισθεῖσα. although it is proper to call you a lover of music and literature. προσελθὼν πρὸς αὐτόν. singing and talking to one another. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα. ἄγγελός τις προσελθὼν πρὸς τὸν Πειραιᾶ ἐπήγγειλεν ἐμοὶ τὰ γεγενημένα.’ οἱ δὲ οὐκ ἀκούσαντες τῆς γυναικὸς ταῦτα λεγούσης. τὸν ἐμὸν υἱὸν ἦγον ἕως γείτων τις εἶπεν ὅτι υἱὸς οὐ δούλου ἀλλὰ πολίτου εἴη. as it seems). PHAEDRUS What is the gift? Don’t keep it a secret. at midday not talking but sleeping and being bewitched by them through idleness of thought. it seems (lit. ἐγὼ δέ. πάντα λαβόντες ἀπῆλθον. It is quite possible. But when the Muses were born and song appeared. to use a subordinate clause instead of a participle.
We must indeed make conversation.
notice that they were dying. From now on you may ﬁnd it increasingly useful to use the Reference Grammar.238
Revision exercises for section 17
ΡΗ. # 352–388 # 389 has tables of nouns. that they should need no food. for many reasons we must have some conversation and we must not sleep in the middle of the day. verbs. gives lists of prepositions and particles. going to the Muses. receiving this gift from the Muses. they should tell them which of men honoured the Muses. gives a summary of the main syntactical constructions. Therefore.
# 390–391 # 392–394 # 396–406
. adjectives. and after that. give uses of ὡς. provides an essential list of irregular verbs and their principal parts (ultimately you should make it your goal to know all these by heart). And from these men the race of cicadas later sprang. participles and inﬁnitives. pronouns.(ὥς). but that without food or drink they should sing until they died.
2 χρόνος εἱρμαρμένος ‘allotted’ in the sense of ‘allotted by destiny’. ‘fated’. νέμει. (Some Greek philosophers believed that all things were composed of four elements. This refers to air and water. 6 ἐπίσκεψαι Can you recognise this? What kind of imperative is it? (2nd s. the other two elements. but the iambic rhythms also suggest that the myth may be based on a long established story which had been told often in verse. and also that the aorist stem of νέμω is νειμ-. γῆς ἔνδoν ‘within the earth’. air. This is rare in Attic Greek. τοὺς δέ … τοῖς δέ … (ABBA) followed by ἃ μὲν γὰρ σμικρότητι ἤμπισχε … ἃ δὲ ηὖξε μεγέθει … 10 καὶ τἆλλα = καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ‘and he assigned the other qualities also …’
Translation for 18A
There was once a time when gods existed but mortal creatures did not. νέμων Note the repetitions. the gods formed them within the earth out of a mixture (having mixed) of earth and ﬁre and of the
. it is a fascinating passage which describes the creation of the world and the social necessity for man of possessing δίκη and αἰδώς (a sense of right and a moral awareness of others and their response to one’s actions). The introduction to this section in Reading Greek is important. though normal in Homer. When the appointed time came for these also to be born (time of birth). ﬁre and water. It is likely that he is here imitating the style of the sophist Protagoras. Whatever its origins. νείμαντος.) 5–6 νεῖμαι. Protagoras 320c–323a.
1 The verb ‘to be’ is often used in the sense of ‘to exist’. 3 τῶν = ἐκείνων. The style is not typical of Plato. ὅσα πυρὶ καὶ γῇ κεράννυται ‘as many as are mixed with ﬁre and earth’. into whose mouth he puts the speech. Here the article is used as a demonstrative pronoun. perhaps in tragedy.Section Eighteen: How Zeus gave justice to men
This passage is reproduced unadapted from Plato. earth.) 6–9 Note the careful patterning of the phrases: τοῖς μέν … τοὺς δέ …. aorist.
he protected by that very quality. Cf. εἰς εὐνὰς ἰοῦσιν ‘for them going to bed’. 2 στερεοῖς ‘thick’. Remember that a n. And he shod them too. ‘family’. for some fruit from the trees. πολυ-γονία These should be guessable. And when they were ready to bring them to the light. he began to distribute the powers.
1 ἀλληλοϕθοριῶν This is made up of two words: ἀλλήλους which means ‘One another’. he said. and for some roots. What part of the verb is ἰοῦσιν? 4 τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ‘these same things (i. while for others. δέρμασιν Cf. 8 ὀλιγο-γονία. clothing them with thick hair or tough skins. those whom he enlarged in size.e. and he planned that when they went to bed. they ordered Prometheus and Epimetheus to equip them and assign powers suitable to each one. Herodotus (3. To those on whom he bestowed smallness. 3 Notice ἱκανοῖς μέν … δυνατοῖς δέ … and understand a repeat of ἀμῦναι in the second phrase. skins)’. And there were some to whom he gave the ﬂesh of other animals for their food. These he made less fertile. and the root ϕθορ as in διαϕθορά ‘destruction’. balancing everything in this way. Steroids thicken your physique. 7. sufﬁcient to ward off the winter’s cold and capable of withstanding also the summer’s heat.240
things that are compounded with ﬁre and earth. ‘birth’. and he assigned the other qualities also. taking care that no species should be destroyed. ‘epidermis’. for some grass from the earth. ‘solid’. ‘you review it’. This is the subject of ὑπάρχοι.108) also points out that animals that are preyed on reproduce rapidly. subject has a singular verb. γονstands for ‘race’. he contrived comfort against the seasons sent from Zeus. he gave some creatures strength without speed. διαϕθείρω. ‘dermatology’. In his distribution. 6–7 ἔστι δ᾿ οἷς ἔδωκεν … ‘and there were some to whom he gave …’ This use of ἔστι + relative pronoun is a fairly common idiom. some with hooves and some with tough and bloodless skin. ὥρας ‘hours’ or ‘seasons’.
Translation for 18B
When he had provided enough means of escape for them from mutual slaughter. to whom he gave an unarmed nature. 5 ἄλλοις ἄλλας ‘different foods for different creatures’. he devised some other power for their protection. He planned these things. Having thus persuaded him. ‘And when I have done it’. Epimetheus asked Prometheus [to allow him] to do the distributing himself. pl. The root γεν-. ‘pachyderm’. he allotted winged ﬂight or an underground dwelling. the same skins should serve as individual and natural coverings for each one. while
. Next he provided different sorts of food for them. ‘dermatitis’. stereophonic sound is ‘dense’ or ‘thick’. some he armed with weapons. but to the weaker he gave speed.
Hephaistos is the god of ﬁre and the master-craftsman. But the human race was still left over for him. but it is not essential to learn them by heart. τέχνη covers both the skill of the craftsman and the creative genius of the artist. 356–358. Prometheus comes …’ 6–7 ἀπορίᾳ οὖν σχόμενος … ἥντινα σωτηρίαν … εὕρoι See note on line 3 above.
13 ἐϕιλοτεχνείτην This is a dual. See GE p. In addition. possibly ‘technical knowledge’ would suit the context best here.
Translation for 18C
Now. 356. #330. two hands. when two people or things are the subject. 10 ταύτῃ ‘in this way’. usually when they are a pair. 2 τὰ ἄλογα ‘the speechless ones’. and so both their attributes are reﬂected in the phrase. in fact. 3 ἠπόρει ὅ τι χρήσαιτο This is a deliberative question in secondary sequence: ‘What am I to use?’ becomes ‘He was in doubt what he was to use. a couple. ‘in as much as’. You will probably be able to recognise them when you meet them. he did not notice that he had used up all the powers on the animals (he escaped his own notice having used up the powers). but has not yet acquired social skills which enable him to live in a community. 8–9 ἀμήχανον … γενέσθαι ‘for it was impossible for it (αὐτὴν = τὴν ἔντεχνον σοϕίαν) to be possessed (κτητήν) by anyone (τῳ = τινί) or to be useful (χρησίμην) without ﬁre’. The power of speech is what distinguishes man from beasts. he made more fertile. Man now has the skills to stay alive. since Epimetheus was not particularly brilliant. 9–10 Notice the contrast between τὴν περὶ τὸν βίον σοϕίαν and τὴν πολιτικήν. and in nouns and adjectives. It is worth looking at the pattern of the duals. ἀποροῦντι δὲ αὐτῷ ἔρχεται Προμηθεύς ‘to him being in doubt. thus conserving the species (providing safety for the race). agree with σοϕίαν. e. a chariot team or. and so τὰ ἄλογα becomes the normal word for ‘beasts’. It is difﬁcult to ﬁnd an adequate translation. without any
. καταναλώσας ἀναλίσκω (ἀναλωσ-) means ‘I spend’ or ‘I expend’. Athene is the goddess of wisdom.g.Section 18C
those on whom they fed. #329. See GE pp. The dual can be used in verbs. 8 τὴν ἔντεχνον σοϕίαν ἔντεχνον is a compound adjective and has only two terminations. #331–332.’ See GE p. thus it does.
1 ἅτε + participle means ‘since’. as here. 356. and so this phrase encompasses both meanings.
‘at ﬁrst’. unshod. hence ‘destiny’. therefore. 7 δημιουργική Α δημιουργός is a craftsman (from δῆμος and ἔργον). As Xenophanes (fr. While he was still at a loss. ‘doom’. he gave them to man. ἅτε + participle expressing the cause. English ‘sporadically’. 6) points out. man imagines gods in his own image: ‘But if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could draw and make works of art with their hands as men do. It can also mean ‘that which is rightly one’s portion’. then horses would draw the images of their gods and make their bodies like horses. without a bed and without weapons. and Prometheus no longer had permission to enter the acropolis. and cattle would make them like cattle. 9–10 ὅτ’ οὖν ἀθροισθεῖεν ‘whenever they gathered together’. had later on to stand trial for theft. but Prometheus. and already the appointed day had come on which man too had to emerge from the earth into the light. Whenever they tried. so the story goes. Prometheus. just like the body that each species possesses. thanks to Epimetheus. the sentinels of Zeus were terrible.’ 5–11 This is a most ingenious explanation of the need for social skills. hence ‘one’s due’. being at a loss to ﬁnd any protection for man. they had to give up and then in their small groups they once again fell prey to wild beasts. The verb in the optative shows that this is an indeﬁnite clause. the house of Zeus – moreover. σποράδην This is an adverb. In this way man acquired skill to keep him alive. stole from Hephaistos and Athene the gift of technical skill together with ﬁre – for without ﬁre it was impossible for anyone to possess or use this skill – and so he gave it to man. 2 θεoὺς ἐνόμισε Here νομίζω means ‘to acknowledge’. Prometheus came to inspect the work (the distribution) and he saw that the other creatures were well provided with everything. 5 κατ᾽ ἀρχάς This means ‘in the beginning’. but that man was naked. As a result of this man had the means of life.
. and stealing Hephaistos’ art of working with ﬁre and the other art of Athene.242
1 μοίρας Here this simply means ‘portion’. 10 ἅτε οὐκ ἔχοντες ‘since they did not have’. but he did not have political skill. but it can mean ‘one’s portion in life’. Men had to live in scattered groups because they had not the πολιτικὴ τέχνη to live peacefully and cooperatively in cities (or to organise an army). not ‘to think’. The μοῖρα referred to here is the skill of ﬁre and the technical skill to use it. cf. which were divine prerogatives. Μοῖρα (personiﬁed) is the goddess of fate. And so he secretly entered the house shared by Athene and Hephaistos in which they practised their art. and he did not know what to do. for that was in the keeping of Zeus.
10–11 ὥστε … διεϕθείροντο The verb in the indicative. and invented houses and clothes and shoes and bedding and food from the earth. he alone of living creatures believed in the gods and set to work to build altars and images of the gods. something that actually took place. he quickly discovered speech and names by his art. and it is everywhere apparent in Homer – the heroes must not ‘lose face’. because of his divine kinship. or private morality and public observance of the law. and there were no cities. In this passage the two words express the two qualities which make community living possible: respect for others and a sense of justice and the rule of law. Thus provided for.
. hence. Notice the position of πᾶν at the end of the clause. making it emphatic: ‘lest it might be destroyed totally’. E. Dodds in The Greeks and the Irrational discusses the nature of the ‘shame culture’. but the narrative is still about a past event and the verbs in the subordinate clauses still reﬂect a secondary sequence. δίκη is here more abstract. the main verb πέμπει is a ‘historic present’. with the result that they scattered again and were again devoured. men lived to begin with in scattered groups. shows that this is an actual result. Therefore they were destroyed by the wild beasts. but whenever they gathered in communities. ‘modesty’. since they were in every way weaker than them. the capacity to feel ashamed if you act wrongly to others. and the technical skill which was sufﬁcient help to them in getting food was not adequate for ﬁghting the beasts – for they did not yet have the political skill of which the art of war is a part. It contains an element of fear – men behave well through fear of what others may think of them if they do not. See vocabulary. They did indeed seek to come together and to protect themselves by founding cities. 2 αἰδῶ τε καὶ δίκην Two immensely important words which have a wide range of meanings.
1 δείσας This is in no way related to δεῖ. αἰδώς means ‘shame’. That means the present is used instead of the past to make the story more dramatic. as you already know. but is the aorist participle of δείδω. rather than the inﬁnitive. an irregular verb. and secondly. R. 2 ἵν᾽ εἶεν … ‘so that they might be …’ A purpose clause in secondary sequence. although.
Translation for 18D
Since man had a share in the portion of the gods. they injured one another because they did not have political skills. ﬁrst of all. respect for others and their rights. it can range from abstract justice to a legal case or the penalty inﬂicted.
but it is the aorist subjunctive (aorist stem νειμ-). See GE p. and why? It is not the future (νεμῶ). αὕτη. 460. The brutal extermination of those without the right qualities underlines the importance which Zeus attaches to them. i. ὅταν μὲν … ᾖ λόγος ‘whenever the argument is concerned with …’ ὅταν δὲ … ἴωσιν A balancing and contrasting clause to the previous one. #296.e. (Cf. κτείνειν Poetic. 320. ἐρωτᾷ Continuing use of the historic present. from earliest childhood. νείμω Do you recognise the deliberative subjunctives? μετεχόντων Can you recognise this? ‘Let them all have a share …’ οὐ γὰρ ἂν γένοιντο πόλεις. δεσμωτήριον ‘a prison’. nominative – nominative. You will see that δοίη is optative. rather than οὐ. He goes on to describe how Athenian education was aimed. #325–326.E. θῶ. and thus reﬂects secondary sequence. It means ‘decoration’ (‘cosmetic’). used in a deliberative question. ‘the universe’ (‘the cosmos’) or the ‘world’ (‘cosmopolitan’). makes the participle phrase indeﬁnite: ‘whoever is incapable of …’ rather than ‘the one who is not capable …’ Here the difference in meaning is slight.
. νείμω Can you recognise what mood this is. but in some cases it can be signiﬁcant. προσῆκον Accusative absolute. and then ‘the thing that is ordered’. τούτου αἰτία Q. οὕτω δή Introduces the conclusion. p. See Reference Grammar #402.) Note once again the chiasmus (ABBA pattern) in πόλεων κόσμοι τε καὶ δεσμοὶ ϕιλίας. ὡς νόσον πόλεως This is the law they must enforce. Be careful not to confuse εἷς with εἰς. and the basic human qualities which all should share. ὦ Σώκρατες. which illustrates the difference between specialist knowledge and expertise. the summing-up of the meaning of the myth. Notice how the meaning has deteriorated over the centuries into ‘idiot’. The use of μή. The accusative is used adverbially. at developing the potential for political skill. but here it simply means ‘individuals’. or Reference Grammar #395. ‘order’. In effect it means ‘the Athenians in particular’.D. 351. ‘Am I to assign these (qualities) in this way?’ See GE p.244
6 7 7–8
9–10 10 12–13 14 15
κόσμοι κόσμος is another important and wide-ranging word. εἰ ὀλίγοι αὐτῶν μετέχοιεν The optative mood of the verbs and presence of ἄν will tell you what sort of a condition this is. genitive. genitive. δεσμοί These are ‘bonds’ or ‘fetters’. τὸν μὴ δυνάμενον … κτείνειν. οἵ τε ἄλλοι καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι Literally this means ‘both the others and the Athenians’. Here the sense is ‘order’. ἰδιώταις Often ἰδιώτης means ‘a private individual as opposed to one of a citizen group’. Protagoras rests his case. The normal prose use would be ἀποκτείνειν. τίνα οὖν τρόπον ‘in what way’.
that. ‘and let all men have a share. whenever the debate is about skill in architecture or any other expertise.Section 18E
Translation for 18E
Therefore Zeus. like other people. as you say – reasonably in my view – but whenever they seek advice on political wisdom. Hermes asked Zeus in what way he was to give justice and respect to men: ‘Am I to distribute these gifts in the same way as the skills have been allocated? They have been distributed in this way: one man having the skill of a doctor is sufﬁcient for many individuals (laymen). and the same is true of other experts. the Athenians. That.
. Socrates. Socrates. And moreover lay it down as a law from me that if anyone is incapable of sharing in justice and respect he must be put to death as a plague to the city. they rightly listen to every man. for there could never be cities if only a few people shared in these qualities as in the other arts. Am I then to give justice and respect to men in this way. and if anyone outside these few gives advice. since they think it is proper for every man to have a share in this virtue or there would not be any cities. is the reason for this. believe that only a few are capable of giving advice.’ Thus it is for these reasons. which must always follow the path of justice and moderation. sent Hermes to take to men the qualities of respect for others and a sense of justice so that there could be order in the cities and bonds of friendship uniting men. or am I to assign them to all men?’ ‘To all men’. said Zeus. they do not tolerate it. fearing that our whole race would be destroyed.
for all practical purposes. which is translated for you. pp. 4 διέϕθαρτο Literally this means that ‘he had been destroyed’. ‘written off’). οὐδαμῇ ‘nowhere’. #333–334 ‘The Dialect of Herodotus’. and thus attracts the vengeance of the gods. and it is always easy to confuse it with ὤν ‘being’. it ‘stood over him’. 2 ἑωυτόν = ἑαυτόν. The form is uncontracted. Croesus commits an act of ‘hubris’ by exhibiting pride in his continuing happiness. 11 μή τί oἱ κρεμάμενον … ‘lest anything having been hung over him might…’
. You will meet it frequently. However. and the vocabularies will help you as well. oἱ ‘to him’. 9–10 ἀκόντια δὲ καὶ δοράτια καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα πάντα Objects of both ἐκκομίσας and συνένησε. It is very important to read both the introduction on pp. Herodotus writes in the Ionic dialect (see Introduction). 359–360. but punishment for ‘thinking more than mortal thoughts’. as are many of the verbs. but it shows Croesus’ feeling that he had only one son. its position near the beginning of a sentence should help to distinguish it. 5 ὦν = οὖν. 6 ἀπολέει Here the future of ἀπόλλυμι means something like ‘will lose’ rather than ‘will destroy’. μιν ‘him’. before you start. 227–229.
1 νέμεσις ‘retribution’.34–45. 2–3 ἐπέστη ὄνειρoς The dream is personiﬁed. Note this carefully. This is not punishment for an evil act. or ‘stood beside him’. 8 ἐωθότα δὲ στρατηγέειν μιν … Object of ἐξέπεμπε in the next line. you may want to look at GE pp. You will ﬁnd that you get used to this quite quickly. Apart from the accent. Histories 1.Section Nineteen: The story of Adrastos
This passage is reproduced unadapted from Herodotus. Perpetual happiness is the prerogative of the gods and not of man. ὀλβιώτατον Note the emphatic position. a brutal word for ‘handicapped’ (cf. 225–226 of RGT and the beginning of the story.
239. This means literally ‘by the hearth’. Straightaway a dream came to him when he was asleep which revealed to him the truth of the evils which were going to happen with regard to his son. ἐών = ὤν ‘being’. ‘host’ and ‘friend’. but you can tell that the verb is past because of the ending. p. And it was this Atys that the dream pointed out to Croesus that he would lose. and then.Section 19B
Translation for 19A
After Solon had gone. Croesus had two sons. struck by an iron spear-head. it is the object of ἐπικυρῆσαι. 1–2 συμϕορῇ ἐχόμενος Literally ‘being held by disaster’.
1 ἔχοντος … τὸν γάμον ‘(with) his (οἱ) son having his marriage in hand …’ ἀπικνέεται = ἀϕικνεῖται. 9 ἐμεωυτοῦ = ἐμαυτοῦ. but the other was far superior to his contemporaries in every way. ‘guest’. Croesus no longer sent him out on this sort of venture anywhere. of whom one was disabled (for he was deaf and dumb). οὐ καθαρὸς χεῖρας ‘not clean in respect of his hands’. is used here as a noun. ἀμείβετο There is no augment. #335.) Once he had been accepted into the house. great retribution from god. 360. the relationship of guestfriendship would be established. 3 καθαρσίου The neuter of the adjective καθάρσιος. Thus ξένος can mean ‘stranger’. lest anything hanging over the boy might fall on him. 7 ἐπίστιος = ἐϕέστιος. line 10. although he had been accustomed to command the Lydians in battle. also in the next line κόθεν = πόθεν. to make a reasonable guess. perhaps ‘gripped by disaster’. fearing the dream. 6 ὁκόθεν = ὁπόθεν. Then when he woke up and took counsel with himself. his name was Atys. 5 ἐπυνθάνετο The imperfect tense suggests that Croesus ‘began the process of ﬁnding out’ or ‘wanted to ﬁnd out’. A suppliant would sit by the hearth and was under the protection of Zeus Epistios. See GE p. because he thought himself to be the happiest of all men. 19F. ἀέκων is the uncontracted form of ἄκων.
. ‘puriﬁcatory’. This is an accusative of respect. (Cf. he ﬁrst brought a woman in marriage for the boy. Catharsis is the rite of puriﬁcation which the perpetrator of a crime (whether voluntarily or involuntarily committed) must undergo before he can cease to be regarded as polluted and return to normal life and relationships. and he also removed javelins and spears and all such weapons as men use in war from the men’s quarters and stacked them in the inner chambers. overtook Croesus.
and the Mysians. 3 διαϕθείρεσκε The ending in -έσκω is ‘frequentative’. we cannot do so.
Translation for 19C
So he took up residence in the house of Croesus. and at this same period. 12 ἐν ἡμετέρου ‘in [the house] of ours’. ποιέεσκον later in the same line. It will be best for you (you will proﬁt most) if you bear this misfortune as lightly as possible. but were harmed by it.’at the dentist’s’. Now therefore we ask you to send us your
. #389. ‘at the doctor’s’. sir. ‘O King. Finally. the son of Midas. Cf Section 5A line 6. When Croesus had performed the customary rites. which is destroying our crops. 4 ἀπικόμενοι = ἀϕικόμενοι. Cf. GE pp. there arrived in Sardis a man who was beset by misfortune and whose hands were polluted (not pure). No augment for either.
Translation for 19B
While his son was occupied with his wedding. Although we are eager to destroy it. this creature used to destroy the Mysians’ crops. 11 τοῖσι ἰοῦσι ‘to those going’. coming to Croesus. and related to the royal family. I am the son of Gordias. Making forays from this mountain. This man. I have been driven out by my father and deprived of everything. 436–442.
10 οἱ ‘to him’. saying these words: ‘You. and shows that the action took place repeatedly. p. ‘You are the son of men who are my friends and you have come to friends. who were my suppliant. where you shall be in need of nothing while you remain in my house. being a Phrygian by birth. And Croesus did cleanse him. did it no harm. on the Mysian Mount Olympus. See list of irregular verbs.248
ἐξεληλαμένος From ἐξ-ελαύνω ἐλάω ἤλασα ἐλήλακα ἐλήλαμαι ἠλάθην. Cf.’
2 ὑὸς χρῆμα μέγα Literally ‘a great thing of a boar’. Dative plural of the participle. coming to the house of Croesus. often setting out against it. The process of puriﬁcation is very similar in Lydia and in Greece (among the Lydians and among the Hellenes).’ Croesus answered him in these words. a huge monster of a boar has appeared in our land. he started to ask who he was and where he came from. I am called Adrastos. and I am here because I killed my own brother by accident. begged him to cleanse him of his blood-guilt in accordance with the laws of the country. messengers from the Mysians spoke thus: ‘O King. who are you and where in Phrygia do you come from? What man or woman did you kill?’ And he answered. a huge monster of a boar appeared. 54: ‘τὸ χρῆμα τῶν νυκτῶν’.
3–4 τὰ κάλλιστα … ἡμῖν ἦν … ϕοιτέοντας εὐδοκιμέειν Literally ‘the most glorious and noble deeds were once formerly to us (mine). I shall send selected bands of Lydians and the whole pack of hounds and I shall order those who go to be as eager as possible to join in ridding your land of this creature. for χρῆν was felt to be virtually potential on its own. 6 τέοισι ὄμμασι τέοισι = τίσι: ‘with what eyes?’ How will he look to observers? What will people think of him? How will he appear in their eyes? 7 κοῖος = ποῖος. σϕι ‘to them’. 361. However. Latin nego. spoke these words to them. 7–8 Notice the crescendo of indignant questions. 15 διεϕθαρμένον τὴν ἀκοήν ‘destroyed in respect of his hearing’. 16 τoι = σοι. he is newly married and this is what concerns him now.
2 οὐ ϕαμένου See GE p. τὴν ἀκοήν is an accusative of respect. 5 ἀποκληίσας ἔχεις Herodotus often uses a past tense made up of ἔχω + aorist participle. χρῆν … This is an unfulﬁlled condition.’ This was his answer. as often. ‘Do not mention my son any more.
. 12 πρός ‘with regard to’.
19–21 εἰ μὲν γὰρ … εἶπε … . but Croesus. ὀλιγοχρόνιον You will be able to guess this if you derive it from the two words you know. #336 for the meaning of οὔ ϕημι. going to wars and to hunts to win fame’. but. 14 τυγχάνεις ἐών Here the meaning is ‘you really are’ rather than ‘you happen to be’. ‘deaf’.’ They made these requests.e. 17 τό is both the object of μανθάνεις and accusative of respect with λέληθέ σε ‘there is something which you do not understand. 8 μέθες ‘Let me go. remembering the words of the dream.Section 19D
son and a selected band of young men and hounds. ‘in consideration of’. ϕοιτέοντας does not agree with ἡμῖν. i. because it is seen as part of an accusative and inﬁnitive phrase which explains the ﬁrst statement. 13–14 εἴ κως … ‘if in some way …’ διακλέψαι ‘steal you (from death or Fate)’. Cf. 11 ὄψις ὀνείρoυ … ἐπιστᾶσα This echoes the ἐπέστη in Section 18A. so that we may rid our country of it. for I would not send him to you. and in respect of which the dream has escaped your notice (which you have failed to observe in the dream)’. there is no ἄν used with χρῆν.’ This is the aorist imperative from μεθίημι.
For you are in reality my only son. it is not because I have noticed any cowardice or any other disagreeable trait in you that I do this. then you ought to be doing what you are doing. ἢ ἄλλου τευ ὅ τι τούτῳ οἶκε ‘or of anything else which seems like to this’. as far as I am concerned (for me). for the other one is deaf (disabled in respect of hearing).’ The young man answered with these words. ‘someone’. You say that the dream says that I will die by an iron spearhead.
. and I do not consider that he exists. what sort of iron spearhead does it have that you should fear? For if it had said to you that I would be killed by a boar’s tusk. it is right that I should point out to you. But now you have barred me from both these activities. So. defeated by you. τευ = τινός. although you have noticed no cowardice or lack of spirit in me. Now to what eyes must I appear as I walk to and from the agora? (What must people think of me?) What sort of person shall I seem to the citizens. ‘odontology’. Since Croesus was refusing to send his son to them.’ Croesus answered in these words: ‘My son.’ Croesus answered. what sort of man to my new-wed wife? With what sort of husband will she seem to be living? You must therefore either let me go to the hunt.’
1 εἴπας This is the aorist participle formed from the ﬁrst aorist εἶπα which is the alternative to εἶπον. the young man spoke thus to him: ‘Previously. it is a weapon that is to kill me. Cf. 23 ἔστι τῇ ‘there is a way in which …’. since you have had such a dream. or persuade me by reason that these things are better for me if done this way. But. ‘My son. but what sort of hands does a boar have. it is the case that you conquer me. ἔστι τις ‘there is a sort of person who …’. τοι = σοι. the son of Croesus went to him. and standing by me said that you would be short-lived. but what you do not understand and have failed to observe in respect of the dream. let me go. Father. showing me your opinion about the dream.
Translation for 19D
Although the Mysians were contented with this. or something else like this. ‘I forgive your protectiveness for me. taking precautions to see if I can somehow steal you [from death] for as long as I live (for the period of my life). it was most honourable and noble for me to go to war and to the hunt to win glory. having heard what the Mysians were asking. ‘somehow’. οἶκε = ἔοικε. ‘orthodontist’. as it is. I change my mind and let you go to the hunt.250
20 ὀδόντος Cf. Because of this dream. Since therefore our ﬁght is not against men. Father. and that you would perish by an iron spearhead. but because the apparition of a dream came to me in my sleep. I hastened this marriage of yours and I do not send you on this undertaking. then.
and it is my duty to please you (for I owe it to you to return your generosity). Croesus sent for the Phrygian Adrastos. τὸ βούλεσθαι = ‘the will’.’ Adrastos answered: ‘O King. ἔγωγε ἂν οὐκ ἤια ἄν + the past tense of εἶμι (‘I go’) make this an unfulﬁlled condition. since you are eager. I ask you to be the guardian of my son when he sets out for the hunt. and when he arrived he spoke to him like this. now therefore. 19D line 5. ἂν ἶσχον ἄν + the imperfect indicative continues the unfulﬁlled condition: ‘I would be holding myself back. it is your birthright and besides you have the strength. 8 ἄλλως ‘otherwise’.
9 οἰκός = ἐοικός ‘likely’ or ‘ﬁtting’. Cf.’
Translation for 19E
Having said this. ἀποκληίσας ἔχεις. because you owe it to me. 2nd person sing. Here the aorist passive form is used instead of the aorist middle. In addition. to return my generosity. ϕανέωσι Can you recognise this? ϕαίνω has a second aorist passive ἐϕάνην. I am ready to do these things. providing for all your expenses. This is the aorist subjunctive. nor could I wish it.’ 11–13 Notice the highly dramatic use of short phrases as the climax is reached: ‘I am ready to do this / your son / whom you order me to guard / unharmed / thanks to his guardian / expect to return to you. who ﬁrst did you a good turn. and for many reasons I would restrain myself. and I have received you in my household. ‘Adrastos. 4 προποιήσαντος χρηστὰ ἐς σέ ‘having done good things for you previously’. ‘the wish’ – the inﬁnitive is used as a noun. it is right for you to go where you can distinguish yourself by your deeds. for it is not seemly for a man who has experienced such a disaster to join his peers who are more fortunate. ἤια = ᾖα. 7 ἀπολαμπρυνέαι For -έεαι. whom you command me to guard. I gave you puriﬁcation when you had been stricken by an unpleasant misfortune (for which I do not blame you). χρηστοῖσί με ἀμείβεσθαι ‘to repay me with good things’. 10 πάρα = πάρεστι ‘it is present’. But now. lest any evil thieves appear to do you harm on the road. ‘in other circumstances’.Section 19E
3 ὑποδεξάμενος ἔχω Another example of this form of past tense. and you can expect to see your son. 5 What does ὁρμωμένου agree with? 6 ἐπὶ δηλήσι = ἐπὶ δηλήσει ‘with a view to harm’. return to you unharmed so far as depends on his guardian. under other circumstances I would not go to such a contest. in an uncontracted form. of future tense.’
and ﬁnally the quiet statement of utter despair. 15 ἐπικατασϕάξαι σϕάζω means ‘to kill with a sword’. Notice also the formal description of Adrastos as ‘the stranger.
14–17 Again the short. the attitude of surrender. illustrating the tragic consequences of his observance of the proper duties in each case. This technique is used even more forcefully later in this passage. 10 πεπονθὼς εἴη The perfect optative is used because this is in indirect speech in secondary sequence: ‘bearing witness to the things which he had suffered’.
. 5–6 The emphasis is on the fulﬁlment of the prophecy. 2. τυγχάνει The present tense is used for dramatic effect. and its effect on Croesus. 13 ϕύλακα … πολεμιώτατον Here the antithesis is marked by placing the contrasting words at the beginning and the end of the clause. called Adrastos’. The brief plain phrases leading inexorably to the disaster are deeply moving. This reminds us of Adrastos’ history. He is given no name and he dominates the coming passage. Once again the inevitable progress of predestined events is made clear. 6 ἀγγελέων Future participle expressing purpose. 3 ἐζήτεον. Croesus’ act and the bond of guest-friendship between them. 12 τὸν ξεῖνον ϕονέα τοῦ παιδός The contrast is enhanced by the juxtaposition. the plea for death with the brutal word ἐπικατασϕάξαι thrown into prominence as the ﬁrst word in its clause. clear phrases. καθάρσιος. as with a defeated army. ‘distraught’. ‘he struck the son of Croesus’ reminds us of the full signiﬁcance of the relationship with Croesus. and the succession of vivid impressions. The formal expression seems to give a ritual quality which emphasises the universal truth underlying the story and to make it more than the personal fate of individuals. under the auspices of Zeus Epistios he had taken him into his house and under the auspices of Zeus Hetairesios he had befriended him and sent out as guardian of his son the man who proved to be his murderer.252
2–5 Notice the succession of short clear phrases as the dramatic climax is reached. ἐπίστιος and ἑταιρήιος. and is often associated with sacriﬁcial slaughter. ‘shattered’. Under the auspices of Zeus Katharsios he had puriﬁed the stranger. 13–14 The focus of attention moves from the Lydians (‘there they were’). ἐσηκόντιζον Imperfect: ‘they began to …’ 5 ἁμαρτάνει. The killer and the killed. so ‘overwhelmed’. 9–13 Croesus calls on Zeus in three capacities. the one who had been cleansed of blood-guilt. then to the corpse and then to the solitary ﬁgure of the killer. following behind. Similarly.) 8 συντεταραγμένος A very strong word. (You can tell it is future by the single λ and the -εω ending. ταράσσω means ‘to throw into confusion’.
the one who had been ritually cleansed of murder. and. hurled his javelin at the boar. Among mortals there can be pity. nobility and forgiveness. Κροῖσος μέν … buries his son.
Translation for 19F
When he had answered Croesus with these words. But Croesus. ϕονεὺς δέ … the repetition recalls the double tragedy. they set off after this accompanied by the selected young men and the hounds. In his grief at this tragedy. 20 εἶς = εἶ ‘you are’. After this. he begged him to slay him over the corpse. the Lydians came bearing the corpse. pitied Adrastos. fulﬁlled the prophecy of the dream. where the reconciliation of Theseus and his son contrasts with the unrelenting vengefulness of Aphrodite. and calling upon him as the god of friendship on the grounds that he had sent him as a guardian for his son and found him to be a most deadly enemy. was even more grieved because he himself had cleansed of murder the man who had killed him.Then indeed he. missed the boar. And standing before the body. A digniﬁed and moving end. When they arrived at Mount Olympus. speaking of his former disaster. of all the men whom he knew. the man called Adrastos. You are not the one who is responsible for this tragedy. and spoke thus to him: ‘Stranger. in the sense that by killing his son he has destroyed his life. since you condemn yourself to death. and he called upon him as the god of the hearth and the god of friendship. and when he reached Sardis. and someone ran to tell Croesus what had happened. and stretching out his hands. who prophesied to me long ago the events that would come to pass. And there the stranger. overwhelmed by the death of his son. and the murderer followed behind. they started to look for the boar. he offered himself to Croesus. he was βαρυσυμϕορώτατος’ (a most weighty and impressive word saved to the last to make it even more emphatic). he called in anger upon Zeus the Puriﬁer. even though he was in such personal distress. but it was some god. ὁ ϕονεὺς μέν … . ‘realising that. and how in addition to it he had destroyed the man who had cleansed him. hearing this. when all is quiet and the mourners have gone from the tomb. 21–25 The climax opens quietly. then our attention moves to Ἄδρηστος δέ … (Adrastos is now given his full formal name at this ﬁnal moment of the story. he told him about the ﬁght and the fate of his son.Section 19F
17–21 The reaction of Croesus. he said that life was no longer liveable for him. Cf. ἐπικατασϕάζει τῷ τύμβῳ ἑωυτόν. But Croesus. being hit by a spearhead. (Adrastos is the ‘destroyer’ of the man who puriﬁed him.) Finally. but hit the son of Croesus. in contrast perhaps to the relentless force of destiny fulﬁlling the design of the gods. naming this same god. I have full justice from you.) Next. bearing witness to the things that he had suffered at the hands of the stranger. and having found it and surrounded it they began to hurl javelins at it. calling upon him as the god of the hearth because having received the stranger into his house he had unwittingly nurtured the murderer of his son. Euripides’ Hippolytus. except in so far as you unintentionally did the deed.’
and the destroyer of the man who had cleansed him. without having to struggle quite so hard to understand the Greek. καλούμενος.254
Exercise for section 19
Croesus then buried his son as was ﬁtting. when it was quiet and the crowd of people had gone from the tomb (when it was quiet of people about the tomb). ἕνεκα ἐγένου. the one who had been the killer of his own brother. φυλάττω μόνος. ἀπολεῖ. so that. killed himself upon the tomb. you can appreciate fully both the dramatic effect of the story and the varied artistry of Herodotus’ narrative technique. ποιοῦμεν Περσῶν ταύταις. χρηστοῖς
. But Adrastos. regarding himself as the most accursed of all men whom he knew. the son of Gordias the son of Midas.
You may perhaps want to read through this whole section again. συμφορά πράττω. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 19
THE DIALECT OF HERODOTUS
(a) (b) (c) (e) (f) (g)
thus ‘much-enduring’. ἔνθα Odysseus is sleeping under an olive bush. #338–339 on Homeric hexameters and Greek metre. 362. ‘thus’. Odysseus is often referred to by this description. ‘anemometer’ = ‘wind-measurer’. -τλας is from τλάω ‘I endure’. partly in Greek and partly in translation. and it is interesting to consider how Homer uses them. #337 on some vital features of Homeric dialect and syntax.Section Twenty: Odysseus and Nausikaa
Here you have the whole of Odyssey 6.
. #349–352 ‘Homeric dialect – the main features’. 3 βῆ = ἔβη. #337(a). This is known as ‘ring composition’ and is a common feature in Homer. μιν = αὐτήν. 362–364. ‘anemone’ = ‘wind-ﬂower’. See GE p. 4ff. καθεῦδε = καθηῦδε. Oral poets did not commit a poem to memory verbatim. and it is entirely apt. and then returns to where it started. The absence of the augment is very common in Homer. and GE pp. 21 στῆ = ἔστη. 243–244. hollow or swift ship’? These were ‘formulas’. No augment. with the ‘winedark sea’ (ἐπὶ οἴνοπα πόντον) and the ‘black. Make sure you read the excellent Introduction. ῥ’ = ῥά. 378–382.
1 ὥς with an accent = οὕτως ‘so’. 362. Remember that this is poetry in the oral tradition. Do you remember the rhapsode in Section 1H. and notice GE p. The passage in English gives the earlier history of the Phaeacian people. RGT pp. but they had in their minds a huge collection of formulaic phrases which ﬁtted neatly into a hexameter line and they could use these to tell the story. having covered himself with leaves.
20 ἀνέμου Cf. πολύτλας: πολύ = ‘much’. You will quickly come to recognise such phrases. πολύτλας δῖος ’Oδυσσεύς A formulaic phrase. There is also the Reference Grammar pp. with Athene making her way to Phaeacia. An abbreviated form of ἄρα: ‘then’.
25 τί νύ σ’ ὧδε … Literally ‘How did your mother bear you thus lazy?’. #337(d). ἔσσεαι = ἔσει ‘you will be’. πλυνέουσαι Future participle expressing purpose. it ends in -στο. Here it is almost certainly the pronoun: compare this example with 20B line 59. ἡ γλαύξ is ‘the owl’. ‘How did your mother come to have such a lazy daughter?’ 26 τοι = σοι. as GE says in the vocabulary for 19A).
. καλά Understand εἵματα from the previous line. #337(j). ἔην = ἦν. ὤψ = ‘face’ or ‘eyes’. and is not equivalent to σοι. 32 τοι = σοι. 362. GE p. In poetry the preposition is often left out if it is used as the preﬁx to the verb. This is called ‘tmesis’ (‘cutting’). The preposition is ‘cut off’ from its verb. it means either ‘grey-eyed’ or owl-faced’. 33 τοι Here probably the particle ‘indeed’. as seen on the Athenian silver drachma. Here the verb is used with two accusatives. where μοι is equivalent to τοι in this line. ἕπομαι takes the dative. γλαυκός = ‘gleaming’ or ‘grey-green’. 280. This is the ‘dative of the person concerned’. ‘look here’. 29 τοι Here this probably means ‘in fact’. 362. 23 οἱ = αὐτῇ (GE p. but only the context will help you to decide between them. not -σται. It is often translated ‘lady’. αὐτήν Agrees with σε (understood). #337(i)). 22 ναυσικλειτοῖο Genitive ending (GE p. although it has no augment. GE p.
24 γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη Another formula. Present subjunctive. 32–33 ὄϕρα …ἐντύνεαι ὄϕρα + subjunctive/optative expresses purpose. ἀνθρώπους ἀναβαίνει Understand another ἀνά before ἀνθρώπους: ‘goes up among men’. Therefore this is an indeﬁnite clause. #350). #337(k). 28 τὰ δὲ τοῖσι The article is normally used for ‘them’ or ‘these’ in Homer instead of αὐτόν and οὗτος. and is frequently found with μήτηρ. 30 πότνια μήτηρ πότνια is a stock epithet for goddesses and great ladies. another ethic dative ‘as far as you are concerned’.256
πρὸς … ἔειπεν ‘spoke to’. ‘addressed her a word’. 31 ἴομεν = ἴωμεν. 362. You can see it is pluperfect because. ‘let us go’. The Phaeacians were famed for their nautical skills. but it could be either in the context. the bird of Athene. ‘addressed’. There is also a particle τοι which means ‘in fact’. ‘And you must provide others for those who …’ οἵ κέ σ’ ἄγωνται κε or κεν = ἄν. 362. It is usually the second word in the sentence. This is a standard epithet for Athene. 27 ἵνα + indicative means ‘where’. κεχάριστο This is the pluperfect of χαρίζομαι (not the perfect. and does not express purpose. See GE p. although in Homer an indeﬁnite is very close to a future: ‘those who will lead you’.
#351(iv). Likening herself to her. (Idylls of the King 1. making herself like the daughter of Dymas. ‘thus’. Possessive dative. for the washing-places are far from the city. or any snow. ἄμαξαν ‘wagon’ as in Section 6H. like a breath of wind. the robes and the shining covers. And it is much better for you yourself to go in this way than on foot. 381.’
.g. the home of the gods. ‘are distant from’. ‘Come on’. and a father and lady mother rejoice. and I will go with you as a helper. ‘and they are your nation too’. 41 ὣς εἰποῦσα ‘so speaking’. 40 ἀπὸ … εἰσί Tmesis again. so that you may get ready very quickly. the grey-eyed Athene addressed her. 189–190. In between these repeated phrases there is a marvellous description of Olympus. 18–22. followed by a command. ‘where is the race to you yourself also’. godlike Odysseus slept there. but Athene went to the people and the city of the Phaeacian men … * * * She. 36 ἄγ᾽ = ἄγε. 41–47 Ring composition again: (line 4) ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη … ἔνθ᾽ ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις (line 10). ἐϕοπλίσαι Aorist inﬁnitive of ἐϕοπλίζω. ‘where is your race too’. 47 διεπέϕραδε Aorist of διαϕράζω. line 19 ἀκηδέα σιγαλόεντα. and stood above her head and addressed her a word. famous for ships. and by Tennyson: Where falls not hail. 37 ἡμιόνους ‘mules’ as in Section 8E. 38 ῥήγεα σιγαλόεντα Cf. ‘Nausikaa. e. For from these things indeed a good reputation spreads among men. or rain. οἰκάδε. for already the noblest of all the Phaeacian men throughout the people are courting you – you are of the same race as them. overcome by sleep and weariness. since you will not be a maiden much longer. 43 ἔμμεναι = εἶναι This is a common form of the inﬁnitive in Homer. when you must wear ﬁne [clothes] yourself and provide others for those who will escort you. 39 πολὺ κάλλιον Understand ἐστί. #198–199). But let us go and do the washing as soon as dawn appears. It was copied by Lucretius in De rerum natura 3. ἐπότρυνον Aorist imperative (GE pp. See GE p. who was of the same age as her and was very dear to her heart. 42 Οὔλυμπόνδε The sufﬁx -δε means ‘towards’. Nor ever wind blows loudly. how has your mother borne such a lazy [daughter as] you? The shining clothes are lying uncared for by you (as far as you are concerned) – and your wedding is near. ask your famous father before dawn to equip you with mules and a wagon to take the girdles.Section 20A
35 τοι = σοι. ‘phrase’. ὥς with an accent = οὕτως ‘so’. But come. hurried to the bed of the girl. Cf.428–9)
Translation for 20A
68 τευ = τινος. 19A line 19. nor does snow come near. #351(iv). and then described more fully with ἡ μέν … in line 52.
Translation for 20B
At once fair-throned dawn came and she woke fair-robed Nausikaa. and τῷ δέ … in line 53.258
So speaking. or crimson. There the grey-eyed one went. See GE p. 53–54 τῷ δὲ … ξύμβλητο ‘She met him …’ ἐρχομένῳ agrees with τῷ. explained by Ναυσικάαν εὔπεπλον in the next line. dye came from the murex (a shell-ﬁsh). 53 ἠλάκατα στρωϕῶσ’ ἁλιπόρϕυρα ‘spinning the sea-purple wool’. the grey-eyed Athene went away to Olympus. 53 θύραζε = θύρασδε. ἁλι. 71 τοί = οἱ ‘they’. οὐκ ἂν δή μοι ἐϕοπλίσσειας A polite request: ‘Wouldn’t you provide me with …’ 59 τά = ἅ ‘which’. where they say the safe seat of the gods is for ever. and a white radiance covers it. not ashamed. a very common idiom in Homer. Cf. µοι Another ethic dative (dative of the person concerned). 55 ἵνα + indicative means ‘where’. 381. It was particularly valuable. at once she was amazed at the dream and she went through the palace to tell it to her parents. τοκεῦσι ‘to her parents’. ‘Sea-purple’ because purple. ‘nobles’ (not ‘kings’). it is not shaken by winds. θαλερὸν γάμον ‘fruitful marriage’. 265. nor wet by showers. but a very clear sky spreads over it.is from the word meaning ‘salt’ or ‘sea’. as daughter to father. Note the accent. 57 πάππα ϕίλ’ This is informal: ‘Daddy. Nausikaa uses this same phrase (p. 52 σὺν ἀμϕιπόλοισι γυναιξίν Another formula which ﬁts the second half of the hexameter.
48 μιν ‘her’. line 308) when speaking to Odysseus. It means ‘she went’. cloudless. 50 βῆ δ᾽ ἴμεναι Literally ‘she went to go’. dear’. 54 βασιλῆας ‘chieftains’. 380 #350. 56 μάλ᾽ ἄγχι ‘very close’.
. as often in Homer. ‘right up close’. in it the blessed gods enjoy themselves all their days. when she had spoken to the girl. hence ‘royal purple’. ‘in the purple’. See GE p. 60 σοὶ αὐτῷ ἔοικε This is followed by accusative + inﬁnitive: ‘it is right for you yourself to discuss plans (βουλὰς βουλεύειν) being among the foremost men (ἐόντα) having (ἔχοντα) clean clothes on your body’. ἵν᾽ ἀγγείλειε ἵνα + optative expresses purpose in secondary sequence. ἴμεναι is a form of inﬁnitive. almost certainly a stock epithet. itemised in the next line. It cannot be τοι = σοι. 66 αἴδετο ‘felt reticent about’. Nausikaa was modest about her marriage.
If the inhabitants are ‘god-fearing’. Five dear sons have been born to you in the palace. She stood very close to him and addressed her dear father: ‘Daddy dear. they all wish to go to the dance with newly washed clothes. with her servant women. nor anything else. 114 oἱ = ‘him’ (dative). they will respect the laws of hospitality and look after the stranger kindly. ἡγήσαιτο takes the dative and it is in the optative because it continues the purpose clause started in line 113. ἄϋσαν Three syllables. And it is ﬁtting for you yourself.’ 112 ἄλλ’ ἐνόησε Note the accent on ἄλλο: ‘planned something else’. he ordered the servants and they obeyed. to discuss plans with clean clothes on your body. 121 σϕίν ‘to them’. See GE p. so that I may take the lovely clothes to the river to wash them? They are lying there. Perhaps ‘Oh dear me!’ 119–121 A most important consideration on arriving in a strange land.
119 ὤ μοι ἐγώ Difﬁcult to translate naturally. 119 τέων = τίνων. It is a possessive dative. i.Section 20C
her dear father and mother.’ Almost ‘It was time to go home. for she was hesitant to mention fruitful marriage to her dear father.
.e. She found them indoors. πόλιν ‘to the city’.
110 ἔμελλε ‘She was going to return home. 113 ὡς + optative expresses purpose in secondary sequence. βασίλεια Nominative and feminine. but he realised all and replied: ‘I do not be grudge you mules. but here he is more fortunate. him she met going towards the door. I know. child. 117 ἐπὶ μακρόν Adverbial. ἔχουσι ἔχω often has the sense of ‘have (as their home)’. All these things are a concern to my mind. lines 33–39. ἀλλά (as in line 110) means ‘but’. spinning sea-purple wool. when you are with your nobles. the breathing (ἀ) and the diaeresis (ϋ) show this. 173. she (her mother) was sitting by the hearth. = ‘loudly’. 123 νυμϕάων This recalls the simile likening Nausikaa to Artemis and her nymphs on p. 380.’ So saying. 115 σϕαῖραν ‘sphere’. ‘inhabit’. won’t you get ready for me a high well-wheeled wagon. dirty. on his way to his distinguished counsellors to a council to which the Phaeacian nobles called him. Remember the sophist in Section 6F ‘catching up the argument like a ball’. The servants will equip for you a high well-wheeled wagon. two are married and three are thriving bachelors. ﬁtted with a canopy.’ So she spoke. Go. The preposition is omitted. #350. Odysseus had the same thoughts before he met the Cyclops.
‘who goes’. ‘gastric’. ‘let me …’ ἠδέ ‘and’. The simile of the mountain lion. the aorist of ϕαίνομαι. Odysseus appears as savage and terrible as a lion to the girls. that Odysseus should wake up and see the beautiful girl who would lead him to the city of the Phaeacian men. Note that the verb (δαίεται) is singular. #350. 138 ἄλλυδις ἄλλη The whole phrase means ‘in different directions’ (as in GE). it missed the handmaiden and fell into the deep eddy. ‘Oh dear me. παχείῃ Cf. 129 ϕύλλων Goes with πτόρθον in the previous line. ‘pachyderm’. so at this point it is focused on Odysseus. Godlike Odysseus awoke. ‘gastritis’ etc. 130–134 Just as our attention was drawn to Nausikaa with a simile (Artemis and the nymphs). of εἶμι. and they shrieked loudly.260
126 πειρήσομαι ἠδὲ ἴδωμαι These verbs are both subjunctives. and he too is storm-tossed and driven by desperate necessity to come from the wild to seek help in a civilised community. ἐν probably belongs to δαίεται and is cut off by tmesis. is apt. Cf. See GE p. ϕωτός Be careful not to confuse ϕώς ϕωτός ‘man’ and τὸ ϕῶς (ϕάος) ‘light’. γαστήρ Cf. ὄσσε A dual (GE #331–332). ἠμέν … ἠδέ … ‘both … and …’
Translation for 20C
But when she was about to go back home again. 132 ὀΐεσσιν Four syllables. then again the grey-eyed goddess Athene planned something else. The princess then threw a ball to a hand-maiden. 133 ἑ = ‘him’. Or am I now somewhere near men who speak with human voices? But come. 130 βῆ δ᾽ ἴμεν See note on 20B line 50 above. after yoking the mules and folding the ﬁne clothing. ‘a different one in a different direction’. 136 περ = καίπερ. οἱ is a possessive dative. savage and not just. or are they hospitable and have a god-fearing mind? The female shriek of maidens surrounded me – of nymphs. Cf. as with a neuter plural subject. driven down from the hills by hunger to raid the village animals. sitting up. who inhabit the steep peaks of mountains and sources of rivers and grassy meadows. let me try and see for myself. and. a thick-skinned animal. considered in his heart and mind. accusative. 131 εἶσ’ = εἶσι: 3rd s. literally. 137 ϕάνη = ἐϕάνη. 380. note on 20C line 117 ἄϋσαν. ‘a leafy branch’. 134 δόμον Here referring to the ‘pens’ where the sheep and cattle were kept. ‘his eyes’.
. to the land of what people have I come this time? Are they violent. Aorist of κλάζω without the augment.’
128 κλάσε = ἔκλασε.
Do not confuse this with οἷος ‘such as’. 142 γούνων … λαβών Touching or clasping the knees was a sign of supplication. 252. for Athene put courage in her heart and removed the fear from her limbs. ‘to see if she would show him the city and give him clothes’.
Translation for 20D
Speaking thus. in case the girl should grow angry in her heart with him for taking her knees. Literally ‘maintaining herself’. Both are in an indirect question in secondary sequence. She stood and faced him. Cf. It literally means Ί clasp your knees’ – the very thing that Odysseus has not done! θεός νύ τις ἦ βροτός ἐσσι. and his eyes burn. ‘crafty’) in line 148.Section 20E
139 οἴη The feminine of οἶος ‘alone’. holding her ground. line 113. who goes on. 147 μὴ … χολώσαιτο ‘lest she be angry’. εὐώπιδα κούρην Another formulaic phrase. Odysseus debated whether to take her knees and beseech the beautiful girl or simply with honeyed words at a distance to beseech her to show him the city and give him clothing. they are often employed by Odysseus. Alcinous’ daughter alone remained.
149 γουνοῦμαι GE gives this as ‘beseech’. to be better to beseech her with honeyed words from a distance. for no man is going to offend or rape a goddess. 144 δοίη Aorist optative of δίδωμι. 143 μειλιχίοισι GE gives this as ‘winning’. to make trial of the sheep. δείξειε is also an aorist optative. This shows the shrewdly calculating mind of Odysseus. for need was upon him. godlike Odysseus emerged from the bushes. hunger orders him to go even into the densely-packed pens. disﬁgured with brine. p. naked though he was. and they ran in different directions along the jutting shores. He seemed terrible to them. It seemed to him. ‘soothing’. though rained upon and blown upon. He went forward like a mountain-bred lion trusting in his strength. with his broad hand he broke a leafy branch from the thick-foliaged bush so that shielding (around) his body he could hide his male genitals. and is picked up by κερδαλέον (‘subtle’. the arch-persuader.
. and ‘honeyed’ would be equally appropriate here. Its basic root is μέλι ‘honey’. So Odysseus was going to meet the maidens with beautiful hair. but he attacks the oxen or sheep. or goes after the wild deer. At once he addressed to her a honeyed and cunning speech. as he thought about it. 141 σχομένη Middle participle of ἔχω. ‘more advantageous’. 145 κέρδιον ‘more proﬁtable’. ‘Honeyed words’ is a frequent formula. so ‘holding her ground’. ‘Are you a god or a mortal?’ A splendid piece of ﬂattery and also of reassurance.
that she may be a mortal. also to explain to Nausikaa why he is not clasping her knees in the attitude of formal supplication. since Artemis is a virgin goddess. τοῖον agrees with ἔρνος. The point of the comparison is the slender beauty of the palm and the awe it induces in the beholder. It is also particularly suitable. It was there that Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis and in honour of this their father. 162–163 Note the order in which the ideas are presented: ‘in Delos once … such a … by the altar of Apollo … of a palm … the young shoot springing up … I saw’. γουνοῦμαι in line 8 at the start of the speech. of course.
170–174 Now he speaks of his past sufferings and his foreboding for the future. This is a recurring theme in the Phaeacia story. 167 δόρυ This refers to the palm.262
150 θεός … τοί τοί is a plural relative pronoun. …’ 153 εἰ δέ τίς ἐσσι βροτῶν … More ﬂattery and reassurance as Odysseus develops the second possibility. λευσσόντων ‘agrees’ with σϕισι in line 155 ‘when they see …’. 158–159 The climax and another reference to Nausikaa’s marriage. and both Nausikaa and her parents hope at some time that Odysseus might perhaps remain and become her husband. after a singular antecedent θεός. Odysseus has. created the palm and the bay tree. and the feminine participle εἰσοιχνεῦσαν ‘agrees’ with the neuter noun θάλος. 252. 173 ὄϕρα … πάθω ὄϕρα + subjunctive expresses purpose: ‘so that I may suffer some trouble (κακόν) here as well (καί)’. The construction follows the sense: ‘if you are one of the gods who’. etc. 162 Delos was sacred to Apollo. that he has been a person of some importance: line164 πολὺς δέ μοι ἕσπετο λαός. where Nausikaa is likened to Artemis. Translate ‘yesterday’. lines 102–109. 155–157 There are more constructions here that go with the sense rather than with strict grammar. 152 εἶδός τε μέγεθός τε ϕυήν τ’… All these are accusatives of respect: ‘I liken you to Artemis in appearance. Zeus. Cf. οἴνοπα πόντον ‘the wine-dark sea’. 172 νήσου ἀπ᾽ Ὠγυγίης This was the island of Calypso where Odysseus was detained for seven years. and brings us back in the ‘ring-composition’ structure to the starting-point of the simile. a formulaic phrase. 160–165 Note the transition from his admiration and awe at the beauty of Nausikaa to his own story and the ‘hint’ to her (mentioned in the introduction). 168–169 δείδια … γούνων ἅψασθαι Another example of ring composition. 170 χθιζός An adjective agreeing with the subject Odysseus. 151 Ἀρτέμιδι This recalls the simile on p. Literally ‘yesterday’s’.
on that journey on which evil troubles were destined to befall me.Section 20E
173–174 οὐ γὰρ ὀΐω παύσεσθαι ‘I do not think it will cease. whatever they wrapped the washing in. and a large company followed me. ‘may they grant’. I am astonished and I am terribly afraid to touch your knees. He means any old piece of material. after suffering many evils I have come to you ﬁrst. 181 ὀπάσειαν Another optative expressing a wish. on the twentieth day. In Delos once. the subject is ἀνὴρ ἠδὲ γυνή. I had gone there. neither man nor woman. than when in harmony of mind a man and woman share a home. ‘I have not seen with my eyes such a one. such as inhabit the broad heaven. but hard grief has come upon me. for I do not think it will stop. 174 τελέουσι In form this could be present or future.
. ‘a rag to put round me’. lady. But he in his heart is most blessed above [all] others who. 175 σε Governed by ἐς in the next line: ‘I came to you ﬁrst. near the altar of Apollo. 180 δοῖεν Optative for a wish. if you had any wrapping for the clothes when you came here. and may they grant beautiful harmony: for there is nothing greater and better than this. ῥάκος Very close to ‘rag’. so. I look at you in awe. If you are one of the mortals who live upon earth. so that I may suffer some evil here too. stature and beauty. Show me the city. awe holds me as I look. ἔχητον These are both duals. now a god has cast me up here. 182 τοῦ Genitive of comparison. The sense suggests future.
Translation for 20E
‘I beseech you by your knees. princess. and I do not know any other of the people who inhabit this city and land. leads you home [as his wife]. for surely the heart within them always warms very much with pleasure through you when they see such young beauty entering the dance. I delighted in my heart for a long time. and thrice blessed are your brothers. but the gods will accomplish even more before that. I liken you most closely to Artemis. ‘To you may the gods give all that you desire in your heart. I escaped from the wine-dark sea. ἀμϕιβαλέσθαι An explanatory inﬁnitive. in appearance. ‘This’ is explained in the next line. But. daughter of great Zeus. thrice blessed are your father and lady mother. ‘may they give’. since no such shoot ever yet came up from the earth. I saw such a young shoot of a date-palm growing up. are you a god or a mortal? If you are a god. have pity. In the same way as. ‘Yesterday. after loading you with gifts. princess. for so long the waves and swift storms carried me always from the island of Ogygia. ‘than this’.’ παύσεσθαι = future middle inﬁnitive of παύω. when I saw it. ἢ ὅθ’ ‘than when …’ 183 ὁμοϕρονέοντε.’ 178 δεῖξον Aorist imperative of δείκνυμι. give me a rag to put round myself. a husband and a home.
204–205 ἀπάνευθε. It is a compound adjective with only two terminations. 199 στῆτέ μοι ‘stop. pres. 201 This is easy to mistranslate: – not ‘this is not a mortal man’. 187–189 Nausikaa means that since Odysseus is sensible and intelligent he must accept whatever fate Zeus sends him. διερός occurs in Homer only here and in Od. please’. beyond the reach of pirates and enemies and with their magic ships that need no helmsman to take them anywhere they wish to go. and women who do not work in the ﬁelds and get sun-burned. 190 τετλάμεν Inﬁnitive of τλάω. Odysseus is described in the ﬁrst line of this book as πολύτλας. 9. ῥά = ἄρα. ‘On him the power and might of the Phaeacians depend.’ 194 ἐρέω Future of λέγω. On Minoan frescos women are conventionally coloured white and men terracotta. hence. 207 πρὸς Διός πρός here means ‘under the protection of’. You ﬁrst met these lines in Section 4C p.) clothing or anything else which (ὧν is genitive by relative attraction. see 218b) it is right (ἐπέοιχ᾽) for a poor suppliant (ἱκέτην ταλαπείριον) not to lack (μὴ δεύεσθαι is understood from οὐ δευήσεαι in the previous line) having met [someone]. ἔμμεναι = εἶναι. 3rd s. Tradition has it that Phaeacia is the modern Corfu. subj. so that the -ος ending can be feminine. 210 λούσατε Note that this is active. but ‘there is not a mortal man living who …’ The accent on ἔσθ᾽ shows that it means ‘exists’ rather than ‘is’. ἦ δ᾽ ὅς in sections 7D and 7E (Plato. not to take him to a place where he can wash himself. Nausikaa tells her maids to wash Odysseus. The meaning. The μοι is rather like our colloquial phrase ‘Will you do this for me?’ 200 ϕάσθ᾽ Here this is more like ‘consider’ than ‘say’. Cf. 48. Once again the religious requirement of hospitality is emphasised. ἔσχατοι The Phaeacians live far away on the edge of the known world..
. 191–193 A complicated clause. almost in a fairy-tale land. This is an epithet which is applied only to women. ‘just as he pleases’.’ 198 ἦ ῥα A common formulaic phrase: ἦ = ‘she spoke’.264
they are a great grief to their enemies and a delight to their friends. 189 ἐθέλῃσιν = ἐθέλῃ. starting with the previous line. they themselves are greatly respected. It is therefore complimentary. lines 31–32. 197 GE tells you that ἐκ governs τοῦ and that ἔχεται ἐκ means here ‘depend on’. Euthydemos).’ In grammatical detail: ‘You will not lack (+ gen. is ‘So you will lack neither clothing nor anything else which it is right for a poor suppliant [to have] when he has met [someone to help him].’
186 λευκώλενος ‘white-armed’.43.
give the stranger meat and drink. Olympian Zeus himself apportions happiness to mankind. I am the daughter of great-hearted Alcinous. on him the power and might of the Phaeacians depend. It means ‘unharvested’ and so ‘unharvestable’ and so ‘barren’. 221 αἰδέομαι It was normal practice in the world of Homer for girl-slaves to bath male visitors.Section 20G
Translation for 20F
Then white-armed Nausikaa answered him in reply: ‘Stranger. We live far away in the loud-roaring sea. to each. But now. 226 ἀτρυγέτοιο A regular epithet for the sea. But this is some poor wanderer who has arrived here. They escorted Odysseus to a sheltered spot and sat him down there. 224 νίζετο The verb takes two accusatives here. just as he pleases. since you seem to be neither an evil nor a foolish man.’
211 ἔσταν = ἔστησαν ‘they stopped’. 212 κάδ … εἷσαν Note κάδ = κατά. handmaidens. ἀνά can be treated in the same way. who would come to the land of Phaeacian men bringing slaughter. you will not lack for clothing nor anything else which it is right for a poor suppliant [to have] when he has met [someone to help him]. whom we must now look after. and you must doubtless endure them.
. I will show you the city and tell you the name of the people. and so he has given you these things. The Phaeacians inhabit this city and land. and gave orders to her handmaidens with pretty hair: ‘Stop. for we are very dear to the immortal gods.’ She spoke. nor does any other of mortals have dealings with us. and wash him in the river. to good and bad. but are in fact aorist subjunctives. handmaidens. ‘washed his body’ and ‘washed the brine’. and a gift is small but welcome. But. since you have come to our city and land. nor will he ever be born. although the ordinary plural is used in lines 225 and 235.
218–220 ὄϕρ᾽ … ἀπολούσομαι … χρίσομαι ὄϕρα + subjunctive expresses purpose. for all strangers and beggars are under the protection of Zeus. 214 πάρ = παρά Note the shortening of some prepositions to monosyllables – κάδ has just occurred and recurs in line 230. where there is shelter from the wind. The two verbs look like futures. 219 ὤμοιϊν Dual – he has two shoulders. the root of ἕζω = ἕδος. Odysseus refuses their assistance because his body is in such a dreadful state after his hardships that he ‘is ashamed to be naked among maidens with well-ordered hair’. where we would have to say ‘washed the brine from his body’. where are you ﬂeeing after seeing a man? Surely you do not think this is one of the hostile men? That mortal man does not exist. the furthest [of peoples].
228 ἕσσαθ᾽ First aorist middle of ἕννυμι: ‘he put on’. 238 μετηύδα From μεταυδάω ‘I speak to’.’
Translation for 20G
So she spoke. clustering curls are like the wild hyacinth petals. But I will not wash in front of you . For. and they told him to wash in the stream of the river. Then indeed godlike Odysseus said to the handmaidens: ‘Handmaidens. πόσις ‘husband’. They sat Odysseus down in shelter. 232–234 In this simile Athene enhances the appearance of Odysseus as a skilled craftsman puts the ﬁnishing touches to a work of art. and think of me sometimes when you are back at home. But from the river godlike Odysseus washed from his body the brine which lay thick upon his back and
. lines 457–468. my life was your gift. εἰ γάρ + optative expresses a wish. You may remember the passage from Plato in Section 18. grant me to reach my house and see my day of homecoming. 235 τῷ Indirect object. So even when I am there I will pray to you as a goddess.’ Then resourceful Odysseus spoke in turn and answered her: ‘Nausicaa. never to see her again. 230 εἰσιδέειν An explanatory inﬁnitive. 245 οἱ ἅδοι ‘and that it might be pleasing to him …’ ἅδοι is the aorist optative of ἁνδάνω. where there is an underlying pathos when Odysseus speaks his last words to her the day before he leaves for Ithaca. all the days of my life. with ‘on his head and shoulders’ in apposition. ‘whom … have taught all skill’. ‘on him’. even so may Zeus. how I was the ﬁrst you owed your life to. with the gods’ loveliness on her stood beside the pillar that supported the roof with its joinery. so that I myself may wash the brine from my shoulders and anoint myself with olive-oil. ‘greater to look upon’. and spoke to him aloud and addressed him in winged words. Then Nausicaa. 231 ὑακινθίνῳ ἄνθει ὁμοίας Presumably thick. saying: ‘Goodbye. stand thus far off. for I am ashamed to be naked coming among maidens with lovely hair. 248 πόσιν Here = ‘drink’. where Athene and Hephaistos are the gods who are the masters of the craftsman’s art. The last we hear of her is in Book 8. Once again the marriage theme.’ So he spoke. For indeed ointment has been absent from my body for a long time. and they went far off and told the girl. next to him they put a cloak and a tunic as clothing and gave him moist olive-oil in a golden oil-jar. and they stood and encouraged each other. 233 δέδαεν Takes two objects. daughter of great-hearted Alkinoos. maiden. stranger. and gazed upon Odysseus with all her eyes and admired him. high-thundering husband of Hera. Nausikaa is to be disappointed. 244 αἲ γάρ = εἰ γάρ. as Nausikaa daughter of great-hearted Alcinous ordered.
But. shining with beauty and grace. he goes to the palace and appeals to the Queen. From his head he wiped the scum of the unharvested sea. and put beside Odysseus meat and drink. give the stranger meat and drink. he sat far off. and after the banquet the singer Demodocus tells the story of the wooden horse at Troy. on his head and shoulders. In Book 13 he departs from Phaeacia and the story moves forward again to his return to Ithaca and all the problems which await him there. In Books 9–12 he tells what has happened to him since he left Troy until the time he was washed up on the shore of the island of Calypso. down from his head she sent bushy hair. In the evening there is a banquet. white-armed handmaidens. and that it might please him to remain here. given hospitality. Odysseus reveals his identity and starts to tell his story. after some debate. like the hyacinth ﬂower. and they readily heard and obeyed her. He is welcomed and. daughter of Zeus.Section 20G
broad shoulders. But when he had washed all and richly anointed himself.’ So she spoke. made him taller and broader to look upon. Now read on in English to the end of Book 6. whom Hephaistos and Pallas Athene have taught all skill. In Book 7 Odysseus follows Nausikaa’s advice and. Then going along the seashore. so that I may say something. On the next day (Book 8) the Phaeacians hold games at which Odysseus establishes his prowess. with Athene’s help. and put on the clothes which the unmarried girl provided for him. Odysseus is moved to tears. As when a skilled craftsman. Then indeed much-enduring godlike Odysseus drank and ate greedily. because for a long time he had not tasted food.
. the maiden watched him admiringly. lays gold on silver and completes graceful work. ‘Listen to me. so she poured on him grace. Then indeed she spoke to her beautiful-haired handmaidens. then Athene. but now he is like the gods who inhabit the broad heaven. Not against the will of all the gods who inhabit Olympus has this man come among the godlike Phaeacians. handmaidens. Would that such a man might be called my husband dwelling here. Earlier he seemed to me to be wretched. and Alcinous at last asks him who he is.