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An Independent Study Guide to
First published in 1978 and now thoroughly revised, Reading Greek is a best-selling oneyear introductory course in ancient Greek for students of any age. It combines the best of modern and traditional language-learning techniques and is used in schools, summer schools and universities across the world. This Independent Study Guide is intended to help students who are learning Greek on their own or with only limited access to a teacher. It contains notes on the texts that appear in the Text and Vocabulary volume, translations of all the texts, answers to the exercises in the Grammar and Exercises volume and crossreferences to the relevant fifth-century background in The World of Athens. There are instructions on how to use the course and the Study Guide. The book will also be useful to students in schools, universities and summer schools who have to learn Greek rapidly.
THE JOINT ASSOCIATION OF CLASSICAL TEACHERS’ GREEK COURSE
An Independent Study Guide to
UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press.cambridge. Melbourne. Cambridge CB2 8RU.org/9780521698504 © The Joint Association of Classical Teachers’ Greek Course 1995. . First published in print format 2008 ISBN-13 978-0-511-39356-3 ISBN-13 978-0-521-69850-4 eBook (EBL) paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication. Madrid.cambridge. New York. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements. Singapore. or will remain. and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is. accurate or appropriate. São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building.CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge.org Information on this title: www. Cape Town. New York www. 2008 This publication is in copyright. no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
state and individuals Section Seventeen: Private justice: trouble down at the farm Section Eighteen: How Zeus gave justice to men Section Nineteen: The story of Adrastos Section Twenty: Odysseus and Nausikaa page vi vii ix xi 1 3 20 30 42 57 71 84 101 113 137 149 158 180 200 208 211 225 239 246 255 v .Contents Authors’ note Author’s note on the revised edition Preface Abbreviations used in the text Grammatical Introduction Section One: The insurance scam Section Two: The glorious past Section Three: Athens and Sparta Section Four: Lawlessness in Athenian life Section Five: ‘Socrates corrupts the young’ Section Six Section Seven: Socrates and intellectual inquiry Section Eight: Aristophanes’ Birds Section Nine: Aristophanes’ Wasps Section Ten: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata Section Eleven: Aristophanes’ Akharnians Section Twelve: Neaira as slave Section Thirteen: Neaira as married woman Section Fourteen: Guarding a woman’s purity Section Fifteen: Alkestis in Euripides’ play Section Sixteen: Ofﬁcial justice: ships.
The authors would like to express their gratitude for the helpful comments they have received from those who have used the Independent Study Guide in its trial stages. or with only limited access to a teacher. universities and summer schools who have to learn Greek rapidly and intensively. and from those fellow teachers who have read it with a critical eye. Jeannie Cohen Carol Handley James Morwood James Neville vi . However we hope that it may also prove useful to pupils in schools. It is intended primarily for those who are learning Greek on their own.Authors’ note This study guide has been written by members of the JACT Greek Committee for use by those who are using the JACT course Reading Greek published by the Cambridge University Press. In particular they would like to thank Professor Malcolm Willcock who has saved them from innumerable errors by his meticulous proof-reading of the trial stages. They are also very grateful to him and to Professor Eric Handley for reading the page-proofs and to the copy-editor Susan Moore for all her skilled assistance.
Carol Handley vii . which gives the reader very much more information about the grammar and syntax of Greek and has added a great many more exercises to help consolidate learning and understanding. It was felt that different learners ﬁnd different forms of explanations helpful. This revised edition of the Independent Study Guide contains answers to all the new exercises and all references are to the new edition of Reading Greek. and so it is hoped that some duplication may prove to be an advantage rather than an irritant.Author’s note on the revised edition A new edition of Reading Greek has been prepared. The notes to help with the passages in Reading Greek Text are largely unchanged. I am extremely grateful to Anthony Bowen for his meticulous proof-reading and numerous suggested improvements. in spite of the fact that much of the grammatical material in them is also explained in the new Grammar and Exercises volume of Reading Greek.
You read the passage in RGT with the aid of the running vocabulary for the section. but they will help you to practise the language and to make sure that you understand the grammar. 3. Since the ix . and records readings from passages in RGT. translations of the text. and will also allow you to check whether you have got everything right. 2. The ﬁrst two books. Then you look at the explanations of the grammar in GE. You may also like to have The World of Athens (second edition 2008). they will refer you to relevant pages and paragraphs in GE and in RGT. RGT and GE. were designed to be used together so that 1. Then you learn the grammar and the lists of ‘vocabulary to be learnt’ in GE. However. and a key to the exercises in GE. as it is an important check on your grasp of the section. 4. The Independent Study Guide (ISG) contains notes on translating the text of RGT. which gives you background information about Athenian history and life. so that you get immediate practice in a new feature of language. They are designed to help you with the reading and to amplify the explanation of the grammar in GE. The translations of the text and the exercises will help you if you get stuck.Preface How to use this course You have three books: Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary (RGT) Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises (GE) Independent Study Guide to Reading Greek (ISG) In addition there is a CD Speaking Greek which illustrates pronunciation. It is not essential to do all the exercises on morphology and syntax. The notes will give you some general advice at the start of a new section and some additional help as you read the text. You may want to do each section of the exercises as you study the grammar in GE. you should always do the ﬁnal ‘Test Exercise’ in each section. Then you do the exercises for the section to make sure that you have understood the grammar.
Some people prefer to look at the explanations of the grammar in a new section before they embark on reading the text.x Preface translations are there to help you to understand the Greek. they are literal rather than elegant in style. It is a matter of personal choice whether you prefer to look out for new forms in reading. . or whether you like to look at a new pattern of grammar and then see how it is used in the text. and then ﬁnd out how they work. ISG assumes that you will be using the ﬁrst procedure. It is always a good idea to re-read the text of a section after you have ﬁnished it. but it will work just as well if you prefer the second. It will also help you to absorb more of the very varied vocabulary which is used in Reading Greek to provide a greater range of interest and a wider experience of the language from an early stage. In the ﬁrst section. You will be surprised at how much more you remember if you do this.
giving chapter and paragraph numbers. xi .Abbreviations used in the text ISG RGT GE WA = The Independent Study Guide = Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary = Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises = The World of Athens References with no preﬁx are to the text of this ISG.
g. this is not straightforward. in particular. Exercise 2 The words in their Greek form (without accents) are: drama panthēr δραμα πανθηρ comma cōlon κομμα κωλον 1 . at the same time. For centuries it was common practice in English usage to turn all Greek spellings into their Latin equivalents. have become so much part of our English heritage that they look strange and unfamiliar in their ‘Greek’ form. 4–7 #1–7). Editors therefore have to make a decision whether to be consistently ‘Latin’ or consistently ‘Greek’. If you have the Speaking Greek CD it is very helpful to listen to the ﬁrst section. ‘The sounds of Greek’. More recently it has been fashionable to keep to a spelling that is closer to the original Greek. 1–3). Exercise 1 Try the exercise on the alphabet on GE p. In their English form the words will be: Byzantium (Busdantion) Dicaeopolis or Dikaiopolis Euboea or Euboia Zenothemis or Sdenothemis Hegestratus or Hegestratos Parthenon Chios (Khios) acropolis (akropolis) emporium (emporion) As you see. E. or whether to keep the familiar words in their ‘Latin’ form while treating the less familiar words in a ‘Greek’ way. but ‘Akhilleus’ comes as a shock.Grammatical Introduction In the Introduction to Grammar and Exercises you will ﬁnd the Greek alphabet and a guide to pronunciation (GE pp. but the difﬁculty with this practice is that some words and names. The latter course has been followed in this book. we all recognise ‘Achilles’. as well as a description of the basic terms used to describe the grammar (GE pp. Reading and writing Look at the alphabet and the pronunciation guide in GE pages 1–3. 3.
most of this will be of future interest. #7) 1. ὁ Ἡγέστρατος is the subject. #408–454). 2. 465–495. You will have to train yourself consciously to notice the endings. ὁ Ζηνόθεμις is the subject. Hegestratos as subject will be Hegestratos as object will be Zenothemis as subject will be ὁ Ἡγέστρατος τὸν Ἡγέστρατον ὁ Ζηνόθεμις When you have studied the Grammatical introduction you will be aware that in reading Greek it is necessary to learn not only to interpret the new script. τὸν Ζηνόθεμιν is the object. ἡ γυνὴ is the subject. This is something which we do not need to do in English. . and you should certainly not try to absorb it all at this stage.2 Grammatical introduction crocus geranium hippopotamus ibis asbestos charactēr scēnē Periclēs Sophoclēs Euripidēs *Hippocratēs κροκος γερανιον ἱπποποταμος ἰβις ἀσβεστος χαρακτηρ σκηνη Περικλης Σοφοκλης Εὐριπιδης Ἱπποκρατης Sōcratēs Zeus Artemis *Hēraclēs asthma dyspepsia cinēma orchēstra mēlon iris Σωκρατης Ζευς Ἀρτεμις Ἡρακλης ἀσθμα δυσπεψια κινημα ὀρχηστρα μηλον ἰρις Case: Subject and object (pp. 369–463. You will ﬁnd more information about the Greek language in Part B of GE in the Reference Grammar (GE pp. or you will ﬁnd that you are making avoidable mistakes in understanding Greek. #340–406) and in Part C Language Surveys (GE pp. τοὺς ναύτας is the object. 6–7. However. 3. but also to look closely at the endings of words. τὸν Ἡγέστρατον is the object.
ἐν Βυζαντίῳ) and that all the nouns appear with their articles (e. with the aid of the running vocabulary on p. This procedure is recommended for the whole of Section 1. Then try working out the translation of that ﬁrst paragraph. You will ﬁnd that several complete phrases are listed (e. Grammar 1. check with the translation suggested below. Finally. ὁ κυβερνήτης). Replay the ﬁrst paragraph (lines 1–7). Greek.) 3 . And in Euboea. NB. the rhapsode boards. The ship sails to Chios. and the Grammar for Section 1A–B #8–11. please see the Grammatical introduction GE 1–7 pp. (If these terms are not familiar to you. You will ﬁnd the answers to the exercises in this volume after our grammar and notes on 1A and 1B (p. 5. If you think you would prefer to ﬁnd out about the grammar and how it works before you start reading.g. And in Byzantium. Hegestratos goes into the ship.Section One: The insurance scam Section 1A–G 1A Speaking Greek CD First. 8–12. Now listen to the whole of Section 1A as read on the Speaking Greek CD. In Chios. Translation for 1A (ll. 6). This is because in Greek (as in Latin) case-endings. determine the functions of words in the sentence – the subject and object. 4–7. It should help you to get used to the script and the sound of the language. then Sdenothemis goes into the ship. If you are uncertain. Then the ship sails to Euboea. 1–7) The ship is in Byzantium. then look at GE pp. not word order. pausing at the end of every sentence and repeating the Greek aloud. the ship sails to Athens and the Piraeus. #8–11. and ﬁnally the captain and the sailors go into the ship. as you see.g. Dikaiopolis gets on board. does not always have the same word order as English. read the English introduction at the beginning of Section 1A.
βαίνουσι(ν) is 3rd person plural (‘they go’). If the -ουσι or -ῶσι ending is followed by a word beginning with a vowel. So you will see τὸ πλοῖον in the text. when translating. or is the last word in a clause. Notice the various different forms of the deﬁnite article. Dikaiopolis and the captain hear a noise. it goes’). to omit the ‘both’. she. Notice that Greek often includes a τε and καί to form a closely linked pair. Suddenly. An acute accent on the last syllable usually changes to a grave when it is followed by another word. What does Sdenothemis see? Sdenothemis sees the acropolis and the Parthenon. and it may seem more natural. listen to Section 1B on the CD. it means (literally) ‘both … and’. What do Dikaiopolis and the captain see? Dikaiopolis and the captain see the acropolis and the Parthenon. The preposition πρός (‘towards’) in line 6 is followed by the accusative case (τὰς Ἀθήνας. using the same method. Now move on to the second paragraph of 1A.4 Section 1B 2. though in English this often seems strained. 8–14) (continued) 3. 3. 4. So the ship sails. 2. They can be tabulated as follows: Plural ἡ τήν τό τό οἱ (τούς) αἱ τάς (τά) (τά) Singular Nominative ὁ Accusative τόν (You may be puzzled by the change in accent. Note slight variation in the verb-ending -ῶσι(ν) in ὁρῶσι(ν) (lines 11. Translation for 1A (ll. It is a printing convention to change this grave back to an acute when the word is printed in isolation with no word following it. ἐν Eὐβοίᾳ). and Sdenothemis looks towards the land. Then read it to yourself. Grammar 1.) Note also the change in verb-ending between βαίνει (line 2) and εἰσβαίνουσιν (line 3): βαίνει is 3rd person singular (‘he. The preposition ἐν (‘in’) is followed by the dative (ἐν Χίῳ. 1B Using the same method as that recommended for Section 1A. . Notice again the ﬂexibility of Greek word order: you will ﬁnd that it is essential to concentrate upon word-endings and not word order to determine the structure. 5. 13). before trying to translate it. then the (ν) is added. τὸν Πειραιᾶ). Then both Dikaiopolis and the captain look towards the land. but τό in the above table.
Ο Zeus! How beautiful is the Parthenon. SDENOTHEMIS Grammar Verbs. Hey! A noise. Page 6 3 ἆρα καὶ σὺ τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ὁρᾷς. 15 μὴ ϕρόντιζε ‘Don’t worry!’ μὴ is the negative used with imperatives. by Zeus. No. line 11 ὁρῶ καὶ ἐγώ. which are logical variants. I too hear the noise again. For again I hear the noise. The sailors see the land and the rhapsode. Cf. Do you hear? What is the noise? Do you also hear the noise. Sdenothemis. . Note the pattern of endings (GE p. Note that καί can mean ‘and’. or ‘you too’. Now I too can see the acropolis. Sdenothemis. For I see the dockyard and the Piraeus. Yes. captain. #12): the regular the variant -ω -ῶ -εις -ᾷς -ει -ᾷ -oμεν -ῶμεν -ετε -ᾶτε -ουσι(ν) -ῶσι(ν) Learn the regular ones ﬁrst. 12 There is no indeﬁnite article (‘a’. SDEN. clearly. The ship is at Byzantium. Sdenothemis? SDEN. C A P T A I N You are right. #23–25 and are explained in 1E–F. (Lit. I hear nothing. and look. You speak the truth.Section 1B 5 Notice that in Greek a semicolon is used as a question mark. Do you not see the Parthenon? DIK. EXERCISES Translate the following sentences: (p. Thus ὁ ψόϕος = ‘the noise’. and [how] beautiful [is] the acropolis. The other endings. Dikaiopolis. Can you also see the acropolis? DIKAIOPOLIS Where is the acropolis? For I cannot see the acropolis. Don’t worry. ‘an’) in Greek. So you and I hear the noise. Thus. Ο Zeus. But come over here and look. CAPT. You are right. are set out fully in GE pp. captain. DIK. Yes. ‘He doesn’t worry’ would be οὐ ϕροντίζει. 19–20.) Listen! A noise. Here the other person-endings of the present tense are introduced. Do you also see the dockyard? CAPT. SDEN. SDΕN. and [how] beautiful the Piraeus. οὐ is used with statements. Come over here and look. Often here it is used in phrases like ‘I too’. 14. only the absence of the deﬁnite article. For I see the acropolis. Translation for 1B Come over here. 9) The rhapsode goes. ‘also’ or ‘even’. but ψόϕος = ‘a noise’. how beautiful is the dockyard. ‘Can you too see the Acropolis?’ καί means ‘also’ and σύ emphasises you.
30. 10. sing. sing. pl. acc.6 Section 1C Practice (p. This is because an acute accent on the last syllable of a word changes to grave when it is followed by another word (unless that word is an enclitic GE p. singular masculine. 7. gen. dat. 5. singular masculine. plural feminine. eyes 6. ὁ καλὸς κυβερνήτης τὸ καλὸν πλοῖον τοῦ καλοῦ ἔργου τὰς καλὰς Ἀθήνας τοῖς καλοῖς ἀνθρώποις 6. nom/acc. Unless you are planning to learn to use all accents. plural EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1A–B 1A–B: 1 the city the king the old men the triremes of [the] democracy for [the] Homer of the atoms by the skills 1. 1C Now you will have more practice with the different persons of the verb. nom. sing. accusative. acc. 5. breathing. sing. dat. 10. pl. 7. 8. 2. . genitive. dative.. plural feminine. nerve. sinew masc. sponges neut. f.. or n. nom. accusative. nom. plural feminine. gen. 8. fem. stage fem. sing.. democracy neut. 4. singular masculine. 9. tragedy ADJECTIVES 1A–B: 2 1. pl. Go on reading and listening to the CD. 9. 2. gasping masc. dative. 3. gen. τὴν καλὴν ἀκρόπολιν τὸν καλὸν Παρθενῶνα ταῖς καλαῖς βοαῖς τῷ καλῷ πλοίῳ τῇ καλῇ ἀκροπόλει Note that the accent on καλός has changed from acute in the table to grave καλὸς in the exercise. accusative. 10) feminine. singular m. you need not remember this. pl. 3. acc. sing. genitive. #42). 4. neut. skeleton masc. masters fem. heads fem. nominative.
’ For we hear the noise clearly. friends? Don’t worry. For I see the markets and the merchant ships. how beautiful are the merchant ships. literally ‘on account of what?’. Dikaiopolis. Do you also see the markets? AND DIKAIOPOLIS We also see them. how beautiful are the markets. For the noise [is] from below. καταβαίνουσι δὲ … Notice the word order. Dikaiopolis – Where are you going? Where are you going? Why don’t you stay. The verb is particularly important here. and don’t say ‘How beautiful are the markets. For I see – Grammar In this section you met the remaining person-endings: 2nd person plural: βαίνετε (14) and imperative plural: ϕροντίζετε (1). Listen. DIK. CΑΡΤ. Hegestratos is making the noise below. and down go both Dikaiopolis and the sailors. Sdenothemis. Why don’t we go down? Come on.rather than an -α-. CΑΡΤ. but τι without an accent (see line 13) means ‘something’. And below. SDEN. 20. But where is the noise [coming] from? From below. Hegestratos? What [is] the noise? . 1D In this section you will meet another contracted verb. so it is brought forward to the beginning of the phrase. friends. #24). The only way we can express this emphasis in English is to say something like ‘It is Hegestratos whom …’ 8 τί with an accent means ‘what?’. I do not hear [it]. You should have no difﬁculty in recognising the person from the ending (GE p. The same sufﬁx -θεν as in πόθεν appears in κάτωθεν ‘from below’. But come over here and look. Translation for 1C SDENOTHEMIS CAPTAIN SDEN. So what? Ο Poseidon. But look over here. Don’t worry. means ‘why?’ Translation for 1D So down goes the captain.Section 1D 7 Notice the words for ‘where from’ πόθεν and ‘where to’ πoῖ. CAPTAIN Hey. over here. διὰ τί. one with an -ε. Page 10 1 καταβαίνει μὲν …. friends. it is Hegestratos that the captain and the sailors see. 3 Similarly notice that τὸν ‘Hγέστρατον is brought forward for emphasis. you! What are you doing? But what are you doing.
e. don’t look! (pl. CAPT. captain. you (pl. 2. he/she hears 9.)/ you (pl. go! (s. Dikaiopolis? Hegestratos is sinking the ship? But why don’t you catch the man.) go down! (pl. captain. sailors.) Sailors.) don’t go in! (pl. Don’t worry. 3. he/she/it remains 1C–D: 2 1. 8. οὐδὲν ἔχω ἔγωγε. Ο Zeus! For Hegestratos is not telling the truth. you (s. For Hegestratos has something in his right hand. 9. 3. I have nothing.) are running away 10. HEGESTRATOS Grammar Notice again the way in which the pronouns can be used to emphasise the person in the verb-ending.) listen! (s. 9. CΑΡΤ. For Hegestratos has an axe in his right hand.) look! (s. 10. 5. 8. they go 7. I’m off. Hegestratos? HE. and I’m throwing myself out of the ship. HE.). EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1C–D VERBS IN -ω 1C–D: 1 1. Ο dear. 7. 4. sailors? Over here. Hegestratos. The fellow is sinking the ship. you (s. friend. not me. 2.) are not looking 8. DIK.) are pursuing 6. What are you saying.: τί πoιεῖς σύ. ἀκούουσι(ν) βλέπει διώκετε βαίνω οὐ μένουσι(ν) 6. over here. 2. help and pursue [him]. What have you in your right hand.) don’t hear we are looking they remain he/she does not ﬂee you (s. 4. Help. 4. 7.)are going down you (pl.)/ you (pl.8 Exercises for section 1C–D I am not doing anything. φεύγει διώκουσι(ν) βλέπεις μένομεν οὐκ ἀκούει IMPERATIVES 1C–D: 3 1. DIKAIOPOLIS Come over here and look.) are going/ go! (pl.) are ﬂeeing 6. pursue! (pl. don’t wait! (s.) . 3.g.) ﬂee!(pl. CAPT. nor do I hear any noise. 10. 5. 5.
sailors. Notice the word order in this passage. For the men are bad. We are dying. They can never be the ﬁrst word in a phrase. help! ΗΕ. but run away yourself as well. C A P T A I N Don’t worry about it. For the men throw themselves into the sea and look for the lifeboat. save yourself. Hegestratos? I can’t see the lifeboat.You will ﬁnd it easy to recognise the persons from the pattern of the endings. SDENOTHEMIS HEGESTRATOS The main new point of grammar here is the conjugation of ‘contract’ verbs. I’m dying – DIKAIOPOLIS Do you see those men. Oh dear! For now I see the sailors clearly. 1F Translation for 1F Hegestratos and Sdenothemis do not wait around but run away. Hegestratos. Don’t wait. For the sailors are coming up and are in pursuit. The important words are often brought forward to the beginning of the sentence or phrase. and the sailors help. the sailors are chasing me. Translation for 1E Hegestratos ﬂees from below. Oh dear! Where is the lifeboat? Where is it. Sdenothemis. HE. Help. -αω and -οω. . Where are you running away to? I’m escaping into the sea. and they are dying badly. Sdenothemis – oh dear! SDEN. The sailors clearly see their ﬂight from the ship. verbs ending in -εω. GE pp. 19–21. SDENOTHEMIS HEGESTRATOS SDΕN. I am. Hegestratos looks towards Sdenothemis.Section 1F 9 1E Page 12 1 ὁ μὲν ‘Hγέστρατος … oἱ δὲ ναῦται … The particles μέν and δέ are frequently used to make a contrast. and the captain unties the lifeboat. Sdenothemis towards the sailors. Hegestratos? Look. Throw yourself into the sea. Come along. For the lifeboat is in the sea. and don’t wait around. Sdenothemis remains above. For the men are coming up here now. captain? The men are dying. For the lifeboat is clearly drifting away from the ship. I’m running away. But what are you doing. and chase Hegestratos. The lifeboat drifts away from the ship. #23–25 sets this out and shows how the stem vowel contracts with the endings. Dikaiopolis. and throw yourself out of the ship.
2. you (s.) help you (s. 4. 3. 3.) 6.10 Exercises for section 1E–F EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1E–F CONTRACT VERBS 1E–F: 1 1. 8. 8. 9. 10. 2.) you (pl. μὴ μένετε δίωκε δηλοῦτε μὴ ἄκουε βοήθει 6. 4. 5. 4. 8. 2. 7. stay (s. 7. 4. 2. 3. 9. Go! you (s. ποιεῖ μὴ ποίει ὁρᾷ ὅρα μὴ βαῖνε . 7.) show he/she helps 1E–F: 2 1. ποιεῖ ποιοῦσι(ν) δηλοῖς ὁρῶμεν ποιεῖ 1E–F: 3 1. 3.) he/she is doing/making he/she sees don’t show! (pl. 9.) make/do you (pl. 8. 9. ἀσθενεῖ ἐλευθεροῦμεν ἐξαπατᾷ νοσῶ τιμᾶτε CONTRACT IMPERATIVES 1E–F: 4 1. 3. 5.) show you (s. 4. you (s.) go. 5. τιμῶ γαμεῖς οἰκοῦσι(ν) σιγῶμεν ἀσεβεῖτε 6. 10.) see he/she sees they see we are doing/making they show 6. 7. 8. 5.) are doing/making don’t show! he/she is showing 1E–F: 5 1. ὁρῶσι(ν) ποιεῖ ποιεῖτε δηλῶ βοηθοῦσι(ν) 6. 9. 7. 5. 10. 10. 10. 2. see! do/make! (s.
3 περι-σκοπῶ Compound verb. ‘The women are clever. (The captain goes down and looks round. We are now dying badly: for our ship is clearly sinking into the sea. So our safety [is] assured. ἀνθρώπῳ. (The captain comes up. Greek will say ‘the father’ or ‘the safety’ if it is clear from the context that it means ‘his father’ or ‘our safety’. ἀνθρώποις. ἀνθρώπων. Translation for 1G But is our ship safe. Dikaiopolis. ἀνθρώπους 7. 5 ἡ ἡμετέρα σωτηρία Notice that Greek normally uses only the deﬁnite article where we in English would often use the possessive adjective. ἄνθρωπον 2.) DIKAIOPOLIS Now. ἀνθρώπῳ.’ 16 σῶον μέν … σῶοι δέ … Note the contrast pointed by μέν and δέ. Our ship is safe and we also are safe. or if the context is ambiguous. It means ‘to look (σκοπῶ) round’ (περι). save us [bring us safely] into the harbour. Ο Poseidon. καί Here means ‘also’. and our safety [depends] on me. When English speaks of a class of people it does not use the article. and you always save people from the sea. our lifeboat is clearly drifting away and our safety [is] not assured. ἔργῳ 6. So we are not in danger. ἄνθρωποι 4. But Dikaiopolis remains above. ἔργῳ 8.Exercises for section 1G 11 1G Page 16 2 σῶοι δὲ καὶ ἡμεῖς Notice that the verb ‘to be’ is often left out in Greek if the meaning is clear. We say ‘Men are lazy’ or ‘Women are clever’. ἔργον .) CAPT. Be quiet. And moreover the harbour is near by. ἔργοις 5. but Greek will use the article in this situation. CAPTAIN EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1G THE DECLENSIONS 1G: 1 1. Thus the Greeks would say ‘The men are lazy’. 9 τοὺς ἀνθρώπους Another of the differences in the way Greek uses the article. and are we safe as well? Why don’t I go down below and look around carefully? For I [am] the captain: so it [is] my job. ἔργων 3. You will meet this repeatedly in this section. For we always make sacriﬁces to you. The possessive is normally only used to stress ownership.
ἀνθρώποις dat. The Test Exercises. They have been carefully designed so that. ἀνθρώπους acc. τοὺς ἡμετέρους ἀνθρώπους 1G: 4 5. τῶν κακῶν ἀνθρώπων 4. s. The exercises on Word shape and Syntax are designed to help you absorb and retain particular features of the language. τῷ ἡμετέρῳ πλοίῳ 7. τὴν καλὴν γῆν 2. εἰς τὰ ἐμπόρια As you are advised in GE. τοῖς κακοῖς ἀνθρώποις 1. ποιεῖ MORE ADJECTIVES 1G: 3 4. ἐν τοῖς πλοίοις REVISION EXERCISES 5. you should regard as essential. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου 4. pl. εἰς τὸ πλοῖον 7. 9. How many of the exercises you do will depend upon your own choice and interest. διώκουσι(ν) 3. ἐστι(ν) 1. 10. ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου 2. 8. τῶν καλῶν ἐμπορίων 8. τὰ καλὰ ἔργα 6.12 Revision exercises 1G: 2 1. πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους 8. ἄνθρωπον acc. ἀνθρώπων gen. ἐστι(ν) 2. 3. 3. 5. τοῖς ἡμετέροις ἔργοις 3. grammar and vocabulary. The more you do. PREPOSITIONS 1G: 5 4. however. εἰς τὸν λέμβον 3. in the markets into the ships in the work from the men from the market 6. if you feel you have grasped these aspects. 7. then you can omit these exercises or do them quickly. pl. 2. πρὸς τὸν λέμβον 6. ὁρᾷ 5. s. from the ships towards the markets into the ship in the lifeboats towards the men 1G: 6 1. 5. you should do the revision exercises only after completing work on text. 4. 2. ἀνθρώπου gen. the more competent you will become. if you have mastered all elements of the language . 1. pl.
τὰ πλοῖα. οἱ ἄνθρωποι. τῷ λέμβῳ. you will be able to do the Test Exercises without any looking up at all.) pl. morphology and syntax). καταβαίνει we come up s. τοῖς ψόφοις. . does pl. ποιοῦσι(ν) he/she sees pl. to do with sailing I see/look into I run away. τὸ νεώριον. worry (pl. nautical I steer nautical. ἀποχωρεῖς or go away! (pl. ὁ καλὸς ἄνθρωπος b. or if you make a mistake in your translation.) are worrying s.) s. τοῖς καλοῖς ἀνθρώποις e. φρόντιζε or you (pl. ἀναβαίνω you (pl. you (s.) s. ὁρᾷς or see! (pl. a. βλέπομεν he/she makes. βαίνετε I see pl. maritime. φροντίζεις they go down s.) are going away s. ὁρῶσι(ν) help! (s. ἀποχώρει 3. run from 1.) see s. 33–35 A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING I go I chase sea helmsman sailor I see I ﬂee B – WORD SHAPE I go out I chase out belonging to the sea. τὰ καλὰ νεώρια c.Revision exercises for section 1A–G 13 required so far (vocabulary. But go on noticing how it works in Greek. τὸν καλὸν ἄνθρωπον Notes on English into Greek Don’t worry about word order yet. βοηθεῖτε 2. the error or omission should alert you to the area needing further consolidation. τῶν ἀνθρώπων 4.) go pl. If you ﬁnd you do have to look up a word or an ending. ὅρα you (pl.) s. τῷ καλῷ ἐμπορίῳ d. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1A–G Note the advice on tackling these exercises in GE pp.
It would be ὁ ανὴρ in 3. and in the sea they die. Don’t wait around. oἱ ϕίλοι οὐ μένουσιν. τοὺς ἄνδρας in 5. The sailors pursue Sdenothemis. You have not yet learned the pattern for this noun. although it has occurred in the Text. The sailors come up from below. ὁ ἄνθρωπος 4. Dikaiopolis saves the men. CAPTAIN DIKAIOPOLIS CΑΡΤ. Sdenothemis goes into the ship. τὸν Ἡγέστρατον. 2. ὁ λέμβος 5. Come over here and look.14 Revision exercises for section 1A–G If you used ἀνήρ ἀνδρ. ὁ Ἡγέστρατος οὐχ ὁρᾷ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/τοὺς ἄνδρας Can you not see the Acropolis? ἆρα ὁρᾷς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/τοὺς ἄνδρας καὶ σύ. The sailors don’t see Hegestratos. μὴ (ἀπο)ϕεύγετε. For Hegestratos is making the noise. They look towards the land and see both the dockyards and the Parthenon. The men escape into the sea. 3. The men see the sailors clearly and throw themselves into the sea. I see. The helmsman casts off the life-boats. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. Hegestratos ﬂees from below. Then they go down.for ‘man’ in 3 and 5. But Hegestratos remains below and is sinking the ship. 4. The men don’t see the life-boats. 2. For the fellow has an axe. but help and chase the man. . C – SYNTAX Hegestratos sees the acropolis. Dikaiopolis? Yes. while Sdenothemis remains above. διώκετε τὸν ἄνθρωπον/τὸν ἄνδρα. sailors. ἔλθετε καὶ βοηθεῖτε. Sdenothemis is looking towards the land. 5. But suddenly they hear the noise. you may have got it wrong. ὁ ἄνθρωπος/ὁ ανὴρ (ἀπο)φεύγει πρὸς τὸ πλοῖον. Who is making the noise? Do you see. τοὺς ἀνθρώπους. For he has an axe in his right hand. The captain and Dikaiopolis are up above. The men are coming up. Don’t worry. E – TEST EXERCISE 1 A–G The ship departs from Euboea and sails towards the Piraeus. 1. ὁ Ζηνόθεμις 3.
The rhapsode is always quoting Homer. i. 4 ῥαψῳδός τις ‘a rhapsode’. again reinforced by the inclusion of the pronoun. #44. RHAPSODE ‘We are sailing on the wine-dark sea. οἶσθα Also new. and extensively used in this and subsequent sections. 13 οἴνοπα πόντον A lovely phrase and frequent in Homer. So the captain says that they are sailing into the harbour. more poetically. εἶ Another new person of the verb. You are right. There is on the ship a rhapsode. A sailor asks the captain where they are. 17 ἐν νηὶ μελαίνῃ This is another common Homeric phrase. but the ἡμεῖς indicates which person of the verb this is. though note that μῶρος is an adjective. #44. 36.e. because of the night. A rhapsode is a professional. my friend. 21 ἐν νηὶ θοῇ. itinerant reciter of Homer.Section 1H 15 1H Page 18 1 λιμένα Check the English introduction above.’ SAIL. Where are we. sailor. RHAP. but pronoun σύ should help. C A P T A I N I know clearly. νηί is irregular dative of ναῦς (line 28) meaning ‘ship’. ‘We are sailing in a black ship. which follows the word it agrees with. 9 οἶδα Yet another new form. See GE p. as ‘wine-dark’. but a problem for translators. For the sailor does not clearly know where they are: for it is night. Thus this might be translated ‘Homerise’. τίς with an accent. and I do not know where we are. For I see nothing. παίζει πρός It means ‘makes fun of’. captain? Do you know? For I do not clearly know. ‘What (is) the …?’. We are sailing towards the harbour. What’s the fellow saying? DIKAIOPOLIS It’s clear that the fellow is quoting Homer. and κοίλῃ ἐνὶ νηί Two more common Homeric phrases.’ SAILOR . Literally it means ‘wine-faced’ but it is usually rendered. Dikaiopolis makes fun of the rhapsode like Socrates with his students. would mean ‘Who?’ or ‘What sailor?’ 3 λέγει ὅτι Remember ὅτι carefully: it is extremely common. 36. Translation for 1H So the captain steers the ship towards the harbour. rather like a medieval troubadour. See GE p. 8 ἐσμεν New here. without an accent. ‘What’s that …?’ 19 μῶρος English ‘moron’ suggests the answer. coming ﬁrst. then see if you can identify the person. 18 τί τὸ … Literally. The -ιζω ending in Greek verbs is like our ‘-ize/-ise’ ending. also explained by its pronoun σύ. 5 ὁμηρίζει Transliterate ﬁrst. 1–2 ναύτης δέ τις This is the indeﬁnite τις. He’s a rhapsode. Note also the English explanation in introduction.
7–12 The various -ικος adjectives here correspond to many -ic/ical adjectives in English: e. Translation for 1I–J RHAPSODE DIKAIOPOLIS RHAP.is the root of the English word ‘p(a) edagogue’. γιγνώσκω A new word (Latin cognosco). It is clear that you are stupid.’ Do you hear. 1I Page 20 1 εἰμί A new form. DIK. and don’t know anything. ‘polemics’. I know much because Homer knows much.e. by Zeus. strategic – So you also know matters of strategy? . ‘In a swift ship’ we are sailing. For the fellow does not know anything accurately. but are joking at us. I am not uneducated about Homer. rhapsode. so the whole Greek word means ‘uneducated’.is often a negative one in Greek (cf. and matters nautical. DIK. ‘asymmetrical’). sailors? Come here and listen. tactical. i.16 DIK.g. ‘nautical’ and ‘strategic’ should help to establish the meaning of three. This form of argument reﬂects some forms of Socratic and Platonic dialectic where an attempt is made to use words in as deﬁned a way as numbers. It is clear that our rhapsode is stupid. Note the thrust of the rhapsode’s argument: he knew much about Homer – Homer knew much about everything – therefore he (the rhapsode) knew much about everything. 1J Page 21 1 μία Feminine form of εἷς. English ‘amoral’. Be quiet. For you do not know whether our ship is ‘black’ or ‘swift’ or ‘hollow’. although the original idea resulted in a new and valuable tool of reasoning. rhapsode? What’s that ‘in a black ship’? For our ship isn’t black. What are you saying. But I am not stupid: I know many things. ‘in a hollow ship. 11 δήπου Like ‘of course’ in English. Here the effect is ludicrous. How do you know many things? It is clear that you are uneducated. the business of the soldier. a soldier. 5 ἄριστος An aristocracy is rule by the ‘best’ people. 2 ἀπαίδευτος The preﬁx α. For Homer knows matters of war. meaning ‘one’ (here = ‘one and the same’). Section 1J RHAP. παιδ. person indicated by pronoun. Similarly a στρατιώτης was a member of the army. 6 διότι ‘because’. δήπου is often heavily sarcastic in its meaning. No. hence στρατιωτικά refers to soldiering. στρατηγός was so called because he was an army (στρατός) leader (ἄγω – ‘I lead’). but is joking at us.
For Homer is experienced in matters of strategy. rhapsode. he/she/it is we know you (pl. Grammar Note carefully the conjugation of both irregular verbs εἰμί and οἶδα (GE p. the best general of the Greeks. sailors? Is the rhapsode a fool or not? By Zeus. 8. ἐστί(ν) 5. 2. 9. of course. 3. DIK. DIK. What do you say. but he does not know precisely whether the ship is ‘black’ or ‘swift’ or ‘hollow’. RHAP. you (s. So the best general of the Greeks is a fool. What? Are you then experienced in matters of strategy. Of course. ἴσασι(ν) 6. 7. And you are the best rhapsode of the Greeks? Certainly. rhapsode? Yes. DIK.Exercises for section 1H–J RHAP. RHAP. Dikaiopolis. meet them in Test Exercise 1H–J. Dikaiopolis. DIK. οἶδα 2. εἶ 3.) are you (pl. Dikaiopolis.) know they are I am they know 1H–J: 2 1. It’s my job. You will. 5. The Greeks are always children. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1H–J IRREGULAR VERBS 1H–J: 1 1. οἶδε(ν) . and I also am experienced [in them].) know we are 6. DIK. So good rhapsodes are at the same time also good generals? Yes. RHAP. the rhapsode is indeed a fool. For Socrates always jokes in this way at his students. The fellow is. RHAP. the best general of the Greeks? Of course. RHAP. the plural forms of οἶδα have not. DIK. 10. SAILOR 17 RHAP. Dikaiopolis. εἰσί(ν) 4. in fact. 36. Are then the skill of a rhapsode and the skill of a general one [and the same]? One [and the same] skill. that you are Socratising and joking with me. Dikaiopolis. DIK. Nevertheless it is sensible to learn them now and it is worth learning them very carefully. 4.) are you (s. It is clear. #44): it is essential to know both thoroughly – and although most of εἰμί has appeared in the Text. Are you then. Yes.
you (pl. d. 4. The rhapsode is a Greek. ἐστέ 1. οἶδε(ν) 10. . The Greek is a rhapsode. You (pl. πολλὰ ἴσασιν. ἔστι καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν.) know he/she is they know play! (s. We both know and see much. 2.18 Revision exercises for section 1H–J 7. ἐσμέν τε καὶ ἴσμεν.) know about both seafaring and generalship. Do they know about both soldiering and generalship? 1H–J: 4 1. 5. 3. come clear I am a Greek person I wait a general I go round I go (or come) round I make clear. a. You (s. 3. c. 4. οὐκ οἶδε τὰ στρατηγικά. ἐσμέν 8. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1H–J A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. The rhapsode is a fool. 2. reveal I am in Greek (adjective) I wait around I command (an army) B – WORD SHAPE 1.) I am we know εἶ γιγνώσκουσι(ν) ἴστε εἰσί(ν) οἶδε(ν) παίζετε ἐσμέν οἶδα C – SYNTAX 1. You know much (many things). 5. ἐστί(ν) 1H–J: 3 9. Rhapsodes (as a class of people*) are the best generals. I go away I go. οἶδα καὶ οὐκ οἶδα τά τε ναυτικὰ καὶ τὰ στρατηγικά. b.) both exist and do not exist (are and are not).) are he/she knows you (s.
I also know the skills of a general. DIKAIOPOLIS RHAPSODE DIΚ. δῆλόν ἐστιν ὅτι ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς πολλὰ γιγνώσκει. 2. So they ask the captain where it is. Rhapsodes are the best generals. 4. Dikaiopolis teases the rhapsode. What do you mean? (Lit. It is clear that Dikaiopolis is teasing the rhapsode. The captain is a rhapsode/A rhapsode is captain. ἀλλὰ μῶρος μὲν οὔκ εἰμι. to denote a class of people. *This is where Greek uses the def. nor do you know anything accurately. art. and English does not. I am expert in many things. Do you not know that the man is always joking? ἆρ᾽ οὐκ οἶδεν ὅτι ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς ἀκριβῶς λέγει. RHAP. The rhapsode is a captain. You are not skilled. rhapsode. Suddenly the rhapsode recites Homer. On matters of strategy. but the sailors do not know where the ship is. It is clear that the man knows much about Homer. Note: μῶρος δὲ μέν and μῶρος μὲν δέ are not permitted. For you are the best rhapsode of the Greeks and expert in Homer. Do you know the business of a rhapsode. . The captain says that the ship is near the harbour. What are you saying?) For you are a rhapsode. DIΚ. f. but I know that you are a fool. 3. (σὺ) οὐκ ἔμπειρος εἶ περὶ τὸ ἔργον. but foolish. Do you not know that the good rhapsode is at the same time also a good general? No. E – TEST EXERCISE 1H–J So the ship sails towards the Piraeus. μέν and δέ are never used side by side. you are not expert.Revision exercises for section 1H–J 19 e. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. however. πολλὰ δὲ γιγνώσκω. ὁ ἄριστος στρατηγός ἐστι ῥαψῳδός. not a general. rhapsode? Of course. Likewise οὐ δέ εἰμι is not on: μέν and δέ do not follow negatives. 5.
) διαλέγονται Note the person ending. #52–53. if circumstances permit!).Section Two: The glorious past In this section you will practise a third variant of the contracted verbs that you met in Section 1. or does for his own advantage. 2 πρὸς ἀλλήλους πρὸς should be known. but you will be able to recognise what case they are in from the article used with them. 22–23. You will also meet some more noun types (GE pp. the verb can mean either ‘come’ or ‘go’. βραδέως The ending in -ως shows that this is an adverb (see GE pp. #28–29). You may want to make a chart of the present indicative middle and to add the new endings as you meet them. 30. The verbs you will meet in this section occur only in the middle and do not have an active voice. 43–46. try reading through the whole of the ﬁrst page (aloud. μέν warns you that there will be a contrast in the following clause or sentence marked by δέ. #55–58) which you will eventually have to learn. #24) to -αω and -εω ones. which person of the verb must it be? What should it mean? Sense demands a verb of motion – in fact. It is easy to recognise which person the ending indicates. then back to ἀλλήλους = ‘each other’. You will also meet a new pattern of verb in what is called the middle voice (GE pp. 44–45. 20 . English ‘dialogue’ may help. These are all in the active voice. and it often does not have an object. The active voice describes what the subject does to the object. The middle describes what the subject does for (or to) himself. 20. ἔρχεται New ending. ἀλλήλους – leave blank for a moment. using the running vocabulary and the following notes for guidance if you need them. Page 22 1 ἡ μὲν ναῦς The article shows this is nominative. #43. for meaning. Then try translating the paragraph. 2A After reading the English introduction. #52–54). 3 ἡδέως Part of speech? (English ‘hedonism’ may guide you to the meaning of this word. and is very common. as in ὁ δὲ Δικαιόπολις. or you may just prefer to keep referring to GE pp. You will add -οω verbs (GE p. See GE p. 46–48.
[is he] not?). 10 ῥητορικά Cf. and why doesn’t he tell what happened in the Persian Wars and how the Greeks and Persians fought and what deeds they dared and how many fell?’ The rhapsode gladly relates the sea-battle. but notice that here it is not used like δεῦρο ἐλθέ. but note that as well as meaning ‘be silent’. ‘recount’. νικῶσιν Here the verb is encountered for the ﬁrst time. 5 τί γίγνεται The context should help. 21 κάλλιστον ποίει τὸν λόγoν The word order shows that this means ‘make the/ your story very beautiful’. come . See also the noun νίκην. hence ναυμαχία ‘sea-battle’. τόλμαν See note earlier (line 6). Μηδικοῖς being neuter plural. hence ‘go through’ as in ‘relate’. Page 23 12 ἐρχόμεθα The verb has occurred earlier in the sense ‘come’. therefore = ‘our’. but more like English ‘Come on!’ – a spur to action and not necessarily an instruction to move. the phrase means ‘in the Persian Wars’. Translation for 2A The ship goes slowly towards the Piraeus. Come along then. 20 οὐδὲν ἴσμεν ἀκριβῶς ἡμεῖς oἱ ναῦται Notice the word order. ‘what happens’. The ship is already going past Salamis and the captain says: ‘Why does the rhapsode not relate the sea-battle at Salamis. 49. Dikaiopolis and the sailors and the captain and the rhapsode are talking happily to each other. 23 ἡσυχάζετε Imperative. ‘Why doesn’t … ?’ You will see the same pattern in ‘διὰ τί οὐ λέγει…. rhapsode. ‘go’. 15 ἡμετέραν Possessive adjective. ἡμεῖς indicates the person. derived from ἡμεῖς (‘we’).= ‘through’. Notice διὰ τί οὐ followed by a question mark. it can also mean something like ‘settle down’ or ‘calm down’. CAPTAIN You.Section 2A 21 4–5 διὰ τί ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς οὐ διέρχεται…. μάχη means ‘battle’ and ναῦς ‘ship’. τὴν περὶ Σαλαμῖνα ναυμαχίαν This is a phrase within a phrase as is shown by the linking device connecting τήν with ναυμαχίαν. rather than ‘make the very beautiful story’. know much about Homer. 6 τίνα ἔργα τολμῶσι The context should help you towards the general sense of ‘what deeds they did’. δι. See GE p. ἐν τοῖς Μηδικοῖς (literally) ‘in the Medic (things)’. You therefore know much about rhetoric also (for Homer [is] rhetorical. #62. GE gives ‘keep quiet’. 9–11 The ﬁrst three lines are mostly recapitulation of words/phrases occurring earlier. so the meaning is: ‘the around-Salamis sea-battle’.’ 4 διέρχεται Both elements have been met – the ἔρχεται = ‘come’/’go’. 11 ἄγε δή GE gives ‘come!’ for ἄγε. ‘rhetoric’. the Greeks used ‘Medes’ and ‘Persians’ almost interchangeably. τολμῶσι = ‘dare’ (τολμάω and its noun τόλμα are much used later in this section).
ὀλίγοι ‘small’. 8 θυσίας Also above. the very last book. give the idea. ‘many’. ‘large’. line 16: ‘We are safe. the invocation of the Muse. ‘quandary’. because the invasion of Xerxes threatened the freedom of the Greeks.’ ἀπορία The noun form of ἀπορέω (see above in line 3). Tell us then the Persian Wars and the sea-battle at Salamis and our daring and victory. 4 στρατιά στρατηγός has been learnt (Section 1J). this. A common enough occurrence – it’s surprising we have no verb for this. so they may present a few problems. here. The Persians do not defeat us nor do they enslave us. line 9. Θεά ‘Goddess’. etc. which dominates throughout and is ﬁnally resolved only in Book 24. 9 εὔχονται ‘they pray’. See GE p. SAILORS Yes. and listen. Keep quiet then. . my friend. For you. For there is the island of Salamis. although nouns like ‘perplexity’. στρατιά was what the στρατηγός led. ‘sing’. but it occurred on p. 5–6 αἱ νῆες αἱ τῶν Ἀθηναίων Notice the repeated αἱ which adds a description. #61. ‘helplessness’. and the sailors know nothing. know clearly the events at Salamis. viz. 7 κίνδυνος You have not yet been asked to learn this word. μῆνιν ‘wrath’ (acc. 3 ἀποροῦσι A verb for which there is no direct English equivalent: it means ‘be in a state of not knowing what to do’. the ones of the Athenians’. to help the poet in telling his story. because the quarrel of Agamemnon and Achilles led to near-disaster for the Greeks. Ξέρξου θείου βασιλῆος ‘of Xerxes. 49. in the Iliad. RHAPSODE Of course. 2B Page 24 1 These lines are adapted from the opening lines of the Iliad.). This is not in the vocabulary for 2B. son of Peleus’. announces at the very outset a central theme of the poem – the wrath of Achilles. I always make my stories very ﬁne. ‘few’.22 Section 2B over here and tell us the events at Salamis. Tell us what happened in the Persian Wars and how the Greeks and foreigners fought and how many fell. though it is in the Total Vocabulary. But speak. and we are going slowly past Salamis towards Athens. and make your story very ﬁne. We sailors know nothing accurately. 1G. an army. therefore we are not ἐν κινδύνῳ. ἄειδε Imperative. rhapsode. sailors. 16. An oligarchy is rule by a few. ‘the ships. οὐλομένην ‘accursed’: in the Iliad. goddess of memory. ϕοβοῦνται Another new verb: what are phobias? πολλή ‘much’. the god-like king’: in the original it is Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος ‘of Achilles. So we gladly listen.
ὑπέρ = ‘for’. For courage and daring always defeat aggression and superior numbers. 4 οὐκ οἶσθα οὐδέν Notice the reinforcing negative. τῆς ἐλευθερίας = ‘freedom’. Note that Greek uses the article with ἐλευθερία because it is a general idea. whereas English does not. and this is the object. whereas ἐλευθερία is feminine. 11 πολλάκις The πολ. ‘on behalf of’. how many the supplications to the gods! Finally the Athenians defeat the Persian ﬂeet and the Persians fall and they do not enslave the Athenians. The Athenians free Greece and save their country through their daring. line 15). but ‘Greece’. Here the sense is ‘violence’. And in the sea-battle. 2C Page 26 1 οὐδὲν λέγει Literally ‘says nothing’. Herodotus describes the Persian Wars in terms that often sound surprisingly familiar.e. 23. and the Athenians few. 16 τὴν Ἑλλάδα Note the word order (the subject is after the verb). Many [are] the Persian ships. they go quickly into their ships and ﬁght for their freedom. although the verb τολμάω has occurred (2A. 19 βεβαία … ἡ … σωτηρία Cf. while the Athenians are at a loss and are afraid. Translation for 2B ‘Sing. 14 ἱκετεῖαι ‘supplications’. ‘aggression’. . So the Athenians sacriﬁce their sacriﬁces to the gods and pray much. Finally the Persians arrive and the Greeks ﬁght. so that it is not ‘the Greeks’. how many are the shouts. 1G. line 18. For the Persian army [is] large. For freedom [is] a good thing. τὸ πλῆθος This is a neuter noun (of a type you have not yet met). ἀγαθόν ‘good’ – but neuter gender. here with the adverbial sufﬁx -άκις or -κις it means ‘many times’. goddess. So thus the salvation of the Greeks becomes secure. but few the ships of the Athenians. line 6). i. talks rubbish. says nothing worth-while. ‘you don’t know anything’. the destructive wrath of Xerxes the god-like king. how great the perplexities. great their perplexity and great also their fear. 12 τόλμα Not yet learnt.’ So the foreigners slowly approach the city. 13 ὅσαι This means ‘How much/many …’ as used in exclamations. so the accusative is the same as the nominative. Notice also that it is accusative singular and feminine. 18 ὕβριν Difﬁcult because not exactly like the English usage of ‘hubris’. Great [is] the daring of the Greeks and their generals. This is a common idiom in Greek: ‘freedom is a good thing’. and the accusative τόλμαν (ρ. the struggle of the free peoples of the West against the totalitarian regime of the East. Great then [is] the danger of the Athenians. ‘often’.Section 2C 23 10 ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας A crucial phrase for a crucial concept to the Greeks.element should be familiar.
3 ἀναχωροῦσιν Both elements have been met: χωρεῖ ‘go’. But at dawn a shout arises (occurs) and when the trumpet echoes from the rocks. viz. For they now clearly hear the shout: ‘O Children of the Greeks. like you. friend. RΗAP. friend. when it refers to what is going to follow. Here it is used idiomatically to mean ‘this way and that’. and note also ‘petrol’. ‘petroleum’ ( =‘rock-oil’). The Persian ﬂeet arrives. Persae 353–5. ‘when’. ‘where’ according to context. ἴτε An irregular imperative (corresponds with Latin ite) meaning ‘come!/go!’ ἀγών ‘struggle’. ‘there’. 23 ἐκ … πετρῶν What is the meaning of the English name ‘Peter’? Cf. sailors. Then the captain also relates the events at Salamis. when it refers to what has gone before. οὕτως means ‘like this’. free your children. We are looking for the truth. But how do you know whether I am telling the truth or falsehoods? CΑΡT. but not falsely. and hear again. 26. while we Greeks keep quiet. When night comes. Translation for 2C The rhapsode is silent. Be quiet then. Consider. and you don’t know anything. RHAPSODE What are you saying? In what way am I not making my story very ﬁne? CΑΡT. Page 27 20 ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα ἔνθα literally means ‘then’. your wives! Now [is] the struggle for everything!’ 2D Page 28 2 θεᾶται What one does in a θέατρον. here combined in the sense of ‘retreat’. go! Free your country. My grandfather is a Salamis-ﬁghter and he often tells me the events at Salamis truly. completely unadapted. Listen. . CAPTAIN You are talking rubbish. as in English ‘antagonist’. 21 ἅμα ἕῳ Perhaps needs some explanation: ἅμα is an adverb meaning ‘at the same time as’. ‘watches’. So you do not make your story very ﬁne. Matthew 16. For you perhaps tell us a ﬁne story. ἀνά ‘up’. ἕῳ is dative of a very irregular noun meaning ‘dawn’. 25 This is taken from Aeschylus. The sailors settle down. fear develops (occurs) at the same time in the foreigners. and you are telling us falsehoods.24 Section 2D 15 ὧδε Means ‘like this’.18. The captain says that the rhapsode is speaking rubbish. the Persian ships sail slowly this way and that. and stays near Salamis. The phrase thus means ‘at dawn’. my grandfather [tells] the facts. the ﬁne deeds of the Greeks. 22 σάλπιγξ ἠχεῖ Illustrated on RGT p. For my grandfather tells the events at Salamis as follows. ‘back water’.
7–9 ἐπιπλέω ἐπι. English ‘phenomenon’ which is derived from ϕαίνομαι ‘I appear’. of organisms into named groups (ὄνομα = ‘a name’). 23 ὁμονοοῦσιν The elements of the word may help. Clearly here the clause after ἀλλά is going to mean something contrasted with the clause before it. so here ‘sail against’/ ‘attack’. occurring in English ‘dinosaur’. similarly. Metabolism is the change of food into energy. ‘misanthrope’. In this way the gods punish the aggression of the Persians and save the city. very terrible. while the foreigners are ﬁghting in disarray and out of rank since they are not bold like us. α. τοῦ πολέμου causal genitives. δεινόν ‘terrible’. and the rest of the Greeks also sail swiftly to the attack and move against the Persians. . why are you still retreating? Do not be afraid of the Persians but go to the rescue and be bold.in compounds = ‘same’. cosmetic = ‘ordered state of the dress/face’. Finally of the Persians. When the Athenians pursue the Persians. So the Greeks become free through their courage. or ‘agree’.being the regular Greek negative preﬁx. 25 ϕεῦ Exclamation of despair or disgust. Translation for 2D CAPTAIN So the enemy ships approach quickly for a sea-battle (Xerxes the king is watching the sea-battle with pleasure). Xerxes also ﬂees and no longer watches the sea-battle. ‘nous’ has been adopted as a word for intelligence.g. ἀκόσμως … ἀτάκτως Opposites of the previous two words. ‘metamorphosis’. or arrangement. and others remain and fall. Now we are ﬁghting in good order and in rank. 12 oἱ μὲν … oἱ δέ … It means ‘Of the Persians. And the Persians do not enslave the Athenians.’ And I quickly sail to the attack and am no longer afraid. a ‘terrible lizard’ (σαῦρος). other ‘meta-’ compounds in English have a sense of ‘change’. and others capture their ships and their sailors. some … others …’ 22 μεταβολή Means ‘change’. And of the Greeks. In modern Greek ἐν τάξει means ‘in order’. I am afraid of the phantom. which has the same root as the verb νοέω. And the other Greeks retreat. τῶν ‘Ελλήνων. Suddenly there appears the phantom of a woman. 10 τάξιν ‘arrangement’ – taxonomy is the classiﬁcation. So here it is ‘be like-minded’. some ﬂee. But the phantom says: ‘Friends.Section 2D 25 4 ϕαίνεται … ϕάσμα ϕάσμα = ‘apparition’. ‘misogynist’. ‘OΚ’. ὁμο. some pursue the Persians. likewise ἐπέρχονται (line 1). κοσμέω also means ‘I decorate’. and I back water. e. 9 κόσμῳ ‘order’ – with interesting derivations: cosmos = ‘ordered state of the universe’. and a few English compounds beginning ‘mis-’ may help towards the meaning e.g. Cf.in compounds often has the sense of ‘against’. μισοῦσιν Again English compounds may help – as well as the context. actually itself the Greek word for ‘mind’.
13.) For recognition of the case of the noun. #55–57. Then there was agreement among the Greeks. we are not going 3. 8. alas for the Greeks. they are ﬁghting 5. it is important to notice the differences between the different types of feminine noun. 51. 4. 12. to be learnt before attempting the exercises. 10. 5. Feminine nouns: if you are doing English–Greek exercises. 19–21 #23–25.) and ﬁght or you (pl. go (s. (See GE pp. Much more important are the middle verbs in GE pp. they enslave 4. 11.or -η. 9. alas for the war! Grammar Contracted verbs in -όω: there should be little difﬁculty in recognising the person of these verbs from the endings you already know. 2. 10.)are going and ﬁghting he/she/it is afraid he/she is enslaving he/she is watching you (s. 12. 9. 14. 11. Notice also the masculine nouns (1d #58) which are slightly different in some cases of the singular and the same as the feminines in the plural. Now they no longer agree. ἐρχόμεθα φοβοῦνται δουλοῦται θεᾶται οὐ γίγνονται ἔρχῃ . μὴ θεᾶσθε ἔρχονται οὐ φοβεῖται γίγνεσθε δουλοῦσθε φοβοῦμαι 7. it is enough to remember the endings for the feminine of the deﬁnite article and the fact that nouns of the ﬁrst declension may have either -α.predominates throughout. Alas.) are afraid I am not watching he/she/it shows 1. Perhaps the most important thing to notice is how -ο. go (pl.in the singular endings. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2A–D MIDDLE VERBS 2A–D: 1 he/she/it becomes/ happens/occurs 2. we are enslaving 7. while all the plurals are the same. and now there is hatred. Now we know clearly and accurately about the Persian Wars.26 Exercises for section 2A–D DIKAIOPOLIS You speak well. captain. Note also the extra vocabulary on p. don’t ﬁght! 6. 6.) 2A–D: 2 1. but hate each other because of the war. 8. But the change in events is now great: for at that time the Greeks were friends with each other. 3. 46–47.
ἀποριῶν. away from the Athenians 2A–D: 6 1. 1b. because of the war against the barbarians alongside the ship away from the friends because of the sailors alongside the Athenians 7. 2. 5. ἀπορίαις. 4. τὸν νεανίαν 1. 3. because of the sea-battle 9. παρὰ τὰς θεάς διὰ τὰς ὁμολογίας ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους διὰ τὴν νίκην 2A–D: 7 1. 6. ἡ τόλμα 4. νεανίᾳ 2A–D: 4 1. 2. θάλαττα τοὺς ναύτας. θάλατταν τῷ ναύτῃ. from the armies 11. οἱ ναῦται 6. 4. 10. νεανίαν τῶν βοῶν. νεανίαις ὁ ναύτης. 5. ἐν τοῖς βαρβάροις ἐν τῇ ναυμαχίᾳ ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ εἰς τὴν γῆν ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ among the barbarians/foreigners in the sea-battle in the deed/task into the land in the Piraeus . διὰ τὰς βοάς ἐκ τῶν πλοίων παρὰ τοὺς φίλους ἐπὶ τὴν στρατιάν διὰ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν 6. 3.Exercises for section 2A–D 27 NOUNS. ἀπορίαι. 7. θάλατται τοῖς ναύταις. τὰς βοάς 2. 10. 7. νεανίας τὴν βοήν. νεανίας αἱ βοαί. θαλαττῶν. 5. 9. τῇ βοῇ 7. θαλάτταις ἡ βοή. τῷ ναύτῃ 3. TYPES 1a. alongside. ἀπορίαν. against the enemy 8. 3. ναυτῶν. τῶν ἀποριῶν PREPOSITIONS 2A–D: 5 5. 9. 3. νεανιῶν ταῖς βοαῖς. ἀπορία. 2. 2. 8. τὸν ναύτην. 8. 5. 6. because of the perplexity 10. 4. τὴν τόλμαν 8. 1d 2A–D: 3 1. 1c. 4. beside the man 12.
τὰς βοάς.) enslave. .) ﬁght or ﬁght! (pl. the soldier the daring man. τὴν πολεμίαν βοήν. expert work. unﬁghtable stupidity. ὁ ναύτης. wickedness the warrior. τῷ ναύτῃ. τὴν στρατιάν. τῶν ναυτῶν.) θεᾷ or θεῶ he approaches προσέρχονται they fear ϕοβεῖται I fear φοβούμεθα they happen γίγνεται you attack ἐπέρχεσθε you (pl.28 Revision exercises for section 2 REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2 A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING true accurately man a shout experienced. ἡ καλλίστη βοή. the battle. τὴν τόλμαν.) δουλοῖ. ἡ ἀπορία. pleasure evil. enslave! (pl. τῇ ἐμῇ ἀπορίᾳ.) fear ϕοβεῖσθε they watch θεᾶται You (pl.) watch or watch! (pl. expertise I work. go through διέρχομαι he/she ﬁghts μάχονται you (s. unconquerable the maker/creator/poet the warrior/ﬁghter. τὴν νίκην. ταῖς καλαῖς νίκαις 1. a friend I fear falsely B – WORD SHAPE the truth accuracy woman I shout experience. αἱ νῖκαι. lacking courage. 3. μάχου 2. αἱ ἐμαὶ βοαί. δουλοῦ you (pl. folly I ﬁght a sea-battle unconquered.) μάχῃ. friendship/love fear I tell lies we relate. I campaign. I lack courage I love. τοῖς κυβερνήταις. carry out a task I am pleased. task pleasantly bad I ﬁght stupid ship/I ﬁght victory/I win I make/do/create war I am silent army I dare dear. I make war silence the army.
but ﬁght! μὴ ϕοβεῖσθε. ἡ στρατιὰ ἡ τῶν βαρβάρων ἡ τῶν βαρβάρων στρατιά c. Don’t retreat. Finally the Persian ﬂeet arrives. Then both the Athenians and the rest of the Greeks keep quiet.Revision exercises for section 2 29 C – SYNTAX 1. ἡ βοὴ ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι βοή d. So the foreigners ﬂee. τὸ πλοῖον τὸ τῶν πολεμίων τὸ τῶν πολεμίων πλοῖον The deeds of the Persians The army of the barbarians The shout in the harbour The sailors in the ship The ship of the enemy D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. . ἀλλὰ μάχεσθε καὶ ἐλεύθεροι γίγνεσθε. oἱ ναῦται πρὸς τὸν ῥαψῳδὸν διαλέγονται. when night comes. Finally they are no longer afraid. So they ﬁght in good order and defeat the foreigners. the Athenians quickly embark on their ships and sail towards Salamis. 4. The best rhapsode always makes his stories very beautiful. ἴστε ὅτι oἱ τῶν Περσῶν στρατηγοὶ ἀναχωροῦσιν. The ship goes towards the sea-battle. oἱ δὲ τῶν Ἀθηναίων πολέμιοι πίπτουσιν. So in this way the Greeks become free through their courage. 3. but the Greeks are at a loss and are afraid. τὰ ἔργα τὰ τῶν Περσῶν τὰ τῶν Περσῶν ἔργα b. the Persians advance swiftly to battle. but are daring and attack the foreigners. friends. and the Persian generals are afraid. a. οἱ ναῦται oἱ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ oἱ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ ναῦται e. ὦ ναῦται. ὁ κυβερνήτης ἡδέως διέρχεται τὴν ἡμετέραν ναυμαχίαν. Then the Athenians ﬁght. And when the day comes. and Xerxes also ﬂees. their ships sail slowly up and down. E – TEST EXERCISE 2 So when the Persian army and ﬂeet are approaching. and. 5. 2. We know that the Greek army is approaching. τέλος οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι νικῶσιν.
10–11 Note the way that Greek echoes the interrogative πόθεν by its indirect form ὁπόθεν in reply to the question. -α -α -ων -σι(ν) This covers most of the forms you are likely to encounter in this section. + acc. Literally. + f. which regularly follows its noun. both ending in -α (for neuter nouns in the nominative and accusative always have the same ending).Section Three: Athens and Sparta 3A In this section you will meet the 3rd declension nouns formally. τόν indicates masculine accusative singular: the ending itself is -α. 2 λαμπάδα τινά Another accusative singular. It is important to learn the stem to which the other case-endings are attached (as in Latin). ‘pyrotechnics’ etc. 13 τὰ πυρά The article indicates neuter plural. 54–56. #66–68. gives us ‘pyromaniac’. as above. you should learn each new noun. 30 . There are a number of variants which will be introduced gradually. -ες -ας -ων -σι(ν) neut. but ‘Bring us safely into the harbour’ sounds better. is also 3rd declension. Page 30 1 πρὸς τὸν λιμένα The phrase should be familiar. as above. See GE pp. its gender and its stem and any peculiarities as you meet it. pl. A simpliﬁed form of the patterns can be summarised as follows: s. ‘Save us into the harbour’. which may be entered in a grid for 3rd declension endings.) in grid. but if you want to feel really conﬁdent and to cope with English into Greek. Notice that the indeﬁnite τις. 15 σῷζε ἡμᾶς εἰς τὸν λιμένα Note the difference in usage in Greek and English. ‘ﬁre’. Enter neuter plural (nom. pl. It is not difﬁcult to recognise the case if you are working from Greek into English. πῦρ. Note that 3rd declension nouns have a number of different forms in the nominative. but attention now focuses on the ending of λιμένα. Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative various -α -ος -ι m. 3 ἡ λαμπάς The article indicates that this is nominative singular.
But I am saving you. We are now approaching the harbour. and the ship is already turning into the harbour. #74 gives full forms). pl. #35) c. he immediately hurries towards the harbour. What are you saying? Where is the light [coming] from? Where from? Look! (The captain also looks towards the island.) Look. 23 σαϕῶς δηλοῖ The subject is τὰ πυρά (n. What are you saying? Do you say ﬁre signals? Ο Zeus! Come along. 61.) Ο Zeus! It is not a light you are seeing. #69) is used in the same way. 26. pl. #69. SAIL. 30. DIK. captain: I see a light on the island. (Looks towards Salamis. No clause follows the ὅτι. 64. ending and may be entered on the grid. captain. Come over here and look. When he sees the light.’ This is an idiom. 3B New in this section is the word οὗτος ‘this’: so you may wish to have an empty grid ready to ﬁll in its forms as they occur. but indeﬁnite! The accent comes from enclitic ἐστιν (GE p. But why are we hurrying? Is there some danger for us? [Yes]. #42b. or you may prefer to look at GE pp. ‘They show clearly that …’ νῆες ναῦς is highly irregular (GE p. Dikaiopolis sees a light on Salamis. SAIL. SAILOR CAPT. neuter plural subjects have a singular verb (GE p. DIK. 21 τὰ πυρὰ δηλοῖ Notice that a. CAPTAIN DIKAIOPOLIS CAPT. hurry. δηλοῖ is here a verb. τὰ πυρά is neuter plural (as above in line 13) b.Section 3B 31 τίς not interrogative. followed by singular verb) from the line before. 20.) 20–21 εὖ οἶδα ὅτι ‘I know that well. οὗτος can be used by itself as a pronoun to mean ‘this man’. subj. 60–61. ἐκεῖνος ‘that’ (GE p. CAPT. Dikaiopolis. 3rd person singular (GE p. What do the ﬁre signals show? They show clearly that enemy ships are coming against us. . We are hurrying because the ﬁre signals show some danger. Don’t be afraid. You will see that in the latter case the article is also used: ‘this the din’. or it can be used as a demonstrative adjective with a noun (οὗτος ὁ θόρυβος) to mean ‘this din’. We are in danger. I am hurrying. So the captain asks where the light is from. Translation for 3A Thus then the ship goes slowly towards the harbour. but ﬁre signals. DIK. although the -ες ending is also the regular nom. by Zeus. #25). I know that well. hurry and get us safe into the harbour.
1–2 πολύς … πολλαί Both are parts of πολύς ‘many’ (as in English ‘poly-’ compounds). 15 Notice how ποῖ ‘where to’ is answered by οἴκαδε ‘to my home’. ‘the shout. ‘The [people] in the Piraeus’. #73. note the use of the article as well. 63.) Tell me. like πολύς. #63. singular. and nowhere [is there] order. PROTARCHOS (Runs homeward. #73. much confusion occurs in the harbour. The stem μεγαλ. and acc. See GE p. singular the stem is πολ.) Come over here. POL. great the shouting in the harbour. Tell me. and many shouts.32 Section 3B Page 32 1 oἱ ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ See GE p. 3 ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς There is just a small number of 2nd declension nouns which are feminine. 49. Translation for 3B When the people in the Piraeus see these ﬁre signals. neighbour. Here the article is followed by a prepositional phrase instead of a noun. someone with no authority. 23 παῖς This means ‘child’ or ‘boy’ but is frequently used with the meaning of ‘slave’ i. 14. Notice that in the masc. Page 33 20 τροπωτῆρα … ὑπηρέσιον There is no point in trying to guess these! The former is an ‘oar-loop’. this is a very common type of phrase. see the men. where are you running to? PROT. the one in the harbour’. and neuter nom. and neuter nom. The full pattern is given in GE p. ‘homewards’. This is the meaning given in the running vocabulary for 3B and is the meaning throughout this section. ταῦτα τὰ πυρά Neuter plural of οὗτος. to secure the oar to the thole-pin (a pin fixed in the port-hole) and/or the rower’s wrist. 63. and look over there. For this danger is terrible and great. Each member of the trireme’s crew kept his own.as in the rest of the cases. Do you not see those ﬁre signals? Look: it is clear that Salamis is in danger. the latter is a ‘cushion’ (usually tallowed underneath) to assist the rower in sliding backwards and forwards whilst rowing. neighbour. But why don’t you come with me? POLOS .is the norm except in masc. 8–9 ἡ βοὴ ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι Notice the repeated article. neighbour? Do you know? For great is the confusion. Protarchos and Polos. For it is night. his neighbour. what is this shouting? What is this confusion. (Runs out of his house.e. I am running home for my weapons. 8 μέγας ‘big’ (as in English ‘mega-’ compounds) has slight irregularities.not πολλ. and acc. And then I am going quickly to my ship. and many men appear in the streets and watch the ﬁre signals. and this is one of them.
) freedom is in my hands/ is in my power/ is my responsibility. λιμένας. POL. 2. Then the men go towards the harbour. πατρίς τοὺς ἄνδρας. 8. For it is clear that we are going to a sea-battle. . 7. 4. But where are you running to? I’m [going] home for my oar-loop and cushion.Exercises for section 3A–B POL. τοῦ σωτῆρος 4. γείτονες. πατρίδες τὴν λαμπάδα. The wicked men defeat you (pl. 6. τὸν ἄνδρα. παρὰ τὸν λιμένα εἰς τὴν πατρίδα ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας πρὸς τοὺς γείτονας διὰ τὸν παῖδα 6. I [can] see you (s. 6. νύκτες. We are dying. 4. νύξ. 5. PROT.). λιμένα. ταῖς νυξί(ν) 8. 8. γείτονας. 4. but not us. σωτήρ 3A–B: 2 1. τῆς πατρίδος 2. σωτῆρα οἱ ἄνδρες. 2. νύκτας. 3. πατρίδας ἡ λαμπάς. but you cannot see me. 8. σωτῆρας αἱ λαμπάδες. So Polos brings out his oar-loop and cushion. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3A–B THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS 3A–B: 1 1. 5. Don’t chase us. 3. γείτονα. 9. friend. Which of you (pl. παῖδες. not in ours. πατρίδα ὁ ἀνήρ. 3.) are keeping quiet/doing nothing. Your (pl. τοῖς λιμέσι(ν) 6. We are ﬁghting. εἰς τοὺς λιμένας ἐπὶ τὸν γείτονα διὰ τὴν νύκτα ἐπὶ τοὺς παῖδας διὰ τὴν πατρίδα PERSONAL PRONOUNS 3A–B: 4 1.) do nothing. but watch us. γείτων. men. τῷ ἀνδρί 3A–B: 3 5.) (hands). παῖδα. but you (pl. τῇ λαμπάδι 1. λιμένες.). 33 Indeed I am coming with you. λιμήν. τῶν γειτόνων 7. But wait. νύκτα. παῖδας. σωτῆρες τὰς λαμπάδας. παῖς. but you (s. 10.) or which of us is afraid of the men? 5. 7. 2. and Protarchos’ slave brings out his weapons and his torch. τῶν παίδων 3. Our safety is in your (pl. 7.
uneducated apparent. ἀπὸ ὑμῶν 6. b. I farm I do not know there. ἐν ἐμοί 4. d. c. τὸν ἔμπειρον ἄνδρα τὴν κακὴν νύκτα τὸν σῶον παῖδα τὴν καλὴν πατρίδα ὁ ἀγαθὸς γείτων ἡ καλλίστη λαμπάς ὁ πολέμιος λιμήν ἡ ἐλευθέρα πατρίς τοῦ ἐμπείρου ἀνδρός τῆς κακῆς νυκτός τοῦ σώου παιδός τῆς καλῆς πατρίδος τῷ ἐμπείρῳ ἀνδρί τῇ καλλίστῃ λαμπάδι τῷ πολεμίῳ λιμένι τῇ ἐλευθέρᾳ πατρίδι . ἐμὲ σέ 8. the spectator. d. ἡμῶν 7. from there / thence without experience the spectacle.34 Revision exercises for section 3A–B 3A–B: 5 1. 2. a. domestic hoplite (heavy-armed soldier) education. commotion the danger I learn house weapons a child I appear manly. πρὸς σέ 5. a man earth/work I know to there experienced I watch a din. without danger the student belonging to the house or family. ἐν ἡμῖν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3A–B A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. d. a. c. 3. b. a. obvious B – WORD SHAPE 1. c. b. the theatre I create a disturbance I am in danger of. c. ὑμεῖς ἡμεῖς 3. brave farmer. a. b. d. ἡμᾶς 2. I educate.
‘of a trireme’. ‘says one of you’.Section 3C 35 C – SYNTAX the expert man the bad night the saved child the beautiful fatherland the good neighbour the most beautiful light/lamp the enemy harbour the free fatherland 3C Page 34 4 δεινὸς ὁ ἐν Σαλαμῖνι κίνδυνος Supply ἐστί. 2 ἄλλως δὲ οὐδαμῶς ‘otherwise nowise’ i.e. ‘expertise at sea’.e. τριηρ. the imagined interjection. 75. ταύτην Refers back to τέχνη. ‘democracy’. 10–11 μὴ ποίει τοῦτο μηδὲ ϕοβοῦ … Notice that the negatives οὐ and οὐδέ are used in negative statements. ‘otherwise there’s no way [they can learn]’. ‘not easily. 32–33 Notice the order of the words and the ideas. 26 Notice the contrast between ἐμπειρίαν τινά and οὐδεμίαν … ἐμπειρίαν. hence ‘captain of a trireme’ or ‘trierarch’. 75. 17–18 οὐκ ἀϕικνεῖται Λακεδαιμόνιος οὐδείς. but with difﬁculty and with much practice …’ 34–35 ϕησί τις ὑμῶν A typical rhetorical trick. οὐδὲ λαμβάνει οὐδένα … Notice that additional compound negatives simply strengthen the negative sense (GE p. i. whereas μή. 29 γεωργοί Compounded from γῆ ‘land’ and ἔργον ‘work’. 41 τριηράρχων The -αρχ. Supply εἰσί. ‘aristocracy’. hence ‘farmer’ (note Virgil’s Georgics (farming matters) if that helps ﬁx the meaning). ‘bureaucracy’ etc. which will be followed by μηδέ. Page 36 28 καὶ δὴ καί Often used at the end of a string of points as a ﬁnal ‘clincher’: ‘and what’s more’. from which we get our ‘-cracy’ words. . 17 οὐδεμία Feminine of οὐδείς (GE p. is used in negative commands or prohibitions. 30 τὸ … ναυτικόν ‘the nautical thing’. 21 τίνες οἱ λόγοι. 24 κρατοῦσι κράτος is the Greek for ‘power’. 7–8 πτώσσει … ὥσπερ Ἀχαιὸς ὑϕ’ Ἕκτορι The sailor is ‘Homerising’.element means ‘ruler’. #86). #86).
DIK. and it is clear that not one of the Spartans is arriving. translated in English above as ‘boatswain’ because he was the one who gave orders to the rowers. how many warships. Tell me. but with difﬁculty and with much practice. rhapsode: but where is the man? For I cannot see that man. But we too have some experience on land. For those men take sailors and kill them. how many men! Look! Like ants. how much confusion. since they are farmers and not seafarers. SAILOR Look. and don’t be afraid of these Spartans. but it often makes the statement vague and tentative. I know that well. like ‘I suppose’ in English. What are the words? Tell me: for I do not remember. 3 κελευστής Derived from κελεύω. It can mean ‘somewhere’. που (Without an accent. Listen then to what Pericles says in the ecclesia (assembly) about the war and about nautical matters: ‘Do not be afraid. SAIL. He’s afraid of the Spartans.” ’ DIK. my friend. Great is the number both of ships and of trierarchs. For you know well that not easily. are preventing them. but we. as they do other skills. And moreover. this rhapsode ‘is cowering’ in the ship ‘like an Achaean at Hector’s mercy’. πολύς is delayed to the end to make it more emphatic. we are already near the harbour. SAIL. of the Spartans. one of you says. and οἴκαδε ‘to home’. DIKAIOPOLIS 3D Page 36 2 θόρυβος γίγνεται πολύς Notice the word order. ‘The one who orders’. For those men have supremacy on land. do you learn this skill. Do you not remember the words of Pericles? RHAP. But no ship is arriving. the Spartans do not easily learn nautical matters. Ο Zeus! Terrible is the danger in Salamis and great. rhapsode. Look. what are you doing? What fear takes hold of you? For you are the best general of the Greeks. Cf. nor taking anybody. RHAPSODE What are you saying? Are the Spartans arriving? I am afraid of the Spartans. Athenians. “do they not practise?” I reply “No. those sailors are swarming into the harbour. nor killing anybody. Don’t do this. Nautical [expertise] is a skill: and this “skill” men learn through practice. Page 37 6 οἴκοι ‘at home’. I am. since we have supremacy at sea. and no other way.) This is the indeﬁnite form of ποῦ ‘where’. “But the Spartans”. οἴκοθεν ‘from home’. we [have supremacy] at sea. while they have no experience in nautical matters.36 Section 3D Translation for 3C Meanwhile Dikaiopolis and the sailors are still talking to each other. . So don’t be afraid. And now see the harbour! How many torches [there are]. Look.
is the trierarch inside? Or isn’t he? BOY He is. What are you saying? Impossible? Go to hell! Don’t joke with me. trierarch: Salamis is in danger. Why don’t I knock on this door? Trierarch! Trierarch! I’m calling you! TRIERARCH Go to hell! But who’s knocking at the door? What’s this business? Who’s calling me? Who’s shouting? POL. What are you saying? Are you joking with me? (He sees the ﬁre signals on the island. 19–20 ἢ οὐχ οὕτως. BOY But it’s impossible. why are you still waiting? Why don’t you call your master? For I am looking for him. POL. i. is calling you – me! TRI. Translation for 3D When Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode arrive on land. Polos. ‘or isn’t he?’ Greek will often add the alternative – and note the form of reply. do something’. Polos. Do you not see those ﬁre signals? TRI. Tell me. where is our trierarch? Clearly at home. boy. Page 38 29 Κυδαθηναιεύς A member of the deme (roughly ward/parish in Attica) Kydathenaion. The master is sleeping soundly. presumably. 25 βάλλε εἰς κόρακας Literally. from which Polos came – a normal method of identiﬁcation. from the deme Kydathenaion. I’m coming quickly. POL. Tell me. boatswain. Near the ship is a boatswain. Come and look over there. POL. and look for the trierarch and tell him about this danger in Salamis. 21 ϕέρε. ‘or not thus?’ (literally). The answer to questions is often given in the form of a positive statement: ‘Is he there?’ is more often answered by ‘He is there’ than by ‘Yes’. Boy! Boy! What are you doing? Is the boy asleep? Boy! Boy! BOY Who is it? Who is shouting? Why are you calling me? Who are you looking for? POL. So Polos runs quickly towards the trierarch. γε emphasises οὕτως. there is much confusion going on. οὕτως γε ‘[He] certainly [is] thus’. boatswain. ‘throw [yourself] to the crows’ – a colloquial Greek expression meaning ‘go to hell’. BOA.e. But I’m sleeping soundly – POL. POL. Finally he arrives at the door. He’s asleep. and that man is asleep at home. But don’t sleep. Polos. Come along then.) Alas! Wait. BOATSWAIN POLOS .Section 3D 37 14 παῖ ‘Boy’ is being used in the sense of ‘slave’. Of course. and this man is shouting. The men keep quiet and watch the spectacle. ὦ παῖ ϕέρε is like ἄγε and means ‘come on. Alas! Terrible is the danger of the Athenians. So hurry.
and the trierarch also embarks. out. 4. cf. in. (He pours the libation. this. It would be the normal practice to pour a libation and to say a prayer at the start of a voyage. 2. boatswain. 8. out.) Now call the time again. Our ship is sailing away. in. the boat sails away. Translation for 3E Finally the sailors and the boatswain embark on the ships. 3. ἐκεῖνος .38 Section 3E 3E Page 39 6 ὠὸπ ὄπ Not meaningful words – just a sort of ‘in. TRI. 7–8 τὰς εὐχὰς εὔχομαι Greek likes these repetitive phrases. Well done. out. In. boatswain. In. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3C–E ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS: οὗτος . in. out. 10. Call the time. men. out … Well done! Now I pour a libation to the gods and pray prayers. BOA. in. Give the order. 7. ἐκείνας τὰς λαμπάδας those harbours those lamps/lights . out. 9. 6. σπονδὴν σπένδω. BOATSWAIN BOA. (He prays his prayers. τοῦτον τὸν λιμένα αὗται αἱ λαμπάδες οὗτος ὁ γείτων τούτους τοὺς παῖδας ταύτην τὴν πατρίδα τούτους τοὺς ἄνδρας τοῦτο τὸ ἔργον αὗται αἱ νύκτες οὗτοι οἱ σωτῆρες ταῦτα τὰ ὅπλα this harbour these torches/lights this neighbour these children this country these men this deed/task these nights these saviours these weapons 3C–E: 2 1. 5. ἐκεῖνοι οἱ λιμένες 2. that 3C–E: 1 1. and θυσίας θύομεν. out’. Quickly now. boatswain. 16 κατακέλευε Compound indicates giving time to rowers – ‘Now call the time. out. And when he gives the order.) Ο Lord Poseidon – for you are the best saviour of sailors and we often sacriﬁce our sacriﬁces to you for our safety – get us safely back to our country. In. TRIERARCH TRI.
5. 8. 5. 6. ἐκείνου τοῦ γείτονος ταύτῃ. ἐκείνης τῆς πατρίδος ταύταις. πολλῆς καὶ μεγάλης λαμπάδος 4. 7. 3. ἐκείνων τῶν ἔργων MANY. 7. ἐκείνῳ τῷ λιμένι τούτοις. 5. τούτου. 2. 9. πολλῶν καὶ μεγάλων λόγων . 2. μεγάλη λαμπάς 3. μέγας ἄνηρ 3C–E: 6 a big harbour a great light big neighbours a great deed large countries a big man 1. ἐκείνῃ τῇ λαμπάδι τούτων. ἐκείνων τῶν παίδων τούτῳ. πολλοῦ καὶ μεγάλου λιμένος 2. πολλοὺς λιμένας πολλαὶ λαμπάδες πολλοὶ γείτονες πολὺς πόλεμος πολλὰ ὅπλα πολλὰς νύκτας πολλὴ ἀπορία many harbours many lights/lamps many neighbours much war many weapons many nights much perplexity 3C–E: 5 1. μέγας 3C–E: 4 1. 4. μέγαν λιμένα 2. 4. 6. 8. μεγάλοι γείτονες 4. GREAT: πολύς . μεγάλας πατρίδας 6. μέγα ἔργον 5. ἐκεῖνον τὸν γείτονα ἐκεῖνοι οἱ παῖδες ἐκείνη ἡ πατρίς ἐκεῖνοι οἱ ἄνδρες ἐκεῖνος ὁ σωτήρ ἐκεῖναι αἱ νύκτες ἐκεῖνο τὸ ἔργον ἐκεῖνα τὰ πυρά that neighbour those children that country/fatherland those men that saviour those nights that deed/task those ﬁre-signals 3C–E: 3 1. πολλῷ καὶ μεγάλῳ ἀνθρώπῳ 3. 10.Exercises for section 3C–E 39 3. ἐκείνοις τοῖς ἀνδράσι ταύτης. 4. ἐκείναις ταῖς νυξίν τούτων. 7. 3. 6.
κελεύω ‘I order’. ἐκεῖνος ‘that (there)’. ἡμεῖς ‘we’. 2. βοηθέω ‘I help’. ὑμεῖς ‘you’ (pl. πολλοῖς καὶ μεγάλοις ἐργοῖς 6.). c. e. παρὰ τὰς ναῦς 3. a. σπονδή ‘libation’. b. εὔχομαι ‘I pray’. b.e. οὗτος ‘this’. βοή ‘a shout’ + θέω ‘I run’ = ‘I run to the help of’. 3. d. d. κατακελεύω ‘I give the time’. ὑμέτερος ‘your’ (belonging to lots of you). βοή ‘a shout’. διὰ τὸν Δία 2. ἡμέτερος ‘our’. d. εὐχή ‘prayer’. c. c. βοάω ‘I shout’. B – WORD SHAPE 1. πολλῇ καὶ μεγάλῃ ἀπορίᾳ IRREGULAR NOUNS 3C–E: 7 1. (speciﬁcally in this chapter) ‘boatswain’. ἐν ‘in’. ἔνδον ‘inside’. κελευστής ‘orderer’. i. ἐπὶ τὰς ναῦς REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3C–E A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. b. οὕτως ‘thus’. ἐκεῖσε ‘over there’. εἰς τὴν ναῦν 4. σπένδω ‘I pour a libation’. a. ἔμπειρος ‘experienced’. ἐμπειρία ‘experience’.40 Revision exercises for section 3C–E 5. e. πρὸς τὸν Δία 5. τοῦτον τὸν ἄνδρα ταῦτα τὰ ἔργα ταύτην τὴν λαμπάδα τὰς βοὰς ταύτας τούτους τοὺς λιμένας οὗτος ὁ γείτων αὗται αἱ λαμπάδες τὰ πυρὰ ταῦτα ἡ πατρὶς αὕτη οὗτοι oἱ ἄνδρες μέγα τὸ ἔργον πολλὴν ἐμπειρίαν μέγαν λιμένα πολλὰ δεινά . a.
2. great is the deed. ἐκεῖνος ὁ μῶρος ῥαψῳδὸς ϕοβεῖται τούτους τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους. this neighbour. the sailor sees many strange things. the captain steers towards a great harbour. this man. This good captain does not hear these shouts. λαμπάδα ὁρᾷ (1) θεῶνται τὰ πυρά (4. Finally these trierarchs arrive at the harbour and get on board. The captain knows well that it is not a light but the ﬁre signals. Then they offer their sacriﬁces and pour their libations and put out to sea. αὕτη δὲ οὔ. this country. ἡ οὖν ναῦς πρὸς ἐκεῖνον τὸν λιμένα βραδέως πλεῖ. So when the ship arrives in the harbour. 3. but this man [is stupid] about nothing. EXERCISE Note: there are many more possible answers 1. For they know that the danger is great. πολλοὶ δὲ (ἄνθρωποι/ ἄνδρες) ϕαίνονται. That man is stupid about many things. E – TEST EXERCISE 3C–E While this ship is sailing past the island. 4. εἰς τὸν λιμένα (3) ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους (4) 2. these ﬁre-signals. 5. μέγας μὲν γὰρ ὁ θόρυβος. (a) μέγας (5) (b) ναυτικήν (9) τρέχουσιν (5) (c) δῆλον (11) . ἐκεῖναι μὲν γὰρ ἔμπειροι περὶ πολλά. So he hurries into the harbour: for those ﬁre signals reveal that the enemy are attacking the Athenians. So the captain looks quickly towards Salamis. these deeds. and the Spartans by land. And the Spartans do not easily learn nautical technique. Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode go towards the ships. ἐπέρχονται (4) θεῶνται (4) 3. these harbours. and great the confusion of the men. 5) 4. these lamps. Don’t you know whether those men are sailors or not? οὐχ οἶδα πότερον ἐκεῖνος (ὁ ἄνθρωπος/ἀνήρ) στρατηγός ἐστιν ἢ οὔ. The sailors say that the Athenians are supreme at sea. 2. The men in the harbour watch the ﬁre signals and run home for their weapons. this lamp. 3. For the boatswains are looking for the trierarchs. Dikaiopolis sees a light on the island. For he fears the Spartans. the men have much experience in naval matters.Revision exercises for section 3C–E 41 C – SYNTAX 1. πολλαὶ δὲ αἱ βοαί. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. these men. but they are sleeping peacefully. Great fear seizes the rhapsode. For great is the danger of the Athenians. And it is clear that these ships are going to a sea-battle. these shouts.
which you have learned (see GE p. 3 πυράς τινας The meaning should be clear (cf. he likes Pericles’. It means the opposite of ‘divinely favoured’: some god is wishing evil upon you. ‘What a great crowd … !’ 2 τὰ τείχη τεῖχος is another neuter noun of the 3rd declension like πλῆθος. but note that the Greek has no ‘bad’ implications – it is a neutral term meaning ‘god’. 4 πρὸς τῶν θεῶν ‘by the gods’ – the case usage will be explained later. See the map on page 38 of RGT. 8 Notice πρῶτον μὲν …. then re-phrase more idiomatically. for example. adjectives and pronouns (see GE pp. #78) so the two agree. you might begin with ‘he.Section Four: Lawlessness in Athenian life In this Section. the new grammatical material includes the use of participles – of the verb ‘to be’ in Sections A–B. 10–11 ναύτης ὤν ‘being a sailor’. Participles have a wide range of usages in Greek (see GE p. it is often best to translate literally ﬁrst. #88). 6 κακοδαίμων ‘ill-starred’ is perhaps the closest English can get to this idea. #82). ἔπειτα δέ …. 11 Similarly.70–72. τὰ πυρά in Section 3) but note that here we have the acc. This is a 3rd declension adjective (see GE p. πλῆθος is neuter (GE p. The endings are just the same as in the nouns like λιμήν. 54. 73. #66). however un-English it may seem. of another noun. ‘divine spirit’. γεωργὸς ὤν ‘because/as/since I’m a farmer’. δαίμων English ‘demon’ is derived from this word. pl. in effect. This is the ﬁrst example of the present participle. ἡ πυρά ‘funeral pyre’. Participles are very widely used in Greek: this means. When translating. 42 . Here. There are also more types of 3rd declension nouns. being a sailor. that you should observe carefully the way they are used and not move on from Section 4 until you are quite happy with all the usages of participles encountered in this Section. a common pairing. #77–80). of active and middle verbs in Sections C–D. 71. The Long Walls joined Athens to the Piraeus. 4A Page 42 1 ὅσον πλῆθος Once again the exclamatory use of ὅσος. likes Pericles’ before modifying to another clause – ‘because/as/since he is a sailor. 77–78.
O. ‘to exist’. RGT p. 19–20 τὰ δὲ πρόβατα … διαπεμπόμεθα So that’s what Dikaiopolis was doing over in Euboea way back in Section 1A! Page 44 21 πολλοὶ ὄντες Another form of the participle. 27 ὀλοϕύρομαι You may be able to deduce the meaning of this from the illustration on p. therefore the countryside of Attica could not be defended and the advice was given to farmers to abandon their property and take refuge in Athens where the city. Also there is a separate feminine. 41. οὐκέτ᾽ ὄντα ‘my son.13–17). The verb ‘to be’ is often used in the sense of ‘to be alive’.Section 4A 43 Page 43 12–13 Note how μέν and δέ are used to point the contrast between ‘us’ and the Lacedaemonians. #63). no longer being’. 56–7. . κακοδαίμονα … οὖσαν. ‘we are superior/supreme’.and the stem of the participle is -oντ-. The policy of Pericles explained here was that it was not safe to risk a major land battle against the Spartans. 25 οὖσα δεινή is here the clue to determining the form. The number. κακοδαίμονας ὄντας These show clearly the similarities and differences between the participle and the adjective. ‘It is men who make a city and not walls or ships with no men inside them. here speciﬁcally ‘the plague’. #87 for the full paradigm of the participle. 42. 29 οὖσαν Agreeing with τὴν ἐμὴν γυναῖκα. The English introduction. This is the feminine form of the participle. could be defended.77. 77. has already mentioned the plague which devastated Athens: νόσος generally means ‘disease’. 15–16 πόλις … ἄνδρες Cf. so which form? 30–31 κακοδαίμονα ὄντα. as you will see in line 40 below. ‘my son who is no longer alive’. but that the stem of the adjectives is -oν. 31 τοὺς ἐν τῇ πόλει ‘the people in the city’ (remember GE p. 28 τὸν ἐμὸν υἱόν. with the basic sense of ‘leave’.’ See also Sophocles. Note the adjective stem without a ‘τ’ and the participle stem with one. and that the adjective does not have a separate feminine form whereas the participle does. case and gender show that it agrees with τὰς οἰκήσεις. and then understand κρατοῦσι in the next phrase. case and gender from πολλοί and enter in grid. Deduce number. κρατοῦμεν As on p. Thucydides 7. 36 line 35.T. 23 οὔσας Use ὀλίγας to determine which form this is. 49. 24 νόσος Distinguish carefully from νήσος. 13 καταλείπετε Note the -λειπ.element in the middle. while Athens waged war by sea (Thucydides 2. the Long Walls and Piraeus. See GE p. Notice that the endings are almost the same as the adjectives.
which are few. You see the city. Dikaiopolis? Alas! What’s this? I see funeral pyres. So leave your homes. For a city is not dwellings or land. who is no longer. farmers. since he is a persuasive orator. But Pericles [is] a very good general.44 Section 4B Translation for 4A Heracles! What a lot of people! The walls seem full. rhapsode.’ 11 ὦ ’νθρωπε = ὦ ἄνθρωπε. ἀσέβεια. They are all from the same root. You see the [people] in the city. When we – and there are many of us – arrive in the city. which is now the object of ϕέρω. Why has the city such a great crowd. For I am still lamenting my own son. many children. ‘What violence/aggression!’ Similarly with ὢ τῆς ἀνομίας (15) and ὢ τῆς ἀσεβείας (16). But it is clear that that man likes Pericles because he’s a sailor. English ‘barometer’ etc. in this way Pericles persuades us. 25 ὥσπερ πρόβατα Our idiom is ‘like ﬂies’. For he says: ‘We have supremacy at sea. also ill-starred. and my own wife. and we live ﬁrst in the Long Walls. After this the plague occurs. Do not worry. slowly. RHAP. I think Pericles [is] responsible. many women. and bring your property into the city. cf. 3 νεκρός Cf. what’s the reason? Indeed it is clear that some evil god is punishing the city. DIKAIOPOLIS The city is indeed unfortunate. but men. and τοὺς ἀσεβεῖς (line 28) and τοὺς εὐσεβεῖς (line 28). and then also Pericles. The war is primarily responsible. Since I’m a farmer. There you have the situation. English ‘necromancy’. You will not meet this type of 3rd declension adjective properly until Section 10. You see me. The city-people have the houses. rhapsode. but the Spartans [have supremacy] on land. the crowd is unfortunate and the farmers in particular are unfortunate. 12 ὢ τῆς ὕβρεως The case is a genitive of exclamation. The plague also destroys my household. who am ill-starred. We bring in from the country our children and our wives and the rest of our property. RHAPSODE 4B Page 45 2 βαρύς ‘heavy’. ‘I carry it.’ So. also ill-starred. Page 46 21 σέβομαι Cf. the situation becomes difﬁcult. and your land. It will be explained later – for the present. . βαρὺν ὄντα This is accusative and refers to the νεκρός. then in the temples. The ﬂocks we transport across to Euboea. being heavy. by the gods. Tell me. it is terrible and destroys many men. But I’m not a sailor but a farmer. For the sailor – DIK. who is no longer. ‘necrophilia’.
DIK. I’m carrying it slowly. Come here.’ O. Do you not reverence the gods? Do you not honour the laws of man? Does nothing stop you. But what are you doing? Don’t do this. 35 Pindar quotation. Where are my mother and father. she makes life happy. old man.M. Translation for 4B Look. boy. the most pious of men? Look. Don’t get in my way. stop! You are dishonouring the gods. Don’t get in my way. DIK. men are dying like ﬂies in their homes and in the temples. O L D M A N What’s this? What are these shouts? You there. I honour Aphrodite particularly. who were always pious? Now where is my brother. Don’t you know that men are short-lived? What are we? What are we not? YOUNG MAN SLAVE ‘Man is the dream of a shadow. a pyre. though you are a mortal. quickly! Wait. but θεός as a feminine form is more common. So I’m turning to Aphrodite and pleasure. stop! Y. because they are ﬁne.Μ. a comment on the transience of human existence. 2. For this corpse is heavy. He no longer sees any point in trying to observe the old religion and morality. For I’m not afraid of punishment. 39 ἡ θεός There is a noun ἡ θεά.Μ. O. But today I am burying my son.53). boy.Section 4B 45 33 ἐϕήμεροι English ‘ephemeral’ helps.M. Y. She is a beautiful and kindly goddess. What are you saying? Corpses are falling upon corpses. DIKAIOPOLIS What are you saying? You are carrying a corpse? Y. Since the goddess is beautiful and kindly. wait and don’t hurry. Stop.Μ. fellow. I don’t care. since the plague is destroying both the pious and the impious alike. The only deity he has any time for is Aphrodite. ‘Man is the dream of a shadow’.Μ. throw the corpse onto this pyre.Μ. neither fear of the gods nor the laws of men? Y. what are you doing? Are you hitting a citizen? What lawlessness! Stop! Alas.Μ. And don’t talk to me about laws and aggressive behaviour. a citizen? What aggressive behaviour! Don’t hit [me]. by the gods. O.Μ. Foul [man]! Are you hitting me. but note the literal meaning ‘lasting for one day’ (ἡμέρα ‘day’). and it is my pyre. Come on. But I don’t dishonour the gods. Y. . And do you speak to me of gods and laws? You fool – the gods either don’t exist or don’t care about us. master. The young man is depicted here as exhibiting the sort of moral deterioration which Thucydides describes as one of the effects of the plague (Thuc. what’s this? Are you throwing a corpse onto that pyre? What irreverence! Stop – Y. and as it’s heavy.
4. 10. σκεύη τοὺς πρέσβεις τὰς οἰκήσεις. 2. πλῆθος. 4. οὐδέν οἰκήσεις – εὔφρονες. and long for my own deme? For in the city there is nothing other than lawlessness and impiety and plague and a great quantity of corpses. 5. 5. 8. τινά. There is also some vocabulary to be learnt (p. #77–80 and pp. Exercises for section 4A–B Are you surprised. τινάς ἄστυ – εὔφρον. 70–72. 3. rhapsode. 7. εὔφρονας. πλῆθος – εὖφρον. 5. that I hate the city because I am a farmer. 7. τι. πράγματα. 6. πόλις. ταῖς πόλεσι(ν) TYPE 3 ADJECTIVES. 3. οὐδεμίαν πρέσβεις – εὔφρονες. τινές. τι. οὐδέν πόλιν – εὔφρονα. #81–86. τάξεις ὁ πρέσβυς τὸ ἄστυ. τις . 2. τῷ πλήθει τοῖς ἄστεσι(ν) τῇ πόλει τοῦ πράγματος τῶν πρέσβεων 6. 6. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4A–B TYPE 3 NOUNS 4A–B: 1 1. 4. τάξεις 4A–B: 2 1. τις. 2. οὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδέν 4A–B: 3 1. πλήθη. Check that you know it and understand it. Grammar Grammar for this part of Section 4 is given at GE pp. 3. οὐδεμία σκεύη – εὔφρονα. οἱ πρέσβεις τὴν οἴκησιν. τινάς τάξις – εὔφρων. τοῦ πρέσβεως 8. τινες. τινά . πόλιν. τάξιν τὰ ἄστη. τι. 70). εὔφρονας. before you try the exercises. τῷ πράγματι 10.46 DIK. πόλεις. 73–76. τάξις αἱ οἰκήσεις. τῷ ἄστει 7. τοῦ πλήθους 9. πόλεις. 9. πρᾶγμα τὸν πρέσβυν ἡ οἴκησις.
show I embark I ask I seek I watch I call education.g. οὖσαι 10. πλήθει – εὔφρονι. 4. τισι(ν) Check that you understand GE pp. PRESENT PARTICIPLES 4A–B: 5 1. 5. whereas nouns which end in -μα describe a thing done: e. οὐδενός πρέσβεων – εὐφρόνων. τινί. 5. τινος. 2. 2. 6. τινί. death origin. ὄντες 7. summons . 5. 76–78. οὐδενί ἄστεσι – εὔφροσι(ν). 2. ὄντας ὄντα ὄντα 6. do not be surprised if you cannot ‘deduce’ all the meanings. τινῶν τάξεως – εὔφρονος. 1. οὐδενός πόλει – εὔφρονι. #87–88 before trying the next exercises. mortal I become I reveal. τινός. Uneducated I die. Note that nouns which end in -σις normally express the doing of something. 3. lesson immortal. ὄντες οὖσα ὄντες. οὖσαν 9. 4. 4. ὤν 4A–B: 6 1. ὄν 8. ποίησις = ‘making poetry’. but ποίημα is ‘a poem’. 3. 3. οὖσαν ὄν ὄντες ὤν οὖσαν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4A–B A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING Once again. genesis revelation embarkation question search spectacle calling. οὐδενί πράγματος – εὔφρονος.Revision exercises for section 4A–B 47 4A–B: 4 1.
Come over here and tell [me]. ἡ ἐμὴ γυνή.Μ. 3. or a daughter or a wife? I am doing this because I am ill-fated. οὐ ϕοβοῦμαι. 5. b. friend? Are you lamenting a son. ϕοβεῖται τὴν νόσον.M. learning (the thing learned) poem. Ο. or fem. power learning (the process). I do not honour the city. For I see the multitude of people are ill-fated. Ἀθηναῖος ὢν καὶ εὐδαίμων. τὸ πλῆθος. Why are you lamenting. dishonoured recklessness.) … ἡμεῖς ὀλίγοι ὄντες … ὑμᾶς πολλοὺς ὄντας. κατὰ θάλατταν κρατοῦμεν. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. though it is beautiful. d. I do not dishonour the gods. κακὴν οὖσαν. who are unlucky. 4. friend. ὦ γυναῖκες … ἐγώ. μέγα ὄν. ναῦται ὄντες. corpses fall upon corpses and people die because they are ill-fated. lie 1. and my daughter who is now a corpse. Λακεδαιμόνιον ὄντα καὶ κακοδαίμονα. since he is very good. who is no more. κακοδαίμων ὤν / οὖσα (masc. σὺ γεωργὸς ὢν οἶσθα τοὺς νόμους. do. τὸ τῶν νεκρῶν πλῆθος. expedition speed honour. Since I am a mortal. friend. This general. ϕίλαι οὖσαι. e. which are very good. τίς ὢν σύ … . οὐκ ἀτιμάζει τοὺς θεούς. But what is the reason? How are the people dying? Because of the plague. c. μεγάλους ὄντας. is not afraid of the Spartans who are hostile. ἀγαθὸν ὄν. The people. 2.Μ. daring deed falsehood. . who is ill-fated.48 Revision exercises for section 4A–B beautiful I am powerful I learn I make. You seem to be ill-fated indeed. We have many problems because of the plague. poetic art stratagem army. the city is in much perplexity and the people are short-lived and ill-fated. For I am lamenting both my son. honour the gods’ laws. … σέ. a. Y. create general army quickly I honour I dare falsely B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX beauty strength. κακοδαίμων οὖσα. E – TEST EXERCISE 4A–B YOUNG MAN OLD MAN Y. The Athenians defeat by sea those men who are experienced on land.
ἔλθε εἰπέ line 1. EXERCISE 1.M. The endings are exactly the same as those for the verb ‘to be’ which are set out in GE p. ‘they are clear pursuing …’ You will probably want to translate as ‘it is clear that they are pursuing’. #87. It means ‘to happen to be doing something’ or ‘to be really doing something’.. φίλε is vocative ἀπορίᾳ is dative 4C This section introduces the present participle of active verbs: as above (Sections A–B). #95).. sing. in place of δῆλον ὅτι. or ‘they are clearly pursuing’. κακοδαίμονες line 8 ἐφημέρους line 11. Literally. The noun means ‘traveller’.. ὄντα lines 2 and 4. 3. which is the nearest English phrase: it means to do something either intentionally or accidentally unnoticed by yourself or another. 86.Section 4C O. 49 So do not dishonour the gods and do not commit irreverent acts against the city. 77.. 86. agrees with υἱόν οὖσαν line 4. GE p. τόλμα. m. ‘undergo’. you may like to make an empty grid in which to ﬁll in the various cases as they occur. κακοδαίμονας line 12 4. #95 gives ‘escape the notice of’. The Greek usage is often not as strong as English ‘suffer’: here it’s almost ‘What’s the matter with him?’ 16 δῆλοί εἰσι διώκοντες δῆλοι is used personally here. there are more examples at lines 10 and 11] 2. τίμα lines 13 and 14. using as your example the verb παύω. 14 πάσχει GE gives as ‘suffer’. s. s. agrees with θυγατέρα [nb. ‘Are you unaware of the man running?’. 9 ἀποφεύγων τυγχάνει τυγχάνω is another verb that is normally accompanied by a participle (see GE p. f. ‘Or does the man escape your notice running?’ before trying to rephrase more idiomatically. ἀσέβει. sing. but be resolute and honour the gods. 11 χλαμύδα This is the garment worn in the illustration on p. ὁδός ‘road’ and πορεύομαι ‘I travel’. . ‘Do you not notice the man running?’ 7 προστρέχοντα You can tell from the -οντα ending that it agrees with αὐτόν. 82–83. 10 ὁδοιπόρος Both elements have been met. 52 (not the hat or sticks!). #90 followed by the participles of contract verbs GE #91. Page 48 6 λανθάνει A very awkward verb to translate as English has no direct equivalent. ‘experience’. It is probably best to stick to the literal translation to begin with. ἀτίμαζε. You can also see the present participle of παύω set out on GE pp. The action that is ‘not noticed’ is expressed as a participle (in this case τρέχων).
Translation for 4C Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode travel towards the city.) in -ing’: the basic sense is usually of doing something either before another can stop you. καίπερ ‘although’ is always followed by a participle. ‘the fugitive’. ‘dystrophy’. ‘hard’ or ‘bad’. Cf. that he’s running into the shrine? RHAP. But perhaps he is a foreigner. And now some men are approaching. English ‘dyslexia’. Tell me. lines 207–208. 23 ὁ φεύγων Literally ‘the running away one’.in compounds is the opposite of εὐ. Suddenly a man runs up to them. Odyssey Book 6 can be found in its original context in RGT p. But he’s in that shrine. Come here. rhapsode. as a suppliant. Look! The man is running into the shrine of Heracles.50 Section 4C 18 ϕθάνει Another awkward verb to translate and another of the group in GE p.and often has the sense of ‘with difﬁculty’. Perhaps he is a slave and happens to be running away. 31–32 This quotation from Homer. Do you see the man? Or are you not aware of the man running this way? DIK. It’s clear that he’s turning in for sanctuary. DIKAIOPOLIS . #95. or ‘the fugitive’. 86. No. Dikaiopolis. What’s the matter with him. by Zeus. SAT. this time as the object. But he is not a slave and he seems to be a traveller. 260. into that shrine! Quickly lead away the stranger. Clearly they are pursuing the man. DIK. DIK. But the man has anticipated the Eleven by running into the shrine. or of doing it before they can do it. Dikaiopolis. For I see him running towards [us]. But what’s this situation? A herald is approaching and – the Eleven and the public slaves. S A T Y R O S Where is the Spartan ﬂeeing to? Where is he? You there – do you know where the fugitive is? Or are you not aware of the man ﬂeeing? RHAP. Page 49 35 δυστυχής The force of δυσ. ‘dyspepsia’. You speak rightly. Here the former is more likely: the fugitive escapes into the sanctuary before the Eleven can prevent him from doing so. But the situation is strange. Once again it helps if you translate it literally. Or do you not notice that the man has a cloak? RHAP. what’s the din? What are those shouts? What’s happening? RHAPSODE Look. Whoever is it? RHAP. GE gives as ‘anticipate X (acc. I am aware of him. 28 τὸν ϕεύγοντα As above. a man is running this way. slaves. before turning your literal translation into acceptable English. as he’s a Spartan. DIK.
both Athens and Sparta at different times asked Persia for help. #97). 15 ἐπικαλούμενος The ﬁrst example of a middle participle. 84. Here the article is used to link the noun to the adjective μέγαν. Don’t drag away the fugitive. 52. but lead the man away. The stranger happens to be a suppliant. ‘All strangers are under the protection of Zeus. 6. In fact.’ Don’t worry about that. ἐπικαλοῦμαι is a contracted verb: the regular participle-ending is -όμενος. and he anticipated you by running into the shrine. but such an event is recorded by Herodotus. 51 RHAP.) calling upon the gods’. 35–36 πρὸς βασιλέα τὸν μέγαν βασιλεύς (without the article) is regularly used of the King of Persia (contrast our usage: to emphasise. παύομαι gives παυόμενος παυομένη παυόμενον. 32 πρεσβευτής As an ambassador he would of course (as today) be regarded as having diplomatic immunity. 11 ἀπόκοπτε τὰς χεῖρας Sounds rather drastic. HERALD DIK. #93) and one further type of 3rd declension noun (GE p. he is sacrosanct. although he’s a Spartan. often this is best translated by a relative clause. 29 ναὶ τὼ σιώ GE translates as ‘by the two gods’ (σιώ is Doric dialect for θεώ).Section 4D DIK. which may help towards meaning. 13 ὦνδρες = ὦ ἄνδρες. we would say ‘the king’). herald. The especial signiﬁcance here is that throughout the Peloponnesian War. 87. Sparta’s later . ‘you see’ or ‘see!’ The context favours the latter. like καλός καλή καλόν Page 50 2 καθίζεται … ἱκέτης ὤν Illustrated at RGT p. seen below in ὀλοφυρόμενος (18). and govern an object. 19 τοὺς … ἔχοντας Article + participle ‘the ones having …’. slaves. 4D Now the middle participles are introduced (GE pp. ‘the man (obj. The two gods are the twins Castor and Pollux. #92–93) and the participles of the contracted verbs (GE p. 21–22 τοὺς ἀσεβοῦντας As above in line 19. ‘those who have …’ 21 καθορᾶτε This could be either indicative or imperative. ‘those who …’ περὶ Δία ἱκέσιον καὶ ξένιον Zeus was regarded as protecting suppliants as well as strangers and foreigners. thinking that if they succeeded in obtaining Persian support they would be victorious. 84–85. and the oath is a characteristically Spartan one.91. What lawlessness! Indeed the stranger appears to be unlucky. The middle participles are easily recognised. 23 τὸν τοὺς θεοὺς ἐπικαλούμενον Notice that the participle can be itself an object. Because he’s a suppliant.
since he’s a Spartan. so εὐπορία means the opposite. The public slaves drag away from the altar the man who is calling upon the gods. 230. 36–37 σὺ δὲ δῆλος εἶ φιλῶν τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους Literally ‘But you are clear loving the Lacedaemonians’. 50 In the second line of the quotation from Solon: (a) ἀποϕαίνει is active in form. Nemesis can fall upon the wrongdoer himself or upon any one of his descendants. god of suppliants and strangers.5). rhapsode and doesn’t stop calling upon us. Don’t you see those public slaves. (He does not stop calling upon the gods. or ‘you are clearly in favour of the Spartans’. ‘plenty’. ‘visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons unto the third or fourth generation’ (Exodus 20. Stop calling upon the gods. rhapsode. who have their daggers? STR. line 1 for one instance in the original context). You. city! S A T Y R O S Drag away this man. drag the fellow away to the other Spartans. do you see? What impiety! For the unfortunate stranger is sitting on the altar. ‘reveals’. εὐνομία is the opposite of ἀνομία. but the public slaves are dragging him away while the stranger is holding on to the altar and calling upon the gods. look down upon what I am suffering. and stop lamenting. men! DIK. and ﬁnally speaks. ‘abundance’. 49 Δυσνομία A personiﬁed variation of ἀνομία. The stranger is calling upon us. 47–48 εὐνομία and εὐπορία are contrasted with ἀνομία and ἀπορία. Cf. slaves. Dikaiopolis. and don’t do anything. STRANGER I call upon the gods – PUBLIC SLAVE But the stranger is holding on to the altar. therefore transitive. εὐπορία is the opposite of ἀπορία though here in a slightly different meaning from ‘perplexity’ which you met before. agreeing with πάντα. Here it is assumed that the extreme ill-fortune of the stranger can only be explained by the belief that he is being punished for the wrongdoing of one of his forebears. Once again notice the personal use of δῆλος with the participle. I call upon you. DIKAIOPOLIS . Translation for 4D Look. away from the altar. Ο city. Satyros. hence ‘makes to appear’. STR. RHAPSODE (The rhapsode is silent.) Oh gods. be quiet yourself too.) But nevertheless. Page 51 43 νέμεσις μεγάλη The concept of divine retribution for wrongdoing is common in Greek Tragedy and in Herodotus (see Section 19 in RGT p. as a suppliant. SAT. fellow. Look down upon those who are committing impiety against Zeus.52 Section 4D success in securing Persian support undoubtedly contributed to her victory in the end. SAT. ἀπορία can mean ‘shortage of provisions’. and the opposite of Εὐνομία. (b) εὔκοσμα and ἄρτια are neuter plural. Cut off his hands.
although he is an ambassador and a suppliant. It is clear that the gods hate the man.Exercises for section 4C–D STR. SAT. ‘So bad government brings very many evils to the city. Notice also βασιλεύς (GE p. παυομένους 2. For in peacetime these things do not happen. but in war there is lawlessness and shortage. you are clearly being unjust towards men and impious towards the gods. The stranger does not stop shouting and revealing what he is suffering at the hands of the Athenians. τρέχοντες. παυόμενος 4. παυομένης 3. 87–88. τρέχουσαν. But you clearly love the Spartans. Surely great retribution from the gods is coming upon him because of his ancestors and the aggression of his ancestors. 95. DIK. τρέχον. τρεχόντων. παυόμενος 8. #89–93). παυόμενον 1. For they are killing him. and their various uses listed in GE pp. But who is that stranger? He happens to be an ambassador – What are you saying? An ambassador? What lawlessness! Are you killing ambassadors? He is an ambassador and happens to be travelling towards the great King.’ Grammar Check that you understand the participles (GE pp. παυόμενον 4C–D: 2 5. παυομένου 4. τρέχων. τρέχων. But what’s the matter with our city? What’s happening? War seems to be a violent instructor. τρέχουσαι. παυόμεναι 3. παυομένην 7. τρεχούσης. τρέχοντας. RHAP. and the useful notes (GE pp. DIK. including the forms for the contracted verbs. Shut up then and stop bewailing the Spartan. Athenians. παυόμενοι 6. drag away those who ﬂee into shrines? Do you kill those who turn aside for sanctuary? By the twain. Do you. 53 DIK. But good government makes all appear well-ordered and perfect. #97). παυομένων . τρέχοντι. τρέχοντος. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4C–D MORE PRESENT PARTICIPLES 4C–D: 1 1. rhapsode. παυομένῳ 2. #94. 87. In peacetime there is good order and plenty in the city. SAT. 82–85. #98–100) on elision and crasis. The public slaves drag the Spartan away towards the market-place. 85–86. τρέχοντα.
f. ἀφ’ ἡμῶν 4C–D: 7 4. pl. nom. ἆρ’ ὁρᾷς. 3. τρέχοντι. 5. ἀλλὰ ἐγώ 3. nom. ἐν δὲ ἀπορίᾳ 4. nom. acc. κακός ἐστὶν ὁ πόλεμος 5. n. s. 8. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4C–D A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1 impiety temple. ὁ δ’ ἀνήρ 2. τρεχούσῃ. 1. 8. παυομένῃ 4C–D: 3 7. 3. 6. 7. εἴμ’ Ὀδυσσεύς 1. φεύγοντας τρέχοντα 4C–D: 5 1.54 Revision exercises for section 4C–D 5. βοῶντας ELISION AND CRASIS 4C–D: 6 1. 3. of the doers to/for the women who are showing of the one who is afraid to/for the women who are doing to/for the one who sees to/for those who show 4. 7. pl. τὸν θεώμενον τὰς ὁρώσας τοὺς ποιοῦντας αἱ δηλοῦσαι οἱ φοβούμενοι ἡ ποιοῦσα τὴν ὁρῶσαν τὸ δηλοῦν τοῖς θεωμένοις τῇ ὁρώσῃ τῶν ποιούντων ταῖς δηλούσαις τοῦ φοβουμένου ταῖς ποιούσαις τῷ ὁρῶντι τοῖς δηλοῦσι(ν) the one watching those/ the women seeing the ones doing the ones/the women showing those afraid the one/the woman doing the one/the woman seeing the one/it showing 4C–D: 4 to/for those watching to/for the woman who sees of those doing. ἆρά εἰμι ἔμπειρος. παυομένοις m. 6. παυομένοις 6. acc. sacred thing reverence priest ./acc. τρέχουσι(ν). s. 5. nom. f. 4. 2. τρέχουσι(ν). 4. s. pl. 2. f. 5. acc. ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς 5. βαίνουσα 2. m. acc m. παίζων 3. 1. φεύγων. νῦν δὲ ἐπὶ οἰκίαν 2. s. παυομένῳ 8. f.
But you are clearly a suppliant and you happen to be lamenting the situation. because some men are approaching quickly. I know who is escaping.) When the pursuers see him in the shrine. host I happen/unlucky. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. pursuing him. τὸν τρέχοντα b. (The Lacedaemonian anticipates the pursuers running into the shrine. I do not see any Spartan escaping. .) The herald does not stop hating the strangers and being afraid. The stranger is clearly suffering something dreadful. but the rhapsode and Dikaiopolis keep quiet. a. Who are ﬂeeing? Do you see them ﬂeeing? τοὺς ϕεύγοντας e. ἀποτρέχων f. they drag him away. 5. outrage 1. ὁ γὰρ Λακεδαιμόνιος φθάνει τοὺς διώκοντας τρέχων εἰς τὸ ἱερόν. 2. The man escaping does not escape my notice (i. ὁ ἀποϕεύγων d. The stranger eludes his pursuers [by] running into the shrine which is nearby. Women (in general) are always afraid. The pursuers arrive and ask the rhapsode where the stranger happens to be. For the rhapsode is clearly aware that the stranger is running away. 3. unhappy offence B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX I beseech hated hospitality/I entertain chance I assault. So in this way lawlessness and impiety occur in the city of the Athenians. (Lit. ὁρῶμεν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/ἄνδρας τρέχοντας. For it is clear that the stranger does not escape the rhapsode’s notice running away.Revision exercises for section 4C–D 55 a suppliant I hate stranger.e. The king is running away and does not stop running away. (Does the slave escape your notice dragging away the suppliant?) For the ambassadors anticipate the public slaves (by) running away. Who are lamenting? Where are the people who are lamenting? οἱ ὀλοϕυρόμενοι. ὁ δ’ ἀνὴρ δῆλός ἐστι πρεσβευτὴς ὢν καὶ ἀποϕεύγων τυγχάνει. although he is shouting and calling upon the gods. as they are afraid of the Eleven. Why don’t they stop being afraid? ϕοβούμεναι. guest. The stranger does not stop lamenting and revealing what he is suffering. Don’t you see that the master has some gear? (Does the master escape your notice having some gear?) ἆρα λανθάνει σε ὁ δοῦλος τὸν ἱκέτην ἀϕέλκων. ὁ ξένος οὐ παύεται ἡμᾶς ἐπικαλούμενος καὶ βοῶν. Who is running? I do not see the man running. I am aware of the man who is escaping). c. 4. E – TEST EXERCISE 4C–D A stranger happens to be running into the shrine of Heracles.
(b) m. nom. pl. 2. (b) 3rd pl. nom. (d) m. (c) n. nom. pl. s. . (d) 3rd pl. (c) 3rd s./acc.56 Revision exercises for section 4C–D EXERCISE 1. (a) 3rd pl. s. (a) m.
English ‘mania’). #110. ‘unﬁnished’. 93. 57 . leaving room to the right of the table to enter imperfect endings as they occur. Before beginning 5A you may ﬁnd it helpful to write out the present tense (active and middle) of παύω. #103. so far the narrative has been conﬁned to the present tense alone. ὀϕείλει The root cause of Strepsiades’ problem (see English note at top of page). ‘I have shut the door’. It is much less common than the aorist.). 98. ‘I have just come in’. #102. English ‘hypnosis’ (and again note English at top of page). 92. Greek also has a perfect tense: this expresses a completed action in present time.Section Five: ‘Socrates corrupts the young’ This is a vital section. ‘I went’. If you are not happy with the term imperfect. while ‘aorist’ means ‘undeﬁned’. indicates a deﬁnitely completed action – but at an undeﬁned time (yesterday / last week / ten years ago etc. 53) + μανης (cf. 3 ἱππομανής Break it up into its constituent parts: ἱππος (illustrated p. 5A Page 54 2 χρήματα Illustrated at bottom of page 53. and another table for εἰμί. 4 ὕπνος Cf. For example: ‘I was going’ indicates an event that was taking place and not necessarily completed (consider its likely context: ‘I was going to the shop when …’. 6 τὸ χρῆμα τῶν νυκτῶν Literally ‘the business of the nights’ – GE glosses χρῆμα here as ‘length’. it may be helpful to look at the explanation in GE p. and it is not introduced until Section 13E. Or see GE p. where the ‘when’ clause is likely to explain why I never reached the shop). A checklist of the active forms appears at the end of the notes to 5A. and in 5C–D the future. and GE p. by contrast. and a list of the middle forms and εἰμί at the end of 5B. in which you will meet new tenses of the verb. The meaning of ‘imperfect’ in this context is ‘incomplete’. In 5A–B the imperfect tense is introduced. Note: In Section 6 you will met another past tense called the aorist.
Past tenses in Greek have ἐ. 31–34 Note the contrast between rustic simplicity and urban extravagance – Aristophanes makes much more of this than the text here does. Cf. ‘for the whole night’. This is called the ‘augment’. Note that in the imperfect. and then you have to wait until the end of the sentence to ﬁnd out what we never ceased doing. ‘this son of mine here’. παύω παύεις παύει ἔ -παυ -ον ἔ -παυ -ε(ν) . which is used later in this section. See GE p. etc.58 Section 5A 12 δάκνει Here = ‘worry’. what would you deduce to be the 1st person singular of the imperfect of παύω? ὅλην τὴν νύκτα The accusative case without a preposition is used to express duration of time. Can you explain the variation? δι-ελέγετο First example of a middle imperfect – which person? Note that when the verb has a preposition as a preﬁx the augment is attached to the verb stem and not to the preposition. Interim check: the imperfect so far. 13 τουτονί Adding the -ι to τοῦτον makes it even more demonstrative. 28 ἐπαυόμεθα Which person? Notice that the subject is delayed and the verb comes ﬁrst for emphasis: ‘we never ceased…’. should help with the meaning. have the same ending. your present + imperfect table (active only) could look like this. 18 ἐδίωκον Which person (oἱ χρῆσται is the subject)? You can conﬁrm the formation by comparing ἐλάμβανον. 2nd s. 20–21 ἔσῳζεν. ‘picric acid’. #105. the 1st person s. Note that πικρόν is brought forward to emphasise it. πικρούς ‘bitter’. ὁ υἱός) and use the endings to form the corresponding person of παύω. If you followed the suggestion above. which indicates that ἦ is the past tense of εἰμί. 3rd s. Similarly ὀλίγον χρόνον means ‘for a short time’. Note that the person is indicated by ἐγώ. ἐλάμβανεν Identify the person of the verb by looking at the respective subjects (οὐδείς. 23 ἦν Past tense of εἰμί – person? 24 ἐλάμβανε Compare ἐλάμβανεν (21). 17 ἐκάθευδον First example of the normal imperfect. 16 χθές ‘yesterday’. 30 γάμους English ‘monogamy’. Using these indicators. ‘polygamy’. though note its literal meaning is ‘bite’.as a preﬁx. ε + α = η. See GE p. καθεύδων (9) and καθεύδει (9) indicate that 1st person singular of the present indicative must be καθεύδω. #105. and the 3rd person pl. 95. Note that the augment and the ending have been spaced so that you can see the stem clearly: 1st s. 94. 25 ἤκουε This is what happens when the augment merges with a vowel.
but for the whole night I was always escaping from these lawsuits.(negative preﬁx) + ἔργoν. 5B Page 56 2 ἅπτε λυχνόν λυχνός is illustrated opposite. as you well know. fall (lit. STREPSIADES Alas. just as you are. For I was sleeping for a short while. How sweet was the country life! Marriage – how bitter! For my wife happens to be from the city. my wife and I: we were always arguing. my debts which are heavy worry me. 8 ἀργούς Compounded from ἀ. but the father cannot sleep (lit. I know that well. Alas! We never stopped arguing about the boy. Strepsiades intends to hit the slave. ‘not working’ i. But you. This expense already then was ruining me. . Now the son happens to be sleeping deeply. hold) me. And moreover even when sleeping the young man dreams of horses. and this son of mine kept on taking lots of money because he was horse-mad. Alas! Who was responsible? My wife [was] responsible. Alas unhappy me! Deep sleep does not yet come to (lit. Yes. alas! Ο king Zeus! The length of the nights – how great it is! Day is not yet coming. blaming him for the lack of oil – he should have ﬁlled the lamp. which should help with the meaning of this phrase. sleep does not hold the father). for almost the whole night. 2nd pl. For his son. nobody was saving me.Section 5B 59 1st pl. sleep deeply! For the debts. See! My son is sleeping deeply and does not cease sleeping. For she always used to take her son and talk to him about horses. I am unfortunate and sleepless. and being a citywoman she started to bring in much expense. certainly. While I am sleepless. always takes much money.e. παύομεν παύετε παύουσι (ν) ἔ -παυ -ον Translation for 5A Strepsiades happens to be lamenting because he owes a lot of money. But when I was sleeping. ‘idle’. then my creditors kept on pursuing me in my dreams and kept on exacting their due because of my son. being horse-mad. It is still ruining me even now. 4 ἔλαιον ‘olive oil’. For I owe much money because of this son of mine. even when a boy he kept dreaming of horses. Ο king Zeus! Why do you make marriages so bitter? For always my wife makes my life bitter. a vital commodity for the Athenians. And yesterday I was sleepless. 3rd pl. But I am still sleepless and at a loss. So her son always listened and learnt about horses. ‘lazy’. turn) onto my head. And while I was at a loss. 5 κλαῖε Literally ‘weep’. and because I owe [much money] my creditors pursue me and are always exacting their due.
‘I harm’. Alas for my troubles! For now we give orders. For they were afraid of punishment. but they do not obey. #110. What would be the corresponding formation for παύομαι? 14 ἐμαυτόν and σεαυτόν (line 17) are reﬂexive pronouns: ‘myself’. #102 and p. But when we were young. But what do I owe? Slave! Come here! Light the lamp. 92. then the old men always used to punish their slaves. How can I light the lamp. and put an end to these debts? Now. see GE p. For the war stops [me]. because κακὰ ποιῶ (‘I do bad things’) was treated as a single idea. it does. 98. 2nd pl. For I can’t see anything now. nor did they treat their masters badly. 10 ἦσαν The past tense of εἰμί – person? 11 τοὺς δεσπότας κακὰ ἐποίουν ποιῶ here seems to take two objects. although they are idle. but were good and always obeyed. But why don’t I save myself and my son from our debts? Why don’t I look for some scheme. Translation for 5B STREPSIADES SLAVE STR. 3rd pl. 2. ἡμεῖς indicates the person.60 Exercises for section 5A–B 9 οὐ πείθονται The middle of πείθω means ‘I obey’. Strepsiades. 2nd s. master? Look! There is no oil in the lamp. 1st pl. 3rd s. ἐφέροντο ἐλαμβάνου . In fact. παύομαι παύει παύεται παυόμεθα παύεσθε παύονται εἰμί εἶ ἐστί(ν) ἦ(ν) ἦν ἦμεν ἦσαν ἐ -παύ -ετο ἐ -παυ -όμεθα ἐσμέν ἐστέ ἐ -παύ -οντο εἰσί(ν) For other persons. he/she was stopping I/they were carrying you (s. What are you saying? The lamp has no oil? Unhappy me! Come here and weep! How evil is the war! I no longer punish my slaves. 3. ‘yourself’. taking a direct object.) were taking ἐπαύετο ἐφερόμην. So they were not idle. save yourself! Hurray. for it is deep night. ἐπείθοντο Imperfect middle ending. By now the tables for παύομαι and εἰμί should look like this: Ist s. hurray! I have a plan! Now why don’t I stop this young man sleeping? EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5A–B THE IMPERFECT 5A–B: 1 1. ἦμεν The past tense of εἰμί.
they were doing you (s. 2. 9. learned 7. 2. 5. they were freeing you (s. ἐκελεύετε 1. 6. 5. 5.) are punishing he found out.) lament he owes they pray ἠκούομεν εἶχον ὠλοφύρεσθε ὤφειλε ηὔχοντο 5A–B: 3 1. 2. he was ceasing you were obeying they were conversing we are afraid they were they were showing 7. 5. ἐτίμων 2.) were bringing in καταβαίνει ἀποκτείνεις ἀπάγω. 4. 5. he was stopping we were honouring I was doing. 4. he was afraid 8.) were sacriﬁcing ἐμανθανόμεθα ἐθύεσθε AUGMENTS 5A–B: 2 1. 3. 4. he/she/it was I was freeing.) were showing you (s. they are ﬁghting 9. 3.Exercises for section 5A–B 61 4. 2. 11.) were owing he hears we were remaining he was doing 5A–B: 5 1. you (s. I was calling to witness 10. 4. ἐκώλυον 5. ὠφείλομεν ADDITIONAL IMPERFECT PATTERNS 5A–B: 6 4. 3.) killed I/they drove away we were destroying you (pl. ἔπασχε(ν) 3. he was lamenting . we were turning 11. I was.) were seeming 12. he came down you (s. 12. 6. we hear they have you (pl. we were learning you (pl. 10. 8. 3. ἀπάγουσιν διαφθείρομεν εἰσφέρετε IMPERFECT OF CONTRACT VERBS AND VERB ‘TO BE’ 5A–B: 4 1.
ἦν … ἐλάμβανε … διελέγετο.) owed ὠϕείλετε we were in ἐνῆ you (pl. διελέγοντο REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5A–B B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. ἐδουλοῦντο 8. Who is responsible? My wife.) used to obey ἐπείθεσθε they were afraid ἐϕοβεῖτο I was calling upon ἐπεκαλούμεθα I was stopping ἐπαύομεν he/she was ἦσαν you were afraid ἐϕοβεῖσθε he/she was watching ἐθεῶντο .) were watching ἐθεῶ you (s. 5. ἐφοβεῖτο 3. we were conversing διελεγόμην we were watching ἐθεώμην they were bringing in εἰσέϕερεν you (s. ἐκάθευδον … ἐδίωκον. ἐτίμων 9. but these men are still pursuing me. d. ἐπείθοντο 2. 2. διελέγεσθε 1. ἐφαινόμην 5. 4. 2. We are young and punish the house-slaves. ἐκώλυε ἐπαύετο ἐπεκαλούμεθα ὤφειλες ἤκουον 6. For she always takes her son and talks to him about horses. ἦμεν … ἐκολάζομεν … ἐγίγνοντο. 3. b. I am sleeping. ἐποιεῖτο 10. a. For in this way the houseslaves become good. The slaves do not fear their masters nor do they obey them. How bitter is marriage! For my wife always makes our marriage bitter. ἐφοβοῦντο … ἐπείθοντο. c. ἐμαχόμεθα 5A–B: 8 4. ἐβοᾶτε 7. ἦν … ἐπoίει.62 Revision Exercises for section 5A–B 5A–B: 7 1. e.
Translation for 5C STREPSIADES PHEIDIPPIDES Pheidippides. Pheidippidikins! What. although when this is merged with a consonant stem it is not always apparent. 3. The sons owed much money. ‘Will you obey?’ 13 Obediently. but the sailor did not stop chasing. Pheidippides changes his oath to swear by Dionysus.and regular endings. In almost all verbs the distinguishing mark is a ‘-σ-’. In this section you will meet the future tense. 9 πείθου This is the middle imperative. The farmers always used to honour the gods. father? . but we did not make sacriﬁces. 22 σώσει See note above on p. We used to pray to the goddess. this should alert you to what tense is coming next! ϕιλήσεις The ﬁrst example of the future – note ending -σ-εις.Section 5C 63 D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK The young man was shouting. Note that verb-stems ending in dentals -τ/-δ/-θ/-ζ lose the ﬁnal consonant of the stem before adding -σ. god of horses (as well as god of the sea). 103. 102–103. The point will be further developed later. 12 πείσῃ 2nd s. See GE pp. 20 λέξω Verbs with stems ending in -γ/-κ/-χ combine the ﬁnal consonant of the stem with the -ς. #115–116 6 τουτονί τὸν ἵππιον Pheidippides swears by Poseidon. 5C 1. Page 58 1 Φειδιππίδιον Note the diminutive form – affectionate? 5 αὔριov ‘tomorrow’. οἱ δὲ δοῦλοι (οἰκέται) ἡμᾶς κακὰ ἐποίουν. #114. βαθέως ἐκάθευδον ἀλλ’ ὁ υἱὸς οὐκ ἐπαύετο βοῶν. 4.to form -ξ-. See GE p. future middle of πείθω. ἐβοῶμεν καὶ τοὺς δούλους (οἰκέτας) ἐπαύομεν διαλεγομένους. ϕιλήσεις there is an additional point to note: contracted verbs lengthen the vowel at the end of the stem before adding the same endings as uncontracted verbs.) stopped the woman punishing the household slaves. Note the -σ. 5. You (s. 2. see GE pp. 103–104. #112–114. 6 ϕιλήσω … παύσομαι 1st person singular of active and middle respectively. ὁ πατὴρ ἀεὶ ἐκόλαζε τὸν υἱόν. 58 line 10. 17 ἀκούσομαι Some verbs change from present active to future middle with no change in meaning. οἱ νεανίαι χρηστοὶ (ἀγαθοὶ) ἦσαν καὶ ἐπείθοντο. ἡμεῖς μὲν ἐκελεύομεν. ‘obey!’ 10 πείσομαι Also future. (With ϕιλήσω.inserted between present stem and person-ending.
constructed from ϕροντίζω ‘I think’. Socrates is depicted as having two ‘arguments’ in his . PHEI. Will you love me tomorrow? By Poseidon here. I was listening and I am listening and I shall listen. Yes. 6–7 Notice the implication that Socrates and his associates are well paid for their teaching – something which Socrates always vigorously denied. Will you obey? I will obey. god of horses. Look. #120 for a list of ‘important futures’. son. What is your idea? What have you in mind and what are you planning? Were you saying? No. 105. What is your plan. STR. PHEI. Don’t worry. I shall love you tomorrow and I shan’t stop ever. ‘I consider’ with the sufﬁx -ηριον. my son. a very small thing. which corresponds to English ‘-ery’ sufﬁx in e. So speak then! What are you ordering? I shall order a small thing. PHEI. Don’t ever mention that horsey one. PHEI. PHEI. For I have a plan and I am planning something. Hence ϕροντιστήριον means ‘thinkery’. and I don’t ever stop [loving you]. PHEI. 13 λόγον Always a difﬁcult word to translate. 5D Page 60 1 οἰκίδιον The diminutive form of οἶκος/οἰκία. father. PHEI. 5 πνιγεύς Ilustrated on next page – these are bowl-shaped. ‘brewery’ – the place where something is done. Were you listening? Or weren’t you listening? Or am I speaking in vain? I’ll stop you sleeping. ‘bakery’. What were you telling me? I was telling you that I have an idea. Tell [me]. STR. 3 ϕροντιστήριον An Aristophanic coinage. 9 μαθήσονται The future of μανθάνω (μαθ-). by Dionysus. do you love me? I [do]. See GE p. I am listening and obeying and I shall always obey. For perhaps this idea will stop us somehow from our debts. earthenware ovens.64 STR. PHEI. STR. STR. I’m planning something big.g. Section 5D Tell me. Here perhaps ‘argument’ ﬁts the meaning most closely. STR. STR. son – for that one has the responsibility for my troubles – but listen and obey. STR. but I will [tell you]. ἄνθρακες English ‘anthracite’ may help towards meaning: ‘coals’. father? What will you order? How will your idea save us? How shall we stop from our debts? You will do it? I will do it. Some irregular verbs use the stem given in brackets to form the future. by Dionysus.
To be pale was a sign of spending too much time indoors. What is it. PHEIDIPPIDES Look over here. again based on the bracketed stem.. but have a contracted future in -έω. note on line 32).to form future.Section 5D 65 16 18 23 24 27 28 29 32 34 35 36–38 ‘thinkery’ (in the original play these ‘arguments’ actually appear as characters): the ‘right’ argument. #117). and was hence a derogatory description for a man. οὔκoυν πείσῃ. 105. ὠχρούς … ἀνυποδήτους Ochres are pale yellowish shades. σοϕισταί Originally a neutral term for philosophers. is again based on the bracketed stem but with the vowel lengthened. and speaking they persuade their pupils that the heaven is a bell-oven and this bell-oven is around us and we are the coals. Father? This is the thinkery of wise souls. εἴσειμι The irregular future of εἰσέρχομαι. εἴσιμεν The future of εἰσέρχομαι again (cf. Page 62 41 ἐκβαλῶ βάλλω has shortened the present stem to βαλ. Verbs with a present stem ending in -λ-. 103. -μ-. These men persuade their pupils.do not insert -σ. which. 57 κόψω Notice how the -σ. Socates went unshod. εἴσεισι. #117.104. the accent distinguishes the two when not prefixed. by verbal trickery etc. -ν. which gives the meaning of ὠχρούς. can make the weaker argument appear the stronger. Do you see this door and the house? I see it. but later acquiring pejorative overtones – hence the disgusted reaction from Pheidippides. Inside live wise men.and added -έω to form future (see GE p. #120.(‘under’) -δητους (‘bound’): ‘unbound-under’ meant ‘shoeless’. based on the bracketed stem. This is doubly confusing because εἶμι (‘I shall go’) is identical in spelling with εἰμί (‘I am’). Translation for 5D STREPSIADES STR. #114. why don’t you go in (as) a student?’ διαϕθερεῖ One of only two examples in this section of a grammatical point that is easily overlooked (see GE p. See GE p. λήψονται The future of λαμβάνω (λαβ-). which argues correctly. εἴσει.in the future can combine with a labial consonant stem (κοπ-) to produce -ψ-. In addition. here it is also derogatory. ἄριστε ἀνθρώπων Strepsiades reverts to his wheedling. 104.or -ρ. 50 γνώσομαι The future of γιγνώσκω (γνω-). οἱ ἔνδον ‘those inside’. and the ‘wrong’ argument. as a sign of poverty. #117). σὺ δὲ διὰ τί οὐκ εἰσέρχῃ μαθητής. always teaching and . 104. See GE p. ‘But you. ἀν-(negative) ὑπο. See GE p. Hence Strepsiades’ interest in the latter argument. However. ‘Won’t you obey?’ γενήσομαι The future of γίγνομαι (γεν-).
PHEI. STR. Father? Which? I mean the just and unjust argument. But what do the men teach? What will young men learn. I won’t go in tomorrow and I won’t do so in any way. Hey. before you go on (GE pp. PHEI. Yuck! Awful [people]. For I love horses. I shall become pale. noble sophists. 102–103. Then I’ll chase you out of the house and send you to hell! I’ll run away. STR. I’m not going in today. receiving a lot of money. Which arguments do you mean. I won’t do this. Won’t you obey and do this? I won’t obey and I won’t do this. I’ll go into the house. What will you tell me? But as I was saying. You may ﬁnd it . PHEI. I know: I myself will go into the thinkery and will become a pupil of the sophists and I will learn the unjust argument. STR. In this way I shall stop those creditors taking their money. STR. But if you won’t go in. PHEI. not sophists. but not into the thinkery of the sophists. wretched Socrates and Chaerephon. PHEI. 110. you and I? I won’t. STR. hey. be quiet! Will you not listen? I will listen. I know. STR. You mean the pale shoeless [people]. What shall I do? Pheidippides will not win. those inside have two arguments. 109. being a student. But they are ﬁne. Why do you not go in as a student? For this way we shall stop ourselves from our debts. STR. PHEI. #112–114). PHEI. #127a. best of men? What are you saying? I. STR. And what’s more in lawsuits they will always defeat their opponents. STR. the just one won’t. And by Zeus no one of them will stop receiving much money from their pupils. Why don’t you go into the thinkery. For the unjust argument will put a stop to our debts. an old man and slow in exact arguments. Grammar Do not neglect the very useful table of indeﬁnites and interrogatives in GE p. [go] into the thinkery? By Poseidon. Who are these men? What is the name of the men? I do not know the name. PHEI. The students will learn these arguments? [Yes]. And learn to decline Σωκράτης in GE p. So learn: in this way the creditors will not recover any of these debts. god of horses. At this point you may ﬁnd it useful to revise the different formations of the future tense. by Zeus.66 Section 5D PHEI. What will I learn? The unjust argument. But how shall I. Why don’t I knock at this door and shout? I’ll do this and I’ll knock at the door and shout. STR. PHEI. STR. learn philosophy? All the same I’ll go in. the just and the unjust. who will go in? Shall we go in together. but I shall become the winner. PHEI. #125. becoming [their] pupils? The pupils will learn arguments.
δ. 2. θ most ζ μ. ϕ τ. λ. 4.Exercises for section 5C–D 67 helpful to make a chart like this. leaving the third column free to add the ﬁrst person of the aorist tense as you learn it in the next section. 3. -εις. endings: -ω. β. χ π. 5. 5. 3. not contracted.) persuade εὔξονται τύψει ἡσυχάσεις τρεψόμεθα πείσεις .) keep quiet we turn you (s. ρ most –ιζω Contracted verbs παύω εὔχομαι κόπτω πείθω θαυμάζω διαϕθείρω νομίζω ποιέω τιμάω δηλόω Future παύσω εὔξομαι κόψω πείσω θαυμάσω διαϕθερῶ (έω) νομιῶ (έω) ποιήσω τιμήσω δηλώσω Aorist The future of contracted verbs has ordinary. -ει … . 2.) will prevent κωλύουσι κελεύει πορευόμεθα παύῃ κωλύεις CONSONANT STEMS 5C–D: 2 1.) will cease you (s. Irregular verbs μανθάνω λαμβάνω γιγνώσκω γίγνομαι μαθήσομαι λήψομαι γνώσομαι γενήσομαι EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5C–D THE FUTURE TENSE 5C–D: 1 1. they will hinder he will order we shall travel you (s. 4. Present Vowel stems Consonant stems κ. but the stem vowel is lengthened. ν. γ. they pray he hits you (s.
) were ordering 7. 9. 2.) will seek 5. 10. 12. 11. 3. εἶσι(ν) 5C–D: 8 6. τιμήσω ποιήσετε IRREGULAR FUTURES 5C–D: 6 1. I shall hold power over 4. 2.) will cease they will obey.) are knocking we shall pray you (s. ἔσεσθε 1. we shall defeat 2.) will know he will become. 6. γενήσῃ 5. they will go they will be I shall go you (s. ἴασι(ν) 2. it will happen he/she will go 5C–D: 7 1. 2. 4. 3. he will take they will become we shall be you (pl. ἰούσας. 8. τῶν μητέρων οὐσῶν. 3. he will stop. 6. they will set free ADDITIONAL FUTURE PATTERNS 5C–D: 4 νικῶμεν φιλεῖ κρατῶ (έω) ζητεῖτε ἐλευθεροῦσιν 1. 5. .68 Exercises for section 5C–D CONTRACT VERBS 5C–D: 3 1. ἔσεσθε 9. 5. κελεύσουσι(ν) πείσει πείσεται 4. you (pl. ἰουσῶν. 8. they will suffer they will persuade you (s. he will love 3. you (pl. 9.) will do they will destroy we prevent he will converse he will consider I shall show 5C–D: 5 1. γνωσόμεθα 4. ἔσται 3. 2. you (s. ἴμεν 10. 11. μαθήσομαι 8. λήψονται 7. 10. πρὸς τὰς τριήρεις οὔσας. 12.) will learn they will ﬁnd out he/she/it will be 7. 5. 4.
The father orders his son. I shall never hate the gods. a. i. The sophists will teach you tomorrow. κόψω … βοήσομαι Who wins the lawsuits? νικήσει The pupils do not stop learning. οἱ πατέρες ὄντες. ἀκουσόμεθα I am wise. δέξονται We do not hear the words. ϕιλήσει The idea saves us. d. ἰόντος. ταῖς θυγατράσιν οὔσαις. 5. . instruction the contestant in a lawsuit the juror ignorant an idea the house belonging to the house or family a sophist to do with teaching unjust I judge to do with learning I think I live in unfortunate I learn mind/sense I consider a household slave a little house the household or house wise wisdom I understand philosophy I love B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. b. ἰόντες. ἀπὸ τοῦ Περικλέους ὄντος. responsible/cause I blame I teach the teacher justice/ right just I do wrong I am unfortunate the pupil teaching. sir? λέξεις We do not teach the teachers. 2. f. διδάξομεν The men receive much money. κελεύσει What are you saying. j. παύσονται Who are the wise men? ἔσονται D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. c. 6. ἰόντα. oἱ νεανίαι τήμερον μαθήσονται τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. h. 4. g. this (man) does not defeat me. ἰούσαις REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5C–D A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. k.Revision exercises for section 5C–D 69 3. l. e. σώσει I knock at the door and shout. ἔσομαι … νικήσει The son does not love his father. ὁ ἀγαθὸς υἱὸς ἀεὶ ϕιλήσει τὸν πατέρα. τὸν Σωκράτη ὄντα.
The women will listen to the words. SLAVE DIK. ὁ μαθητὴς εἴσεισιν εἰς τὸν οἶκον/τὴν οἰκίαν. Slave. (d) present (d) n. 3.. in having such a clever slave. His mind is collecting words and is not in. O thrice blessed Euripides. stop teasing me. slave. dear Euripides.. Why is it impossible? Call Euripides. 4. Who is this? Who won’t stop calling me? You there! Who was shouting? Who? I was shouting. Euripides. boy? How can a man be in and not in? It is clear that you are talking nonsense. . writing a tragedy. How beautifully he speaks! But now. Don’t you hear? It’s me. s. and call him. E – TEST EXERCISE 5 DIKAIOPOLIS SLAVE DIK. if you get the idea. from the deme of Cholleidae.. I won’t go away. 2. οὖτος ὁ ἵππος οὐ παύσεται τρέχων. EXERCISE 1. (c) future (c) m. boy. οἱ σοϕοὶ ἔσονται δίκαιοι. But tell me: is Euripides in? He is not in and he is in. I was speaking correctly/ the truth. (a) imperfect (a) m. How do you mean. by Zeus. No... (b) imperfect (b) m. Dikaiopolis calling you. acc. but I will knock on the door and call Euripides again.70 Revision exercises for section 5C–D The sailors will not stop looking for the captain. But it is impossible. s. s. SLAVE DIK. nom. boy. nom. SLAVE DIK. s. 5. come here. The master will punish the slave.. but the man is in.. nom.
κόψω What tense? 12 τίς ὁ κόπτων. 25–26 ὁπόσους … πόδας ‘how many of its own feet’. ὦ ᾽γαθέ = ὦ ἀγαθέ. though in the experiment something slightly less monstrous is envisaged: ‘slippers’. 6A Page 63 3 ἔκοψε. how many ‘ﬂea-feet’? 30–31 πρῶτον μὲν … εἶτα … τέλος δέ … Three stages of the experiment. 115–118. You will ﬁnd that in most cases the aorist adds a sigma before the ending.(augment). perhaps.e. just as in the future. ‘Who is the one knocking?’ Note the use of the participle. but. #128–138. ‘monopoly’. the scholiast (ancient commentator) informs us that Chaerephon had shaggy eyebrows and that Socrates was bald. and ὀϕρύς is ‘an eyebrow’. ἐ(augment). ‘monarchy’. Page 64 17 ἐπαυσάμην Which person do you think this is? Cf. -σας (person-ending). (b) -σε in the ending.(as for imperfect). ἐπαύσατο The ﬁrst example of the middle aorist. please refer back to the note at the beginning of Section 5). -σατο (person-ending). as it is a past tense. and the lengthening of the stem vowel. like the imperfect. it will also have an augment. Note (a) the augment ἐ. 54. You may want to look at GE pp. 71 . ἐπαυόμην. 6 τίς ὢν σὺ τούτο ἐποίησας Literally ‘You being who did this?’ or ‘Who are you that you did this?’ (2nd singular aorist indicated by σύ). ‘monoplane’ etc. The contracted verb lengthens the stem vowel before adding the ending. 19 μόνοι ‘alone’. To explain the humour of the situation. just like the future. 35 ἐμβάδας Illustrated below. Note ἐ. and is here used in its basic sense of ‘bite’. Again. Cf. line 12). 5 ἔκοψα.Section Six In this section the aorist tense is introduced (if you are uncertain of terminology. 10 ποιήσω. note also that π + ς = ψ. δάκνει has occurred at the beginning of the section 5A (p. -σα (person-ending).(augment). Note ἐ. ἐβόησεν The ﬁrst examples of the aorist. 22 ψύλλα … ὀϕρύν There is no point in trying to guess here! ψύλλα is ‘a ﬂea’. i. ἐβόησα 1st person singular (as ἐγώ indicates).
40 ἐποίησαν Resumption of aorist endings. ἐ- (augment) and -σαν (person-ending). 42 ὡς ἔλεγον ‘as I was saying’. Notice the difference between the imperfect tense and the aorists which follow, ‘they made the wax warm etc.’
46–47 If the apparent lack of connection here is confusing, it is designed to convey the ignorance of Strepsiades. ‘Knowing the ﬂea’s leap’ = ‘being educated’, and if he’s educated, then he’s sure to win his lawsuits.
Translation for 6A
Strepsiades knocks at the door and shouts Boy! Young boy! S T U D E N T Go to hell. Who knocked at the door? Who shouted? STR. I knocked at the door and I shouted. STU. Who are you that you did that? Some ignoramus, I know well. STR. Strepsiades, from the deme Kikynna. STU. Go to hell, again. STR. Alas! What shall I do? Well, I’ll knock again. (He knocks at the door again.) STU. Who’s that knocking? Why did this fellow not stop knocking, when I told him to? Why are you knocking again? What do you have in mind? You’ve knocked away my thought [by] doing that. STR. But I’ve just stopped, my dear fellow. For you told me to. Don’t throw me out, although I’m a rustic and ignorant. But what was your thought? Tell me. STU. It isn’t right. Only the students learn these thoughts of the sophists. STR. Tell me then. For I have come to the thinkery as a student of the sophists. STU. I will tell you. A ﬂea bites Chaerephon’s eyebrow. When it jumps onto Socrates’ head, the men converse as follows. SOCRATES Look, Chaerephon. The ﬂea does not escape my notice being worthy of an Olympic crown. But tell [me], how many of its own feet did the ﬂea leap? CHAEREPHON I do not know, Socrates. But why don’t we measure the distance? SOC. How shall we measure it, Chaerephon? CHA. Look. First I take some wax, then I make the wax warm. Finally I put the ﬂea’s feet into the wax. SOC. What then? CHA. Now the wax is becoming cold. Look, Socrates: for the ﬂea has slippers. SOC. But what are you doing now? CHA. Now I am loosing the slippers. Look! STR. Ο king Zeus! Oh the wisdom of the men! But tell me, whatever did the men do, student? STU. You don’t escape my notice being a rustic, Strepsiades, not knowing anything. But as I was saying, ﬁrst they made the wax warm. Then they put the ﬂea’s feet into the wax. Finally they loosed the slippers and measured – of course – the distance.
Ο king Zeus! The men appear to be wise. Why then do we marvel at that [famous] Thales? Indeed I shall easily escape justice. For I shall know the ﬂea’s leap. Open, open the door!
1 θηρία GE gives ‘beasts’ – perhaps ‘monsters’ conveys the sense better. 4 οἱ … βλέποντες As before: article + participles = relative clause. 5 τὰ κατὰ γῆς As before: a very common idiom, using neuter plural of article + adjective/adjectival phrase. Literally ‘the things beneath the earth’. Here something like ‘subterranean phenomena’ might convey the meaning. 6 Strepsiades, of course, takes the words at face value: ‘They must be looking for trufﬂes.’ 7 πρωκτός If the students are bent double, what is pointing towards the heavens? 12 ἀστρονομία Possibly in the original production represented by some elaborate instrument. Likewise γεωμετρία (14). 15 The explanation of the original meaning of ‘geometry’, from γῆ ‘land’ and μετρέω ‘measure’. 19 περίοδος Both elements are known, ὁδός ‘journey’, περί ‘round’, hence the meaning ‘map’. 23 A stock joke in comedy was that Athens was litigation mad. Hence, to Strepsiades’ over-literal mind, a map couldn’t represent Athens without depicting a lawcourt and jurors. 30–31 Another over-literal interpretation: on the map Sparta looks too close, so Strepsiades suggests moving it further away. 35 κρεμάθρας See stage directions (line 34). 36 αὐτός ‘Himself’, ‘The Master’.
Translation for 6B
STREPSIADES STUDENT STR. STU. STR.
STU. STR. STU. STR.
Heracles! What are these monsters? Hey you! Why are you amazed? Why did you yell again? Are you amazed at these students? Yes, by Zeus, I am amazed. But what are these ones doing, who are looking into the ground? These are investigating subterranean phenomena. Then they are looking for trufﬂes. Don’t worry about it any more, monsters: I know where there are some lovely big ones. But who’s this? Why is his bottom looking towards the sky? Because his bottom is studying astronomy. Look! What’s this? Tell me! This is astronomy. And what’s this?
STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU.
Exercises for section 6A–B
Geometry. And what use is this? Tell [me]! With this we measure the land. This is a map of the world. Do you see? This is Athens. What are you saying? I don’t believe [you]: I don’t see any one of the jurors sitting. Where is my deme? It’s here. Do you see Euboea? I see [it]. But where does Sparta happen to be? Where? Here. Alas! Go away, go away! How near us Sparta is. But why don’t you drag this away from us a very long way? Impossible. By Zeus, you’ll regret it. But tell me, who’s this who is in the basket? Himself. Who’s Himself? Socrates.
At this point your chart should look like this:
Present Vowel stems Consonant stems κ, γ, χ π, β, ϕ τ, δ, θ most ζ μ, ν, λ, ρ most -ιζω Contracted verbs παύω εὔχομαι κόπτω πείθω θαυμάζω διαϕθείρω νομίζω ποιέω δηλόω τιμάω Future παύσω εὔξομαι κόψω πείσω θαυμάσω διαϕθερῶ (έω) νομιῶ (έω) ποιήσω δηλώσω τιμήσω Aorist ἔπαυσα ηὐξάμην ἔκοψα ἔπεισα ἐθαύμασα διέϕθειρα ἐνόμισα ἐποίησα ἐδήλωσα ἐτίμησα
Note once again that the aorist of contracted verbs has ‘ordinary’ endings -α, -ας, -ε … You will meet the aorists of the irregular verbs in the next section. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6A–B
THE AORIST 6A–B: 1
he sacriﬁced he ordered
they sacriﬁced they ordered
Exercises for section 6A–B
3. ἐκώλυσε(ν) 4. ἔλυσε(ν)
he hindered he set free
they hindered they set free
1. you (pl.) pray 2. they hit 3. he keeps quiet 4. we turn 5. I persuade
ηὔξασθε ἔτυψαν ἡσύχασε(ν) ἐτρεψάμεθα ἔπεισα
1. we defeated 2. he loved 3. I held power over 4. you (pl.) sought 5. they set free
νικῶμεν φιλεῖ κρατῶ (έω) ζητεῖτε ἐλευθεροῦσι(ν)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
ἤκουσε(ν) ἤκουσαν ἀνεχώρησε(ν) ἀνεχώρησαν ἠτίμασε(ν) ἠτίμασαν ἔβλεψε(ν) ἔβλεψαν ἐβόησε(ν) ἐβόησαν ἐδέξατο ἐδέξαντο ἐλύσατο ἐλύσαντο
he heard they heard he retreated they retreated he dishonoured they dishonoured he looked they looked he shouted they shouted he received they received he ransomed they set free
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
ἐδίδαξε(ν) ἐδίδαξαν ἐθαύμασε(ν) ἐθαύμασαν ἔθυσε(ν) ἔθυσαν ἐνίκησε(ν) ἐνίκησαν ἐθεάσατο ἐθεάσαντο ἐτρέψατο ἐτρέψαντο ἔκοψε(ν) ἔκοψαν ἐχώρησε(ν) ἐχώρησαν
he taught they taught he marvelled they marvelled he sacriﬁced they sacriﬁced he defeated they won he watched they watched he turned they turned he knocked they knocked he went they went
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
ἠκούσαμεν ἐδέξαντο ἀνεχώρησας ἐδίωξε(ν) ἐκόλασαν
6. ἐβόησατε 7. ἐνόμισε(ν) 8. ἐδήλωσα 9. ἔμειναν 10. διέφθειραν
Revision exercises for section 6A–B
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6A–B
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
a. Who is knocking at the door? ἔκοψε(ν) b. Who is going into the thinkery? ἐχώρησε(ν) c. But I knock again and do not stop knocking. ἔκοψα, ἐπαυσάμην d. I will tell you. ἔλεξα, εἶπον e. Finally we shall release the slipper. ἐλύσαμεν f. Why do we admire that Thales? ἐθαυμάσαμεν 2. a. The ﬂea leaps onto Socrates’ head. ἐπήδησεν b. But how will you measure, Chaerephon? ἐμέτρησας c. Finally we measure the distance. ἐμετρήσαμεν d. These are seeking things below the ground and do not stop seeking. ἐζήτησαν, ἐπαύσαντο e. What does the matter reveal, Socrates? ἐδήλωσε(ν) 3. a. αὐδάω they spoke f. ὠθέω I pushed b. ἐλπίζω you (s.) hoped g. ἐρωτάω they asked c. ὁμολογέω you (pl.) agreed h. οἰκέω I lived, dwelt d. ἡγέομαι I considered, led i. ἀσπάζομαι they greeted e. ἄρχομαι they began j. ἐκπέμπω he sent out 4.
imperfect ἐκέλευον ἐκώλυον ἐπαυόμην ἔβλεπον ἔκοπτον ἔκρυπτον ἐδεχόμην ἐδίωκον ἔπραττον ἠτίμαζον ἐκόλαζον ἔσπευδον διέφθειρον ἔμενον ἠπόρουν ἐδήλουν ἐμίσουν ἐνίκων future κελεύσω κωλύσω παύσομαι βλέψω κόψω κρύψω δέξομαι διώξω πράξω ἀτιμάσω κολάσω σπεύσω διαφθερέω μενέω ἀπορήσω δηλώσω μισήσω νικήσω aorist ἐκέλευσα ἐκώλυσα ἐπαυσάμην ἔβλεψα ἔκοψα ἔκρυψα ἐδεξάμην ἐδίωξα ἔπραξα ἠτίμασα ἐκόλασα ἔσπευσα διέφθειρα ἔμεινα ἠπόρησα ἐδήλωσα ἐμίσησα ἐνίκησα
present κελεύω κωλύω παύομαι βλέπω κόπτω κρύπτω δέχομαι διώκω πράττω ἀτιμάζω κολάζω σπεύδω διαφθείρω μένω ἀπορέω δηλόω μισέω νικάω
but the imperfect uses the present stem. 2. 5. ὁ γεωργὸς ἐβόησε καὶ ἔκοψε τὴν θύραν. ἐπαύσαντο βλέποντες τοὺς ἵππους. 6C New in this section is the second aorist. Notice the word order in πῶς δ’ ἤκουσάς με ὡς σοϕός εἰμι. most verbs have either a ﬁrst or a second aorist: they are not alternative forms for the same verb. ἦλθες 2nd singular of the second aorist. καίπερ σοϕὸς ὤν. again as in English. Even though they were wicked.is the second aorist stem of ἔρχομαι. ‘short-lived’. First aorist. As you meet them. which still has the augment but it is added to a stem changed in some way – compare English ‘irregular’ past tenses (e. future. The suppliant did not respect/honour the goddess.Section 6C 77 D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. and aorist). the neighbours did not punish the young man.g. 2. Second aorist. which has an augment at the beginning of the word and sufﬁx at the end – compare English ‘regular’ past tenses adding ‘-d’ or ‘-ed’ to the present stem (e. #144–146. 4. ὁ δίκαιος.is the second aorist stem of λέγω. ‘How did you hear me that I am wise?’ or ‘How did you hear that I was wise?’ . The woman looked for her son. ὁ σοϕιστὴς οὐκ ἔπεισε τοὺς σοϕοὺς νεανίας. while the aorist has its own stem which is always different from the present stem. 6 ὦ ἐϕήμερε ἐϕήμερος has been met in section 4A (p. Note that. 46. This is the sort you have just learned. make a list of these verbs with their principal parts (present. Don’t they know that you did this job easily? ἆρ’ οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅτι σὺ/ὑμεῖς ἡδέως ταύτην τὴν γνώμην ἐδέξω/ἐδέξασθε. ‘walk’. see GE pp.g. Here Socrates uses it for comic effect. The aorist tense in Greek is formed in one of two ways: 1. ‘slept’). ἐθαύμασε τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. 124–126. Literally. ‘sleep’. 3. She stopped looking at the stranger. line 33) with the meaning ‘ephemeral’. The endings are the same as those for the imperfect. Page 68 2 ἐλθέ You have met this already (in fact. 8 εἰπέ εἰπ. ἐλθ. three of the most irregular past stems have been introduced). ‘walked’).
11–16 The content is repeated from earlier in the chapter, but note the presence of second aorists – ἔδακε (second aorist of δάκνω), ἤρου (second aorist of ἐρωτάω), ἐλάβετε (second aorist of λαμβάνω), ἐγένετο (second aorist of γίγνομαι), and ἔθετε (aorist of τίθημι, a verb which you have not yet learned in detail). 18 εἶδον ἰδ- is the second aorist stem of ὁράω. 19–20 πόθεν ὢν τυγχάνεις ‘Where do you happen to come from?’ 27 ἐξευρίσκεις εὑρίσκω has perfect tense ηὕρηκα, familiar from Archimedes’ cry on discovering the principle of displacement. Second aorist stem εὑρ- is met in the next line. 29–30 ἔμαθον, ἔτυχε Second aorists respectively of μανθάνω, τυγχάνω.
Translation for 6C
The student goes away. Strepsiades calls Socrates.
STREPSIADES SOCRATES SRT. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR.
SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
Socrates! Dear little Socrates! Come here! Who called? Who forced his way into the thinkery of the sophists? I shouted, Strepsiades from the deme Kikynna. But I didn’t force my way into the thinkery. Why call’st thou me, Ο creature of the day? For what purpose have you come? I have come as a student into the thinkery. For I have already heard that you are wise. Tell me, who said that? How did you hear that I was wise? One of the students said this. What did the student say? Tell [me]. The student said that a ﬂea bit Chaerephon’s eyebrow. Then it jumped onto your head. You asked Chaerephon how many of its own feet the ﬂea leapt. You measured it thus: ﬁrst you took the ﬂea and put it into warm wax. When the wax became cold, the ﬂea had Persian slippers. Then you measured the distance. I have never seen anything so wise. You have never seen anything so wise? But where do you actually come from? Kikynna. You did not escape my notice being a rustic, and ignorant. Don’t blame me. But tell me, what are you doing in that basket, Socrates? I am walking on air and contemplating the sun. Why are you doing that from a basket and not from the ground? What are you discovering or learning, being in a basket? I never discovered meteoric phenomena nor learnt anything, looking from the ground. For the earth happened to prevent thought.
The second part of your verb chart should now look like this:
Irregular verbs present μανθάνω λαμβάνω γίγνομαι future μαθήσομαι λήψομαι γενήσομαι aorist ἔμαθον ἔλαβον ἐγενόμην
and you should also have added:
ἔρχομαι ὁράω εὑρίσκω εἶμι ὄψομαι εὑρήσω ἦλθον εἶδον ηὗρον
Remember to add other verbs with second aorists to the list as you meet them.
This section contains mainly further practice in second aorist stems: these have been given in vocabularies so (it is hoped) they should pose few problems.
3–5 4 6 7 10–12 12 πάσχεις … ἔπαθον The question–answer format may help to link these two. ἔλαθον Second aorist of λανθάνω, cf. λαμβάνω, ἔλαβον. λήψονται Irregular future of λαμβάνω. ἕτερον ‘one of two’. Cf. line 8 πότερον ‘which of two?’ τί δράσω ‘What shall I do?’ is answered by ὅ τι; ‘What?’ κατακλίνηθι An irregular imperative form. The -κλιν- (Latin clin-) stem may guide you towards the meaning ‘lie down’ (‘recline’), and the noun κλίνη is anticipated in the stage directions ‘couch’. λήσω Irregular future of λανθάνω. ἔχεις τι ‘Do you have something?’ meaning ‘Have you an idea/suggestion?’, but the literal translation is probably better to lead into the vulgarity which follows. γυναῖκα ϕαρμακίδα ‘a woman sorceress’, a ‘witch’ in the sense of a woman with supernatural powers. In ancient Greece the months were lunar, and interest was due at the start of the month when the moon rose. Thus no moon = no month = no interest due. In the original, Socrates is more impressed with Strepsiades’ reasoning than the abrupt termination to this chapter would suggest.
Translation for 6D
20 28 38 38–43
But, Socratikins, why don’t you come down? For I have come into the thinkery because, owing much money, I am in debt.
Exercises for section 6C–D
SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
But how did you become a debtor? How do you suffer this? I escaped my own notice having a horse-mad son. So I became a debtor. And I suffered this through horse-fever and my son. For my creditors always exact justice, and unless I do something they will always exact [justice]. So teach me one of your arguments. One of my arguments? Which do you mean? The greater or the lesser? I mean the unjust one, the lesser, the one stopping debts. For this argument will win lawsuits, the greater won’t. What shall I do? What? First lie down on the couch. Then think out some way out of your affairs. Alas for me! The bedbugs will exact their penalty today. You there, what are you doing? Aren’t you thinking? I? [Yes] by Poseidon. And what did you think? Whether I shall escape the bedbugs, which are biting me terribly. You are talking rubbish. But the fellow’s silent. What’s he doing? (He addresses Strepsiades.) You there, are you asleep? By Apollo, I am not. Do you have something? By Zeus, I haven’t. Nothing at all? I have my penis in my right hand. To hell with you! Don’t joke, fellow. Socratikins! What, old man? I have an idea. Tell [me] your idea. I shall take a witch woman and I shall steal the moon by night. What are you saying? You will steal the moon? Tell [me] – how is this useful? How? Listen. The creditors lend money by the month. So I will steal the moon. The moon will no longer rise. How then will the creditors take their money? To hell with you! You are a peasant and ignorant. I will not teach you any longer, since you are ignorant. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6C–D
THE SECOND AORIST 6C–D: 1
1. εἶπε(ν), εἶπον 2. ἔλαβε(ν), ἔλαβον 3. ἔμαθε(ν), ἔμαθον 4. ἦλθε(ν), ἦλθον
he, they spoke he, they took he, they learned he, they went
Revision exercises for section 6C–D
5. ἐγένετο, ἐγένοντο 6. ἔδραμε(ν), ἔδραμον 7. ηὗρε(ν), ηὗρον 8. εἶδε(ν), εἶδον 9. ἔτυχε(ν), ἔτυχον 10. ἔσχε(ν), ἔσχον
he, they became he, they ran he, they found he, they saw he, they happened to… he, they had
1. 2. 3. 4.
ἐγένοντο εἴδομεν ηὗρες ἔλαβε(ν)
5. 6. 7. 8.
ἤλθετε εἶπες ἔμαθον ἔδραμον
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6C–D
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
βιασα- ἐβιασάμην κλεψα- ἔκλεψα θαυμασα- ἐθαύμασα διδαξα- ἐδίδαξα δεξα- ἐδεξάμην ϕιλησα- ἐϕίλησα δηλωσα- ἐδήλωσα 2. μαθ- ἔμαθον ἐλθ- ἦλθον ἐξευρ- ἐξηῦρον διελθ- διῆλθον 3. I saw (ὁράω) I said (λέγω) I escaped notice (λανθάνω) I found (εὑρίσκω) I learned (μανθάνω) I went (ἔρχομαι) I became (γίγνομαι) I suffered (πάσχω)
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
The sailors said that the captain had ﬁnally learned the truth. ὁ μαθητὴς εἶπεν ὅτι ἐξηῦρεν ὁπόσον ἐστὶ/ἦν τὸ χωρίον. 2. The young men happen to be suffering terribly. ὁ γεωργὸς ἔτυχεν ἀμαθὴς ὤν. 3. The suppliants ran into the temple/shrine. ὁ γέρων ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὴν πόλιν.
Summary exercises for section 6
The women saw the moon. ὁ πατὴρ ἄδικος ἐγένετο. You (pl.) took the money because of your debts. οὐκ ἔλαθές με ἄγροικος ὤν.
SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
impossible power I am able I force forceful force I do drama I am amazed amazing wonder horse-mad I am mad madness horse horsey horsemanship I steal thief theft All in the right-hand column are diminutives. old man little old man child baby door little door house little house father daddy Socrates Socratikins Pheidippides Pheidippidikins
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
When the Persian army and ﬂeet approach (προσῆλθον), the Athenians quickly embark (εἰσέβαινον) on their ships and sail (ἔπλευσαν) towards Salamis. Then the Athenians and the other Greeks keep quiet (ἡσύχαζον). Finally the Persian ﬂeet arrives (ἀϕίκετο) and when night comes (ἐγένετο), the ships sail (ἔπλευσαν) slowly this way and that. And when day comes (ἐγένετο), the Persians approach (προσῆλθον) quickly for a sea-battle, the Greeks are at a loss (ἠπόρησαν) and afraid (ἐϕοβοῦντο). Finally they are no longer afraid (ἐϕοβοῦντο) but are daring (ἐτόλμων) and advance (ἐπῆλθον) against the barbarians. So they ﬁght (ἐμάχοντο) in good order and defeat (ἐνίκησαν) the barbarians. And Xerxes also ﬂees (ἔϕυγε). In this way the Greeks become (ἐγένοντο) free through their courage.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
γέρων δέ τις καὶ ὁ υἱός, νεανίας ὤν, διελέγοντο περὶ χρημάτων. ὁ δὲ νεανίας ἔτυχεν ὀϕείλων πολλὰ χρήματα. καὶ διὰ ταῦτα, οἱ χρῆσται οὐκ ἐπαύοντο διώκοντες τὸν πατέρα. ὁ δὲ πατὴρ οὐκ ἐκόλαζε τὸν υἱόν (ἡ γὰρ μήτηρ ἔπαυεν αὐτὸν κολάζοντα) ἀλλὰ διενοεῖτο μηχανήν/γνώμην δεινήν τινα. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ πατὴρ ἔπεισε τὸν υἱόν, ὁ νεανίας πειθόμενος ἦλθε πρὸς τοὺς σοϕιστὰς καὶ πολλὰ ἔμαθεν. οἱ γὰρ σοϕισταὶ ἀεὶ ἔπειθον αὐτόν, καὶ πολλὰ καὶ σοϕὰ
καὶ οὐκ ἐπαύετο παίζων πρὸς τὸν πατέρα. FATHER MOTHER You. Finally the young man went into the thinkery of the sophists and became a student. (a) vocative (b) imperfect (e) aorist (b) f. οὗτος οὖν ὁ υἱὸς μανθάνων ταχέως τὸν δίκαιον καὶ τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. For my son will win the lawsuits through the unjust argument. and we shall escape our creditors. appear to be responsible for my troubles. But don’t worry about it. ἀεὶ τὰς δίκας ἐνίκα. acc. Hurrah hurrah! For now the creditors will not get their money any longer. s.Summary exercises for section 6 83 ἐδίδασκον καὶ πολλὰ χρήματα ἐδέχοντο. E – TEST EXERCISE 6 A young man happened to owe much money because of his horse-fever. the father said: FA. αὕτη ἡ γνώμη οὐκ ἔπαυε τὰ χρέα τὰ τοῦ πατρός. nom. nor did their son stop being horse-mad. So. For I have an idea. But [despite] teaching and persuading. s. husband. When the son learnt the just and the unjust argument. pl. He saw and heard many wise things. which is stronger. ἀλλὰ ἐμίσει. while the father was always defending the lawsuits of his creditors. So the father and mother converse. except you? Who made our son horse-mad. and by persuading [him] I will stop [him] from his horse-madness. the mother did not stop the young man. ὁ γὰρ νεανίας οὐκ ἐϕίλει τὸν πατέρα. EXERCISE 1. As you are ignorant and a yokel. except you? Now what shall I do? How shall I stop our debts? You are responsible. the creditors pursued him and did not stop exacting their dues. acc. (a) aorist (d) present (g) aorist (a) m. the young man does not love you or obey you. 3. 2. and the sophists taught him much. (b) genitive (c) imperfect (f) future (c) m. wife. I will persuade and teach our son. For who took our son and talked to him about horses. . τέλος δὲ ὁ γέρων ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν. ἀλλὰ ἐπεὶ ὁ υἱὸς ἐπανῆλθεν οἴκαδε. ἄγροικον ὄντα. but since I am from the city he loves me particularly.
#153. 135. In the ﬁrst (7A–C). ἰέναι. 3 οὐ βουλόμεθα διαβάλλειν σε ‘we don’t want to slander you’: βούλομαι + the inﬁnitive – a very common pattern. 142–145. εἰδέναι. 11 που The particle means something like ‘I suppose’. 135. In the second (7D–F) you will meet the typical style of the Platonic dialogue. rather different from the style you have met before. ἐγένοντο Tense? 6 ϕανοῦμαι Tense? ὅτι οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἢ τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγειν βούλομαι ‘that I want to speak nothing other than the truth’. 8 εἰδέναι Learn carefully to distinguish the three inﬁnitives εἶναι. 4 διέβαλον. and then in 7D the aorist participle is introduced (GE pp. 134–135. But once you adapt. You will ﬁnd the style of these passages.Section Seven: Socrates and intellectual inquiry This is another very important section which introduces some more extremely valuable grammar: inﬁnitives in 7A (GE pp. #152. GE p. #150–152). 7A–C Plato: Apology 20c–23b 7A Page 74 1 ἐρωτῶσιν οὖν τινες ‘some people ask. which are only slightly adapted from the original. almost colloquial style. Make sure that you read the ‘Introduction’ to each passage so that you understand the context. you will ﬁnd some rhetorical features mixed with a discursive. #162–166). and in the third (7G–H) you will meet the narrative style that Herodotus uses in his History. therefore …’: a typical rhetorical device which allows the speaker to pose the question which he wants to answer. you will enjoy the variation and will have acquired a new skill. reﬂecting a technical philosophical argument. although it is literally the indeﬁnite form of ποῦ ‘where?’ 84 . You may ﬁnd that it takes you a little while to get used to these changes of style and at ﬁrst the Greek may seem more difﬁcult. taken from Plato’s version of Socrates’ defence at his trial (see Introduction). 10 ἀνάγκη ἐστί … See GE p.
7B Page 76 1–2 λέγει … λέγων You may want to translate this as ‘What does the god mean when he says?’ 5 πολὺν μὲν χρόνον ‘for a long time’. Do you want to know what this wisdom is? As witness. in reality. I suppose.136–138. He was my companion from childhood. gentlemen! For. ὦvδρες = ὦ ἄvδρες. for perhaps I shall appear to be joking. why are these men slandering you? What do they have in mind? From where do these slanders arise and this reputation of yours? Speak.138–139. I want to bring the god at Delphi. ‘He thought he was wise. For we do not want to slander you. For there is great necessity for the god to speak the truth. Do not make a din. and the Pythia answered that no one is wiser. he asked whether there is anyone wiser than Socrates.’ ἐπειρώμην ‘I tried’: the imperfect of πειράομαι. indeed.’ Therefore I want to explain to you and tell you why these men slandered me and from where the slanders and this reputation arose. You know Chaerephon. then. he was not. ἔδοξέ γε σοϕὸς εἶναι. though. Accusative of duration of time. And Chaerephon once reasoned thus to himself. I happen to have this reputation on account of some kind of wisdom.’ Note the use of the participle. gentlemen of Athens. We might say ‘who was a politician’. Lit. not being. And know well that I do not want to joke with you.Section 7B 85 14 σοϕώτερος ἤ … ‘wiser than …’ See GE p. For. But I want to know if anyone is wiser than Socrates. #155–160 for comparison of adjectives. Translation for 7A Some people therefore are asking ‘But. For perhaps Socrates is the wisest of men. 18 μὴ θορυβεῖτε The jurors are reacting unfavourably. I know well. 10 ᾤμην Tense? Verb? The vocabulary will tell you. but you must be assured (know well) that I wish to speak nothing but the truth. And indeed it is necessary for the god to speak the truth. and explain to us. This is a frequent plea by orators who are battling to be heard.: ‘I turned myself towards’. What then must I do? It is clear that I must go to Delphi and consult the oracle. ‘That Socrates is wise. and you know how impetuous Chaerephon was about everything. οὐκ ὤν ‘He thought he was wise.’ So Chaerephon went to Delphi and he obtained this oracle in the presence of the god. . ἠπόρουν What verb? What tense? ἐτραπόμην Second aorist middle of τρέπω. For the god at Delphi will bear witness to my wisdom. 14–15 τί οὖv ποιεῖv με δεῖ ‘What is it necessary for me to do? ‘What must I do?’ 17 ᾔει What verb does this come from? See vocabulary and GE pp. σοϕώτατος ‘wisest’. Listen then. Socrates. 9 πολιτικόν τινα ὄντα Agrees with τοῦτον τὸν σοϕόν and refers to him. #161.
And the man. For this man thinks that he knows something. he and many of those present began to hate me. note on 6C line 8. 77. but by instinct and inspiration.86 Section 7B 10–11 ἀποϕαίνειν αὐτὸν δοκοῦντα σοϕὸν εἶναι. though they had none. as I thought. For indeed they say many beautiful things. the poets thought that they had knowledge. . to myself. but I. Apollo. So. while those who thought they knew nothing were wiser. And when I tried to show him that he considered himself to be wise. 16 ᾖα Cf. lines 10 and 11. though he knows nothing’. So I went away from there thinking that I was wiser than the poets. Cf. considered himself to be wise. gentlemen. I went to the poets. I reasoned in this way to myself: ‘What does the god wish to say? For I know that I am not wise. εἰδώς -οτος This is the participle of οἶδα. said that I was the wisest. line 11. See p. by the dog. I reasoned that ‘I am wiser than this man. Therefore I went to a wise man (at least he thought he was wise). 12–13 οὗτος δοκεῖ τι εἰδέναι.’ This is a very common pattern of word order in Greek.’ And for a long time I was at a loss to know what he meant. What then does the god mean when he says that I am the wisest and that no one is wiser? It cannot be that he is lying. I went to another wise man and he too thought that he knew something. though when he wasn’t’. And. though he knew nothing. but nevertheless I must tell it. who was a politician. Cf. those who thought that they knew something were more foolish. and then I turned to a search [to ﬁnd out] whether the god was speaking the truth or not. As a result of this (from this) that man and others of those present hated me. For I did not want to be in doubt about the oracle. For I wanted to test the oracle and to show that ‘You. though they were not. 11 πολλοὶ τῶν παρόντων ‘many of those present’.’ Therefore I spoke with this wise man. And. And I am ashamed to tell the truth. For the poets do not make up their poems by wisdom. 23 ἀπῇα What verb? What tense? Translation for 7B When I heard this. though he was not. if you are stuck. at the same time. through their poetry. 21–22 τοὺς δὲ λόγους τούτους οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅ τι νοοῦσιν ‘they do not know these words what they mean’ – ‘they do not know what these words mean. οὐδὲν εἰδώς ‘this man thinks he knows something. οὐκ ὄντα ‘to show him that he thought he was wise. for it is not lawful for him. but this man is wiser. though he was not. and they thought they were the wisest of men. note on 7A line 17. like the prophets and soothsayers. For after the politicians. After this. do not think that I know anything. line 13.’ From there. which can be difﬁcult for speakers of English. I went to the others who thought that they knew something. It is necessary for the god to speak nothing but the truth. though he knows nothing. but they do not know what these words mean. ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄλλους τοὺς δοκοῦντάς τι εἰδέναι Cf. as I thought. though I know nothing.
For young men are arrogant and very much enjoy examining their elders. in fact. ἰέναι. For they do not wish. #152 and the past tense of εἶμι ‘I shall go’. arose the slanders against me. that they have been revealed as thinking that they know something.Section 7C 87 7C Page 78 4 τοιοῦτον πάθος ἐϕαίνοντο οἱ ποιηταί πάσχοντες ‘such an experience the poets seemed to be suffering’. as I think. but not wishing to seem to be at a loss. enjoy listening to my words and often try to examine others in the way that I do. . knowing many things the craftsmen were wiser than I. #161. From this search. like the other sophists. which are serious. though they were not. who are wealthy and have most leisure. and what they actually know. moreover. For I knew that I knew nothing and that the craftsmen knew many beautiful things. they considered that because of their skill/art they were the wisest in many other respects. but know little or nothing. And. 135.’ But I want to ask ‘How does Socrates corrupt the young men? What does he do or what does he teach to corrupt them?’ And they have nothing to say. ‘they can say nothing’. as I think. in the course of examining them. Such was the experience which both the poets and the craftsmen were clearly experiencing. But. the young men. #159. as I thought.139. 13–14 ἔχουσι μὲν οὐδὲν λέγειν ἐκεῖνοι ‘they have nothing to say’. Note also the irregular comparative forms. Translation for 7C Finally I went to the craftsmen (artists). Grammar Do not forget to learn εἶναι. εἰδέναι. 17 κατάδηλοι ‘obvious’ – the preﬁx κατα. they discover a great number of those who consider that they know something. when. those who think that they know something become angry and say that ‘Socrates is a most disgraceful person and corrupts the young men. GE p. εἰδότων δ’ ὀλίγα ἢ οὐδέν ‘They ﬁnd a large number of those who …’ Note μέν … δέ making the contrast between what people think they know. τοιοῦτον πάθος is the object of πάσχοντες: ‘such was the experience they seemed to be experiencing’. Therefore. to tell the truth. Socrates teaches ‘the things in the air and the things beneath the earth’ and ‘not to believe in the gods’ and ‘to make the weaker argument the stronger’. GE p. GE p. Therefore.sometimes simply adds emphasis. they know nothing. 137. gentlemen of Athens. they say that. as a result of this. and my reputation. 9–10 εὑρίσκουσι πολὺ πλήθος τῶν δοκούντων μέν τι εἰδέναι. And.
8. 4. the worst women τὸ κάλλιον. best goddess αἱ πλείονες. ἀρίστης θεᾶς of the better. 2. δηλοτάτη ἀνομία the clearer. safest harbours 3. πολεμιώτατον ναύτην the more hostile. ὑμῖν ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ μανθάνειν COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE OF ADJECTIVES 7A–C: 3 1. ‘the huge majority of’) οἱ μείζονες. 3. φαίνεται νομίζειν 4. βεβαιοτάτων λιμένων of the safer. 5. διαβάλλειν εὑρίσκειν πειρᾶσθαι εἰδέναι δηλοῦν λογίζεσθαι 7. most hostile sailor 2. 8. 10. 11. 6. πολεμιωτάτῳ ναύτῃ to.88 Exercises for section 7A–C EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7A–C PRESENT INFINITIVE 7A–C: 1 1. 9. βούλονται πιστεύειν 3. δεῖ με. θαυμάζειν πείθεσθαι δέχεσθαι ποιεῖν μανθάνειν λαμβάνειν 7A–C: 2 1. 5. best goddess 1. greatest kings τὰς κακίονας. 3. 4. most beautiful city ἡ δηλoτέρα. 18. ὑμᾶς παρεῖναι 6. safest harbours τὴν ἀμείνονα. πλεῖσται νῆες more ships. κάλλιστον ἄστυ the more beautiful. τόν πολεμιώτερον. ἀνάγκη ἐστὶν ἀπιέναι 8. most ships (αἱ technically makes this ‘the great majority of’. 15. βούλομαι ἰέναι 2. ἡμᾶς. τὸν Σωκράτη δεῖ διδάσκειν 7. most obvious lawlessness 7A–C: 4 τῷ πολεμιωτέρῳ. παρεῖναι νομίζειν ἰέναι κλέπτειν ἀπιέναι βιάζεσθαι 13. 16. τῆς ἀμείνονος. τῶν βεβαιοτέρων. 17. κάκιστας γυναῖκας the more wicked. φαίνονται διαβάλλειν 5. μέγιστοι βασιλῆς the greater. most hostile sailor τοὺς βεβαιοτέρους. 7. . 6. 12. ἀρίστην θεάν the better. 14. for the more hostile. βεβαιοτάτους λιμένας the safer. 2.
d. τῇ κακίονι. ἰέναι 4. worst woman 6. εὑρίσκειν 3. 2. PAST OF εἶμι I SHALL GO 7A–C: 5 4. The wise men seem to know something. διαλέγεσθαι 10. διαϕθείρειν 2. 1. δοκεῖν 8. Socrates. and not slander Socrates. You must tell the truth. ᾖτε 10. most beautiful city. εἰσί(ν) 8. ᾔεισθα 11. 3. ἦμεν 9. 1. for the worse. ἀνάγκη ἦν Σωκράτη ἰέναι πρὸς τοὺς σοϕοὺς καὶ διαλέγεσθαι περὶ σοϕίας. as I see it. λέγειv 6. ἐσμέν 12. e. δεῖ ὑμᾶς τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγειν. καλλίστου ἄστεως of the more beautiful. It was necessary for Socrates to go to the wise men and talk about wisdom [with them]. b. ἦσαν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7A–C B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1a.Revision exercises for section 7A–C 89 τοῖς μείζοσι. κακίστῃ γυναικί to. ἀποϕαίνειν 9. . c. ἀλλ᾽ εἶναι. Σωκράτης. Socrates wanted to discover whether the god in Delphi was telling the truth or not. 5. οὐκ εἰδότες. 4. διαβάλλειν 7. οὐ πειρᾶται διαϕθείρειν τοὺς νέους. f. καὶ μὴ διαβάλλειν Σωκράτη. We do not want to seem the best. τοῦ καλλίονος. 6. is not trying to corrupt the young men. εἰδέναι 1b. εἶναι 5. Σωκράτης ἐβούλετο εὑρίσκειν πότερον τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγει ὁ ἐν Δελϕοῖς θεὸς ἢ οὔ. oὐ βουλόμεθα δοκεῖν ἄριστοι. but to be the best. καὶ πολλάκις ἐπειρᾶτο Σωκράτης δηλοῦν τὸν θεὸν οὐ τἀληθῆ λέγοντα. oἱ σοϕοὶ δοκοῦσί τι εἰδέναι. greatest kings 5. μεγίστοις βασιλεῦσι to. ὡς ἐγὼ οἶμαι. although they do not. for the greater. ᾖμεν ἦμεν ἴασι(ν) ἐστί(ν) ᾔει εἶσι(ν) 7. a. And Socrates often tried to show that the god was not telling the truth.
δεῖ σε ἐξετάζειν ἐμὲ καὶ ἀκριβῶς σκοπεῖν. 142–145. Kleinias. 2. or not?’ 7 ἦ δ᾽ ὅς ‘he said’ Page 80 8 εἶεv ‘so be it’. 7D–F Plato: Euthydemos 275–277c Here you meet the dialogue style of Plato. We know that the king wanted to punish the herald. καίπερ οὐδὲν εἰδώς. and having listened …’ . GE p. #162. although you are a teacher. Another very common feature of dialogue style.90 Section 7D 2. 17 ἀκούσας Nom. part. ‘well all right then’. ἀκούσας δέ … ‘Listen then.142. Note the ‘echo’ effect: ἄκουε οὖν. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν ἐδόκουν τοὺς νέους διαϕθείρειν. The farmers must go to the city. ‘or not?’ In Platonic dialogue most questions are asked in the form ‘Is X true. πειρῶμαι εὑρίσκειν ὅπως οἱ ποιηταὶ τὴν σοϕίαν ἀποϕαίνουσιν.. ὦ Kλεινία. act. The women are trying to watch the play. GE pp. We must make sacriﬁces and pray to the gods. You seem to be stupid. 4. #162–166. 3. ἀγαθός ἀμείνων ἄριστος βέβαιος βεβαιότερος βεβαιότατος δεινός δεινότερος δεινότατος κακός κακίων κάκιστος καλός καλλίων κάλλιστος μέγας μείζων μέγιστος μῶρος μωρότερος μωρότατος πολέμιος πολεμιώτερος πολεμιώτατος πολύς πλείων πλεῖστος ϕίλος ϕίλτερος ϕίλτατος χρήσιμος χρησιμώτερος χρησιμώτατος D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. aor. ἔδει με πρὸς τοὺς ποιητὰς ἰέναι. Note that the aorist participle is formed from the aorist stem. and the aorist participle. 7D Page 79 5 ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ ‘I said’ these phrases only occur in direct speech and are very common in Platonic dialogue 6 ἢ οὔ. masc. οἶσθα/ἴστε ὅτι ἐβούλου/ἐβουλόμεθα διαβάλλειν ἐμέ. s. 5.
For his friends often go to him.’ Kleinias said: ‘I will do this and answer. But the young man must answer. Kriton. ᾖσμεν Cf. γελάσας δέ … Cf. ὁμολογέω is another common word in Plato. ᾖστε What verb does this come from? See vocab. turning men to philosophy. For it is by speaking and questioning that a sophist turns his students to virtue. Socrates. and GE p. but answer boldly. and they always question him closely while he is speaking and answering. and I found Euthydemos and Dionysodoros conversing with many others.’ ‘But’. I said. ‘So be it’. line 6. ‘Then you must turn this young man to philosophy and virtue.Section 7E 91 18 21 23 27 ἀποκρινοῦμαι Tense? Cf. For I enjoy answering. wanting to hear their arguments. And being at a loss he looked at me and blushed. But why don’t you question the young man closely. seeing him blush. Euthydemos. I said: ‘Do you. asking questions and discussing. ‘are they … or …?’ … ἠπόρησεν. Kleinias.’ And Euthydemos said: ‘Listen then. For while Dionysodoros was saying this. . Speak then. talking here in front of us?’ Euthydemos immediately answered boldly: ‘We are certainly willing to talk here. 11 πάνυ γε ‘certainly’. he said.’ I did not answer. 7E Page 81 3 6 7 10 ὡμολόγει ‘he agreed’. the clever or the ignorant?’ And the young man – for it really was a big question – was at a loss. ἀποκρίνομαι. Translation for 7D Yesterday I went to the Lyceum. Dionysodoros. Socrates’. line 17. I. He is young. have a reputation for turning people to philosophy and virtue or not?’ ‘We certainly seem to. πότεροι … ἤ … A double question. thus ἀ-μαθεῖς. ‘the fact is that. and don’t be afraid.146. Therefore. and answer when you have listened. lines 17 and 23. They call him Kleinias. Kleinias. enjoys answering. ἀμαθεῖς You can work out the meaning from μανθάνω and then make it negative with ἀ-.’ And at this moment Dionysodoros laughed and with a laugh said: ‘Indeed I know very well that Euthydemos will defeat him in discussion. I said. which people learn. said: ‘Don’t worry..’ And Euthydemos said: ‘Tell me then. And you know that both these men have a good reputation. Kleinias happened to answer that the people who learn are the clever people. #167. … ἐγέλασεν. and question me. ἀπορήσας δ᾽ … Cf.
‘And when the teacher was teaching you as children. ‘I said’ (GE pp. ‘Then it is the clever who learn. #167). . 146. part… . when you were pupils you knew nothing. ἔϕην ‘I say’. Kleinias. or someone else?’ He agreed that the teacher teaches those who learn. were silent. the teacher. Who learns these words. ‘Therefore. Kleinias? Let’s suppose the teacher speaks some words. 146–147. we were certainly not clever since we knew nothing’. ‘Then it is the ignorant who learn. σϕαῖρα = ‘sphere’. #168). by Zeus! For since we were pupils we knew nothing. falling into perplexity.’ At this point the students.92 Section 7F 12 ἄρα This particle shows that you are reaching the climax of the argument – see also in line 14. he said: ‘What then. And Dionysodoros at once caught up the argument. indic… . when you knew nothing?’ ‘No. Translation for 7E And Euthydemos said: ‘But who teaches those who learn. were you ignorant?’ ‘Certainly. if you were not clever. ‘And when you were pupils. the clever or the ignorant?’ ‘The clever. said Kleinias. were you pupils?’ He agreed they were. and you did not answer well just now. Grammar Do not forget to learn ᾔδη.’ said Kleinias. as you believe. and. praised this cleverness. and ϕημί. immediately praised this cleverness. ὥσπερ σϕαῖραν ‘just like a ball’. The students. 7 ἄρα Climax again. But we. but being ignorant you were learning?’ The young man agreed. like a ball. but not the ignorant.’ 7F Page 82 2 ἐπῄνεσαν From ἐπ-αινέω. mid. but not the clever. indeed. aor. Translation for 7F So said Euthydemos. 2–3 ἐξεδέξατo … ἐκδεξάμενος δὲ … Aor. laughing vigorously and making a din. you knew nothing yet?’ ‘No. the past tense of οἶδα (see GE p. mid. making a din and laughing at the same time.’ ‘Were you then clever. having received it. 4–5 πότεροι … ἤ … ‘are they … or …?’: a double question.’ ‘So then.
nom. φησίν 9. 5. s. m. 6. m.Revision exercises for section 7D–F 93 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7D–F AORIST PARTICIPLES 7D–F: 1 1. 8. 3. παύω λύω ζητέω ζητέω δέχομαι 6. 7. s. ἔφατε 10. pl. m. s. ἔφασαν 3. 9. m. ἔφη 7. ᾔδει 4. 1. 3. 10. 2. βλέψασαν θαυμάσας τρεψάμενον διωξάσας ποιήσαντες 6. 2. 7. 3. 4. οἶσθα 6. 1. and φημί I say 7D–F: 4 1. 8. m. acc. acc. 9. ᾔδη 8. nom. Achilles burned with passion. ᾖδη I knew. nom. acc. f. m. pl. pl. ποιήσας βοηθήσας ἀπορήσας 4. 9. pl. βλέπω δηλόω πείθω βοάω τρέπομαι 7D–F: 2 1. s. δεξάμενος βιασάμενος λογισάμενος μαχεσάμενος ἀποκρινάμενος . s. 5. 7. f. βιασάμενοι κολάσαντας μισήσασα δουλωσαμένους δεξαμένη 7D–F: 3 (a) With one look at Penthesilea. 4. m. 8. nom. Achilles burned with passion. 10. 4. nom. ἴσμεν 2. ἐλευθερώσας τολμήσας θεασάμενος βλέψας φροντίσας ῥίψας σώσας παυσάμενος 6. 2. acc. (b) While he gazed at Penthesilea. nom. 2. φαμέν 5. pl. 3. 4. 5. 5. 10. ᾔδεσαν. ᾖσαν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7D–F B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. f.
‘εὐθύς αὐτούς. Do we agree so or not?’ ‘We do by Zeus. hearing the argument. ‘Come then. make your objection. ‘and if you have anything to object. it was necessary) I said.’ said Socrates. then.’ said Socrates. a. where did you go. but not bad ones?’ I agreed. ὁ Διονυσόδωρος γελῶν/γελάσας τὸν λόγον ἐξεδέξατο. 4.’ ‘The doctor seemed to be most skilled. ὁ διδάσκαλος ἀποκρινόμενος εἶπεν ὅτι ἀρετή τις ἐστὶv ἡ ϕιλοσοϕία.’ he said.94 Revision exercises for section 7D–F 3.’ I said. ‘So did you have to go to the doctor. f. being more skilled than the others.’ ‘Well then.’ ‘The truth.᾽ Having stolen the money the young man shouted loudly. b. ἀπορήσας ὁ μαθητὴς ἐπειρᾶτο ϕεύγειν. πρὸς ἐμὲ βλέψας. c. E – TEST EXERCISE 7D–F ‘You. laughed.’ I said. ‘as I think.’ I said. ‘question [me] carefully. ‘So we shouldn’t praise and respect the opinions of the many about the plague. 5. ὁ σοϕιστής. ‘and my friends went there too. With a glance at me. and I shall reply. or not? Answer. 3. and to no one else?’ ‘I did. ‘So should we praise and honour good opinions. ‘does a philosopher who says that we must not praise all the opinions of men speak the truth? What do you say? Do you think he is speaking the truth (lit. The students said in answer that lawlessness is not just. shall obey. ‘when the plague fell upon the city and destroyed it.’ said Socrates. the woman was silent.’ I said. ἐπαινέσας αὐτοὺς ‘προτρέπετε’. to your friends or to the doctor?’ ‘I went to the doctor. Socrates. Socrates. The suppliants hurried to the shrine and prayed to the gods.’ (lit. . does he seem to you to speak the truth) in saying this. d. e. 2.’ I said. For the doctor knew about the plague. and I. ὡμολόγησεν. ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ. but that of any skilled doctor who happens to be [available].’ ‘You seem to speak well. ἀποροῦντες βλέψας ἀκούσαντες γελῶν ἐκδεξαμένη ἀποκρινόμενος D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1.’ ‘Consider then. for my part.
(f) s. / main verb). part. 153. ἀπέκτειναν line 5. part. λαμβάνων present participle. ἰδόν. (d) nom. (e) m. see GE p. aor. / aor. 2 αὐτάς ‘them’. part. pl. Page 84 5 ἰδοῦσαι εἶδov (second aorist of ὁράω) drops the augment to give the stem ἰδ-. with a series of participles leading on to the ﬁnal event in the main verb. the Amazons Now we change to Herodotus and the narrative style. λαβόντες δ’ αὐτάς Note the ‘echo’ effect. #174–176) which will be gradually introduced. fem. masc. Note: participle … participle … main verb. they fought them’. There are other uses and meanings (GE pp. 153–155. (b) future indicative (d) imperfect indicative (b) acc. for where in English we would write ‘they attacked them and fought them’. the aorist participle is γνοῦς γνόντος. . λαβών aorist participle. stem ἑλ-. 2–3 τὰς ἐκ τῆς μάχης περιούσας περιούσας agrees with τὰς Ἀμαζόνας and is the acc. Aorist participles are frequent.Section 7G 95 EXERCISE 1. ἰδοῦσα. part. 151–152. pl. ἔλαβον. second aorist εἷλον.110–116. 13 γνόντες From γιγνώσκω.g. ἐξ αὐτῶν ‘from them’. / pres. but the syntax will usually follow the sequence of events. 7G Page 83 1 εἰσπεσόντες Nom. 10–12 Note the structure: οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι / οὐ γιγνώσκοντες τὴν ϕωνὴν / καὶ ἄνδρας νομίζοντες τὰς Ἀμαζόνας / ἐμπεσόντες καὶ μαχεσάμενοι / τοὺς νεκροὺς ἀνεῖλον (subject / pres. but has the aorist stem. 12 ἀνελόντες What verb is this from? ἀν-αιρέω. part. participle of περίειμι ‘I survive’. 2.. 7G–H Herodotus: Histories 4. 6 ἀποκτείνασαι Cf. the Greeks preferred to have only one main verb and to say ‘having attacked them. 8–9 ἀϕικόμεναι … ἀποβᾶσαι Remember that the Amazons are feminine. (a) present indicative (c) imperfect indicative (a) acc. Cf. and aor. The second aorist participle has the same endings as the present participle. of εἰσπίπτω (second aor. second aorist ἔγνων. therefore the participle is ἰδών. 7D lines 17 and 23 and 7F lines 2–3. ἔπεσον). GE pp. (c) acc. #172–173. You will often ﬁnd that the sentences are longer. #169–171: e. acc.
however. αὐτός ‘himself’. 7H Page 86 3 εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ χωρίον ‘to the same place’. 153–155. they defeated them in the battle. arrive at their native land. the young men followed [them] and made camp. agrees with the subject: ‘coming himself …’ 6 τὴν Ἀμαζόνα αὐτήν ‘the Amazon herself’ (emphatic). seeing that the men were not guarding [them]. having learned that the men were not hostile. 4 τὸ αὐτό ‘the same thing’. In this way. attacked and having fought a battle (lit. Finally having arrived at the land of the Scythians and having disembarked from the ships. ordering them not to ﬁght. they sent their own young men to them. ἕπεσθαι Note the rough breathing. then. and not wanting to kill [them] any more. So the Amazons gave chase. but on going away they saw the men following. coming near. and so. the young men of themselves). and taking the horses they laid waste the land of the Scythians. they discovered that they were women.96 Section 7H 14 τοὺς ἑαυτῶν νεανίσκους ‘their own young men’ (lit. And having defeated them. #172–176 for the different uses of αὐτός. For while they were on the sea they did not guard the Amazons. Dative of time when. And the Amazons. lines 4 and 5 ‘they did the same thing themselves also’. on taking up the corpses. ἄξει What tense? What verb? 5 τῇ δ’ ὑστεραίᾳ ‘on the next day’. they went away in three ships. They did not. but to have children by them. But the Amazons were not experienced in seafaring. emphatic. It is from ἕπομαι ‘I follow’. 8 ἐποίουν τὸ αὐτὸ καὶ αὐτοί Cf. But the Scythians. they found a herd of horses. Seeing the men ﬂeeing. but to follow and to make camp near the Amazons. Having discovered this. they did not worry about them any longer. And ﬁrst the Amazons went away. So. not knowing the language. And having captured them. . the Amazons became quiet. they captured the Amazons who survived the battle. having killed the men. and thinking the Amazons were men. See GE pp. having attacked and fought) took up the corpses. and the men ﬂed. Thus. then. they sailed where the wind carried [them]. 15 εἵποντο What verb? What had they been told to do? 16 ἀπῆλθον … ἀπελθοῦσαι The pattern as before. killed [them]. Be careful to distinguish between αὐτόν ‘him’ and ἑαυτόν (or αὑτόν) reﬂexive ‘himself’. αὐτός preceded by the article always means ‘the same’. Translation for 7G When the Greeks came upon the Amazons and were ﬁghting them.
and on the next day. But if you want to have us as your wives. and we have not learned women’s tasks. why don’t we get up and go off from this land and.’ But they said to this: ‘We cannot live with your women. For we cannot live in this region. and having arrived at the place. And the Amazon did not prevent [him]. So having got up and left. on obtaining their portion of the possessions. So the young men. GE p. The men could not learn the language of the Amazons.’ Having said these things. At last the young men said to them: ‘We have parents and possessions.from οἰκέω. But your women do none of these things. having laid waste the land. 153–155. they inhabited it. And the young man went away and told this to the others.e. Why. on ﬁnding the Amazons and having had intercourse with them. -ῳ. he found the Amazon herself who had brought another Amazon. The two young men. on coming across an Amazon who was alone. bringing another young man. but the women learned that of the Scythians. you must go to your parents and obtain [your] portion of the possessions. 156. did the same thing themselves also. don’t we go away to our people? We shall have you as our wives and no others. but do women’s tasks. But if you want to have us as your wives. For we use bows and arrows and ride horses.preposition. came back again to the Amazons. immediately had intercourse with her. try taking it apart: συν. So the Amazons said to them: ‘But a great fear holds us.= ε + οι (i. 14–15 οὐ γὰρ oἱ αὐτοὶ οἵ τε ἡμέτεροι νόμοι καὶ oἱ τῶν Σκυθῶν ‘For our customs and the Scythians’ customs are not the same (oἱ αὐτοί). But the rest of the young men. For our customs and the Scythians’ customs are not the same. . αὐτός / ἑαυτόν / ὁ αὐτός. crossing the river Tanais. on learning what had happened. #172–176. went away. and then come back and live with us. live there?’ And the young men obeyed these things too. And she was not able to speak [his language]. but by means of a sign she ordered the young man to come to the same place on the next day and to bring another young man. #177.’ 18–19 δεῖ ὑμᾶς There are two sets of actions which they must perform: (i) ἐλθόντας … μέρος and (ii) καὶ ἔπειτα … ἡμῶν. therefore the stem is οἰκ. giving a sign that she herself would do the same thing and would bring another Amazon. Grammar Don’t forget to learn δύναμαι. After this the Scythians and the Amazons began to live together. then. and make sure that you understand GE pp. Translation for 7H So then a young man. augmented or).Section 7H 97 9 συνῴκουν If you cannot identify it. they convinced the young men. staying in the wagons and not using bows and arrows or riding horses. on coming himself to the same place.
I myself saw the man himself 7G–H: 4 5. τῷ εὑρόντι 8. τῇ εἰπούσῃ/λεξάσῃ 6. 4. The Amazons came across the young men and conversed with them. οἱ αὐτοὶ νόμοι 8. αὐτὴ ἦλθεν 4. τὸ πεσόν 8. εἶδεν αὐτό REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7G–H B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. ἆρ’ εἶδες αὐτάς; 3. οἱ γενόμενοι 6. 4. I saw the man 2. εἷλov ἑλών ἀϕικόμην ἀϕικόμενος 9. 1. τοῦ λαβόντος ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS: αὐτός-ή-όν 7G–H: 3 1. τὰς ἀφικομένας 7. ἔλαβον λαβών ἔμαθον μαθών 7. τοὺς ἐλθόντας 3. τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτήν 7. τὸν αὐτὸν ἄνδρα 2. τὸν λαβόντα 2. αὐτοὶ ἀφίκοντο 6. 2. τῷ μαθόντι τῆς τυχούσης ταῖς δραμούσαις τοῦ ἀφικομένου 5. ἡ ἑλοῦσα 1. 3. He himself did the same thing 1. τὴν μαθοῦσαν 4. ἔλαβεν αὐτόν 5. I myself saw the same man 7. καταλαβοῦσαι c. a. I saw him 3. τοῖς γενομένοις 7. I myself saw the same man 6.98 Revision exercises for section 7G–H EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7G–H SECOND AORIST PARTICIPLES 7G–H: 1 1. ἀπελθόντες b. ἔπεσον πεσών ἦλθον ἐλθών The young men went away and said these things to the rest. 2. 5. ἐγένομην γενόμενος 6. αἱ ἰδοῦσαι 7G–H: 2 5. 2. ἰδών . 3. The young man saw the Amazon and went towards her. I saw the man himself 4. He himself saw him (someone else) 8. ηὗρον εὑρών εἶδov ἰδών 8.
αὐτούς D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK The women. necessary. The Scythians ﬁnd the Amazons and come closer. ταῦτα εἰποῦσαι αἱ γυναῖκες ἔπεισαν τοὺς νεανίας. 2. the attempt I guard. powerful. were amazed. ὁ αὐτός c. went away. After this the boy ran into the house and looked for his father. αὐτούς b. 4. laughable I cross. unguarded . SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7 A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING 1. the guard (person). I compel I laugh. ἀvελόντες. oἱ νεανίαι δύνανται διαλέγεσθαι πρὸς ἐκείνας τὰς γυναῖκας. ἀϕικόμενοι f. d. the reasoning I agree. laughter. αὐτούς τοὺς νεανίας i. the guard (act of guarding). 5. The Scythians.Summary exercises for section 7 99 3. the women stopped worrying. oἱ νεανίαι ἐθαύμασαν. 3. αὐτάς. περὶ τὰ αὐτά g. αὐτός f. αὐτός h. διὰ δὲ ταῦτα oἱ νεανίαι πρὸς τὰς οἰκίας ἐπανελθόντες τὰ κτήματα ἔλαβον. the agreement I try. necessity. having picked up the corpses and found them to be women. the sailor laughed εὑρόντες ταύτας τὰς γυναῖκας. the destruction I am able. the crossing I destroy. I possess. εὑρόντες e. the (act of) possessing I reason. οἱ ἄνδρες ἀνελόντες τοὺς τῶν γυναικῶν νεκροὺς ἀπῆλθον. On discovering the men. τὴν αὐτήν e. Having become pupils. 1. the young men wanted to learn. the praise a possession. The young men came closer and pitched camp. αὐτή d. Saying this/with these words. μαθόντες a. ϕίλοι γενόμενοι. force/power I praise. seeing the old man.
σοϕός wise. but to go closer and become friends. The Amazons. μάχομαι I ﬁght. ἀλήθεια truth. and they sent them towards the Amazons. to become friends. ‘For’. νέος young. (a) aorist (e) present (a) imperfect (b) aorist (f) aorist (b) aorist (c) present (c) imperfect (d) aorist (d) aorist . ἡδέως with pleasure. ‘we cannot live with your women. διαβάλλω I slander. μάχη battle. advised the others to do the same. ἔϕασαν αἱ Ἀμαζόνες. ἥδομαι I have pleasure. and falling on the land they laid it waste. λογίζομαι I reason. and becoming friendly [with her]. and eventually the Scythians and the Amazons began to live together. no longer worried about them.’ So. δοκέω I seem. οἰκία house. if they came on any Amazons. wanted to have children by them. For our customs and those of the Scythians are not the same. taking their possessions and crossing the river. ‘τὴν γὰρ ὑμετέραν γῆν’. οἱ οὖν νεάνιαι πλησίον ἑπόμενοι οὐκ ἐμαχέσαντο. ἐπειδὴ ἀϕικόμεναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐμαχεσάμεθα. But the Amazons did not wish to go back to the mass of the Scythians. δόξα reputation D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK αἱ δ’ Ἀμαζόνες τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἀποκτείνασαι πρὸς τὴν τῶν Σκυθῶν γῆν ἀϕίκοντο. on seeing them following close by but not ﬁghting. and taking up their corpses and ﬁnding them to be women. So they ordered their young men never to ﬁght. ἀϕικόμεναι δὲ καὶ ἵππους εὑροῦσαι πρὸς τοὺς Σκύθας ἐμαχέσαντο. διαβολή slander. The Scythians defeated them in battle. 2. ἀλλὰ ἔδει τούς τε νεανίας καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας διὰ τὸν ποταμὸν διαβαίνειν καὶ ἄλλην τινὰ χώραν οἰκεῖν. So the others obeyed. σοϕία wisdom. Then a Scythian.’ E – TEST EXERCISE 7 Some Amazons arrived in the land of the Scythians and disembarked from their boats. ϕαίνομαι I appear. they found a land near by and lived in it. λόγος word. coming across an Amazon who was on her own. EXERCISE 1.100 Summary exercises for section 7 2. they said. νεανίας young man. ϕάσμα apparition. argument. οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι αὐτὰς νικήσαντές τε καὶ περὶ αὐτῶν γνόντες ϕίλοι γίγνεσθαι ἐβούλοντο. ἀληθής true. αἱ δ᾽ Ἀμαζόνες ταῦτα ἰδοῦσαι αὐταὶ ἡσύχαζον. οἰκέω I live. τέλος δὲ ϕίλοι γενόμενοι συνῴκησαν ἀλλήλοις. and. ‘οὐ βουλόμεθα οἰκεῖν. ἀποϕαίνω I reveal.
20 περιμενοῦμεν Tense? Cf.Section Eight: Aristophanes’ Birds Now we return to Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode. This section introduces the genitive case formally. 4 ἀπιόντα Remember the difference between ὤν (‘being’) and ἰών (‘going’). 163–165. 160–161. 23 ποῖ δὴ καὶ πόθεν. #178–179) and the main uses are listed (GE pp. is deeply serious. you should be able to recognise the verb. however amusingly expressed. #117. κατιδών If you remove the preﬁx. where he escapes into fantasy from the bitter realities of life in Athens during the Peloponnesian War. You will also meet other forms of the comparative (GE pp. the ‘being’ verb does not. 165–167. ἰδ is the stem of the second aorist εἶδoν. καθ-. but now all forms of it are laid out (GE pp. 86. #95. 21 φθάνω + participle ‘to do something before someone else’. 101 . You have already met it frequently. 3–4 καθορᾷ …. See GE p. but the meaning should be clear. #183–186). 8A Page 90 1 Look for the subject and the two aorist participles before you go on to the main verb. ‘Who are you to take hold of…?’ 13 τυγχάνω + participle ‘happen to be …’ 19 ὑμῶν ἕνεκα ἕνεκα follows the word it governs. You will need to supply verbs in English. The ‘going’ verb has an iota. 167–169. 8 λαμβάνεται τοῦ ἱματίου He takes hold of his tunic. 104. #181–182) as well as the optative mood (GE pp. κατ-. and to an episode based on another play of Aristophanes. The social comment. περιμένομεν: which is future and which is present and how can you tell? See GE p. The genitive is used because he takes hold of part of his tunic (not the whole thing). Page 91 11 τίς ὢν σύ … Note the idiomatic use of the participle. #180). This is called a partitive genitive.
It is called the potential optative.in the ending. We will wait. You can usually recognise it easily because of -οι. Dikaiopolis. or ‘trouble-free’. It is the opposite of πολυπράγμων ‘meddling’. and the word is also used in the New Testament for Jesus Christ. Joke! Cf. For Euelpides. Who are you. as he comes up. Peisetairos. #183–186). SL. It is clear that he is running after you. I am the slave of Euelpides. I was the cause of the shouting. The optative + ἄν means ‘could’ or ‘would’. 170. he sends his slave to them. all of which are concerned with authority or power. 32 λέγοιμι ἄν And another. DIK. goes away through the crowd of citizens towards the agora with the rhapsode. Translation for 8A Dikaiopolis. my good fellow? SL. Page 92 27–28 μῶν εἰς κόρακας. DIK. And Euelpides the son of Polemarchos sees him going away with the rhapsode towards the market-place. #187. the son of Stilbonides. greets you. and he happened to send me. the son of Polemarchus. Euelpides runs up. But whose slave are you? Who sent you? SL. 31 ἂν ἀκούοιμι Another one. DIK. holding a basket in his hand. he is coming up behind. Wait. 30 λέγοιτ᾿ ἄν This is a new mood. but you may want to start making a chart to ﬁll in. and why are you holding my tunic. The head of the family is ὁ κύριος. Cf. 6A line 4 βάλλ᾿ εἰς κόρακας. wait! DIKAIOPOLIS What shout is that? Who is responsible for that shout? The slave runs up and grabs his tunic. Do you not see him. running through the crowd of people? And a friend of his is following with him. Having seen them. I am a slave. κύριος is a word with a wide range of meanings. SLAVE . called the optative (GE pp. Thus Euelpides’ slave approaches Dikaiopolis and shouts. Here he is.102 Section 8A 25 κυρία ἐκκλησία There was a ‘sovereign’ assembly once a month unless additional emergency ones were needed. He gets there before Peisetairos and taking Dikaiopolis’ hand he greets him. 167–169. But where is he? SL. 29 ἀνιστάμεθα See GE p. But wait! DIK. Don’t try to learn it now. having observed the lawlessness of the Eleven and having heard the words of the suppliant. πράττω and πρᾶγμα. ἀπράγμονα ἀ-πράγμων = ‘not busy’ or more often ‘not meddlesome’.
164. I do not mean that. Athens is clearly the greatest. From the Piraeus. 166. We are looking for a peaceful place. Peisetairos. We shall go there. 136–138. Meanwhile Peisetairos comes up. ἔπαθον. 4 εὐδαιμονεστέραν This is another form of the comparative. DIK. See GE pp. For Athens is the wealthiest. for I would be very glad to know the reason. For who can lead us to the crows better than a crow? DIK. He is certainly the best guide. 16 κατεψηϕίσαντο ψηϕίζομαι means ‘I vote’. EU. I will tell you. ϕροντιστήριον. Cf. There is no greater city than this one. #154–160 for more forms. τοιοῦτον = ‘such’. by Zeus. For. are you leaving?’ 13 τοιοῦτον τὸ πάθος πάθος is a neuter noun 3c. But why do you want to carry that crow on your wrist? EU. and wanting what. with a crow on his wrist. where are you going and where have you come from? DIK. #180(e). It is easily recognisable. ἀποψηϕίζομαι means ‘I acquit’. But why do you want to leave like this. Note that there are two ways of saying more … than …: GE pp. 30 ἀποκρινοῦμαι What is the tense? Cf. as is the superlative which follows in the next line. DIK. #182. and we are following it. καταψηϕίζομαι means ‘I condemn’. 13–14 εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον Note the -ηριον ending which denotes a place where an activity takes place. my friends? Please tell me. in the name of Zeus. Greetings to you too. 20 οἱ μὲν γὰρ τέττιγες … For the Athenian love of litigation see also Section 6B lines 23–24. see GE p. There is no city wealthier than this one. our fatherland. but where on earth are you going with that crow? Could it be that you are going to the crows? PEISETAIROS Of course! We are leaving the country. 8B Page 94 1 μείζονα Comparative. 137. This crow is guiding us. DIKAIOPOLIS EUELPIDES . ἀποκρίνομαι. my dear Dikaiopolis. my friend. Translation for 8B Are you looking for a greater city than Athens? No. RHAPSODE Are you looking for a wealthier city than this one? EU. we shall settle in a peaceful city. and I am on my way to the assembly. second aor.Section 8B EUELPIDES 103 Greetings. #158 and GE p. and when we get there. It will be a sovereign assembly today. Literally ‘having experienced what. DIK. 9 τί παθόντες Aorist participle of πάσχω. where Strepsiades cannot believe that it is Athens on the map because there are no jurors sitting.
the assembly is full of it and the lawcourts are full of it. you know it well. I am not surprised that you are setting off to ﬁnd another city. 21 τὸ ἀγαθόν Plato’s lectures on ‘The Good’ were said to be the ultimate in obscurity. I do. but the people are full of distress. χείρους What case is it? βελτίους What case is it? κλοπήν Pericles was suspended from his ofﬁce of strategos and ordered to submit his accounts for inspection. especially the lawcourts. DIK. We did nothing and we did no wrong. For we ﬁnd the affairs of the city hard to bear. since you give a just account of the lawcourt and the jurors. . like the orators. because of the false testimony of the witnesses.104 DIK. love the city and I shall never cease to love the city. there is much lawlessness. Why are you silent? You will not say? They do not pity them. and he was re-elected the following year. But the remark was made by a slave in comedy. and so we want to go away. But how do the orators show their love for the people? Consider. DIK. You are doing this with reason. but the jurors condemned us. PEI. but they will destroy the city. and should not perhaps be taken too seriously. but the Athenians sing all the time in their lawsuits. 23 γνούς Aorist participle of γιγνώσκω. everywhere there is lamentation and funeral pyres because of the plague: everywhere there are corpses. Section 8C What then? What do you have in mind? Do you perhaps hate the city? PEISETAIROS No. What sort of misfortune? What had you done. 8C Page 96 3–4 13 15 16 οἴκοι μέν … ἐν δὲ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ … Note the contrast. what happened to you. For the crickets sing for a little while in the branches. The war drags on. Do the orators show pity for the people? Do they pity them or not? Tell me. Peisetairos here and I have had a terrible experience. what are you saying? Do you really think that the orators love the city? DIK. For I. RΗAP. βελτίους Not what it seems at ﬁrst glance – see GE p. Tell me then. They were found to be ﬁve talents adrift and he was convicted. even though we were innocent. The land is full of their audacity. or what wrong did you do so that you suffered this misfortune? EU. my friends. #181. Why not? PEI. we do not hate the city itself. I will answer for you. 166. Dikaiopolis. So great was the misfortune we suffered when we entered the lawcourts. by Zeus. And it is with reason that I shall not do this. His conviction was largely a political move. from the second aorist ἔγνων. Dikaiopolis. or what is it that you want that makes you leave the city? EU.
rhapsode! For the philosophers search. but no one can discover it. You speak the truth. DIK. Don’t speak of Pericles! RΗAP. ‘would’. don’t say that! For the people are most skilled at home. you and I. Who will save the city? A man who loves the city will save it and not destroy it. knowing their jargon. were the Athenians worse. The vocabulary should give you all the help you need. and a glimpse of the pre-war Athens. my friend? Pericles seemed to be the best of them all. since the orators seem to be worth nothing? Perhaps the people themselves? E U E L P I D E S Ο Herakles. 156. Dikaiopolis. as you say. Page 97 46 A quotation from Homer. PEISETAIROS But the good citizen makes the citizens better instead of worse. PEI. But we know clearly. But what is the good. as I hear. ἀναπείσω What verb does this come from? Try πείθω. Don’t mock me. rhapsode? For I don’t know what it is that is the good [of the city]. What must we do? RHAP. worse. It shows Aristophanes’ sympathy with ‘honest country folk’. by Zeus! PEI. He did it. and it is clear that he was a villain. For the good citizen makes the others better. #177. You don’t know what ‘the good’ is? But on the ship you seemed to be some sort of a philosopher. 25–26 οἱ μέν … οἱ δέ … ‘some … others …’ 27–30 A rather touching personal view.267. RHAP. 32 ἂν βουλοίμην ἄν + optative again – ‘could’. Translation for 8C You seem to speak the truth. When Pericles began to speak in the assembly. 48–49 Two lines from the Homeric Hymn to Demeter 216–217. so they say.Section 8C 105 25 δύναται GE p. DIK. I know it well. R H A P S O D E But if Pericles – DIK. It is probable that they were. Did Pericles do this or not? RΗAP. 33 εἶμι (not εἰμί) ‘I shall go’. Odyssey 1. but absolute idiots in the assembly. 34 ἄλλο τι πλήν … ‘anything else but …’ 42–44 Note ἄν + optative repeatedly. DIK. you must seek the good of the city. and when he died were they better? RHAP. What do you mean. and others think DIKAIOPOLIS . Some think that it is virtue. they condemned him for theft. but when they became better. Peisetairos. But who will save the city. therefore. for ‘the good’. because of him. that at ﬁrst Pericles was well thought of when the Athenians were.
τῶν συγγενῶν τοῦ Περικλέους . Don’t they know that the poet spoke truly who said ‘These matters lie in the lap of the gods’ For we must accept the gifts of the gods with resignation. wine and pleasure. Yet we are setting off for a place that is peaceful. if I am going to make a treaty? But I shall go. ‘We men must endure the gifts of the gods. Come on now. τῶν εἰρηνῶν τῆς ἀγορᾶς. kinsman 4. τῶν φωνῶν τῆς ἀρετῆς. τῶν τριηρῶν τοῦ Σωκράτους τοῦ συγγενοῦς. off to the assembly! EU. τῶν πολιτῶν τοῦ δικαστοῦ. both the bad and the better. But the farmers know what is good. I wouldn’t hurry off to the assembly. courage τῆς ἀνομίας. Farewell! RHAP. feasts.’ EXERCISES FOR SECTION 8 THE GENITIVE CASE 8A–C: 1 1. but peace is full of weddings. I think these men are stupid. 4. τῶν ἀνομιῶν τῆς εἰρήνης. They have found it in the ﬁelds. ready to shout and abuse anyone who speaks about anything else except peace. relation. τῶν μαχῶν τῆς φωνῆς. citizen 2. health. perplexity and plague and ﬁtting out ships. myself. Pericles τῆς τριήρους. I do not know if anyone else wants to make a treaty and to live at peace. 5. I wouldn’t do that. but they do not know. Socrates 3. food. children. nor would I want to ﬂee from my own country. τῶν ποιητῶν τοῦ σοφιστοῦ. relations. trireme 2.106 Exercises for section 8 that it is justice. τῶν δικαστῶν τοῦ ποιητοῦ. 2. wealth. 6. For the yoke lies upon our necks. Dikaiopolis. τῶν σοφιστῶν 1. τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν τῆς μάχης. friends. It is peace. 7. a sophist 8A–C: 3 τοῦ πολίτου. though grieving. But how shall I alone persuade the people? What shall I say or shout or order. + PEI. τῶν ἀρετῶν 8A–C: 2 1. 3. For war is full of events. poet 4. but I would like to. lawlessness peace market-place assembly battle voice virtue. τῶν ἀγορῶν τῆς ἐκκλησίας. juror 3.
τῆς μεγίστης. τῆς ἑτοίμης. ἐκείνων τῶν τοῦ δεξιοῦ. τῆς σῆς. τοῦ δεξιοῦ. τῶν τειχῶν 1. τῶν πραγμάτων τοῦ κήρυκος. τῶν χρόνων τοῦ ποταμοῦ. τῶν χρημάτων τοῦ δαίμονος. τούτου τοῦ. 6. number. τῶν βελτίστων τοῦ σοῦ. 7. best 10. τῶν δαιμόνων τῆς γυναικός. your (s. 5. τοῦ ἀξίου. 8. τῶν φροντίδων τοῦ χρήματος. τούτων τῶν 1. much 12. τῶν οὐρανῶν 8A–C: 5 1. τῶν δικαστηρίων τοῦ χρόνου. 8. 7. τῆς βελτίστης. 6. τῶν κηρύκων τοῦ κτήματος. τῶν ἑτοίμων τοῦ αὐτοῦ. ἐκείνης τῆς. 9. τῶν δήμων τοῦ δικαστηρίου. sky τοῦ σίτου. τῆς ἀξίας.Exercises for section 8 107 8A–C: 4 1. affair herald possession speaker old man foot thought thing. τῆς δεξιᾶς. τῶν ποδῶν τῆς φροντίδος. τοῦ μεγίστου. this 8A–C: 6 τοῦ ἀξίου. τῶν δεξιῶν τοῦ ἑτοίμου. τῶν μεγίστων τοῦ βελτίστου.) 11. τῆς χαλεπῆς. 2. 2. τῆς αὐτῆς. object god woman τοῦ πράγματος. worthy that right ready himself difﬁcult your (pl. τοῦ βελτίστου. τῶν νεανίσκων τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. τῶν κτημάτων τοῦ ῥήτορος. 5.) greatest 9. 8. τοῦ αὐτοῦ. τοῦ πολλοῦ. 4. τῶν γυναικῶν . 3. 7. τῶν αὐτῶν τοῦ χαλεποῦ. suffering 2. τῶν ποταμῶν τοῦ νεανίσκου. ἐκείνου τοῦ. 4. τῶν φιλοσόφων τοῦ δήμου. τῶν πληθῶν τοῦ τείχους. τοῦ σοῦ. food a philosopher the people lawcourt time river young man heaven. 5. τῆς πολλῆς. τῶν πολλῶν τούτου τοῦ. 2. 3. τῶν ῥητόρων τοῦ γέροντος. τοῦ χαλεποῦ. thing. τῶν ἀξίων ἐκείνου τοῦ. τῶν σῶν τοῦ πολλοῦ. τῶν παθῶν τοῦ πλήθους. τῶν ὑμετέρων τοῦ μεγίστου. wall 8A–C: 7 τοῦ πάθους. τῶν σίτων τοῦ φιλοσόφου. ταύτης τῆς. τῆς ὑμετέρας. 4. τῶν γερόντων τοῦ ποδός. crowd 3. 6. τοῦ ἑτοίμου. 3. τοῦ ὑμετέρου. τῶν χαλεπῶν τοῦ ὑμετέρου. 10.
Exercises for section 8
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
ill-fated going being better having set free worse someone
κακοδαίμονος, κακοδαίμονος, κακοδαιμόνων ἰόντος, ἰούσης, ἰόντος, ἰόντων ὄντος, οὔσης, ὄντος, ὄντων βελτίονος, βελτίονος, βελτιόνων λύσαντος, λυσάσης, λύσαντος, λυσάντων χείρονος, χείρονος, χειρόνων τινός, τινός, τινῶν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Zeus I ship king you eyebrow old woman
τοῦ Διός ἐμοῦ, μου, ἡμῶν τῆς νεώς, τῶν νεῶν τοῦ βασιλέως, τῶν βασιλέων σοῦ, σου, ὑμῶν τῆς ὀφρύος, τῶν ὀφρύων τῆς γραός, τῶν γραῶν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
juror child, slave sun dwelling possession plan temple, shrine city
τοῦ δικαστοῦ, τῶν δικαστῶν τοῦ παιδός, τῶν παίδων τοῦ ἡλίου, τῶν ἡλίων τῆς οἰκήσεως, τῶν οἰκήσεων τοῦ κτήματος, τῶν κτημάτων τῆς διανοίας, τῶν διανοιῶν τοῦ ἱεροῦ, τῶν ἱερῶν τοῦ ἄστεως, τῶν ἄστεων
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
μετὰ τοῦ Σωκράτους ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας διὰ τοῦ πλήθους ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου καταδικάζω τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀκούω τῆς γυναικός λαμβάνομαι τοῦ πολίτου
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
ἄξιος τῆς ἀρετῆς αἴτιος τῆς ἀνομίας μετὰ τοῦ κήρυκος διὰ τοῦ ποταμοῦ περὶ τοῦ νόμου ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀθηνῶν ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας
ALTERNATIVE COMPARATIVE FORMS 8A–C: 12
1. τὸν βελτίονα, βελτίω ναύτην 2. τοὺς βελτίονας, βελτίους λιμένας
the better sailor the better harbours
Exercises for section 8
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
τὴν βελτίονα, βελτίω θεάν αἱ βελτίονες, βελτίους νῆες οἱ βελτίονες, βελτίους γεωργοί τὰς βελτίονας, βελτίους γυναῖκας τὸ βέλτιον ἄστυ τὰ βελτίονα, βελτίω πλοῖα
the better goddess the better ships. the better farmers the better women the better city the better ships
COMPARING ADJECTIVES LIKE εὔφρων 8A–C: 13
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
ὁ εὐδαιμονέστερος, εὐδαιμονέστατος ναύτης the more fortunate, most fortunate sailor τὸ κακοδαιμονέστερον, κακοδαιμονέστατον ἄστυ the more unfortunate, most unfortunate city τὴν εὐφρονεστέραν, εὐφρονεστάτην θεάν the more gracious, most gracious goddess τὰς κακοδαιμονεστέρας, κακοδαιμονεστάτας γυναῖκας the more unlucky, most unlucky women ἡ εὐδαιμονεστέρα, εὐδαιμονεστάτη νῆσος the more fortunate, most fortunate island τοὺς κακοδαιμονεστέρους, κακοδαιμονεστάτους διδασκάλους the more unfortunate, most unfortunate teachers
THE OPTATIVES 8A–C: 14
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
they ﬁnd he/she examines we reckon he/she becomes you (s.) marvel
εὑρίσκουσιν ἐξετάζει λογιζόμεθα γίγνεται θαυμάζεις
εὑρίσκοιεν ἐξετάζοι λογιζοίμεθα γίγνοιτο θαυμάζοις
1. you (s.) love 2. they intend 3. he conquers 4. he/she tries 5. they dare
ἄν + OPTATIVE 8A–C: 16
φιλεῖς διανοοῦνται νικᾷ πειρᾶται τολμῶσιν
φιλοίης διανοοῖντο νικῴη πειρῷτο τολμῷεν
1. φέροιεν ἄν 2. διαλεγοίμεθα ἄν 3. σκοποίη ἄν
4. 5. 6.
πέμποιμι ἄν δέχοιο ἄν ἀδικοῖεν ἄν
Summary exercises for section 8
7. ὁρῷη ἄν 8. πείθοιτε ἄν
ἀνίσταμαι, I LEAVE, EMIGRATE 8A–C: 17
9. φυλάττοιμεν ἄν 10. πείθοιντο ἄν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
you (s.) leave he/she is able leaving (n.m.s.) to be able you (pl.) leave, leave!
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
they are able being able he/she leaves we are able to leave
SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 8
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
I wrong I stand up worthy people/I am powerful leader I am powerful I send citizen difﬁcult hand
the wrongdoing the awakening, resurrection important the power of the people the leadership most powerful the procession constitution I am difﬁcult/angry I set my hand to something, I try
I engage in government
political/to do with the city
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. A Β
But who is responsible for this war and this perplexity? (τούτου τοῦ πολέμου, ταύτης τῆς ἀπορίας) The orators are responsible for this matter, I know it well. For the city is full of noise and shouting because of the war and the boldness of the orators. For who does not know about their boldness? (τούτου τοῦ πράγματος, θορύβου, βοῆς, τῶν ῥητόρων, τῆς τόλμης, αὐτῶν) But I don’t think the orators are responsible for these matters, but [I consider them] the best of men. For they always ﬁght for the people and the city, as they themselves say. (τούτων τῶν πραγμάτων, ἀνθρώπων, τοῦ πλήθους, τῆς πόλεως) Yes. But they tell lies. For the mass of these men is bad and no one is worse than an orator. For the orators seize the assembly and the
Summary exercises for section 8
lawcourt, (τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν, ῥήτορος, τῆς ἐκκλησίας, τοῦ δικαστηρίου) 2. 1. μένοις ἄν You could wait 5. ἀποκρίνοιο ἄν You could answer 2. λέγοιμι ἄν I might speak 6. κελεύοις ἄν You would order 3. βουλοίμεθα ἄν We would like to 7. παυοίμην ἄν I could stop 4. πείθοισθε ἄν You would obey 8. ϕέροιμεν ἄν We would carry 3. a. i(i) The foreigner sits on the altar. (ἐπί + gen.) (ii) The ship goes towards the enemy. (ἐπί + acc.) b. (i) I shall go tomorrow into the agora with my friends. (μετά + gen.) (ii) After this I shall go back home. (μετά + acc.) c. (i) The ship sails past the island. (παρά + acc.) (ii) The sophist receives much money from the pupils. (παρά + gen.) d. (i) The slave ran towards us, forcing his way through the crowd. (διά + gen.) (ii) My wife is afraid of the city because of the plague. (διά + acc.) 4. 1. Διονυσόδωρος καλλίων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 2. Διονυσόδωρος μείζων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 3. Διονυσόδωρος κακοδαιμονέστερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 4. Διονυσόδωρος εὐϕρονέστερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 5. Διονυσόδωρος ἀμείνων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 6. Διονυσόδωρος μωρότερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 7. Διονυσόδωρος σοϕώτερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. 1. The herald’s son listens to the speaker. ὁ παῖς ὁ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς τῆς τοῦ ῥαψῳδοῦ χειρὸς λαμβάνεται. 2. Who is responsible for this lawlessness, which is so dreadful? τίς ἐστιν αἴτιος ἐκείνων τῶν βοῶν, μεγίστων οὐσῶν; 3. Since we are Athenians we are worth much. σοϕιστὴς ὤν, οὐδενὸς ἄξιος εἶ. 4. Why do you say that no one is wiser than Socrates? διὰ τί οἱ ῥήτορες πλουσιώτεροί εἰσιν ἢ τὸ τῆς πόλεως πλῆθος/[no ἢ] τοῦ τῆς πόλεως πλῆθος; εἰπέ μοι. 5. We made our way through the city of the Lacedemonians. πολλὰ κακὰ παθόντες πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας ἐμαχεσάμεθα ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας.
Summary exercises for section 8
2. ἰδού, ὁρῶ γὰρ παῖδά τινα πρὸς ἡμᾶς προστρέχοντα. τίνος εἶ σὺ παῖς; παῖς ὢν τυγχάνω τοῦ Eὐελπίδου, τοῦ σοῦ ϕίλου. εἴποις ἂν ὅτι βούλῃ, καὶ τί βουλόμενος πρὸς ἐμὲ προσέδραμες; ΔΟΥ. ὅ τι; εἴποιμι ἄν. δεῖ γὰρ ἐμέ, ὡς ἐκέλευσεν ὁ Eὐελπίδης, κελεύειν ὑμᾶς μένειν. ΔΙΚ. μενῶ οὖν. χαίρετε, ὦ Eὐελπίδη καὶ Πεισέταιρε. τί βουλόμενοι ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἀπέρχεσθε; ποῖ διανοεῖσθε ἀπιέναι; ΠΕΙΣΕΤΑΙΡΟΣ πρὸς πόλιν τινὰ νέαν καὶ χρησιμωτέραν δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἀπελθεῖν.
E – TEST EXERCISE 8
A slave, going through the crowd of citizens, ran towards Dikaiopolis and, taking hold of his hand, asked him to wait. Then those who had sent the slave, Euelpides and Peisetairos, who were friends of Dikaiopolis, came towards Dikaiopolis and greeted him. He, however, since he did not know what their object was in leaving the city, asked them where they intended to go and for what reason. They answered that they had to look for Cloud-Cuckooland, and, when they had found it, to live there. Dikaiopolis thought that Athens was the most prosperous, and that no city was better than Athens. So at ﬁrst he could not understand why they were leaving, then having heard about the dikasts and the lawcourt and the politicians, he agreed. For the dikasts seemed to be wronging the good men, and the politicians (as it seemed) were actually destroying the people and not pitying them. So Dikaiopolis’ friends went away. But he, ﬁnding the affairs of the city and the people hard to bear and thinking that peace was best, decided to make a treaty in the assembly. But the rhapsode, who thought that the men were ignorant and stupid, did not himself want to accompany him, but went away alone.
(a) aorist (e) aorist (a) genitive (e) genitive
(b) aorist (f) present (b) genitive (f) accusative
(c) present (g) present (c) accusative
(d) aorist (h) present (d) nominative
#198–200). #195–197). Xanthias.) 20–21 κάτειπε…. being many indeed’. 201. τοῖς θεαταῖς. They ﬁrst converse with each other. The meaning is the same as if βοῶ had been written. πολλοῖς δὴ οὖσιν ‘Tell the spectators. 18 τυγχάνεις εἰδώς εἰδώς -ότος is the participle of οἶδα. Notice the predominance of ι: in -ᾳ -ῃ -ῳ -ι -ει in the singular in -αις -οις -σι in the plural The various uses of the dative are well described in GE pp. the aorist inﬁnitive (GE pp.Section Nine: Aristophanes’ Wasps This is a long section with a lively story which introduces several important items of grammar. ‘wanting what. 202. ‘you will be the death of me’. 189–191. #189–190). SOSIAS Hey you. 11 βοῇ χρῶμαι χράομαι (‘I use’) takes the dative (GE p. None of this is difﬁcult. what is the matter with you? I’m talking to you. #211). 187–189. do you … ?’ ἀπολεῖς με … ‘you will destroy me’. γιγνώσκω (GE p. then with the spectators. and the principal parts of common and very irregular verbs (GE p. The future of ἀπόλλυμι. 22 καταλέξω From καταλέγω. ‘These spectators here’. 179–180. #190 (e)). Before you start you may like to look at the table (GE pp. the inﬁnitive is εἰδέναι. but it pays to learn the new grammar carefully after each section in which it is introduced. #190. What tense? Translation for 9A In front of the house are two slaves. 113 . the aorist imperative (GE pp. 20 οὑτοιί οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο + ι is even more demonstrative. what is the matter with you? (what are you suffering?) Hey you. #209). 17 ἐμπεσεῖται Future of ἐμπίπτω – πίπτω πεσοῦμαι ἔπεσον. 176–177. What part of the verb is οὖσιν? Can you recognise it? It is the dative plural of the participle ὢν οὖσα ὄν.180. 9A Page 100 10 τί βουλόμενος As before. the dative case (GE pp. (Note that the neuter is τουτί ταυτί. #103) where the forms of the dative are set out. 176–180.
But what are you suffering? I’m sleeping with pleasure. what happens to be the name of this illness? You answer us asking. see GE p. For the master will kill you. #190 (b). what does this man say? He in answering us thinks that the old man is ‘a lover of dice’. SOS. and we obeyed his orders. a pun on the name of Philoxenos. But I say to the man that it is clear that he is speaking nonsense. So I ask you. What’s the shouting? To whom are you speaking.’ 4 τῷ δὲ δεσπότῃ Possessive dative. ἔγνω What is it? Aorist of γιγνώσκω γνώσομαι ἔγνων: see GE p. 9 ὑμεῖς δ’ ἀποκρίνεσθε ἡμῖν ἐρωτῶσιν Note the dative plural of the participle agreeing with ἡμῖν. since he knew that he was more wicked than the others in the city. ἐπιθόμην is the second aorist. I’m talking to you. So tell the story of the play to the spectators. and it’s for your sake that I’m shouting. who are many. Can’t you see him sleeping? So this is our master here. I’ll tell the large number of spectators the story of our play. spectators. SOS. All right. 18 ϕιλόξενος … Φιλόξενος This is the joke we have been working up to. having asked. #209. who is sleeping above peacefully.’ Note the aorist participle ἐρόμενος from ἐρωτάω ἐρωτήσω ἠρόμην. with all the words beginning ϕιλ-. Come now. Don’t you happen to know what sort of beast we are guarding? I certainly think I know. For the master’s father has a certain illness. ‘We obeyed him ordering. SOS.’ 16 οὗτος δέ μοι ἐρομένῳ ἀποκρίνεται ‘This man answers me. Translation for 9B XANTHIAS SOSIAS That is our master there.’ 6 ἐνέπεσεν For the principal parts of πίπτω see 9A line 17. unlucky Xanthias. 180. and unlucky.114 XANTHIAS SOS. . But these spectators here don’t know. 201. You’re sleeping? But I would like to say something to you. Section 9B XΑΝ. But the master has a very old father. ill-favoured man that you are. ‘You answer us asking. XAN. answering such things. 5 κελεύοντι ἐπιθόμεθα πείθομαι takes the dative. For the master fell into perplexity about his father. The master ordered us to guard his father. ‘That is our master there. and responsible for many evils. 9B Page 101 1 ἐκεινοσί Compare οὑτοιί (line 20). So don’t sleep. ΧAN. XAN. What would you like to say to me? I’d like to say to you that a great evil will befall you. Sosias? Wanting what do you shout thus? You will destroy me by shouting. None the less ‘love-’ is the beginning of this evil.
XAN.) πείσῃ Can you recognise this? It comes from πείθω. old fellow. 436–442. being in perplexity. at any rate. #191 for time phrases. but this man. the old man loves something. lovers write on a door ‘Demos is beautiful’. ‘learned his father being …’ The rest of the story will explain why his father’s mania was such a bad thing. ‘during the day and during the night’. SOS. 181. and learn the principal parts of πίπτω. is a homosexual. that he thinks the father is ‘a lover of sacriﬁces’ or ‘a lover of strangers’. 2 ἐμπεσοῦσα What verb does this come from? What is it? Try the aorist participle of πίπτω.’ 14 ἐκορυβάντιζεν We do not know why he enrolled his father as a Korybant. 4–5 τῆς μὲν ἡμέρας … τῆς δέ νυκτός Genitive of the time within which. spectators. Verbs of knowing and perceiving are often followed by a participle. writes alongside near by ‘Kemos (a voting funnel) is beautiful. like no man. having shut him in with these bars which are . For I shall tell you. sitting in the lawcourt during the day and dreaming of cases during the night. 12 παύσῃ Can you recognise this? (2nd person singular future indicative middle. Translation for 9C XANTHIAS You will never ﬁnd [it] out. #389). 115 Yes. having asked. Indeed. For he is always being a juror and loves the lawcourt.’ So we are guarding this man. Was it just to take his mind off being a juror. By the dog. ὑμῖν ἐν ἀπορίᾳ οὖσι Note that οὖσι agrees with ὑμῖν ‘you being in perplexity’. He is a lover of being a juror in the court of the Eliaia. or does Aristophanes say this simply for the ridiculous picture of him sitting in court banging his tambourine? 15 ἐμπεσών What is it? It should be familiar by now! If not see 9A line 17. See GE p. But what does this man say? This man answers me. Indeed. on seeing and approaching. since Philoxenos. if you want to know what the illness is that has befallen the father. the illness of the old man. You will ﬁnd this very helpful when you need to hunt for an unfamiliar form or if you are not quite sure which verb it comes from. he is not a lover of strangers (philoxenos). look up εὑρίσκω in the list of irregular verbs (GE pp. 13 ὁ δὲ πατήρ ‘But his father did not obey him (αὐτῷ) persuading (ἀναπείθοντι) him not to go out. 8–9 ἐπεὶ τὸν πατέρα ἔμαθεν ϕιληλιαστὴν ὄντα ‘When he learned that his father was ϕιληλιαστής’. 9C Page 102 1 ἐξευρήσετε What tense? What verb? If you do not know.Section 9C XAN. be silent now.
having shut him inside. my father. was a juror. What need? In theory my father is quiet. poor me! SOSIAS What is it? XAN. who are you? PHILOKLEON Me. ‘To whom is the man speaking?’ 7 ὡς ἐμοί δοκεῖ This is the impersonal use of δοκεῖ. And our master. Xanthias. Bdelykleon is saying something to us. 11 λόγῳ μέν … ἔργῳ δέ … ‘in word … in deed …’. I’m smoke coming out. ﬁnding the illness hard to bear. ‘in theory … in practice …’ a very frequent contrast. The master is no longer sleeping. saying such things: ‘Why’. The name of the old man is Philokleon. having gone into the oven. Then the son introduced the father into the Korybantic rites. are you asleep? XANTHIAS Oh dear. is seeking a hole with great zeal. But wanting what are you standing up/what need makes you stand up. But now. ‘as it seems to me’. on happening upon us sleeping. For when his son learned that his father was a lover of being a juror in the lawcourt of the Eliaia. SOS. having fallen [headlong] into the lawcourt. drum and all. 20 καπνῷ ἐξιόντι οὐχ ὅμοιος εἶ ὅμοιος takes the dative (‘like to’): ‘You are not like smoke coming out. SOS. ‘do you always judge cases. ﬁrst he tried to persuade him not to go out of the house. as it seems to me. but is already standing and shouting. he said. Lord Poseidon. while the name of this son is Bdelykleon.’ Translation for 9D (Shouts to the slaves from the roof. 9D Page 104 6 τίσι Dative plural of τίς. Sosias. ‘meeting with’. whatever noise is the chimney making? Out of the chimney comes Philokleon. ‘happening upon’. BDELYKLEON . in the lawcourt? Won’t you stop being a juror in the Eliaia court? Won’t you obey your son?’ But the father didn’t obey him persuading [him] not to go out. But to whom is the man speaking? XAN. And my father always uses audacity when he wants to go out. He seems to me too to be saying something. But the father.116 Section 9D many and big. but more like …’ 22 oὐδενὶ … ἤ … ‘He seems to me to be more like to no one than Philokleon. From that time. but in practice he wants to go out. will destroy [us]. as it seems to me at any rate. You. master? ΒDΕL. Father. we have been guarding him with these nets.) Xanthias and Sosias. 8 ἐντυχών τυγχάνω takes the dative in the sense of ‘ﬁnding’.
but more like Philokleon. You want to sell the mule. #95. What do you think. 17 εἰσιών. 41 ϕθήσεται The future of ϕθάνω. This man is preparing a great mischief.) 27 Ἰθακήσιος Odysseus came from Ithaka. Xanthias? XANTHIAS It seems so to me too. ΒDEL. 117 Smoke? But you are not like smoke coming out. never at all. as it seems to me. But it is the ﬁrst of the month today. 37 ἐνέπεσε What tense? What verb? Try πίπτω. What do you think. offspring of a horse and a donkey. look for some other scheme. PHIL. 12 αὐτοῖς τοῖς κανθηλίοις ‘pack-saddle and all’. master. Father. Odyssey 9 for the story. Here now. as it seems to me at any rate. ‘megalith’. but I am coming out. since I want to sell the mule in the market-place. No. Page 106 25 Οὖτις Odysseus also tricked the Cyclops by telling him that his name was Οὖτις ‘Nobody’. PHIL. 86. Well. ‘going in. See GE p. bring out …’ 20–21 εἰ μὴ φέρεις Ὀδυσσέα τινά ‘If you are not carrying an Odysseus’. 11 τὸν ἡμίονον The ‘half-donkey’ is a mule. by Zeus. but I [could do it] better than you. ΒDΕL. 9E Page 105 6 νουµηνία The ﬁrst day of the month was market day.’ 35 λίθων From λίθος we get ‘monolith’. ‘lithograph’. pack-saddle and all. pack-saddle and all? But I could do this. 15 ἄμεινον ἢ σύ Both this phrase and σοῦ ἄμεινον in the next line have the same meaning. (See Homer. XAN. not at all. For the meaning of ϕθάνω and of λανθάνω + participle see GE p. BDELYKLEON By Poseidon. ἔξαγε Note the preﬁxes. etc. 180. ΒDΕL. PHIL. ΒDEL. but he was not ‘the son of runaway horse’! 31 γιγνώσκω γάρ σε πάντων πονηρότατον ὄντα ‘I know you are (participle) the most wicked of all men. By Zeus.Section 9E ΒDΕL. #190 (h). Xanthias? He seems to me to be more like to no one than Philokleon. PHIL. PHILOKLEON . go in and lead out the mule. Translation for 9E But open the door. I could do this better than you. The picture of Odysseus escaping from the Cyclops under a ram should make the reference clear.
freedom τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ. For my father is most like Odysseus. sophist 9A–E: 3 τῷ θεατῇ. Nobody? From which country are you? An Ithakan. τοῖς συγγενέσιν . where is my net? Shoo. You then. Father.118 ΒDEL. harmony τῇ ὁμονοίᾳ. Alas wretched me! For it does not escape my notice that my father is becoming a sparrow. ταῖς ἐλευθερίαις 4. ταῖς θαλάτταις 2. if you are not carrying an Odysseus? But by Zeus it is carrying this certain someone underneath. τοῖς κυβερνήταις τῷ σοφιστῇ. nor will he escape our notice by running away. Alas poor me! What is this? From wherever did the clod of earth fall on me? Look. ταῖς τόλμαις 1. why don’t we sleep for a little while? EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9A–E DATIVE CASE 9A–E: 1 1. ταῖς τριήρεσιν τῷ Σωκράτει τῷ συγγενεῖ. safety τῇ σωτηρίᾳ. victory τῇ νίκῃ. mule. You. But suffering what are you groaning. τοῖς θεαταῖς τῷ ποιητῇ. shoo back! (He pursues the father with the net. Where. ΒDEL. as it seems to me at any rate. PHIL. I know you are the most wicked of all men. ΧΑΝ. push the mule and yourself into the house with. shoo. ταῖς θεαῖς 6. ΒDΕL. fellow? Nobody by Zeus. push many of the stones towards the door with your hands. and the old man will not again give trouble to us who have shut him in and are guarding him. mule? Is it because today we are going to sell you? But don’t groan any longer. goddess τῇ θεᾷ. PHIL. SOS. τοῖς ποιήταῖς τῷ κυβερνήτῃ.) Come now. Exercises for section 9A–E SOSIAS ΒDΕL. But he will anticipate us by escaping. Drag him from beneath. ταῖς ὁμονοίαις 8. trireme 2. master. ΒDΕL. τοῖς σοφισταῖς 1. relation τῇ τριήρει. But. Ο most foul man. all urgency. ταῖς σωτηρίαις 9A–E: 2 5. captain 4. The man is becoming a sparrow. SOS. What is this affair? Why are you groaning. ταῖς ἀπορίαις 3. spectator 2. sea τῇ θαλάττῃ. ταῖς νίκαις 7. Who is the mule carrying? Who are you. poet 3. Since we have shut him in. daring τῇ τόλμῃ. Socrates 3. Sosias. the son of runaway horse. at any rate. perplexity τῇ ἀπορίᾳ.
τούτοις τοῖς τοιούτῳ. 3. τούτῳ τῷ τούτοις τοῖς. τοῖς σοῖς τῷ πολλῷ. 4. τοῖς θεοῖς 9A–E: 5 1. τῷ πολλῷ τοῖς πολλοῖς. τοῖς ὁμοίοις τῷ κακῷ. 8. wicked that disgraceful like bad safe greatest clear 9. τῇ σῇ. suffering 2. ταῖς μιαραῖς. τοῖς πονηροῖς ἐκείνῳ τῷ. ταύταις ταῖς. crowd. ταύτῃ τῇ. mass 3. 6. play 2. τῇ σώᾳ. τοῖς δήλοις τῷ σῷ. lord. ἐκείνῃ τῇ. 6. τοῖς πονηροῖς. 5. mule ship man lawcourt time friend word god τῷ ἡμιόνῳ. τοῖς χρόνοις τῷ φίλῳ. τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τῷ δικαστηρίῳ. τοῖς δικαστηρίοις τῷ χρόνῳ. τοῖς ἄναξιν .) 10. τοῖς δράμασιν τῷ ἄνακτι. τοιούτοις 9A–E: 6 1. 2. τοῖς πλοίοις τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ. τῇ δήλῃ. τῷ ὁμοίῳ τοῖς ὁμοίοις. τοιαύταις. ἐκείνῳ τῷ. 2. τοῖς πάθεσιν τῷ πλήθει. your (s. ταῖς δήλαις. τοῖς ἡμιόνοις τῷ πλοίῳ. much 11. ἐκείνοις τοῖς. wall 9A–E: 7 τῷ πάθει. τῷ μεγίστῳ τοῖς μεγίστοις. ταῖς σώαις. τῷ σώῳ τοῖς σώοις. τῇ ὁμοίᾳ.Exercises for section 9A–E 119 9A–E: 4 1. τοῖς κακοῖς τῷ σώῳ. τοῖς φίλοις τῷ λόγῳ. king τῷ δράματι. ἐκείνοις τοῖς τῷ μιαρῷ. ταῖς πολλαῖς. 7. τοῖς πολλοῖς τούτῳ τῷ. τῇ μεγίστῃ. 3. τοῖς μεγίστοις τῷ δήλῳ. τοῖς πλήθεσιν τῷ τείχει. ταῖς μεγίσταις. 7. ταῖς πονηραῖς. ἐκείναις ταῖς. τῇ μιαρᾷ. τῷ πονηρῷ. ταῖς κακαῖς. drama. τοιαύτῃ. 12. τοῖς μιαροῖς. τῇ πολλῇ. 8. τοῖς σώοις τῷ μεγίστῳ. this such τῷ πονηρῷ. τῷ σῷ. τοῖς σοῖς. τοις μιαροῖς τῷ ὁμοίῳ. τῇ πονηρᾷ. τῷ μιαρῷ. τοῖς τείχεσιν 1. τοῖς λόγοις τῷ θεῷ. τοιούτῳ τοιούτοις. τῷ κακῷ τοῖς κακοῖς. τῇ κακῇ. ταῖς σαῖς. ταῖς ὁμοίαις. 4. τῷ δήλῳ τοῖς δήλοις. 5.
οὖσιν θύσαντι. 2. 6. ἀμείνοσιν ἰόντι.120 Exercises for section 9A–E 3. τοῖς δικασταῖς τῷ παιδί. 7. δοκεῖ τῷ Σωκράτει ἕπομαι ὑμῖν ἐντυχάνω τῷ βασιλεῖ ἐν ταῖς ναυσί(ν) δοκεῖ ἡμῖν πρὸς τοῖς θεαταῖς 7. θυσάσῃ. 6. shrine city τῷ δικαστῇ. οὖσιν. juror boy. 5. θυσᾶσι. 9. ἡμῖν τῃ νηί. slave river dwelling possession battle temple.) money neighbour lamp. 8. θύσαντι. ταῖς μάχαις τῷ ἱερῷ. ὄντι. οὔσῃ. τοῖς ἄστεσιν 9A–E: 11 1. 10. having sacriﬁced 5. θυσάσαις. ἰοῦσιν ὄντι. Zeus I ship king you (s. οὔσαις. 2. (pl. ταῖς λαμπάσιν τῇ νυκτί. 9. τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν τῇ γυναικί. 6. ταῖς γραυσίν 9A–E: 10 1. ταῖς οἰκήσεσιν τῇ κτήματι.) eyebrow old woman τῷ Διί ἐμοί. μοι. 10. torch night fatherland leader. τοῖς ποταμοῖς τῇ οἰκήσει. 5. ταῖς ναυσίν τῷ βασιλεῖ. ταῖς πατρίσιν τῷ ἡγεμόνι. fortunate 6. τοῖς παισίν τῷ ποταμῷ. 4. someone 9A–E: 9 ἀμείνονι. σὺν ἡμῖν χρῶμαι σοί ἕπομαι αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ πλήθει ἐπὶ τῇ νίκῃ λόγῳ μὲν … ἔργῳ δέ . τοῖς χρήμασιν τῷ γείτονι. τοῖς κτήμασιν τῇ μάχη. τοῖς ἱεροῖς τῷ ἄστει. 3. σοι. εὐδαίμοσιν τινί. 2. 11. ὑμῖν τῇ ὀφρρύι. 5. ταῖς ὀφρύσιν τῇ γραί. name thing. 5. ἰοῦσιν᾽ ἰούσαις. τοῖς ὀνόμασιν τῷ χρήματι. 8. being 4. 3. 3. 4. guide woman τῷ ὀνόματι. τοῖς γείτοσιν τῇ λαμπάδι. ἰόντι. better 2. 7. going 3. 4. 7. ἰούσῃ. ταῖς νυξίν τῇ πατρίδι. 6. 12. τισίν 1. 8. τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν σοί. ταῖς γυναιξίν 9A–E: 8 1. θυσᾶσιν εὐδαίμονι. 4.
ἡμῖν 2. ἀνισταῖτο ἄν ἤρετο. He was bringing the man on to the ship with the help of the sailors. 2. The suppliant stayed in the shrine for two days. He was shouting all night. 7.) try to persuade me with this argument? τούτοις τοῖς λόγοις 10. We shout loudly (use great shouts). τὸ ὄνομα τούτῳ τῷ θεατῇ ἐστι Φιλόξενος. Α great evil will befall you. In theory no one in the city is better than your father. ἠρωτήσαμεν REVISION EXERCISES FOR 9A–E B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX 1. Why do you (pl. Tell the spectator the plot of the play with full (all) enthusiasm. 2. 4. He is my father. We went away in the night. since you are accursed. 3. τῷ κελεύοντι 8. I shall go within two days. On the next day the son chased his father back into the house with the big nets. 8. 5. He met the man on the ﬁrst day. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS 9A–E: 13 1. ἠρώτησεν ἐροῦσι(ν) δύναιντο ἄν ἠρόμεθα. We must obey those who give orders. 3. τοῖς θεαταῖς 5. ὑμῖν. χαλεπῶς οἴσουσι καθίζοντες ἐν τῷ δικαστήριῳ. λέγει ὑμῖν καὶ τοῖς θεαταῖς. The sailors happened to be on the ships. What is the name of the king? τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν 9. ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ 7.Revision exercises for section 9A–E 121 TIME PHRASES 9A–E: 12 1. 3. . but in fact no one is worse. τῷ μεγάλῳ δικτύῳ D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. κακοδαίμοσιν οὔσιν 3. ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν. λήσει ἤροντο. 4. μεγάλῃ βοῇ 6. ἠρώτησαν δύναιτο ἄν ἐροῦμεν ἔλαθεν 6. 10. 4. 2. They are speaking to us and our children/slaves. 5. 9. This woman’s plan is dangerous/terrible. a very wicked man.
The participle has not. For aorist inﬁnitives see GE pp. 202. PHILOKLEON What’s this? But you will destroy me. 9F Page 107 2 ἐάσω The future of ἐάω ‘I allow’. λαβεῖν What is it? Try the principal parts of λαμβάνω. PHIL. 28 ποιῆσαι ποιέω ποιήσω ἐποίησα. Father. Listen. σκοπέω. 5.’ 10 δικάσαι First aorist inﬁnitive active from δικάζω. Father. ΒDΕL. 25 λήψῃ What tense? What person? What verb? Try the future of λαμβάνω. I stole the money with (using) my right hand. ΒDΕL. not allowing me to go out. Get up. a process) and obey me [now] (aorist inﬁnitive denotes a single event). You must stay here. 47 ἐσθίειν Another very irregular verb: ἐσθίω ἔδομαι ἔφαγον ‘I eat’. He is destroying Socrates with a wicked slander. γενέσθαι What is this? What are the principal parts of γίγνομαι? 19 ἐξευρεῖν What is it? Try the principal parts of εὑρίσκω. Therefore aorist inﬁnitive active. 11 μοι … ἐνθάδε μένοντι Note the agreement: ‘How will it be possible for me remaining here to be a juror?’ ‘How will it be possible … if I stay here?’ Page 108 16 παύσασθαι First aorist inﬁnitive middle. 187–189. Translation for 9F Bdelykleon speaks to the father. Remember that the aorist indicative has an augment. 5 οὐκ ἐάσας What is this? Compare it with εἴασας. and obey me. ‘You must (χρή) stay here (present inﬁnitive = all the time. Remember that the inﬁnitive does not have an augment. I shall not allow you to go out to the courtroom any longer. Most relevant here is ‘episcopal’.122 Section 9F 4. 40 ἐξήνεγκον For the principal parts of φέρω see GE p. since today you will be able to be a juror. Here the aorist is used to emphasise the aspect. the various English ‘-scope’ words. BDELYKLEON . But nevertheless I want to be a juror. ἐνέκλεισα τὸν πατέρα πολλοῖς δούλοις χρώμενος. 3 λήσεις The future of λανθάνω. nor will you escape my notice by trying to go out. Father. 7 πιθέσθαι Aorist inﬁnitive from ἐπιθόμην (second aorist of πείθομαι). #211. καλοῖς λόγοις ἔπεισαν τὸν δῆμον οἱ ῥήτορες. from ἐπίσκοπος an ‘overseer’ or a ‘bishop’ in Christian Greek. δυνήσῃ The future of δύναμαι: ‘you will be able’. 17 κατάσκοπον κατά. Cf. #195–197.
For the speeches of the prosecutors are long. And by Zeus I shall eat it. Hurrah.Section 9G PHIL. but you know well that the slaves do not want to stop doing wrong. Come then. have you brought out everything? [Yes] by Zeus. For you have many household slaves. Look. at least. The old man waits around. For at last I have brought out the things of the lawcourt. Hold on now. near the ﬁre there is some lentil soup for you. After a short while Bdelykleon. ΒDΕL. PHIL. ΒDΕL. with all eagerness. 189. ΒDΕL. ΒDEL. as it seems to me. So wouldn’t you like to do this. 123 PHIL. PHIL. being clever at eating. Wouldn’t you like to reveal the matter? You will get it from me. PHIL. ΒDEL. I think at any rate that I have brought everything. and check that you can recognise the aorist inﬁnitives active and middle. And it will be possible for you being a spy to discover these evils today. ΒDΕL. See GE p. PHIL. 9G Page 110 4 ἄκουσον What is it? 2nd person singular of the aorist imperative. So you must become a spy of the affairs which happen in the house. and to force the household slaves to cease from their evils and become better? I certainly would like to. And I have brought out this ﬁre. and having discovered them to exact justice. And you would be willing to do this? I would do this. but are responsible for many bad things. and you are clever at sleeping. although sitting in the lawcourt. . I shall bring everything out. #198. but the son goes into the house. For I shall come quickly bringing the things of the lawcourt in my hands. PHIL. on coming out. But how will it be possible for me to be a juror if I stay here? There will be a courtroom for you in your own house and you will be able to judge the members of the household. By Zeus. Note this form of the aorist imperative active in -σον. For you convince me with your words. What do you say? But in what way and about what? About many things. But wanting what have you brought out the cockerel? What? The cock will be able to wake you up with its voice. Indeed. You speak well. But you have not yet said this. Grammar Make sure that you have learned the principal parts of the irregular verbs you have met in this section before you go on further. ΒDEL. hurrah! For it will be possible for me to eat the lentil-soup while I am judging. from where I shall be able to get the pay. Look. ΒDΕL. carries the things of the lawcourt in his hands with difﬁculty.
But. child. know it well. Don’t go away in any way. So don’t go away. speak. But let [me]. Where are the voting-urns? For I cannot place the vote without voting-urns. ὦ πάτερ More imperatives. ΒDΕL. the 2nd person singular second aorist middle imperative from ἐπιθόμην. Father. you. ‘prosecute’. ΒDEL.preﬁx suggests ‘I speak against’. Look! (He shows his father’s chamber-pot. #201 for the imperatives of εἰμί. Everything does indeed please me.) Stop running out. ΒDEL. ἀλλ’ ἐμοὶ πιθοῦ καὶ ἄκουσον. Father. ΒDΕL. λέξον Another aorist imperative. I am calling the ﬁrst case. child. Look. PHIL. Note πιθοῦ. Father? Tell me. Does everything please you. Father. Where is the water clock? Bring it to me. 17 παῦσαι 2nd person singular of the aorist imperative middle of παύω. BDEL. I’m listening. What do you say? Go on. Fine! For everything of the lawcourt is here – except – Speak. ‘accuse’. 34 κατηγορεῖτε The κατά. ΒDΕL. PHIL. but listen. 14 ἔασον The -σον ending again from the aorist imperative of ἐάω. but the context will almost always make the meaning clear. 11 κάδων ἕνεκα There were two voting-urns. The spelling is exactly the same as the aorist inﬁnitive active παῦσαι from ἔπαυσα. but obey me and listen. PHIL. all right. εἶμι and οἶδα. PHIL. father. Translation for 9G BDELYKLEON PHILOKLEON ΒDEL.124 Section 9G 5 ἴθι See GE p. though without the augment. Well. because they are like the 2nd person plural of the aorist indicative. know that well. I must look for the voting-urns and place my vote. Note all the other aorist imperatives that follow. PHIL. Don’t call the case. Therefore sit down. where are you hurrying? I’m running out because of the urns. Page 111 24 ἡ κλεψύδρα The water clock was used to measure the time allowed for the prosecution speech and the defence speech. (Again begins to run out. what is it? Except the water clock. PHIL. The old man begins to run out. Jurors placed their pebbles in one or the other. 12 μὴ ἄπιθι μηδαμῶς. since I happen to have these cups. 191. 32 παῦσαι See the note on line 17 above.) . one for guilty and one for innocent. The 2nd persons plural are much easier to recognise than the 2nd persons singular. Hey.
loose (s. aor. drive aorist aorist present aorist aorist present AORIST IMPERATIVES AND MORE PRESENT IMPERATIVES 9F–G: 3 1. 4.) receive (s. to make. slaves. 5. 8. 11. Listen. aor. Grammar Make sure that you know these forms of the imperative before you go on to the next section. 9. aor. 8.) 2.) 7.) stop (pl. 10. 6. After bringing out the ﬁre all the slaves go away.) 3. 6. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9F–G AORIST INFINITIVES 9F–G: 1 1. and bring out the ﬁre.) ﬁnd (pl. and stop worrying. aor. and after praying. while those present pray to the gods. seek (s. Sit down. 2. 12. 10. 10. to judge to see to begin to become to go to lead. 7. 9. aor. become (s. Father.) obey (s. pres.) 4. 9. 3. stop (s. 12. aor. aor. aor. pres.) 6. and obey me. 5. aor) 5. stay (pl.) let go. prosecute. 11. speak (s. 4. then. 2. learn (pl. 8. do to conquer to speak to set free to learn to run aorist present present aorist present aorist 7. do to wrong (someone) to consider to guard to turn towards to sacriﬁce μαθεῖν ἐκδραμεῖν ἄρξασθαι ἐξαγαγεῖν ποιήσασθαι ἀδικῆσαι νομίσαι φυλάξαι προτρέψαι θῦσαι 9F–G: 2 1. speak (s.Exercises for section 9F–G 125 Speak. 3. aor. to learn to run out to begin to lead out to make.) . You pray to all the gods. what is this? Do you not think that this chamber-pot is an excellent water clock? Everything is now here.
see (s. voc. nom. 4. look. pres. nom.) 6. voc. nom. 7.) 3. aor. πᾶς παντ. EVERY 9F–G: 5 1.) 2. WHOLE. 6. be (s. 5. 9. 4. nom. Be.. aor. 8.ALL... 2. 7.) and carry all the equipment REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9F–G B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX ἐπαυσάμην παύσασθαι ἤκουσα ἀκοῦσαι ἐποίησα ποιῆσαι ἠδίκησα ἀδικῆσαι εἶπoν εἰπεῖν ἤνεγκον ἐνεγκεῖν ἐγενόμην γενέσθαι ἔμαθον μαθεῖν ἔλαβον λαβεῖν ἀϕικόμην ἀϕικέσθαι εἶδoν ἰδεῖν ἐπιθόμην πιθέσθαι ἔπεσον πεσεῖν 2... arrive (pl. nom. or ἤνεγκα ἐνέγκαι 4. voc. bring (s.126 Revision exercises for section 9F–G VOCATIVES 9F–G: 4 1. 10. pres. 10. voc. go!. nom.. 3.) 1. voc. show (s. voc.. pres. 12. 6. know All of you women. 1.. 5.. know. voc. (Only the accent shows it is imperative) All of you leave and do not remain but go It will be possible for all to leave Everybody come and carry everything It is not possible for me to carry all these things Get up and go (s) Go (pl. run away.. voc voc. voc. aor) 5. 9.) . 2. 8. ﬂee (pl. 11. all you women are going It was possible for you all to bear everything Everyone be brilliant at selling. 3.
I learn many things. It is possible for me to listen to the orators. You (s. be afraid (pl. ὦ πάτερ. I shall not allow him to reach the lawcourt. πάντα πάρεστιν ἐνθάδε πλὴν τοῦ πυρός. They must learn the words of the play. τί βουλόμενος ἐξέδραμες;’ ‘ὅ τι; τὰ πάντα. pres) 10. He himself wants to keep taking the whole fee from his son. 4. General.) must become a juror in the house. λαβεῖν. #206–207 for the full paradigm. cease (s.. We must all go out into the market-place. ‘Tell me. μαθεῖν 10. I want to be a juror in the house.’ 9H This section introduces the 3rd person of the imperative. δικάσαι δικάζειν 2.’ ‘εἰπέ μοι.) 8. κατηγορεῖν 5. γενέσθαι 9. Look at the ships. look (s. How shall I persuade you. to listen to all the speeches? ἀκοῦσαι 7. It is possible for me both to take the whole reward here and eat it. ἀφικνεῖσθαι 12. boys/slaves. but I do not understand everything. 197–199. δεῖ σε μένειν ἐνθάδε και δικάζειν. pres) 9. ἐξιέναι 3. Why aren’t you willing to bring out Philokleon. 2. What must you do? ποιῆσαι 4. go (s. It is permissible for Philokleon to prosecute. λαμβάνειν 11. The 3rd person endings of the imperative are easy to recognise: Active Singular Plural -έτω -όντων -άτω -άντων Middle -έσθω -έσθων -άσθω -άσθων . aor. ἐξέσται πᾶσιν ὑμῖν πωλεῖν τοὺς ἡμιόνους. 7. what did you want when you knocked on the door?’ ‘What did I want? The master. father. 5. The son did not allow his father to go out to the lawcourt. ὦ παῖδες. which we have to translate as ‘let him/her …’ or as ‘let them …’ See GE pp. but my son does not allow me to be a juror here.... we must stay here and ﬁght. 3.Section 9H 127 3. ἐξενέγκετε τὰ πυρά/τάς λαμπάδας. φαγεῖν D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ἐλθεῖν 6. mule? ἐξενεγκεῖν 8. aor) 1.
ἀδικήσας is the aorist participle of ἀδικέω. 35 προσιόντων πάντες What is προσιόντων? What makes sense in the context? See introduction to 9H. Translation for 9H BDELYKLEON PHILOKLEON If any juror happens to be outside. ὁ διώκων ‘the prosecutor’ in line 11.e.’ σε is accusative after δεῖ. 5 ἀκούσατε ‘Listen to …’ This must be imperative because there is no augment. Once again only the context will help you. Note the principal parts βαίνω βήσομαι ἔβην. ᾔτησα From αἰτέω αἰτήσω ᾔτησα ‘I ask’. 25 οὐ παρεῖχέ μοι αἰτοῦντι ‘did not give it to me asking’. the politician. .128 Section 9H But it is easy to confuse the active endings -όντων and -άντων with the genitive plural of the present and aorist active participles which are the same in spelling.’ λόγῳ μέν…. Note μονο.and ϕαγ. and do not confuse it with ὅτι ‘that’.e. This is part of the evidence for the pronunciation of vowel sounds in the ﬁfth century BC. 40 κατάβηθι ‘get down’. and sheep say βῆ βῆ. ‘the criminal’. This usually means ‘to take’ (middle ‘to choose’). ‘because’. Grabber. 29–30 δεῖ σε … ‘You must hear them both. having heard them. 3 εἰσίτω and προσίτω Note the 3rd s. 7 Λάβης From λαμβάνω. ἔργῳ δέ … Note the contrast. Cf. Cf. but in the context of a lawcourt it will usually mean ‘to convict’. like μονο-ϕαγίστατον. 8D line 11. Cf.’ 14 Dogs say αὖ αὖ. The dog is called ‘Grabber’. τóτε ‘then’. aorist imperative of βαίνω is βῆθι. and. imperative of εἶμι ‘I go’. 11–12 ἐξαπατήσειν µ’ ἐλπίζεις ἐλπίζω is normally followed by a future indicative: ‘You hope to deceive me. let him come in and make haste. and ἀκούσαντα is accusative agreeing with σε. The two inﬁnitives are governed by δεῖ. on that basis (οὕτω) cast your vote. thief). 31 ὡς ὄντα … ‘as being …’ ‘on the grounds that he is …’ κυνῶν … ἄνδρα An intentional absurdity. 23 οὗτος ὁ ἀδικήσας ‘the one having done wrong’. 16 ‘This seems to me to be another Labes (i. Note that the 2nd s. Who is the defendant? Let him come forward.and the superlative ending. 19 ἀναβῆναι Aorist inﬁnitive of ἀναβαίνω. Page 112 1. 24 ὅτε ‘When’. i. may have been intending to bring against a man called Lakhes. There is probably a topical reference here to a case which Kleon. Note that αἰτοῦντι agrees with μοι. Compare ἠκούσατε ‘you heard’. 27 ἑλεῖν αἱρέω αἱρήσω εἶλoν. Page 114 18 ἀναβάς This is the aorist participle. 3 ὁ ϕεύγων ‘the defendant’.
dog. escaped my notice by going off alone and eating all the cheese. ΒDEL. and convict him. For it cries out. and good at eating all the cheese. The defendant. he did not give [it] to me asking. dog. good fellow. For I intend to make the speech for the defence. But the dog. Come. the one who has done wrong. Let him come forward. father. Suffering what are you silent? You should speak. For he doesn’t know how to speak. at the same time as judging. But you hope to deceive me. I shall stop prosecuting. and I shall listen to the prosecution while eating. But I. 3 γιγνώσκω αὐτὸν … γιγνώσκω is followed by accusative and participle. come up.Section 9I 129 ΒDΕL. For the defendant has done wrong by eating up the cheese on his own. Let all the witnesses of Labes come in. But you. will eat all the lentil soup. Be quiet. So I must cast my vote. But this one at least is not able. come up and prosecute. and all the other equipment. But where is the prosecutor. PHIL. sit down. runs away. I know that you are a thief. and indeed you must make the speech for the defence. the cup. and convict him. And when I asked for a share. DOG PHIL. This one seems to me to be another Labes. Judge. the cheese-grater. dog. For at last the dog has come up. . and having heard on that basis place your vote. obey me and don’t prejudge. ΒDΕL. Come. For you must hear both. Get down. the cooking-pot. Hurrah. PHIL. ΒDΕL. dog. Ο foul one here. who is in word innocent. You have heard the charge. the matter is clear. but in deed himself also a thief. τοσαύτης διαβολῆς ‘such a great slander’. DOG ΒDEL. But. For this dog. Woof woof! He is here. as it seems to me. who is a dog. Punish him. ΧAN. by the gods. make the speech for the defence. For it is possible. ὦνδρες = ὦ ἄνδρες ‘gentlemen’. DOG ΒDΕL. men of the jury. Now I for my part shall call in the witnesses. the dog from the deme of Kydathenaion? Come. I know it. And indeed the defendant Labes here is present. PHIL. Listen now to the charge. not wanting to come up. comes forward. since he is moreover much the most selﬁsh eater of all dogs. Dog of the deme Kydathenaion has indicted dog Labes of the deme Aixone for theft. as I know well about legal matters. Do not confuse τοσοῦτος ‘so great’ with τοιοῦτος ‘of such a kind’. 9I Page 116 2 This is a typical beginning for a speech in a lawcourt.
BDELYKLEON . For I know that he is good and chases the wolves. 12 κιθαρίζειν γὰρ οὐκ ἐπίσταται Literally ‘he does not know how to play the lyre’. who has suffered evil things. What use? For he also guards the door. Translation for 9I Bdelykleon speaks. and acquit him. The meaning is ‘he is not educated’. he bites. good fellow. So I must convict him as a thief. See RGT 9H line 27. Where are the children? Come up. PHIL. rather this one seems to me to be a thief and worthy of death. By Zeus. ΒDΕL. the more milk. For he does not know how to play the lyre. The better the sheep are guarded. For this Labes never stays in the house. I beg you. and the speaker persuades me with his words. beginning the defence. ask and plead weeping. pity him. It is difﬁcult. So what is the use. if he steals the cheese and. forgive him.suggests stealth. Come. to the witnesses. By Zeus. but he is the best of all the dogs now [alive]. and having convicted him. The middle of αἱρέω means ‘to take for oneself’. my good fellow. But. 30 ποῦ τὰ παιδία. But the other dog only guards the house. As most cheese was made of sheep’s milk. ‘he has not had a good education’. Answer clearly. but none the less I shall speak. And when he steals nothing. or even. But if he stole the cheese. For you happened to be guarding the cheese. The cheese-grater comes up. It was normal. since he is able to guard many sheep. 9 ‘Able to guard many sheep’. Come up. of course.130 Section 9I 7 ἑλεῖν … ἑλόντα … From αἱρέω meaning ‘convict’. and speak loudly. For by staying here he hopes to steal the food from the others. but I know she is lying. eats it up? ΒDΕL. This is a character reference. this is not a completely irrelevant characteristic. 10 ὑϕαιρεῖται The preﬁx ὑϕ. PHILOKLEON No. PHIL. In this case. judge another case as well. but goes out of the house looking for food. in the Athenian courts to smear your opponent’s character and to build up your own. weeping to arouse the pity of the jurors. wretched ones. cheese-grater. It was normal practice in an Athenian lawcourt to parade the children of the defendant. and indeed expected. ΒDEL. to reply on behalf of a dog who has met with such a great slander. Father. Arghh! Whatever evil is this? An evil surrounds me. and the more cheese. PHIL. Listen. having stolen it. pity those who suffer evil things. BDEL. puppies. gentlemen. the children are. did you grate the cheese for both the dogs? She says that she grated it all for both.
so he has to blame the lentil soup. Is this the nearer? ΒDEL. Daddy dear. (So taking him round a big walkabout. Place the voting-pebble. PHIL. 33 πείσομαι Can be the future of either πάσχω or πείθομαι. 14 περίπατον Cf. For the jurors order the defendant to get down. ΒDΕL. let me take you round this way. get down. This has the same meaning as ἄκων ‘unwillingly’ (line 34). For I burst into tears as I ate this lentil soup. 21 οὐχ ἑκών ‘not willingly’. See GE p. then when he has got down. For Philokleon has acquitted the dog unwillingly.Section 9J PHIL. For I do not know how to play the lyre. And yet. put it into the further voting-urn. Here it is almost in the sense of ‘to settle a contest’. 22 ἠγωνισάμεθα.) PHIL. This is it. they ﬁnd him guilty. It is difﬁcult for me to know. But none the less I shall get down. #211. 131 Get down. Father. get down. ‘peripatetic’. How bad (not good) I consider the lentil soup. Come. PHIL. 202. 9J Page 118 2 ἀπεδάκρυσα Philokleon cannot bear to admit that he could pity a defendant. (Speaks to himself. Did you recognise this form of the comparative? τά should have provided a useful clue. imperative of ἀνίσταμαι. ἀνίστασο 2nd persons. and acquit (him). get down. ΒDΕL. turn to better things. 9 ὑστέρῳ Juries ﬁled past two urns: the one they came to ﬁrst (the earlier or nearer) was for condemnation and the next (the later or further) for acquittal. The context will give you the right meaning here. by putting the voting-pebble in the further voting-urn. This voting-pebble is in here. BDELYKLEON The dog is acquitted. ΒDΕL. See ἀγωνίζομαι. he walks to the further voting-urn ﬁrst. Taking this voting-pebble in your hand. PHIL. Translation for 9J Go to hell. 27 ἔπαιρε σεαυτόν ‘Lift yourself up’ from αἴρω ἀρῶ ἦρα ‘I raise’.) Hurrah! I have deceived him. How then have we contested? PHILOKLEON . It must have disagreed with him. this ‘get down’ deceives many very much. ΒDEL. Come now. I shall get down. then? PHIL. No indeed. 7 βελτίω = βελτίονα.
let him/her know. Father. FUTURE INFINITIVES 9H–J: 3 1. put all these things here. 9. let them release 9. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9H–J THIRD PERSON IMPERATIVES 9H–J: 1 1. 2. let them leave and let them not remain/ let them leave without waiting. let everyone carry the man out. Now tell me that. Exercises for section 9H–J I intend to reveal [it]. What are you suffering? Alas. stand up. 3. because I did that by placing my voting-pebble involuntarily and not convicting. be victorious (pl. let him/her hear let them retreat let him/her converse let him/her learn let them be silent 6. let him/her learn everything. PHIL. forgive me. It is possible to see everything in the house. κελεύσειν κωλύσειν ζητήσειν πείσεσθαι δέξεσθαι ἐξαπατήσειν to be about to order to be about to hinder to be about to seek to be about to obey to be about to receive to be about to deceive . 5. 8. 5. 5. Then I am nothing. let him/her/it be.) 7. let him/her carry 8. 3. 4. But did I acquit the man who was the defendant with the voting-pebble? What do I suffer? Whatever shall I suffer? But. 2. 6. 4. let them turn 9H–J: 2 1. 4. let him/her/it begin 10. let him/her/it go. ΒDΕL. [Yes] by Zeus. has he really been acquitted? You will destroy me with the word.132 ΒDEL. my good fellow. Ο much-honoured gods. 10. Don’t worry. where is water? Lift yourself up. BDΕL. You have been acquitted. let every one arrive. 3. PHIL. 6. but stand up. Father. 2. Labes. PHIL. let it be impossible to ﬁnd these things in the harbour. 7.
γενόμενος -η -ον κώλυσον. ἔβης REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9H–J B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX πλεῖν. ἔπαθον 9. κατηγορήσειν 9. pl. inf.) λαμβάνω ἀπέθανε die (aor. ἐπαινέσας -ασα -αν βάλε. κωλύσας -ασα -αν ἐπαίνεσον. Present: Aorist: . μαθήσεσθαι. αἱρήσω ἐπίστανται πείθειν ἐλπίζει αἱρήσεσθαι εἷλον ἔβη πείσονται 7.) γίγνομαι ἐρόμενος ask (aor. part. m. δέξεσθαι. nom. nom. δέξασθαι. nom. κωλῦσαι. ποιήσειν.) μανθάνω γένεσθε become (aor. s.Revision exercises for section 9H–J 133 7. βαλών -οῦσα -όν παῦσον. ἀϕικέσθαι. σπεύδειν.) τρέχω 1. ἐλθεῖν. indic. 3. λήψεσθαι. ἔσεσθαι. βοηθῆσαι. βιάσεσθαι IRREGULAR PRINCIPAL PARTS 9H–J: 4 to be about to defend oneself to be about to accuse to be about to write/ indict to be about to use force 1. δράσας -ασα -αν ἐλθέ. 2. δρᾶσαι. m. ὀλοϕυρεῖσθαι. s. imperative pl. ἐλθών -οῦσα -όν γενοῦ. ἀπολογήσεσθαι 8. 4. ὀϕείλειν. inf. βαλεῖν. διώξειν. παῦσαι. παύσας -ασα -αν 3. παύσεσθαι. ὑπισχνεῖται ἀπιέναι 8. μαχέσασθαι.) ἐρωτάω μαθόντες learn (aor. ἀποχωρεῖν. δέξαι. 2. γράψεσθαι 10. 5.) γίγνομαι δραμεῖν run (aor.) ἔρχομαι λήψεσθαι take (fut. inf. ἔπεισαν 10. imperative s. 3 s. part. imperative pl. inf.) ἀποθνῄσκω γενήσεσθαι become (fut.) λανθάνω λάβετε take (aor. λήσειν escape notice (fut.) ὁράω λαθών escape notice (aor. masc. m. ἐπαινέσαι.) αἱρέω ἰδών see (aor. εἷλεν 12. δεξάμενος -η -ον δρᾶσον. part. κρατῆσαι. 6. nom.) λανθάνω ἐλθέ go (aor. βιάσασθαι Future: ϕροντιεῖν. part. inf. s.) λαμβάνω ἑλεῖν take (aor. γενέσθαι. εἷλετο 11.
indic. ὁ κλέπτης ὑϕελέσθω τὸ μέρος τὸ τούτου τοῦ κυνός.) ϕέρω τυγχάνω ϕέρω εἰμί εἶμι οἶδα εἶμι βάλλω οἶδα εὑρίσκω πίπτω ἔχω πίπτω ἔχω D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. part. pl. masc. masc. understanding evidence. γέρων ὤν. This woman intends to listen to the stranger. gen. 3. τὸ δ’ ὄνομα τῷ μὲν νεανίᾳ ἦν Bδελυκλέων.) know (past indic.) fall (fut. I bear witness I name wretchedness 1. dat. SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9 A – WORDS I take I write down I hope I know how to witness name wretched D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK I destroy letter hope knowledge. νεανίᾳ τινὶ ἦν πατήρ. s.) know (pres. fut.) have (fut. 2 s. οὗτος ὁ δικαστὴς τὸν θάνατον μέλλει καταδικάσειν τοῦ κυνός./neut. ὁ διώκων ἀρχέσθω κατηγορεῖν. masc. imperative s.) have/hold (aor. ἐλπίζω τοὺς ϕεύγοντας καλῶς ἀπολογήσεσθαι.) ﬁnd (fut. 2 Let the herald enter the city. Let the children play. εἰσελθόντων οἱ κύνες. 3 pl. Let the suppliants pray to the gods. 4. part./neut. nom.) fall (aor. s.) be (pres.) go (fut.134 Summary exercises for section 9 οἴσει τυχούσῃ ἐνέγκατε εἶναι ἰόντος ᾔδεσαν ᾔεισθα βαλεῖν εἰδότες εὑρήσειν πεσόντι σχές πεσοῦμεν ἕξειν will carry (3 s. ὁ δὲ ./neut. inf. τῷ δὲ γέροντι Φιλοκλέων. inf. 5. ὁ δὲ γέρων ἐτύγχανεν ἔχων νόσον τινὰ δεινήν.) carry (aor.) go (impf. inf. part. s.) throw (aor.) happen (aor. dat. part. imperative pl. dat. He expects/hopes to pursue/prosecute the wicked citizen. s. part. οὐδέποτε γὰρ ἐπαύσατο βουλόμενος δικάζειν ἐν τοῖς δικαστηρίοις. masc. inf. fem.
Summary exercises for section 9
νεανίας ἐπειρᾶτο αὐτὸν πεῖσαι μὴ δικάζειν, ὁ δὲ γέρων αὐτῷ οὐκ ἐπείθετο καίπερ πολλὰ πείθοντι. τέλος δὲ ὁ μὲν νεανίας αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἐνέκλεισεν, ὁ δὲ ἀπορῶν ἐπειρᾶτο φεύγειν, πολλοῖς λόγοις χρώμενος. ἀλλὰ οὐκ ἐδύνατο λαθεῖν τοὺς δούλους τοὺς τὴν οἰκίαν φυλάττοντας. 2. ΒΔΕΛYΚΛΕΩΝ ἄκουσον γάρ, ὦ πάτερ, καὶ ἐμοὶ πιθοῦ. οὐ γάρ ἐάσω σε λιπόντα τὴν οἰκίαν ἐν τῷ δικαστηρίῳ δικάζειν. ΦΙΛΟΚΛΕΩΝ ἀλλὰ διὰ τί οὐκ ἐάσεις ἐμέ; ἐλπίζω γὰρ σέ μοι πάντα λέξειν. ΒΔΕΛ. διότι πονηρότατος εἶ τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. ΦΙΛ. τί οὖν ἐάσεις με ποιεῖν; τί μέλλεις ποιήσειν; ΒΔΕΛ. ἔξεσται σοι δικάζειν ἐνθάδε ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ. ταῦτα δὲ βούλοιο ἂν ποιῆσαι; ΦΙΛ. βουλοίμην ἂν ἔγωγε. εἰπέ μοι ταχέως, τί δεῖ με ποιεῖν; ΒΔΕΛ. μεῖνον ἐνθάδε. ἐξοίσω γὰρ τὰ τοῦ δικαστηρίου. (ἐκφέρει μὲν τὰ σκεύη. τὸ δὲ δικαστήριον ποιεῖται.) προσελθέτω ὁ ἀντίδικος. ἡ δὲ δίκη ἀρχέσθω. ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ κατήγορος; δεῦρο ἐλθέ, ὦ κύον, καὶ κατηγόρησον. ἀνάβηθι καὶ εἰπέ. λέγε ἡμῖν τίς καὶ τί βουλόμενος τὴν γραφὴν ἐγράψατο. ὦ πάτερ, ἐλπίζω σε προσέξειν τὸν νοῦν. ΦΙΛ. μὴ φρόντιζε. ἄγε δή, ὦ κύον, εἰπὲ δή.
E – TEST EXERCISE 9
JURORS PHIL. JUR. PHIL.
Come, all [my] friends, come. For I hear you singing, but am not able to sing myself. What shall I do? For these men are guarding me, although I want to come with you to the lawcourt and make some trouble. But, Ο Zeus, stop giving me troubles and become my friend and pity my suffering. Save me, Ο Zeus. Either make me suddenly into smoke, or indeed make me a stone, on which they count the votes. Lord, dare to save me. Who is it who is shutting you in? Speak, we beg you. My son, know it well. But don’t shout. For he’s actually to be asleep here in front. Why isn’t it possible for you to come along with us and listen to the prosecutors and those defending themselves? Men, my son doesn’t allow me to pass judgement or to do anything bad. But look for some device, I beg you. For I intend to hear both the prosecutors and the defendants today. We can’t save you, friend. For all the members of your family are guarding you, and it is not possible for you to escape. Therefore I must pray to the gods, in hope of escaping. May the gods hear, then, and help. Ο lord Lykos, neighbouring hero – for you love the lawcourt – pity me and save me in my perplexity. You too, slaves, run and shout and tell Kleon this and order him to come. For Bdelykleon says that it is necessary not to pass judgement on cases. So let Kleon come and become a saviour to the old man.
Summary exercises for section 9
(a) 2nd s., aor. (e) 2nd pl., pres. (a) voc. (e) voc.
(b) 2nd s., aor. (f) 3rd pl., pres. (b) acc. (f) dat.
(c) 2nd s., aor. (g) 2nd s., aor (c) voc.
(d) 2nd pl., pres. (h) 3rd s., aor (d) nom.
Section Ten: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata
We now embark on one of Aristophanes’ most famous and delightful plays. With its female lead (though played by a man, of course), it brings back women into the text, alive and very decidedly kicking. The grammatical input here is challenging, consisting of the aorist optative active and middle (GE pp. 210–211, #212), δίδωμι (GE pp. 212–214, #214), ἀμελής and γλυκύς (GE pp. 214–215, #215) and the relative pronoun (GE pp. 216–219, # 216–219). It is worth mastering this material very thoroughly. δίδωμι, of which GE says comfortingly that ‘there is little here that is difﬁcult to recognise’, is the valuable gateway to a family of verbs which end in -μι.
1 ἥ Your ﬁrst relative pronoun: feminine because it goes with Lysistrata, nominative because it is the subject of the verb in its clause. 3 καταλύσασαι What part of the verb is this? Women are the subject of the sentence. 5 ἴδοιμι From ὁράω. The second aorist is εἶδον, the aorist stem is ἰδ- and this is the aorist optative. 6–7 καὶ Κλεονίκη … κἀμοί = καὶ ἐμοί; what does καί mean in both these phrases? 8 οὔσαις What part of the verb? It’s a participle, and we are still talking about women. οἵ What gender, what case? Why? See GE p. 216, #216. Note that in the nominative case m.s., f.s., and pl. the relative pronoun has an accent, whereas the article has none. 11 ἀναγκάσειν What inﬁnitive? Cf. ἀναγκάζειν. 12 λέξον Aorist imperative from λέγω. ἔλεξα is an alternative form for the aorist. ἐκεῖνο ὅ Literally ‘that which’. 15 τῶν ἀϕροδισίων Cf. Aphrodite, the goddess of sex, and ‘aphrodisiac’. 16 οὕς You have now met seven forms of the relative pronoun. Learn it (GE p. 216, #216). 19 ποιήσαιμι We now meet the ﬁrst aorist optative. Note that -σαι- is a characteristic element of this. Contrast with -οι- in the present optative (and in
the second aorist optative – see GE pp. 210–211, #212 and cf. ἴδοιμι in line 5 on this page). Don’t overlook the ἄν. ἑρπέτω What part of the verb is this? See GE pp. 197–198, #206–207. 20 κέλευσον If you cannot recognise this, see GE p. 189, #198 . 21 ἐθελήσαιμι 1st person singular aorist optative. Note the ἄν. μᾶλλον … ἤ ‘rather than …’ 25 ποιήσειας Which part of the aorist optative is this? (GE p. 210, #212).
27 ποιήσειε Which part of the aorist optative is this? 29–30 συμψηϕίσαιο, σώσαιμεν Look at the aorist optatives active and middle of παύω (GE pp. 210–212, #212) and learn them. Note that the endings of the second aorist optative are identical with those of the present optative. 31 ναὶ τὼ σιώ This is a particularly Spartan oath. ‘The Two’ are Castor and Pollux, the divine brothers of Helen of Troy, who were born in Sparta to Leda in an egg, as the result of her liaison with Zeus in the guise of a swan.
Translation for 10A
Lysistrata, who is an Athenian woman, comes forward and speaks. Do you hope, women, to bring the war to an end with me? For you know well that once we have brought the war to an end we shall see peace again. MYRRHINE (Myrrhine, who is a friend of Lysistrata, agrees.) By the gods, I would gladly see peace after bringing the war to an end. KLEONIKE (Kleonike, who is another friend, also agrees.) To me also it seems a good idea to bring the war to an end. But how is this possible for us, women that we are? Do you have some plan? For it is necessary that the men, who ﬁght the battles, should bring the war to an end and make a treaty. LYS. Let me speak. For one mustn’t keep silent. But, women, if we are going to force the men to make peace, we must refrain from … ΜYR. From what? What is the plan? Say what you have in mind. LYS. So will you do what I order? ΜYR. We shall do everything you tell us to. LYS. Then we must refrain from sex. All the women, after hearing the words which Lysistrata says, begin to go away. LYS. Where are you going? Why are you weeping? Will you or won’t you do what I order? Or what do you intend? ΜYR. I couldn’t do what you say, Lysistrata; instead let the war take its course. KLE. By Zeus, I won’t either; instead let the war take its course. Order me to go through ﬁre. I would be willing to do that rather than to refrain from sex. For nothing is like sex, my dear Lysistrata. I won’t do it – no way. LYS. What about you then? Would you do what I tell you?
LAMPITO LYS. ΜYR.
I too would be willing to go through ﬁre. No, by Zeus, I would not do it. Oh how totally lascivious is all of our sex! Will no one do what I propose? But, my dear Spartan, would you vote with me? For if so, we might still save the whole business. By the two gods, it’s difﬁcult for us to sleep without sex. But we must bring the war to an end and have peace. I would vote with you. Ο you my dearest friend and the only true woman among them. Then if these things seem good to you, they seem a good idea to us too.
2 πεῖσαι What part of the verb? GE pp. 187–188, #195–196. Triremes and the silver to ﬁnance them were the basis of Athenian naval power. 5–6 αὐτῷ τῷ ἀργυρίῳ ‘with silver and all’. The Athenian reserves of silver were kept in the treasury on the Acropolis. 9 τῆς θεοῦ Don’t worry about the apparently masculine ending of θεοῦ. The word θεός can refer either to a god or to a goddess. 16 ὡς ‘to’, ‘towards’, normally only with persons. 21 ἔγνω The paradigm for this aorist (of γιγνώσκω) is in GE p. 201, #209. Learn it. 22 ᾤμωξε Take the augment out of this (so that ω becomes ο) and put the iota subscript back above the line (οἰ-). You should then be able to identify the word. 24 γνῶναι The aorist inﬁnitive of γιγνώσκω, GE p. 201, #209. 27 συνοικεῖς This is the normal word for a man and woman living together in marriage.
Translation for 10B
So we shall persuade our husbands and force them to make peace. In what way will you be able to persuade your men, who have the triremes and the silver? By money or gifts or by doing what? LYSISTRATA Oh, but we have prepared this well too, because today we shall take the Acropolis, by seeming to be sacriﬁcing. Having taken it we shall guard it, money and all. Suddenly Lampito hears a shout and, having heard it, she speaks to Lysistrata. LAM. Who shouted? Who was responsible for the shout? LYS. This is what I was talking about. For the old women, who had to take the Acropolis of the goddess, now hold it. But, Lampito, you go off home and put affairs among you [Spartans] in good order, while we go into the Acropolis, which the old women have just taken, and guard it. Lampito, going away, walks along the road which leads to Sparta, while the other women go into the Acropolis and guard it. Suddenly Lysistrata shouts having spotted a man who is approaching. LYS. Oh, oh, women! Come here to me quickly. KLEONIKE What is it? Tell me, what is the shout?
Myrrhine. Section 10C I see a man approaching. Comic actors wore a padded costume with a large phallus attached. Look. I’ll join you in tricking him by waiting here after sending away the old women whose job it is to guard the Acropolis.) Who is this man who has forced his way through the guards without our noticing? It’s me. 134–136. οἷς εὔχομαι … ‘the gods to whom I pray …’ δώσουσι ‘will grant’. whose wife I am. Does Kleonike speak the truth? Have you recognised the man? For to me as well you seem to recognise the man. and as he approaches. MYR. It’s your job now to trick and love and not to love this man who you live with. 13–14 oἱ θεοί. LYS. 10C Page 124 2 σπασμός GE gives ‘discomfort’. . 12 πρὸς ἑαυτὸν λέγων ‘speaking to himself’. Speak. poor me. 18 ἐκ-κάλεσον ‘call out’. 27 τοῦτ᾽ ἂν διδοίην You should be able to work out that this is an optative and to guess what verb it comes from. 22 εὐξαμένῳ Agrees with μοι: ‘to me having prayed’. For he is Kinesias. Does any one of you recognise the man who is approaching? MYRRHINE My god! KLE. Learn GE pp.’ Kinesias conﬁrms the obvious. KINESIAS LYSISTRATA KIN. he laments. For after seeing him and recognising him she cried ‘My god!’ LYS. #131. I shall do these things. 7 ἀνὴρ δῆτα ‘Indeed I am a man. so Kinesias’ condition would be clear for all to see. MYR. that Myrrhine has recognised him. Look. Lysistrata. δίδωμι now makes many appearances. Presumably Kinesias’ problem was a massive erection. a man. literally ‘What a thing it is to bear a child!’ Translation for 10C The old women go away while Kinesias arrives. I do recognise him. Oh. It’s clear. 26 The gift of an apple could be an erotic token. what discomfort tortures me! (Speaking from the wall. Remember the reﬂexive ἑαυτόν or αὑτόν. aorist imperative from ἐκ-καλέω. LYS. By Zeus.140 LYS. 30 νὴ τὴν Ἀϕροδίτην Who else would she swear by? Page 125 54 οἷον τὸ τεκεῖν ‘What it is to be a mother!’.
Come down then. who are chucking me out? LYS. Perhaps the gods. LYS.’ KIN. LYS. with whom she lives. Then go and call her. am I the man to whom Myrrhine wants to give apples? LYS. By Zeus. (He gives what he has in his hand to Lysistrata.’ KIN. will grant that I can see my wife. even yesterday. LYS.) By the gods. I’ll go away instead.) Ο all you gods. LYS. In that case I do pity it. Who are you? KIN. You there. What it is to be a mother. Hello. I must go down. For you are always on your wife’s lips. ‘I consider Kinesias the best of all. A guard. So you. a man.) You there. Lysistrata. Myrrhine baby. ‘How gladly would I give this to Kinesias.) LYS. I’ll go down and call her for you.) Hurrah! Because I’ve prayed. By Zeus. call her. [Yes] by Aphrodite. My god! (Speaking to himself. What then? Will you give me something? KIN. unlucky as I am. Well then. Indeed. what’s up with you? Don’t you pity the baby. pray to all the gods. Taking an apple. but listen to our baby at any rate. For we too know your name well. to whom I give this.) Don’t you call me to him. For I don’t want to go down. Kinesias of the deme Paionis. (The man prays. I won’t. ΜYR. my dear lady. when some discussion concerning men arose. Quickly. 141 Are you a man? KIN. Her husband. grant that I may see my wife. I have this. she says. Who are you.Section 10C LYS. So what I have I give you. KIN. to whom I am praying. KIN. ΜYR. why are you doing this? Come down with all haste and come here. Won’t you get the hell out of here then? KIN. KIN. the gods have granted that I can see Myrrhine.) It’s clear that I must. (He speaks to the baby. I’ll give you something. (She goes down from the wall. Don’t go away. dearest Kinesias. (Again he addresses Lysistrata. for the sake of our baby. Yes. (Speaking to himself. won’t you call mummy? BABY Mummy mummy mummy.) KIN. . your wife said. Oh by the gods. KIN. which a servant carries. call Myrrhine out here now. which is unwashed? ΜYR. KIN. MYRRHINE (Inside.
Look. For γλυκύς cf. goes off home. βαδιοῦμαι. 19 κατακλίνῃ Notice also κλινίδιον ‘bed’. (She goes out. KIN. Cf. but an uncaring one. in front of the baby? [You’re right] by Zeus. My child. how sweet you are.) What is it that you want. as in the next line. By Apollo. Will you do this? Why won’t you lie down with me for a short time? No.142 Section 10D 10D Page 126 3ff. (Stretching out his hand to his wife. Manes. 215. KIN. For your mother’s kiss is sweet. Many -ιζω verbs have futures of this type. And yet I won’t say that I don’t love you. Not at all. he speaks. ‘having obeyed’. you vilest of men. Come. KIN. the baby is out of the way. how unlucky you appear to be because of your father. take the baby home. Child. Before I do. Your mother is sweet too. that you do these things. γλυκύς and ἀμελής are used frequently. the men must cease from the war and make a treaty. I won’t go home. and don’t stretch out your hand to me. MYRRHINE KINESIAS MYR. speaks to the baby. MYR. . The servant. I’ll kiss you. MYR. Won’t you come back home? By Zeus. obeying such women? Stop.) Oh what good luck! It’s clear that my wife loves me. KIN. 11 πιθομένη Second aorist participle middle from πείθω. τοιαύταις ‘by such women’. you bad woman. so won’t you lie down? But where should one do this? For ﬁrst I must bring a little couch. 20 ἐρῶ ‘I shall say’. ὡς here means ‘that’. I shan’t allow you to lie down on the ground despite the state you’re in. #215). This one is middle. Learn these adjectives either now or at the end of this section (GE p. I ﬁnd fault with your father since he’s uncaring. Translation for 10D Myrrhine. But do you call your husband uncaring? For there’s no one more uncaring than you and no one more unlucky than me. MYR. 15 βαδιῇ (What part of the verb is this?). or ‘having been persuaded by’. coming down and reaching the gate. KIN. KIN. since it is possible for us to lie down on the ground. ‘glucose’. ‘recline’. MYR. MYR. who is carrying the baby. 13 παῦσαι The context will tell you whether this is aorist imperative middle or aorist inﬁnitive active. but you do not have a sweet father. ‘incline’. You love me? So why don’t you lie down? You silly fellow.
You should now be able to recognise the tense. Translation for 10E MYRRHINE KINESIAS ΜYR. (She goes out again. Let me kiss you instead. ‘quickly’. 53 ψηϕιεῖ From ψηϕίζομαι. And yet you don’t have a pillow. ‘waste time’ and thus ‘delay’. 46 διατριβῆς ‘delay’. hence ‘I spend time’. And yet I must bring a mattress. The verb διατρίβω means ‘I wear away something’.e. as many as I need’ (δέομαι takes the genitive).Section 10E 143 10E Page 127 11 προσκεϕάλαιον How does this word come to mean ‘pillow’? Page 128 17 ἀνίστασο ‘stand up’. But I don’t need one. Present followed by future. Page 129 40 μυριῶ Future of μυρίζω.) Look. . By Zeus. 50 ἔα From ἐάω ‘I allow’ or ‘let pass’. τί πείσομαι. (After kissing her husband she goes out again. Look. 35 ἡ ἄνθρωπος This is a derogatory expression here. ‘Now I’ve got everything I want. What kind of mattress? Don’t bother just for me. but it comes to be used as if it were an adverb: ‘of course’. Why don’t you lie down? And indeed I’m undressing. ‘May he perish most wretchedly. i. but I need one. 55 ψηϕιοῦμαι See above. KIN.) Stand up. ταχύ The neuter (singular or plural) of the adjective is often used in place of the adverb.’ 32 ἀμέλει This is. and ὦ ϕίλτατε should help you to recognise the person. ΜΥR. strictly speaking. There. Myrrhine returns bringing a little couch. who ﬁrst …’ 52 νὴ τὴν Ἄρτεμιν An ominous change of oath from the goddess of love to the virgin huntress. so it must express a wish. 19 Literally ‘Now I have all things. so ‘Never mind’. She returns bringing a pillow. goddess of chastity. Perhaps translate ‘Forget it!’ κάκιστ᾽ ἀπόλοιτο There is no ἄν with this optative. jump up. She comes back very quickly bringing a mattress. 57–58 τί πάσχω. a mattress. an imperative of ἀμελέω. I’m undressing.
MYR. Let it be.) You don’t have a blanket. but I want to screw you. Myrrhine baby. but it doesn’t smell of marriage. Everything? Come here then. By Zeus. But lie down and don’t bring me anything. Hang on. σώσειεν ποιοῖεν. will you vote to make a treaty? I’ll vote. Good. the wife will destroy me. 219. ποιήσειαν ἀπέχοιντο. I don’t need one. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 10 AORIST OPTATIVE 10: 1 1. For it smells of delay. Shall I anoint you with myrrh? By Apollo. By Aphrodite. MYR. ΜYR. 3. The myrrh which you have given me is not pleasant. Look. But. I shall do this. May the man who ﬁrst made myrrh die very horribly. KIN. I’ll do this. ἀπόσχοιντο . Grammar Now learn GE p. KIN. KIN. not me. #219 to master two further forms of the relative pronoun. MYR. But take care not to cheat me over the treaty which we recently discussed. Exercises for section 10 ΜYR. ὅσπερ and ὅστις. Notice that both parts of ὅστις decline. (She goes out. Now I’m untying my sash. What’s going on here? The wife’s gone off and left me. ΜYR. For I’m coming back quickly. my dear lady. what am I suffering? What shall I suffer? Oh dear. Myrrhine returns bringing a blanket. KIN. KIN.144 KIN. I’m undoing my shoes at any rate. Oh dear. my dearest husband. By Zeus. KIN. KIN. Poor me. he saved they make/do they refrained from σῴζοι. Stretch out your hand and take what I shall give you and anoint yourself.) The creature will kill me with her blankets. Myrrhine runs away. 2. Who shall I screw now? Alas! I’m the unluckiest man alive. I’ve brought the myrrh from Rhodes. (Suddenly she stops undressing. KIN. Of course you’ll do this. You have met them a few times. Now I’ll love you. by Artemis. ΜYR. I’ve now got everything I need. may I die [if I cheat you]. ΜYR.
part.s. 2. giving (f. γλυκεῖς φύλακας τῆς ἀμελοῦς. βραχεῖς ἀληθοῦς. βραχεῖς ἀληθῶν. ἧστινος αἷς. 7. δώσετε 9. 2. δώσεται 3. 3.) 6. δοίη 4. ἀναγκάσειας μέμφοιτο. ἀληθεῖς. 8. to give (pres. γλυκέα παίδια τοῖς ἀμελέσι. βραχείας ἀληθῆ. 4. ὧντινων. you (s. ὅστις οὕς. who whom whose to whom whom who (those) whom whose ὅς. ἅστινας. 8. βραχέσι ἀληθεῖς. 4. γλυκέσιν ἀμφοτέροις οἱ ἀμελεῖς. 5. βραχέα ἀληθέσι. δώσομαι 7.) will give 9. ἔδοτε ἀμελής and γλυκύς 10: 4 6. he ﬁnishes we lived together I voted we cease you compelled he blamed I ﬂee καταλύοι. γλυκέων υἱέων 7. 7. 9. οὕστινας. γλυκεῖς μάρτυρες τῶν ἀμελῶν. 3. pres. 5. ὅτων .) giving (m. ἅστινας οἵ. παυσαίμεθα ἀναγκάζοις. δώσουσι 5. δώσεσθαι 1. ἅ. 6. μέμψαιτο φεύγοιμι. δούς 8.Exercises for section 10 145 4. they were giving 10: 3 1. 5. καταλύσειεν συνοικοῖμεν. συνοικήσαιμεν ψηφιζοίμην. you were giving he/she gives he/she gave to give (aor. αἷστισι(ν) ἅς. 2. ἔδοτο 2. pres. s. ψηφισαίμην παυοίμεθα. participle) 8. 6. δότε. 5. οὕστινας ἧς. τοὺς ἀμελεῖς. give! 7. 6. ἅς.) 10. φύγοιμι δίδωμι 10: 2 1. οἵτινες οὕς. γλυκείας μητρός τὰ ἀμελῆ. 4. ἅττα ὧν. δοῖτο 10. 3. 10. βραχέων THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 10: 5 1.
ὧντινων. ποιήσαιμι I could see the city. ὅτῳ 5. ᾗτινι 2. δούς a. Mother. . ἐδίδoυ Why are you not willing to give me what I ask for? διδόναι Why are you giving me this apple. ὧντινων. the man went away. what 10: 6 ὅ. d. ὅτων 4. The men are ﬁghting the battles. προσαγορεύσαις I would gladly give up the war. αἵ εἰσιν ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλει. The women are shouting. a. what 10. ὧν. ἅτινα. ὅτων REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 10 A –WORDS 1. marriage I fortify the act of giving (dose) I give a present. ὅτι. Myrrhine? δίδως Suddenly giving (aorist participle) the woman the money which she demanded. ἅ. ἴδοιμι Will you give me what you have? δώσεις He was giving the money to the woman. ὅτι ἅ. busy a living together. You could speak to me. ᾧτινι. e. b. bribe I plan. αἱ γυναῖκες. c. haste I live with a wall it concerns I give back the gift. e. ᾧ.146 Revision exercises for section 10 9. ἅττα 1. uncaring I give a gift a scheme zeal. ἐθελήσαιμεν I could not do this. παυσαίμην We should like to make a truce with great eagerness. c. b. a. The men do not in any way want to end the war. βαδίζει πρὸς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν. ἅττα ὅ. c. The women are on the Acropolis. d. ὃς ἀνήρ ἐστι Μυρρίνης. I bribe eager. Kinesias is the husband of Myrrhine. ὅτων 3. ἅτινα. ὧντινων. repayment (antidote) B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. important giving in return. ὧν. serious. Kinesias goes to the Acropolis. 2. ὧν. 3. contrive I am zealous. βοῶσιν. Κινησίας. b. ᾗ.
ἀκούετε οὖν τοὺς λόγους οὓς λέγω. Do you recognise the man? The man is approaching. τὸν πόλεμον καταλυσάσας. ἰδού. ΛYΣ. δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰρήνην ἄγειν ἣ αἰτία ἐστὶ πολλῶν καλῶν. e. ἆρα αἱ γυναῖκες ἀϕέξονται τῶν δώρων ἃ oἱ ἄνδρες δώσουσιν αὐταῖς. νὴ Δία. The old women hold the Acropolis. καὶ πεῖσον τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους. g. σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι. ὧν τὸ ἔργoν ἐστὶ μάχεσθαι. ΛYΣΙΣΤΡΑΤΗ . αἱ γυναῖκες ἐθέλoυσιν ἀκούειν τοὺς λόγους οὓς λέγει Λυσιστράτη. καὶ πείσομεν τοὺς ἄνδρας. δεῖ τοίνυν ἡμᾶς ἀπέχεσθαι πάσας τῶν ἀϕροδισίων. We must keep peace. οὗτοι οἱ ϕύλακες. εὐθὺς δ’ ἄπειμι. ΛΑΜ. h. δοκεῖ ἡμῖν. ΛYΣ. The women want to hear the words. f. ἆρ᾽ οὐδεὶς ἀναγκάσει τοὺς ἄνδρας παύεσθαι τοῦ πολέμου. δεῖ ἡμᾶς. Lysistrata speaks the words. ἣν ἐν νῷ ἔχω. ἆρ᾽ ἐστὶν ἥτις ποιήσει ἃ κελεύω. oἳ τὰς μάχας μάχονται. ἆρα ποιησαιτ᾽ ἂν ἃ κελεύω. ἀλλὰ πῶς (τίνι τρόπῳ) ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν. 2. ἀλλ᾽. τοῦτο ποιεῖν. ΓYΝΗ κἀγὼ δὴ ἐθελήσαιμ᾽ ἄν. ΛΑΜΠΙΤΩ ἀλλὰ δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰρήνην ἄγειν. ΛYΣ. Where are the old women? It is their task to guard the money. αἳ γυναῖκές ἐσμεν (γυναιξὶν οὔσαις). ΛYΣ. Peace is the cause of many good things. i. I can see the old women. 4. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ΜYΡΡΙΝΗ οὐ ποιήσω τοῦτο οὐδαμῶς. αἱ γρᾶες ἔχουσι τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ἃς ἐγὼ ἰδεῖν δύναμαι. oἱ ἄνδρες. ἐγὼ οὖν συμψηϕιοῦμαί σοι. ΚΛΕΟΝΙΚΗ οὐδ᾽ ἐγώ. ἆρα γιγνώσκεις τὸν ἄνδρα ὃς προσέρχεται. ὦ ϕίλη Λαμπιτώ. οὐκ ἐθέλoυσιν οὐδαμῶς τὸν πόλεμον καταλῦσαι. 3. ἄπιθι δῆτα πρὸς τὴν Λακεδαίμονα. αἱ γρᾶες μηχανὴν μηχανῶνται ᾗπερ τὰ τείχη λήψονται. ΛYΣ.Revision exercises for section 10 147 d. ποιεῖν ἃ ἐθέλομεν. 1. Where is Kinesias? Myrrhine is his wife. γυναιξὶν οὔσαις. χαλεπὴ οὖσα τυγχάνει ἡ μηχανὴ. εἰπέ μοι ἃ ἐν νῷ ἔχεις. ΓYΝΑΙΚΕΣ ποιήσαιμεν ἄν. ΛΑΜ. ποῦ αἱ γρᾶες ὧν τὸ ἔργον ἐστὶ ϕυλάττειν τὰ χρήματα. ποῦ ἐστι Κινησίας οὗ Μυρρίνη ἐστὶν ἡ γυνή. What is this? What do you want to say? τί ἐστι τοῦτο ὃ ἐθέλεις λέγειν. 5. καὶ πίθεσθε. καταλῦσαι τὸν πόλεμον. δός μοι τὴν χεῖρα. ἀμελεῖς ὄντες. οὐδεμίᾳ σπουδῇ ϕυλάττουσιν. j. 2. παυσάσας τοὺς ἄνδρας οἳ τὰς μάχας μάχονται.
you who have the same altars and the same sacriﬁces? Why do you destroy Greek men and cities. What is this thing of yours which you have got in your hands? LAC. But what is happening in Lacedaemonia? Could you say? LAC. Yes. For a great evil has befallen us. ATH. And then let each one take his own wife and go off home. but I have sense. by the twin gods. men. and end the war. having heard what we were saying. from what you say. ‘to whom it is possible …’) to see peace and to be friends and allies? LAC. coming. ATHENIAN Who are you who come here to the wall. for here she is herself. we must obey the women and make the truce. ATH. I am really suffering severely. And yet we ask for no other gift than to be able to make love. I know what you mean. who came back from Athens and persuaded the women to refrain from sex. by the twin gods! Who could tell us where Lysistrata is? ATH. walking with such great eagerness? LAC. make a treaty and end the war. LAC. LAC. Why then don’t we call Lysistrata. LYSISTRATA Come. I am a woman. when instead of this it is possible for you (lit. and I have just come from Sparta about peace. who alone could make a treaty for us? For we too have suffered this evil. & ATH. And how are you getting on? You are suffering severely. by the twin gods.148 Revision exercises for section 10 F – TEST EXERCISE 10 Where is the Athenian Council? I would like to report something new. All of you. there is no need for us to call her. which they themselves will tell us to make. I am a herald. and Lampito is responsible. therefore. ATH. Oh. LACEDAEMONIAN . Listen to the words which I speak. ATH. It is a Spartan code-staff. LYS. Therefore. and why do you not cease from your nastiness. I would gladly tell you. Why are you ﬁghting now in this way.
Section 8A line 25 and the map on RGT p. If you now check with the vocabulary or a dictionary. any citizen arriving with vermilion dye. comparative adverbs (GE pp. and therefore touched by the rope. #226. #225) and the optative of ϕημί (GE p. Compound adjectives (e. The concept of the passive will present no problem to Latinists. which are the same as the middle. ἐρῆμος Why no feminine ending? It’s a two-termination adjective. You learn the present and imperfect tenses passive (GE pp. Aristophanes’ comedy Akharnians tells us much about Athenian politics and the feelings of the countrymen of Attica cooped up inside the city during the Peloponnesian War. The ten tribes between them subdivided the year into ten parts. ἥγω or ἥχω. 10 The Prytaneis: ‘presidents’ acting as chairmen for the meetings of the assembly. 2 ἡ Πνὺξ αὑτηί αὑτηί is the extra demonstrative form. ἀ-θάνατος. 11A Page 132 1 κυρία ἐκκλησία See RGT p. 229–230. The Assembly itself was proclaimed by a trumpet call. 226–227. It involved the sacriﬁce of a pig. 91. οὑτοιί See note on line 2 about the extra demonstrative. 227. εὐ-δόκιμος) mostly fall into this category. To ﬁnd out what the present stem is.Section Eleven: Aristophanes’ Akharnians There is relatively little grammatical input in this section. GE p. each tribe having a spell of providing these presidents. #221 will be useful.e. See GE pp. 230–231. ἥκω. οὑτοσί. could be ﬁned for arriving late. ἥξουσιν This is a future tense. #227).g. as well as a number of other adjectives. 149 . 92. 228. you will ﬁnd ἥκω ‘I come’. i. #222). 13 ἐντὸς τοῦ καθάρματος A puriﬁcation ceremony was held before each meeting of the βουλή and the ἐκκλησία. 231. #220). It holds out a tantalising vision of peace. the genitive absolute (GE p. it has no separate feminine ending. remove the ς from the ξ and you will be left with three possibilities. 5 σχοινίον A rope with vermilion dye was swept across the agora to push people towards the Pnyx (the hill on which the ecclesia was held). Cf.
HER. As Amphitheos waits he continues his proclamation. HER. The prytaneis will come in late. But since I’m an immortal. HER. The men in the agora are talking to each other as they run from the rope all over the place. Who wishes to speak? AMP (Again he addresses the herald. But the Pnyx here is empty. For the prytaneis don’t give them to me. One of their duties was keeping order in the ἐκκλησία. 228–229.e. Who are you? AMP. Don’t worry too much about this construction. i.150 Section 11A 14 παρελθόντων … πάντων The genitive absolute – see GE pp.e. I know it well.e. and on my own I look out to the country. Not a man? AMP. 26 Amphitheos claims to be a god. that I am well disposed to the people. So I hope to receive the travelling expenses … A SPEAKER Know well. ‘since Amphitheos stays there’. The Athenians praise this and raise a clamour. Translation for 11A DIKAIOPOLIS But what’s this? For I know that the sovereign assembly is going to be held today. But nobody thinks how peace will happen. It occurs mainly in stage directions in this section and is thoroughly revised in Section 12. #222–223 – ‘all having come forward’. Athenians. i. I don’t have the travelling expenses which I need. but he complains that the prytaneis are not granting him his travel expenses. HERALD (He makes a proclamation.) Come forward to the front. Amphitheos. suddenly someone called Amphitheos addresses the herald. When all have come forward. 31 oἱ τοξόται ‘the bowmen’: these were Scythian mercenaries. i. ‘when all had come forward’. 18 μένοντος … Ἀμϕιθέου Another genitive absolute – ‘Amphitheos remaining’. No. . But here are the prytaneis coming in late. This is precisely what I was saying.) I do. hired by the state. gentlemen. All those present come forward to the front. 32 ἀπαγόντων … αὐτῶν ‘them leading him away’. loving peace but hating the city and longing for my own deme. who obeyed the orders of the state executives. So don’t listen to this man unless he speaks about war. but an immortal whom the gods have ordered to make a treaty with the Spartans. AMPHITHEOS Has anyone spoken yet? Amphitheos waits. but the herald doesn’t answer. ‘as they lead him away’. But I always come into the assembly and sit down ﬁrst. Come forward inside the puriﬁed place.
I won’t. 5 ἀδικουμένοις Passive participle: ‘being wronged’. As they are leading him off. then the main clause ἐγὼ … οὐ πολεμήσω. the opposite of ἕκοντες. You could translate it ‘please tell me’.’ The verbs are passives. 231. διαϕθειρόμενος These are passive participles: the ﬁrst one means ‘being persuaded’. Learn GE p. and οὐκ ἀναγκαζόμενον … ποιεῖν ἃ μὴ ἐθέλω. ἐξαπατώμενος. then a genitive absolute τῶν ἄλλων πολεμούντων. 33 πρεσβεύεσθε. 4 ‘For we are always being deceived and wronged and ruined by them. 23ff. meaning ‘by’ when it is a person. ‘realising’) followed by acc. Archers! The archers come in and lead off Amphitheos. 6–7 πειθόμενος. 12 ἔστω ‘so be it’. χρηματίζετε Indicative or imperative? 36 δεῖται + genitive = ‘needs’. A further statement of Pericles’ policy at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War. or with the dative when it is a thing. but you do business about peace. What do the others mean? 10 ϕαίη Optative of ϕημί. but the structure is clear: γνούς (a participle. and participle (twice) ἐμαυτὸν … ὄντα. 25 μοι This is an ethic dative. Write out this sentence in English with the verbs in the active beginning with ‘For they …’ At this stage all passives are used with ὑπό + gen. HER. . GE p. 151 DIK. τοῦ Δικαιοπόλεως δόντος Note the aorist participles of δίδωμι. 28. 22 ἐξισταμένοις What verb?: Hint: -στα-. This is quite a complicated looking sentence. The ambassadors from the king. you wrong the assembly by leading off the man who was going to make a treaty for us.Section 11B HER. What verb? Note that there is no ἄν with the optative and therefore this is a wish. Shut up and sit down. 11B Page 134 1 ὄλοιντο Note the stem ὀλ. ἐκδικάζετε. DIK. ἀλλ᾽ εἰρήνην ἄξω (future of ἄγω). ἀπόλοιντο in line 4). 14 ἄκοντες ‘unwilling’. #187. Dikaiopolis becomes angry. By Apollo. HER. 31 δούς.(cf. 13ff. θωπευόμενος. 170. #227. sometimes called the dative of the person concerned. Prytaneis. ἀπολλύμενοι Present passive participle of ἀπόλλυμι: ‘being destroyed by …’ The datives here mean ‘by’ (dative of instrument).
For what do we farmers not suffer at their hands? For we are always being deceived and wronged and ruined by them. either about the people or the speakers or the war or the written or unwritten laws. their lack of provisions and the plague. angry old men eager to go on with the war because their vineyards are being burnt by the Spartans.152 Section 11C Translation for 11B Death to all the Athenians who praise and obey what the prytaneis say. Amphitheos. nor great numbers nor great size. then.’ But I answer. I myself shall not make war but shall live in peace. I consider utterly free the horses and the mules in the city. After Dikaiopolis has given him the travelling expenses. But the city needs neither triremes nor dockyards if it is going to be happy. But please. come here. then make judgements. If they want to be deceived and persuaded and ﬂattered by the speakers. while the others are making war. (Giving to Amphitheos eight drachmas. For the man who says ‘I am well disposed to the crowd’ is always honoured by the people. DIK. without peace. He is being hotly pursued by Akharnians. who as they go along the roads love to bump into the travellers who don’t get out of their way. DIKAIOPOLIS 11C Amphitheos is now back from Sparta. then do business about the war and about ways of raising money and about making laws and about allies and about triremes and about dockyards and about sacriﬁces. You deal with ambassadors. ‘So what? The people are free and rule themselves and are not ruled by any other. . but the good man who gives good advice is never honoured by them. For in this city nobody is ever forced by anyone to do what he doesn’t want. But what can we do when we are always being wronged by them in this way? For the people seem to enjoy being persuaded by the speakers and being ﬂattered and cheated and ruined by their words. Realising that I am free and not being forced by anyone to do what I don’t want to. Amphitheos goes away. and the worst death of all to those speakers who ﬂatter the people and always deceive them. ‘And yet the sailors have power in the assembly while the farmers are forced against their will to live in the city. being destroyed by the way they live. so be it.’ All right.’ Perhaps this man might answer ‘But aren’t you free? So don’t worry at all. But perhaps someone may say. where is Amphitheos? AMPHITHEOS Here I am.) You take these eight drachmas and make a treaty with the Spartans for just me and my children.
I ran away. (After Amphitheos has given it him. And when they took up stones. Amphitheos keeps running.g. But I didn’t evade the Akharnians. Note how. It smells too – very pungently of ambassadors to the cities. For I must ﬂee and escape from the Akharnians. ‘although’) in English and create a clause. Take it and taste. (Giving him another sample. Learn the comparative and superlative adverbs. Translation for 11C But here’s Amphitheos back from Sparta. In Akharnians Dikaiopolis emerges from his house leading his family in a mini-procession of the Rural Dionysia. DIK. Greetings. But are you bringing the treaty? AMP. Dikaiopolis. Page 137 26 The Rural Dionysia was a festival held in winter. GE pp. Here are three samples. DIK. 229–230. being ﬁghters at the battle of Marathon. Let them shout. What’s up? AMP. all shouted.) You take this ten-year treaty instead and taste it. AMP. DIK. are you bringing a treaty when the Spartans have destroyed our land?’ And they took up stones. in the genitive absolute construction. 9–10 λίθους δὲ λαβόντων αὐτῶν See note above. Dikaiopolis tastes it. ‘since’. ‘although the Spartans have wrecked our land’. The central feature was a procession bearing a phallus to promote the fertility of the autumn-sown crops. I was hurrying here bringing a treaty for you. #225. What is it? DIK. It doesn’t please me because it smells of equipping of ships. Though Dikaiopolis has said this.) This is for ﬁve years.Section 11C 153 Page 136 2 Δικαιοπόλεως δὲ ταῦτα εἰπόντος Genitive absolute. But here is a thirty-year peace by both land and sea. ‘most sharply’. ‘when’.e. AMPHITHEOS Not yet. AMP. What English word should we supply here? 11 βοώντων GE #206–207.) Yuk! AMP. DIKAIOPOLIS . the moment they spotted me bringing the treaty. DIK. (He gives him one sample. we often have to supply a word (e. Amphitheos. I’ll say. ‘You foulest of creatures. ‘when Dikaiopolis had said this …’ 9 Genitive absolute. Those old men. But they were following me and shouting. i. 23 ὀξύτατα Superlative adverb. ‘the Spartans having destroyed our land’. then.
by the men. by the men. 6. τῇ ἀληθείᾳ. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. without a preposition. 4. 8. while instruments are translated by the dative alone. with the words. 4. ἠναγκαζόμην I am/was being compelled καταλύεται. 2. There are a number of possible answers in this exercise. ἐφιλοῦ you (s.) And I’ll run away from the Akharnians. πείθονται τοῖς λόγοις. 9. they were loved by the herald. τοῖς λόγοις. 5. but the important thing is that agents (people) are in the genitive with ὑπό. 5. 3. I’ll choose this with the greatest pleasure.) are/were being honoured δίδοται. bidding a long farewell to the Akharnians.B. 2. ἐφυλαττόμην ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων. we were prevented by the teacher. Ceasing from war and its evils I intend to go in and celebrate the country Dionysia. Ο festival of Dionysos. it was carried out by the men. I was guarded by the guards. this smells of ambrosia and nectar. ἐδίδοτο he is/was being given ἀναγκάζομαι. ἐτιμᾶσθε you (pl. by the guards. 11: 2 κηρύττεται. κατελύετο it is/was being ended διώκονται. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. ἠλευθερούμεθα we are/were being freed τιμᾶσθε. 6. τῷ τείχει. by the wall. ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων. Exercises for section 11 AMP. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 11 THE PASSIVE 11: 1 1.154 DIK. ἤρχοντο they are/were being ruled ἐλευθερούμεθα. ἐξηγόμεθα we are/were being driven out 1. by the truth N. 3. 10. ἐφιλοῦντο ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος. κηρύττεται ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος.) are/were being loved ἄρχονται. ἐκηρύττετο it is/was being announced φιλῇ. ἐδιώκοντο they are/were being pursued ἐξαγόμεθα. 2. it is announced by the herald. ἐκωλυόμεθα ὑπὸ τοῦ διδασκάλου. ἡμῶν φυγόντων εἰς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν τῶν ῥητόρων ἀκουσάντων τῶν λόγων . 7. GENITIVE ABSOLUTE 11: 3 1. They are persuaded by the arguments. (Seeing the Akharnians approaching. ἐξεφέρετο ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν.
for 10A) perception willing the prytaneion (the building in which the prytaneis lodged during their term of ofﬁce.Revision exercises for section 11 155 3. and I went away. The schemes of the women compelled the men to make a truce. The gifts/bribery persuaded the people. σοῦ δόντος ἡμῖν τὰ σῖτα τῶν δούλων ἐλευθερουμένων τῶν σοφιστῶν τοὺς νεανίσκους διδαξάντων λαβόντων τῶν Περσῶν τὰς ναῦς ἐλθόντος ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν τοῦ δώρου διδομένου τῇ γυναικί REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 11 A – WORDS 1. ἐξαπατᾶται ὑπὸ τοῦ ῥήτορος ὁ δῆμος. e. but we went on towards the city. The politician deceives the people. You persuade the citizens to maintain peace. The speeches of the politicians were unjust to / wronged the assembly. c. I perceive unwilling the prytanis (see vocab. The men went away.) B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. ταῖς μηχαναῖς ταῖς τῶν γυναικῶν ἠναγκάζοντο oἱ ἄνδρες σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι. ἀπελθόντων τῶν ἀνδρῶν. i. ἡ ἐκκλησία θωπεύεται τοῖς ἡμετέροις λόγοις. δούσης μοι τὸ ἀργύριον τῆς γυναικός. d. b. 4. It was called the tholos. 2. ἡ πόλις ἐϕυλάττετο τοῖς τείχεσιν. Lysistrata compels us to make peace. We ﬂatter the assembly with our words/speeches. g. f. 6. The orators/politicians wrong the city. ἐπείθετο τοῖς δώροις ὁ δῆμος. oἱ πολῖται πείθονται ὑϕ᾽ ὑμῶν εἰρήνην ἄγειν. a. b. j. The people honour good men. ἡ ἐκκλησία ἠδικεῖτο τοῖς λόγοις τοῖς τῶν ῥητόρων. ἀπῆλθον. h. ἀναγκαζόμεθα σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῆς Λυσιστράτης. The walls used to guard the city. 8. a. oἱ χρηστοὶ τιμῶνται ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου. ἡμεῖς πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐπορευόμεθα. 7. 5. ἀδικεῖται ἡ πόλις ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. . The woman gave me the money.
οἱ δὲ τἀληθῆ οὐ λέξουσιν. τῆς ἐκκλησίας ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἀρχομένης. ὁ Δικαιόπολις ἐδέξατο. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι οὐ βούλονται ἀκούειν. I started to run away (imperfect). The rest are at war. 3. τῶν ἄλλων πολεμούντων. οὐκ ἀρέσκει μοι οὐδαμῶς τὸ πρᾶγμα. ὁ δῆμος ἐπείθετο πολεμεῖν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. He also refers to an occasion when Kleon had indicted Aristophanes for abusing the . ἀλλ᾽ οἱ πρυτάνεις οὑτοιὶ ἥκουσιν. ἡσυχίαν ἄξομεν. h. oἱ δὲ οὐδενὶ ἀλλῷ ἢ ἑαυτοῖς εὐνοῖ ὄντες τυγχάνουσι. E – TEST EXERCISE 11 This is a difﬁcult passage based on a later extract from the Akharnians when Dikaiopolis has persuaded the chorus to listen to his anti-war argument. τοῦ κήρυκος κηρύξαντος. τοῦ κήρυκος κηρύττοντος. λέγειν βουλόμενοι. τοῦ θεοῦ μένοντος. 4. οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι διαϕθείρουσι τὴν γῆν. τοῦ Ἀμϕιθέου δόντος τὰς σπονδάς. g. The god is waiting. The assembly was discussing/doing business about the war but Dikaiopolis did not care. d. ἐγὼ οὐ πολεμήσω. ὁ Δικαιόπολις οὐδὲν ἐϕρόντιζεν. καὶ ἡκόντων αὐτῶν. The herald made a proclamation. εὖ οἶσθ᾽ ὅτι οἱ ῥήτορες παρίασι. j. τῆς δὲ πόλεως ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν διαϕθειρομένης. οὐδεὶς ἑκὼν χρηματιεῖ οὔτε περὶ τούτων οὔτε περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης. τῶν γεωργῶν πρὸς τοὺς ἀγροὺς βλεπόντων. 2. τῶν Ἀχαρνέων λίθους λαβόντων. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι οὐδὲν ϕροντίζουσιν. The assembly is ruled by no one and the people do what they like. τῆς πόλεως ἀδικουμένης ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. ἡμεῖς δέ. 1. γεωργοὶ ὄντες. but the Athenians do not want to listen. Amphitheos presented treaties. The Akharnians picked up (aorist) stones. 5. ἐγὼ ἔϕευγον. ἡ ἐκκλησία ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἄρχεται. ἀεὶ γὰρ λέγουσιν ὅτι ἡ πόλις ἄρχεται αὐτὴ ὑϕ᾽ αὑτῆς ϕιλουμένη ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ῥητόρων.156 Revision exercises for section 11 c. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ὁ δῆμος ποιεῖ ἃ ἐθέλει. εἰς τοὺς ἀγροὺς βλέποντες. but the god was silent. οἱ πρυτανεῖς εἰσέβαινον εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν. f. λέγεται ὅτι οἱ ῥήτορες εὐνοῖ εἰσι τῇ πόλει. τῆς ἐκκλησίας περὶ τοῦ πολέμου χρηματιζούσης. e. The city is wronged by the politicians. but the Athenians do not care. 2. ἡμῶν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων ἐξαπατωμένων. ὁ θεὸς ἐσίγησεν. but I shall not go to war. i. and Dikaiopolis received them. ἄκοντες μὲν γὰρ ἀναγκαζόμεθα ἀκούειν τὰ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν λεγόμενα.
who proposed the law that Megarians must not remain on land. though the Megarians and the Lacedaemonians often asked and begged us to withdraw the decree. nor in the market. that I do not mean the city) who are responsible. a festival held in winter when few foreigners could sail to Athens. May they perish.Revision exercises for section 11 157 Athenian people in public when there were foreigners in the audience. But (for you who are here are friends) how are the Lacedaemonians responsible for these disasters? There are men among us (I do not mean the city. if I come as a beggar and begin speaking among Athenians about the city. most particularly Pericles. My vineyard is being cut down by them. For it was not pleasing to Pericles. the Olympian. and we are shut up in the city against our will. And I shall tell you terrible but just things. I hate the Lacedaemonians very much. . their wives and their children. being destroyed by the plague and always gazing out at our ﬁelds. For we are on our own. And. and no strangers are here yet. spectators. this is at the Lenaia. even though I am taking part in a comedy. remember this. For even comedy knows what justice is. DIKAIOPOLIS Don’t make a noise. This was the start of the war. the big spring festival. we were not willing to do so. That was at the City Dionysia. themselves. nor on the mainland. For Kleon will not now abuse me for speaking ill of the city when strangers are present. nor on the sea.
’ 9–10 Στρυμοδώρῳ … διατρίβοντι … νέῳ ὄντι καὶ ἀπείρῳ All agree. they immediately greet one another. 15 ὄλοιο 2nd. if you ﬁnd that makes you lose track of the story. ‘I did not expect to meet. before you can translate them in detail.Sections Twelve–Fourteen: The prosecution of Neaira The next three sections are taken from a lawcourt speech. Cf. shaking hands. μέλλουσι δικάσειν μέλλω + future inﬁnitive. aorist optative of ὄλλυμι: ‘may you perish’. Section Twelve: Neaira as slave 12A Page 144 1–2 ἄλλος ἄλλον ὡς ὁρῶσιν ἥκοντα ‘as they see one another coming’. 3 οὗ ‘where’. And as they see one another coming in. Translation for 12A When the herald summons them the dikasts come into the courtroom. or. 158 . The case is also fairly confusing. so it is well worth reading the introduction before you start. Rhetorical Greek is often elaborately structured and you may ﬁnd that you have to analyse the sentences carefully as a whole. When Komias and Euergides come into the lawcourt – where they are going to judge a case about Neaira – they greet one another. relative. which ingeniously reinforce the new points of grammar and syntax that have been introduced. ﬁnish reading Section 12 and then go back to revise the grammar and do the exercises. ποῦ ‘where?’ interrogative. 11 ἐξέσται The future of the impersonal verb ἔξεστι: ‘it will be possible’. ‘I am about to do something’. 9 οὐκ ἤλπιζον ἐντεύξεσθαι ἐλπίζω + future inﬁnitive. The speech throws some interesting light on the position of women in Athenian society. A great deal of new grammar and syntax is introduced in these sections and so it is wise to do the exercises when they occur to consolidate your learning with practice. with imaginary conversations between three jurors at intervals. s.
Oh the size of the crowd! (He is pushed by a juror who is holding his tunic. Well done. it is indeed the man himself. A good suggestion (you speak well) and we will call him. But who is that. walking quickly? KOMIAS This happens to be the prosecutor in the trial. ‘Won’t you be quiet and concentrate?’ 19 ὅπως σιωπήσεις ὅπως. But I know that you. as a prosecutor are very clever at speaking. what did you mean by holding my tunic? To hell with you! (May you perish!) EU. 16 οὐκ ἂν σιγῴης καὶ προσέχοις τὸν νοῦν. ἄν + optative expresses a polite request. Strymodoros. ὅπως μή + future indicative expresses a caution ‘see that you …’ (GE p. EUERGIDES But it makes no difference if his nature is meddling or not. and ‘The defendant did me the greatest STRYMODOROS . who is approaching the rostrum. What a big crowd! But who is this? It’s not really our neighbour Strymodoros. Sit down. 260. I know it well. Translation for 12B Apollodoros the prosecutor comes in. ‘prosecutor’. For we must show common goodwill for the contestants and listen in the same way to the arguments which each of them uses. and he has a meddlesome nature. Oh what luck! But I did not expect to meet Strymodoros spending his time in the lawcourt. Komias. For such things are always said by the accusers. he will say. ὁ ϕεύγων = ‘the ﬂeer’. Strymodoros! STRYMODOROS Greetings. Page 146 12 πάνυ δεινὸν λέγειν ‘very clever at speaking’. according to the oath which we swore. will say the same things. And indeed Apollodoros seems to himself and to many others to be beneﬁting the city and making the laws valid by bringing a charge against Neaira for being an alien. Euergides. And Apollodoros. KOM. ὁ διώκων = ‘the pursuer’. ‘I did not begin the enmity’. since he is a young man and without experience in judicial matters. KOMIAS And [greetings] to you too. EU. is it? Yes. #245). neighbours.) You. 12B Page 145 5 oὐδεν διαϕέρει ‘it makes no difference’. ‘the defendant’. Euergides. 20 καὶ προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν See above on line 16. Perhaps Apollodoros is naturally patriotic. whose name is Apollodoros. Why don’t you call him over here? It will be possible for him to sit with us.Section 12B EUERGIDES 159 Greetings. an idiomatic use of δεινός + the inﬁnitive. KOM. by Zeus.
pl. Similarly. ‘set up’. Strymodoros. Some tenses are transitive and have an object. and concentrate. 242. ‘be set up’. #234. injustice’.’ But I am not always persuaded by such statements. . but my daughters and my wife. For I did not begin the enmity. line 19). See GE p. line 21. For I was greatly wronged by Stephanos whose wife this Neaira is. It is therefore for the sake of revenge that I am engaging in this contest. as people do who are starting to speak. 236–237. And having been wronged by him. APOLLODOROS For many reasons. Page 147 14 ὅπως μὴ … πιστεύσεις ‘See that you don’t trust …’ (see note on 12B. I was placed in extreme danger. 3 κατέστην From the verb ἵστημι. but Stephanos did. But see that you are silent too. ‘I would gladly learn something. I shall be silent. Euergides. m. 12C Page 146 2 ἠδικήθην 1st s. #228).’ Translation for 12C Apollodoros speaks. and he is standing up. Reasonably. having been wronged by him. aorist passive participle of ἀδικέω. If it has an object it will mean ‘place’. 7 ἀδικηθέντες Nom. I wanted to bring this charge against Neaira. aorist passive participle of ἀδικέω. 17 ἡδέως ἄν τι μάθοιμι Cf. I want to give you a preliminary outline of everything we suffered and [to tell you] how. but καθίσταμαι εἰς (without an object) means ‘I get into a state’. potential ἄν + optative. ‘set myself up’. we were placed in extreme danger of poverty and loss of citizen rights. KOM. genitive of ὅς. and to come before you. aorist passive of ἀδικέω: ‘I was wronged’ (GE pp. s. gentlemen of Athens. ἀδικηθείς Nom. not only myself. which I am now pursuing. and ‘I want to be revenged on him. 2–3 οὗ γυνή ἐστιν … ‘Whose wife is …’ oὗ = ‘whose’. some have not and are intransitive. But now won’t you be quiet and concentrate? For Apollodoros is already clearing his throat. 11–12 τίς γὰρ οὐκ ἂν βούλοιτο … ‘Who would not want?’ Potential expressed by ἄν + optative.160 Section 12C EU. m. if it does not have an object it will mean ‘stand’. [although] he had not been wronged in any way yet by us in word or deed. having been placed in such danger. καθίστημι εἰς + object means ‘I put someone into a state’.
having placed me in extreme embarrassment. and having brought false witnesses. he asked for a large ﬁne which I could not pay. because I owed money to the state and was unable to pay. For. ᾔτησε 3rd s. For Apollodoros is continuing to speak about the beginning of the conﬂict. But this Stephanos indicted my decree as illegal. 4 ὃ οὐχ οἷός τ᾽ ἦ ἐκτεῖσαι ‘Which I was not able (οἷός τ᾽ ἦ) to pay’. Strymodoros. m. 7–9 μοι … καταστάντι … οὐ δυναμένῳ … ὀϕείλοντι Note the agreement of all the participles with μοι. 9 oἳ οὐκ ἐπείσθησαν ‘who were not persuaded’. For Apollodoros says that being wronged by Stephanos he was placed in danger of poverty. The disaster and the disgrace was going to be great for me in regard to my wife and daughters if I had been bankrupted and could not provide a dowry and owed the amount of my ﬁne to the state. having secured a conviction against the decree. but who inﬂicted a lesser penalty on me. Page 149 19–21 ϕάσκω Στέϕανον τοῦτον συνοικεῖν … εἰσαγαγεῖν … ἐγγυᾶν … ἀσεβεῖν ‘I allege that Stephanos does …’ (a series of things in the inﬁnitive). For when they stand up in court the contestants use every art to win the goodwill of the jurors. STR. The grammar of this is explained later in GE pp. to deprive me of my citizen rights. But I would gladly learn something. Stephanos therefore became the cause of such great evils for us all. I feel goodwill towards him because it was Stephanos who began the enmity. Aorist passive. For he was seeking. though he had never been wronged by me. Therefore we were all going to be placed in poverty. For who would not want to take vengeance on an enemy? Everyone wants to do good to their friends and harm to their enemies. aorist participle of αἱρέω from εἷλον. s. And now with all my friends encouraging me . is a clever speaker. who was wronged by Stephanos. 12D Page 148 3 ἑλών Nom. #235–236. Translation for 12D When I was acting as a member of the Council I proposed a decree which I brought before the people. 247–249. I am deeply grateful to the jurors who were not persuaded by Stephanos.Section 12D STRYMODOROS 161 Apollodoros. and thus began our enmity. What did Stephanos do to bring Apollodoros into this danger? EUERGIDES Listen. as it seems. aorist indicative from αἰτέω. KOMIAS Take care that you do not easily trust the contestants.
mid. Grammar You should now learn the grammar for 12A–D before you go on. The verb ἵστημι Transitive Pres. Below is a simpliﬁed version in chart form. Act. insulting to the city and contemptuous of your laws. . mid.162 Section 12D and urging me to take vengeance on Stephanos. mid. That Neaira is an alien and that she is living with Stephanos against the laws. Fut. aor. Fut. she who is irreverent to the gods. act. For my friends reproach me and call me the most cowardly of men if I do not exact vengeance on behalf of my daughters and my wife. and that he has introduced alien children into the phratries and to the demesmen. See GE pp. Imperf. 1st aor. and that he gives in marriage the daughters of prostitutes as if they were his own daughters. #230–233. this I want to prove to you clearly. It may be helpful if you look back over the passage you have just read in this section and see how it has been used. Imperf. Act. I bring this case before you. #228–229) indicative and participle. mid. aor. For Stephanos was trying to deprive me of my family against the laws. I set X up for myself so 1st aor. (intrans. Intransitive ἵσταμαι (ἱστάμενος) I am standing up στήσομαι (στησόμενος) I will stand up ἱστάμην I was standing up ἔστην (στάς στᾶσα στάν) I stood up ἐστησάμην (στησάμενος) 2nd.) has taken place of 1st aor. ἵστημι (ἱστάς) I am setting up στήσω (στήσων) I will set up ἵστην I was setting up ἔστησα (στήσας) I set up Pres. becomes transitive and ‘true’ middle. The verb ἵστημι ‘I set up’. Therefore I bring this Neaira before you and charge her. by whom I was so wronged. and that he is committing sacrilege against the gods. 2nd. Thus I have come to you and I declare that this Stephanos is living with a foreign woman contrary to the law. act. This is difﬁcult and seems complicated at ﬁrst. 1st aor. 1. 238–242. 236–237. The aorist passive (GE pp. That I was formerly wronged by Stephanos you know well. mid. mid. Act. then go on and try the exercises to conﬁrm your understanding. act.. This is easy to recognise because of ‘θ’ but make sure you also read the notes! 2.
3. 9.Exercises for section 12A–D 163 Note on καθίστημι In its transitive forms it means ‘I put someone in a certain position’. ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου.) were chased they were indicted/ written he/she was honoured you (pl. 2.) were persuaded I was given he was guarded you (s. ‘I am made’. 4.g.) were made 12A–D: 2 1. In its intransitive forms it means ‘I am put in a certain position’ or ‘I am elected’. τοὺς πολεμίους πεισθέντας τῷ δούλῳ λυθέντι τῶν χρημάτων δοθέντων αἱ γυναῖκες κελευθεῖσαι τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἀδικηθέντος 12A–D: 3 1. 10. 146–147) εἰς κινδύνους τοὺς ἐσχάτους κατέστην. εἰς κίνδυνον κατέστη περὶ τῆς πενίας.g. καταστὰς εἰς τοιοῦτον κίνδυνον … εἰς τοὺς ἐσχάτους κινδύνους κατέστημεν περί τε τῆς πενίας καὶ περὶ ἀτιμίας. e. ‘I become’. 5. 8. Examples 3 5 8–9 17–18 18–19 12C (pp. 4. e. 5. 2. κατέστην εἰς πενίαν ‘I was reduced to poverty’ (‘I was placed in poverty’). ἐκωλυθήσαν ἐπέμφθημεν ἐλύθη ἐπείσθητε ἐδόθην ἐφυλάχθη ἐδιώχθης ἐγράφησαν ἐτιμήθη ἐποιήθητε they were prevented we were sent he/she was set free you (pl. ‘elect’. 6. 3. τί ποιῶν ὁ Στέϕανος κατέστησε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον εἰς τοῦτον τὸν κίνδυνον. 7. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12A–D THE AORIST PASSIVE 12A–D: 1 1. 2. ἵσταμεν ἵσταναι we are setting up to set up . κατέστησα αὐτὸν εἰς πενίαν ‘I reduced him to poverty’ (‘I placed him in poverty’).
) to a state of poverty. ἵστασθαι 2. are placing my daughters in great despair by condemning (having condemned) me. 4. But you. 6. ἐστάθη 5. part.) he/it was set up he/she/it is being set up 1. having set up (ἀναστήσας trans.) were setting up setting up (n. therefore. he/she/it stood up they were setting up for themselves. For.s. imperative).) from the city. I stood up to set up for oneself (1st aor. ἱστάμενοι 4. gentlemen of the jury. 5. For my daughter is getting into a state of poverty because of this case. ἵστης ἱστᾶσα ἱσταίη you (s. emigrated (ἐξανέστην intrans. κατέστη b. Then. ἵσταται 12A–D: 5 to be being set up they were setting themselves up/being set up being set up (n.) lying witnesses in the lawcourt. having left (ἀναστάς lit. set yourselves up they will set themselves up he set up for himself I set myself up. imperative. he convicted me and asked for a large ﬁne.pl. 4. Therefore the Athenians move the Aeginetans from Aegina. part.) may he set up 12A–D: 4 1.) in the position of loss of citizen’s rights. κατεστήσατε 1. where. I. pass. and being placed (καταστάς intrans.s. a. 7. I went to Megara. 9. 5. ἀνέστησαν c.1st aor. inﬁnitive active) REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12A–D B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX Apollodoros wronged me greatly and placed (κατέστησεν transitive) us all in great despair. reduced (καταστάς intrans. being set up set up! (2. ἵσταντο 3. owing the ﬁne to the city. 2 aor.164 Revision exercises for section 12A–D 3. having got up from) my fatherland.) we are setting up. they were being set up setting up for himself. I remained for two years. 10. pres. 8. 2. .m. pres. we were setting up (if iota is long) stand up! (you pl. 3.f. 2.
My friends helped me when I lost my citizen’s rights and was in despair. We. exacted the penalty. ἀπελύθητε κατεδικάσθητε c. my daughter became hostile. σὺ δὲ ἠδικήθης 5. ἀπορηθέντι f. When I was forced to introduce the child to the clan. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἠδικήθη μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου καὶ Nεαίρας. . ἀδικηθέντα b. released ἀπολύω ἀπεπέμϕθησαν they were sent away ἀποπέμπω ἐξηπατήθης you (s. her husband despised her. and I was condemned. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἔμελλε καταστήσεσθαι εἰς τὴν ἐσχάτην ἀπορίαν.Revision exercises for section 12A–D 165 d. ὁ μὲν δικαστὴς οὐκ ἐπείσθη … ἡμεῖς δὲ κατεδικάσθημεν b.) were condemned καταδικάζω ἐξηλέγχθης you (s. But indeed it makes no difference to me if you were not acquitted but condemned. You were greatly wronged by this man. ἐκλήθησαν they were called καλέω ἐλήϕθη he was taken λαμβάνω ἠπορήθην I was at a loss ἀπορέω κατεδικάσθητε you (pl. a. I am well disposed towards the man who was wronged by Stephanos. ἐξαπατηθεῖσι D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. being persuaded by the opponent. We gave many drachmas to the old men who had been deceived by Kleon. This prosecutor stands up in court and terriﬁes (brings to fear) the defendant. 3. The jurors were not persuaded by the defence.) were deceived ἐξαπατάω ἐπείσθην I was persuaded πείθω 4. τίμημά τι μέγα ᾐτήθη ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. Since the woman had been deceived by the one who had lost his citizen’s rights. βιασθέντος e. 2.) were made angry ὀργίζομαι ἐλέχθη it was said λέγω ἐβιάσθημεν we were forced βιάζομαι κατηγορήθη he was accused κατηγορέω ἀπελύθης you were acquitted. ἐξαπατηθείσης d. For this speech was made by the opponent.) were convicted ἐξελέγχω ἐξεδόθημεν we were given in marriage ἐκδίδωμι ὑβρίσθη he was insulted ὑβρίζω διηλλάχθησαν they were reconciled διαλλάττομαι ἐγράϕην I was written γράϕω ὠργίσθητε you (pl. a. ἀνέστη κατέστησεν 3. πεισθέντες c. οὗτοι oἱ λόγoι ἐλέχθησαν d.
STRYMODOROS Rightly. by Zeus. indeed. 5. and that he (Apollodoros) is bringing the case for the sake of revenge …’ 6–7 ἀλλ᾽ ἡγοῦμαι … Introduces more accusative and inﬁnitive: ‘I think that Apollodoros …’ 7–9 πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ ἔϕη Ἀπολλόδωρος … καταστῆναι … οὐ δυνήσεσθαι … This time the construction is nominative and inﬁnitive with the nominative left out: ‘Apollodoros said that he (Apollodoros) had been in danger …’ 11ff. EUERGIDES These things were said by Apollodoros. For how could Apollodoros not feel ashamed at having unmarried daughters? And who would marry a woman from such a father who did not have a dowry? EU. But I am not persuaded by them. ὁ Στέϕανος κατέστησε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον εἰς κίνδυνον μέγαν. 247–249. About poverty I would agree. For Apollodoros says that Stephanos began the enmity and that he himself is bringing the action for revenge because he has been wronged by him. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἐπείσθη τιμωρεῖσθαι τὸν Στέϕανον. Who would not be concerned about this? STR. of course. myself. 12E This section introduces the accusative (or nominative) and inﬁnitive construction to express an indirect statement after verbs of saying and thinking (GE pp. For ﬁrst of all Apollodoros said that he had been put in danger of poverty and loss of citizen rights. and then the nominative (αὐτός) and inﬁnitive (ἀγωνίζεσθαι) construction. No one.166 Section 12E 4. But about the laws and the gods I do not know clearly. Page 150 3 ϕησὶ γὰρ ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος Followed by the accusative (τὸν Στέϕανον) and inﬁnitive (ἄρξαι) construction. When trustworthy evidence is brought by Apollodoros we shall ﬁnd out in detail. A series of potential optatives (‘could’ or ‘would’). Komias. ‘How could Apollodoros not be ashamed …?’ Translation for 12E Don’t you see? This is just what I was saying. and that he would not be able to give his daughters in marriage. KOMIAS . Then he said that Stephanos and Neaira were contemptuous of the laws and irreverent to the gods. The contestants always say such things. but I think that perhaps Apollodoros is saying something important. But perhaps Komias would not agree? KOM. ‘Apollodoros says that Stephanos began the enmity. All this is what you said. ἄν + the optative. #235–236).
We think we cannot see. ἡγοῦμαι ἀεὶ λέγειν τι δεινὸν τoὺς ἀντιδίκους. He thought he (someone else) was wise.’ REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12E B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. ἔϕην τὸν κατήγορον σπουδαιότατον εἶναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων.’ He thought him to be wise. I was placed in great danger. He thought he (himself) was wise. ‘I will arrive. 3. ἡγούμην ἀεὶ λέγειν τι δεινὸν τoὺς ἀντιδίκους. ‘I am wise.Revision exercises for section 12E 167 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12E INDIRECT SPEECH USING THE INFINITIVE 12E: 1 1. The prosecutor is the most eager of men. He said that I had been placed in great danger. He says that I was placed in great danger. ϕησὶν ἐμὲ εἰς μέγαν κίνδυνον καταστῆναι. I consider that the antagonists always say something clever. ‘Stephanos did not deceive the woman. I said to be about to arrive. ϕασὶ τὸν Στέϕανον εἰσαγαγεῖν εἰς τoὺς ϕράτερας τoὺς ἀλλοτρίους παῖδας. I said that man would arrive. I said I would arrive. I said that the prosecutor was the most eager of men. ἔϕη ἐμὲ εἰς μέγαν κίνδυνον καταστῆναι. They did not think that Stephanus had deceived the woman. ‘We cannot see. I say that the prosecutor is the most eager of men. 4.’ I said that man to be about to arrive. . 4.’ He thought himself to be wise. ‘He is wise. Stephanos introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. ‘That man will arrive. 2. ϕημὶ τὸν κατήγορον σπουδαιότατον εἶναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων. 3.’ They thought Stephanos not to have deceived the woman. 5. 2. The antagonists always say something dreadful/clever. 6. I considered that the antagonists always said something clever.’ We think not to be able to see.
this law which does not allow an alien woman to live with a male citizen nor a female citizen to live with an alien man. Now then. We wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. you have heard the law. For Neaira was ﬁrst of all a slave of Nikarete in Corinth. We said that we wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. judges. ϕαμὲν βούλεσθαι τότε τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐχθρούς. That Neaira is not only an alien but also a slave and a prostitute.’ Page 152 9 10 13 16–18 ἔδoξεν αὐτῷ ‘It seemed good to him to’. nor to have children.’ ὡς οὖν ἀληθῆ λέγω. For Nikarete had another slave called Metaneira. But since all the money which he had paid for her had been taken by Nikarete. Translation for 12F Apollodoros continues. And Nikarete was persuaded to go . ᾐσχύνετο γὰρ τὴν γυναῖκα ‘He felt ashamed in respect of his wife. ἔϕαμεν βούλεσθαι τότε τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐχθρούς. wanting to spend his money on Metaneira and not on Nikarete. Note that the main clause is delayed to the end of the sentence. 5. the sophist Lysias. Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws.168 Section 12F They say that Stephanos introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. And this is clear and reliable proof of this. Who would not think that Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws? τίς οὐκ οἴεται τὴν Nέαιραν οὐκ αἰσχύνεσθαι καταϕρονοῦσαν τῶν νόμων. We say that we wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. I want to prove to you in detail from the beginning. ἔϕασαν τὸν Στέϕανον εἰσαγαγεῖν εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας τoὺς ἀλλοτρίους παῖδας. he decided to make her an initiate and to spend a lot of money on the feast and on the ceremonies. She had been brought up by her from the time when she was a small child. They said that Stephanos had introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. τούτων ὑμῖν αὐτὸν τὸν Φιλόστρατον μάρτυρα καλῶ ‘that (ὡς) I am speaking the truth [when I say] that (ὅτι) … I call Philostratos himself as witness to you of these things (τούτων)’. 12F Page 151 2–4 ὅτι … τοῦθ’ ‘That Neaira is not only … this is what I want to prove. paid many drachmas for her. ‘he decided to’. whose lover. τίς οὐκ ἂν οἴοιτο τὴν Νέαιραν οὐκ αἰσχύνεσθαι καταϕρονοῦσαν τῶν νόμων. βουλομένῳ Dative in apposition to αὐτῷ in line 9. ὅτι …. Who does not think that Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws? 6.
254–255.) . 3. 6. 4.pl.) will place τίθησι(ν) ἐδίδοτε ἔθεμεν ἐδόθη θεῖναι ἔδωκε θέντες δός τιθέναι δώσετε he puts you (pl.) were putting we gave he was placed to give (aor. who was an old woman and lived in the house). being herself also the slave of Nikarete and already working with her body. Lysias established them in the house of Philostratos.) to place you (pl.) you (pl.) will give δείκνυμι 12F: 2 1. 9. That I am telling the truth and that Neaira was the property of Nikarete and came with her. 251–253.f.Exercises for section 12F 169 to the mysteries taking Metaneira. #239.) were giving we placed he/it was given to put. I call Philostratos himself as witness.) are showing we shall put they showed he was placing showing 12F: 3 ἐδείχθημεν ἐτέθησαν ἐδεικνύμεθα δειχθέντες we were shown they were placed we were being shown (could be middle) having been shown (n. he gives you (pl. When they arrived. 8. but being somewhat younger. 5. who was still a bachelor and was a friend of his. 3.) put (s.) to give (pres. to have put he gave having put give! (s. Neaira came with them to Athens. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12F τίθημι 12F: 1 1. 10. #237–238 and δείκνυμι (less important) GE pp. Grammar You now need to learn τίθημι (very important). 4.pl.) he placed having given (n. GE pp.) δείκνυτε θήσομεν ἔδειξαν ἐτίθη δεικνῦσαι you (pl.) are placing we shall show they placed he was showing placing (n. you (pl. 5. 2. 2.m.pl. 7. Lysias did not take them to his own house (for he felt shame before the wife whom he had and his mother.
#243). Although the sophist was paying money on behalf of Metaneira. #244). εἴθε + optative expresses a wish (GE p. #245: ὅπως. Lysias. 247. ‘see to it that …’ ‘take care that you don’t …’ Page 154 1 ἀπολοίμην The optative is used to express a wish ‘may ‘I perish’ Cf. but she was reducing the girl to despair. θέντος δίδωσι κατέστησεν c. τιθείς κατέστησε D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. ‘If he does not remember the arguments?’ Note that a participle is used instead of an ‘if’ clause: ‘not having remembered’. καθισταμένης θεῖναι d. ἔθηκε b. 259.170 Section 12G REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12F B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. I shall put down this money on behalf of Metaneira herself. *The negative is always attached to φημί (GE p. having gone to Athens and paid many drachmas. 4. a. 12G This section introduces conditional (‘if’) sentences with ἄν + the optative (GE pp. ‘But’. 5. Nikarete did not give her anything. the proper negative in a conditional clause. 258–259. Therefore we have the optative + ἄν and therefore the meaning is potential: ‘I would like. 257–258. #240–241) and ἄν + the imperfect indicative (GE pp. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρός ϕησι τὸν Στέϕανον δούλῃ συνoικεῖν ὡς γυναικί. ‘acting thus. 8 πῶς γὰρ ἄν δικαίως τιθεῖτό τις ‘For how could anyone justly cast his vote?’ Potential ἄν + optative. Wishes for the future are expressed by the optative without ἄν and wishes for the past (GE p. ὁ Στέϕανος ϕήσει τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον ὑπάρξαι τῆς ἔχθρας. #224). But then. however …’ 7 εἴθε μνημονεύοιμι ‘Would that I could remember’. 260. 2. 9 μὴ μνημονεύσας τοὺς λόγους. he said. #244) by the imperfect indicative. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος οὐ* ϕήσει ἀδικῆσαι τὸν Στέϕανον. Note also μὴ. when the girl had been reduced to despair. ὅπως μή + future indicative expresses a caution. The sophist pays many drachmas on behalf of Metaneira. . #213). establishes Nikarete and Metaneira at Philostratos’ house. ‘I am damned if I can remember’ (GE p. 3. 6–7 βουλοίμην μεντἂν μεντἄν = μέντοι ἄν. 212.’ ἔθηκα e. 259. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἔϕη βούλεσθαι τιμωρεῖσθαι τὸν Στέϕανον. the sophist decided to pay many drachmas for the mysteries. Note also GE p. πολλοὶ πολλὰ χρήματα ὑπὲρ τῆς Nεαίρας ἔθεσαν.
οὐκ ἂν οἷοί τ᾿ εἶεν ‘If all the sophists taught me. 23–24 εἰ ταῦτα ᾔδη ἐγώ. KOM. μὴ μνημονεύοντι μνημονεύοντι agrees with τῷ δικαστῇ: ‘It is difﬁcult for a juror to judge the trial. #245). feeling ashamed in front of Euergides. Komias. if he cannot remember the arguments? It is difﬁcult for the juror to judge the case if he can’t remember everything which the prosecutor says. #242). but tell me what is perplexing you. 260. ῥᾳδίως ἂν μνημονεύσαις … καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἐπιλάθοιο ‘If you became a sophist you would easily remember … and would not forget. and I am damned if I can remember. RGT 12G p. 16 εἰ νῦν Ἱππίας ἦσθα. ἄν + the indicative expresses an unfulﬁlled condition (GE p. πλουσίος ἂν ἦ τὸ νῦν An unfulﬁlled condition in present time. πῶς ἂν δικάσειε What sort of condition? 28–29 οὐ γὰρ ἂν γένοιτο … εἰ μὴ μνημονεύσειε What sort of condition? Page 155 30 ἀλλ᾿ ὅπως προθύμως προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν ὅπως + future indicative (GE p. Would that I could remember everything he says. not remembering). καὶ τί ἂν ἔλεγεν. This is called a remote future condition. how would he teach me.’ A conditional sentence with optative and ἄν. A remote future condition. ‘take care that you …’ 33 ἀπόλοιντο … ‘May they perish!’ Translation for 12G STRYMODOROS KOMIAS STR. 258–259. For how could anyone cast his vote justly. πῶς ἂν ἐδίδασκέ με. ἄν + imperfect indicative. and how would I learn?’ 23 εἴθε ταῦτα εἰδείην A wish. ‘If I knew this. they would not be able’. καὶ πῶς ἂν ἐμάνθανον ἐγώ. Why did Apollodoros mention Lysias and Metaneira? For I don’t remember. what is perplexing me. 154 line 7. ‘If Hippias were with us now. I would like to remember what the contestant says. 15 εἴθε Ἱππίας γενοίμην ἐγώ cf. And. I will tell you. If you were a sophist. if he does not remember (lit.’ 26–27 εἰ δέ τις ἐπιλάθοιτο. εἴθε + optative (no ἄν) expresses a wish. you would easily remember .’ 11–13 εἰ μέντοι σοφιστὴς γένoιo σύ. I would be rich now. Strymodoros. #151. The imperfect indicative is used to express present time and the aorist indicative to express past time. 21–22 ἀλλ᾿ εἰ Ἱππίας ἡμῖν νῦν συνεγίγνετο. by Zeus. οἷός τ᾽ ἂν ἦσθα ‘If you were Hippias. A series of unfulﬁlled conditions in present time. 20 εἰ πάντες οἱ σοϕισταί με διδάσκοιεν. I’m damned (May I perish!) if I can remember – You seem to me to be in some perplexity.Section 12G 171 10 χαλεπὸν δή ἐστι τῷ δικαστῇ διακρίνειν τὴν δίκην. See GE pp. and what would he be saying. you would be able’. Don’t cover up your perplexity. 167. ‘see that you …’. 19 εἴθε μνημονεύσαιμι A wish.
οὐκ ἂν μένοιμι. Strymodoros. Oh dear! For. ἐπειθόμην ἂν ἐγώ. 5. If all the sophists taught me. εἰ μὴ ἐτρέχομεν. all the arguments.) listen. having heard it once. For by doing this the jurors cast their votes easily. ὤφελε δοῦναι 3. If anyone forgets so much.172 Exercises for section 12G STR. KOM. οὐκ ἂν εὕροις.) do not go. and not a poor man and a juror. For Hippias. like an old man. εἰ γὰρ ἐξεφεύγομεν 2. Like Hippias? Would that I were Hippias! If you were Hippias now. ὅπως ἀκούσεσθε. you would be able to list all the archons from Solon. 3. I forget everything I hear. they would not be able to make me a sophist. 2. . 12G: 2 1. whoever are jurors and forget what the contestants say. For he would never be a good juryman if he could not remember the things said by the prosecutor … But see to it that you concentrate on the arguments and the laws and the evidence. KOM. Strymodoros. οὐκ ἂν ἐφεύγομεν. like a Hippias. having heard them once. as it seems. 2. SΤR. εἰ γὰρ ἔστη. how would he be teaching me. Strymodoros! For if I knew that I would be rich now. What skill! Would that I could (if only I could) remember so much! But I am not clever by nature. See to it that you (s. φιλοίην ἂν ἐγώ. of the laws and the arguments and the evidence. KOM. See to it that you (pl. used to remember ﬁfty names. ὅπως μὴ εἶ. 4. ὤφελε στῆναι 4. εἰ μὴ φιλοίης. But if Hippias were here. εἴθε ἔδωκε. εἰ ὑμεῖς ἐκελεύετε. εἰ μὴ ζητήσειας. STR. you would remember everything. εἰ μὴ ἀκούοις. how could he judge the case and cast his vote? I do not know. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12G CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES 12G: 1 1. But. εἴθε ἐτίθεσαν 5. and what would he be saying? And how would I learn? I wish I knew this. εἴθε ἀπεθνῄσκον ὅπως + FUTURE INDICATIVE 12G: 3 1. and you would not forget the things that have been said. May they perish. STR.
i. ἴοις 2. εἰ ἐπείθοντο oἱ δικασταὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου. εἶμεν. see to it that you (s. 4. εἶεν. εἰμί ‘be’). I don’t want you to know this.) want to be rich. εἰδείης.) do not become. 2. See to it that you (s. I want them to forget these arguments. j. ὅπως κολάσεις. I do not want to perish. a. οἶδα ‘know’) or ὅπως ἔσῃ (= fut. εἴθε σοϕιστὴς γένοιο. εἴθε πλούσιοι εἶτε (εἴητε). I want to be appointed as a juror and to cast my vote. f.Revision exercises for section 12G 173 3. e. You want to be a sophist. εἰ oἱ δικασταὶ πείθοιντο ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου. 12G: 4 1. I don’t want my family to be rich. g. c.) know/see to it that you (s. . ἴοιεν 3. I want him to remember the evidence. See to it that you (s. δίκην ἐλάμβανεν ἂν ὁ ἀντίδικος. εἰ ἐτίμων τίμημα μέγα. εἰδεῖμεν 4. εἴθε δικαστὴς καθισταίμην καὶ τιθείμην τὴν ψῆϕον. ὅπως εἴσῃ (fut. h. 5. σοϕιστὴν τὸν παῖδα ποιήσειεν. d. εἰδείη. b. εἴθε μνημονεύσειε τὴν μαρτυρίαν. a. ὅπως μὴ γενήσῃ. I receive a big ﬁne / the opponent exacts the penalty. He wants to make the boy a sophist. I want you to put down money for me. εἴθε οἱ ἐμοὶ οἰκεῖοι μὴ πλούσιοι εἶεν.) punish. εἰδείην REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12G B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. τοῦ ϕεύγοντος ἂν καταδικάζοιεν. τοῦ ϕεύγοντος ἂν κατεδικάζον. εἴην. εἴθε θείης χρήματα εἰς ἐμέ. ἴοι 5. b. δίκην λαμβάνοι ὁ ἀντίδικος. The jurors are persuaded by the prosecutor / they condemn the defendant. You (pl. εἰ τίμημα μέγα τιμῴην. ἐπιλάθοιντο τούτων τῶν λόγων. μὴ ἀπολοίμην.) are. ταῦτα μὴ εἰδεῖτε.
. σαϕῶς ἂν ᾖσμεν. ὅπως μὴ θωπεύσετε τοὺς δικαστάς. 264–265. ὅπως μὴ καταϕρονήσεις τοῦ ἑταίρου. d. δοῦσα … πάντα τὰ αὑτῆς ‘Giving all her own things (lit. The citizens have children from the prostitutes / we know clearly. d. ὅπως εὖ θήσεις τὸ πρᾶγμα. εἰ μὴ oἱ πλούσιοι ταῖς ἑταίραις συγγίγνοιντο. 3. οὐκ ἂν ἐπιλανθάνοιτο ὁ κατήγορος. 265–266.174 Section 12H c. Remember the words. τοὺς πένητας ἠσπάζοντ᾿ ἂν ἐκεῖναι. h. ὅπως προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν καὶ ἀκούσῃ. Don’t forget the arguments. σαϕῶς ἂν εἰδεῖμεν. f. #248). b. Don’t ﬂatter the jurors. ὅπως μνημονεύσεις τοὺς λόγους. εἰ ὑπήρχετε τῆς ἔχθρας. ᾤετο Past tense of οἴμαι. τοὺς πένητας ἀσπάζοιντ᾿ ἂν ἐκεῖναι. f. You begin the enmity / the evidence is clear. You mention the citizens / the accuser does not forget. ᾔδει γὰρ ‘For she knew’: a verb of knowing followed by three participles. οὐκ ἂν ἐπελανθάνετο ὁ κατήγορος. Concentrate your mind and listen. c. εἰ ὑπάρχοιτε τῆς ἔχθρας. Arrange the affair well. ὅπως κατερεῖς (καταλέξεις) τὸν τοῦ δράματος λόγον. Don’t have children from prostitutes. Don’t despise your friend. εἰ oἱ ἀστοὶ ἐξ ἑταιρῶν ἐπαιδοποιοῦντο. The rich men do not have dealings with prostitutes / those women welcome the poor men. εἰ μνείαν ποιοίης τῶν ἀστῶν. e. εἰ παιδοποιοῖντο oἱ ἀστοὶ ἐξ ἑταιρῶν. τὰ τεκμήρια ἂν ἦν ϕανερά. Recite the plot of the play. the things of herself)’. ὅπως μὴ παιδοποιήσεσθε ἐκ τῶν ἑταιρῶν. εἰ μὴ oἱ πλούσιοι ταῖς ἑταίραις συγγίγνοντο. Page 156 1 4 12 14 ᾤχετο Past tense of οἴχομαι. g. and the future passive (GE pp. 12H This section introduces accusative (or nominative) and participle construction after verbs of knowing or perceiving (GE pp. εἰ ἐποίεις μνείαν τῶν ἀστῶν. e. ὅπως μὴ ἐπιλήσῃ τῶν λόγων. #247). ϕανερὰ ἂν εἰή τὰ τεκμήρια. a.
followed by inﬁnitive (the nominative is omitted). παραλαβὼν … ἦλθεν … ὡς ἄξων αὐτήν (ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose. taking her. having paid the money on behalf of Neaira for her freedom. But when he arrived in Athens. since she was being treated like dirt in a shameful way by Phrynion. went to Athens. having described the whole affair and the insolence of Phrynion. 14–15 ἀϕαιρουμένου δὲ … εἰς ἐλευθερίαν A genitive absolute. 7–8 παρὰ τὸν ψιθυριστήν ‘next door to the Whisperer’. 12I Page 158 1 τῷ λόγῳ ‘by his word’. being very eager to live here. and always went to riotous parties with her. Neaira therefore gave everything she had to Stephanos and made him her protector. 10–11 εὖ γὰρ ᾔδει Στέϕανος … Followed by nominative and participle ‘For Stephanos knew very well that he had no other income. 3–4 ἔϕη δὲ ‘he said that he’. but being afraid of Phrynion. he treated her disgracefully. Taking all these. Neaira. So this awkward sentence will mean ‘Although Stephanos claimed her as free according to the . πυθόμενος … (followed by accusative and participle). as she was a hetaira. belonging to the subject of the sentence. collected all Phrynion’s belongings from the house. and then by nominative (αὐτός) and inﬁnitive (ἕξειν) ‘that he would have her as his wife’. as she thought. and he used to go to dinners everywhere. Note that αὑτοῦ = ἑαυτοῦ ‘of himself’ i. ‘in order to take her’). and the clothes and the gold jewellery which Phrynion had given her. gave Stephanos all the things she had brought with her when she came from Athens. Then this Stephanos travelled to Megara and lodged with her. taking her with him. She spent two years in Megara but she could not make an adequate income for the management of the household (to meet the household expenses). This was the title of a statue of Hermes. and so appears in the accusative. she ran away to Megara. ‘by his promise’. Phrynion. There are several more examples of this usage in this passage. 4 ὡς αὑτοῦ ὄντας ‘as being his own children’. Thratta and Kokkaline. Neaira. and that he had a pompous and contemptuous character. and two slave girls. For she knew that Phrynion had been wronged by her and was angry with her.e. then. ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι τινα εἰς ἐλευθερίαν has the technical meaning ‘to claim as free’. she was not loved.Section 12I 175 Translation for 12H Apollodoros resumes. 2 ἐκόμπαζε Followed by accusative and inﬁnitive: ‘He boasted that Phrynion would not touch her’. and since. but at ἀδικηθήσεσθαι αὐτήν the subject of the clause is someone else. unless he …’ 12–14 Note the structure of the sentence: ὁ δὲ Φρυνίων.
4. He came with her for two reasons: so that he would have a beautiful hetaira for free and so that she would work and look after his household. nom. ὅτι + indicative clause. For he boasted that Phrynion would never touch her. inﬁn. They hoped to arrive quickly/they hoped they would arrive quickly. d. But Phrynion. I know I am wise. after verb of hoping or expecting. having found out that Neaira was living in Athens and with Stephanos.’ καταθέντι (dative) agrees with αὑτῷ. He said he would be present. + participle construction. Translation for 12I Apollodoros goes on speaking. and they would become citizens. They heard that we had gone. + fut. 12H–I: 2 1. since he had paid money for her. Proxenos and Ariston and a girl child who is now called Phano. 3. regarding her as his slave since he had put down money on her behalf. Having said this he arrived here from Megara. We learned they were ﬂeeing. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12H–I INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE IN REPORTED SPEECH 12H–I: 1 a. And he brought her and the children to a little house which he had in Athens next to the Whisperer Hermes. bringing her with him and her three children with her. 2. + inﬁnitive construction. took young men with him and went to the house of Stephanos to take her away. He found out the enemy had ﬂed. And he said that her children would be introduced into the phratries as if they were his own. . and she would not be harmed by anyone. between the house of Dorotheos the Eleusinian and the house of Kleinomachos.176 Exercises for section 12H–I laws. nom. Although Stephanos claimed her as free in accordance with the law. believing that she was his own (αὑτῷ) slave. This Stephanos ﬁlled Neaira with great hope in Megara by this promise. I know you are not foolish. and that he himself would take her as his wife. c. We say that politicians do not speak the truth. unless he earned something by informing. For Stephanos knew very well that he had no other income or livelihood. Phrynion compelled her to give securities to the polemarch. b. acc. Phrynion compelled her to give securities before the Polemarch.
The prostitute’s children will become citizens. He thought that Stephanos and Neaira would arrive in Athens from Megara. The woman will be wronged by no one. I shall be brought into εἰσάγω we shall be convicted ἐξελέγχω you (s. I shall be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. We say that the woman will not be wronged by anyone. ἡγήσατο τὸν Στέϕανον καὶ τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕίξεσθαι ἐκ τῶν Μεγάρων Ἀθήναζε. d. He thought that the prostitute’s children would become citizens. He thinks that Stephanos and Neaira will arrive in Athens from Megara. He thinks that the prostitute’s children will become citizens. ᾤετο τοὺς τῆς ἑταίρας παῖδας πολίτας γενήσεσθαι. ϕησὶν ἐμὲ ἀναγκασθήσεσθαι παρὰ Φρυνίωνος τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι. b. + participle construction THE FUTURE PASSIVE 12H–I: 3 1. οἴεται τοὺς τῆς ἑταίρας παῖδας πολίτας γενήσεσθαι. 5. We said that the woman would not be wronged by anyone. He knew that they (the women) had obeyed. ἡγεῖται τὸν Στέϕανον καὶ τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕίξεσθαι ἐκ τῶν Μεγάρων Ἀθήναζε. 2. . οὔ ϕαμεν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ᾿ oὐδενός. acc. 4. οὐκ ἔϕαμεν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ᾿ oὐδενός. 2. He says that I will be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. ἀκουσθήσομαι δουλωθήσεται δοθήσονται τεθήσεται σταθήσεται I shall be heard he will be enslaved they will be given he/she/it will be placed it will be set up REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12H–I B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1.) will be compelled ἀναγκάζω he will be angry ὀργίζομαι to be going to be ﬁned ζημιόω they will be wronged ἀδικέω a. 3. Stephanos and Neaira will arrive in Athens from Megara.Revision exercises for section 12H–I 177 5. c.
2. ἔγνωτε ἀδικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν νόμων καταϕρονοῦντες καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες εἰς τοὺς θεούς. ᾔσθοντο ἡμᾶς ἀδικηθέντας ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου καὶ καταδικασθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν. You knew you were a prostitute and that you were having children by citizens. You know you are a prostitute and that you are having children by citizens. ᾔδη τὸν Φρυνίωνα ἀδικηθέντα ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ ὀργισθέντα ἐμοί. Neaira was living in town (imperfect) and went to Stephanos. I know that Phrynion was wronged by me and was angry with me. c. . were despising the laws and were being irreverent to the gods. οἶσθα ἑταίρα οὖσα καὶ παιδοποιουμένη ἐξ ἀστῶν. ἔϕη ἐμὲ ἀναγκασθήσεσθαι παρὰ Φρυνίωνος τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι. εἴθε μνημονεύσαιμι τοὺς λόγους τοὺς τοῦ κατηγόρου. ὁρᾷ τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ ἐλθοῦσαν ὡς Στέϕανον. He said that I would be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. You know that you have wronged the city and are despising the laws and are being irreverent to the gods. b. γιγνώσκετε ἀδικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν νόμων καταϕρονοῦντες καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες εἰς τοὺς θεούς. You are a prostitute and you are having children by citizens. He saw that Neaira was resident in the town and had gone to Stephanos. e.178 Revision exercises for section 12H–I 3. You wronged the city and despised the laws and were irreverent to the gods. εἰ δυναίμην μνημονεύειν τὰς μαρτυρίας. 3. They perceived that we had been wronged by the prosecutor and had been condemned by the jurors. They perceive that we were wronged by the prosecutor and condemned by the jurors. I knew that Phrynion had been wronged by me and had been angry with me. d. You knew that you had wronged the city. Sentences 1. δικαίως ἂν θείμην τὴν ψῆϕον. a. He sees that Neaira is resident in the town and has gone to Stephanos. αἰσθάνονται ἡμᾶς ἀδικηθέντας ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου καὶ καταδικασθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν. ᾔδεισθα ἑταίρα οὖσα καὶ παιδοποιουμένη ἐξ ἀστῶν. Phrynion was wronged by me and was angry with me. εἶδε τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ ἐλθοῦσαν ὡς Στέϕανον. εἰ σοϕιστὴς ἦν. We were wronged by the prosecutor and condemned by the jurors. ἐμνημόνευον ἂν τούτους τοὺς λόγους. D – TRANSLATE INTO GREEK 1. οἶδα τὸν Φρυνίωνα ἀδικηθέντα ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ ὀργισθέντα ἐμοί.
realising that he had spent so much money on Timarkhos in vain. took him to his home and kept him with him. When a crowd ran up. χαλεπώτατον ὂν ἂν ἐϕαινετο. ἀγαθὸν ἂν εἴη τῇ πόλει. and he kept visiting the house of Hegesandros. seeing Timarkhos in the gambling-den. εἰ γὰρ ὁ Στέϕανος ταῦτ’ ἐτύγχανε ποιῶν. εἰ γὰρ καὶ νικῴη οὗτος. Pittalakos was angry. 5. claiming that the whole affair had been a drunken brawl. ὁ Στέϕανός οὔ ϕησι τὴν Νέαιραν ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ’ οὐδενός. and ﬁnally beat up Pittalakos himself for a long time. ἀγωνίζεται ταύτην τὴν δίκην. οὐ γὰρ ἐῶσιν oἱ νόμοι ἑταίρᾳ ὡς γυναικὶ συνοικεῖν ἀστὼν οὐδένα. One of the gamblers is a certain Pittalakos. whose character you know even better than I do. I would not be able to go on living. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν ἐλπίζω ἔγωγε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον νικήσειν τὴν δίκην. This man. Pittalakos. . gentlemen of the jury. E – TEST EXERCISE 12 But I shall tell you what came next (the things after this). By Zeus. if I were to speak in your presence of the things that this man did. And Timarkhos himself kept declaring that everything would be done by him. καὶ ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος λέγει ὅτι σαϕῶς ἐπιδείξεται τὸν Στέϕανον αὐτὰ ταῦτα ποιεῖν. being angry about the affair. which I know clearly were inﬂicted on Timarkhos by this man. ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου καὶ εἰς κίνδυνον καταστάς. For he thought that he was close to his own nature. wanted to take him to his own home. Prose ὁ δὲ Ἀπολλόδωρος. But when Hegesandros and Timarkhos got angry with him for coming so often. ὁ Φρυνίων ᾔδει τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ τὰ χρήματα ἔχουσαν. See that you listen carefully. Hegesandros and Timarkhos hurried to the altar and standing beside it they kept begging Pittalakos to get up. they forced their way during the night into the house where Pittalakos lived. went naked into the market-place and sat on the altar of the mother of the gods. Meanwhile Hegesandros is sailing here from the Hellespont. When Timarkhos had been detached from Pittalakos and taken up by Hegesandros. a slave of the city. Finally they persuade him to get up from the altar. I would not dare to speak of them before you.Revision exercises for section 12H–I 179 4. to be unjust and disdainful. he used to spend his days in the gambling-den. if only Pittalakos would get up (genitive absolute). 2. if I mention such things. as for the outrages. And. For when this Timarkhos here was released from Antikles. He went regularly to visit Pittalakos who was a fellow-gambler. by Zeus the Olympian. may I perish most miserably. For. and ﬁrst seeing Timarkhos there. On the next day. Hegesandros. and they ﬁrst of all smashed up the furniture.
18–20 εἰ … μὴ ἐξηπατήθη ὁ Φράστωρ καὶ Φανὼ γνησία ἦν. Note the breathing: αὐτοῦ could have meant someone else’s daughter αὑτοῦ or ἑαυτοῦ ‘his own’ belongs to the subject of the main verb. You will meet lots of examples of this in 13A and B.Section Thirteen: Neaira as married woman This section continues the story of Neaira. ἢ οὐκ ἂν ἐξέβαλεν αὐτὴν … ἢ ἀπέδωκεν … An unfulﬁlled condition in past time: ἄν + the aorist indicative. realising that he would be convicted. 14–16 Note the structure: ‘Phrastor seeing (ὁρῶν) that (acc. 272–273. either he would not have divorced her or he would have given back the dowry’. 25–26 γνοὺς δὲ Στέϕανος ὅτι ἐξελεγχθήσεται … καὶ ὅτι ἐξελεγχθεὶς κινδυνεύσει … διαλλάττεται … ‘Stephanos. #252: ‘Before she came to Athens’. + participle) … was very angry (ὠργίσθη μάλιστα) … considering (ἡγούμενος) that he … (nominative + inﬁnitives). The subordinate clauses (ὅτι μὲν … δούλη ἦν Nέαιρα … καὶ ἀπέδρα … καὶ ὁ Φρυνίων … κατηγγύησε …) come ﬁrst. 8–9 ὥσπερ αὑτοῦ θυγάτηρ οὖσα ‘as his own daughter’. GE pp. + participle twice) …. Note that this is a genitive absolute construction. Note the negative in the ‘if’ clause is μή and in the main clause οὐ: ‘if Phrastor had not been deceived and if Phano had been legitimate. 10–11 καὶ δὴ ἴστε τὴν Φανώ … μαθοῦσαν Accusative and participle: ‘You know that Phano had learned’. These clauses are all subordinate to the main clause. and 180 . 13A Page 162 1–4 The main clause (δῆλά ἐστι τὰ τεκμήρια ‘There are clear proofs that …’) is delayed until the end of the sentence. or to continue reading to the end of Section 13 and then go back to revise the grammar and do the relevant exercises. As in Section 12 there are long exercises which practise the grammar which has been introduced.’ 17 πρὶν εἰδέναι ‘Before he knew that …’ Followed by accusative and participle construction. and having found out (ἅμα δὲ πυθόμενος) that (acc. Once again you may decide to do the exercises when they occur. 8 πρὶν Ἀθήναζε ἐλθεῖν πρίν + inﬁnitive. 21 ἐκπεσούσης δὲ Φανοῦς ἐκπίπτω is used as the passive of ἐκβάλλω.
was reconciled with Phrastor and gave up his claim to the dowry and withdrew the charge. οὐκ ἂν διηλλάχθη Στέϕανος What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? ‘If Phano had been the daughter of a citizen. Now I want to demonstrate to you that Stephanos himself provides evidence against Neaira that she is living with him as his wife although she is a foreigner. [of all this] there is clear evidence. was very angry. before she lived with Phrastor. before the case came to court. And furthermore you know that Phano. Phrastor also . and he did not give back the dowry. and that she ran away from Phrynion to Megara and that when she returned to Athens Phrynion demanded securities from her before the polemarch on the grounds that she was an alien. as if she had been his own daughter from a citizen wife. And. thinking that he had been insulted and tricked by Stephanos. he would be in danger of … was reconciled with …’ Page 163 28–29 ἀλλ’ εἰ ἀστῆς θυγάτηρ ἦν Φανώ. This girl was given in marriage by Stephanos here. Stephanos would not have been reconciled. had learned her mother’s character and extravagance. having been convicted. And Stephanos gave her a dowry of thirty minas. Phrastor. #254. she was pregnant. 276. seeing that she was neither well behaved nor willing to obey him. Therefore he divorced Phano. Stephanos. Therefore when she went to Phrastor. When Phano had been divorced. realising that he would be convicted of doing wrong and that having been convicted he would risk meeting with the most severe penalties (for Phano was the daughter of an alien woman). in accordance with the law which requires a man who divorces his wife to give back the dowry. Formerly she had been called Strybele. to an Athenian man. either Phrastor would not have divorced her or he would have given back the dowry. Translation for 13A That Neaira was from the beginning a slave and a hetaira. who was a working man and reckoned his income with precision. And when they came to Athens they called the girl Phano. Phrastor of the deme of Aigileia. before she came to Athens. having lived with her for a year.Section 13A 181 that.’ See GE p. Phrastor brought a charge against Stephanos here in accordance with the law which does not allow anyone to betroth the daughter of an alien to an Athenian man. Stephanos brought a suit against Phrastor. If Stephanos had not deceived Phrastor and if Phano had been legitimate. For he had married Phano before he knew that she was the daughter of Neaira. But when Stephanos had brought this suit. and at the same time having found out clearly that Phano was not the daughter of Stephanos but of Neaira. For Neaira had a daughter. she did not know how to make herself pleasing to Phrastor’s ways. whom she brought with her to the house of Stephanos.
Phrastor fell ill and was in a very bad way and was in total need. Before he got better. 4 διετέθη What tense? It comes from διατίθημι. 276. 271–272. Phrastor was persuaded. And Phrastor was childless. This was the child which Phano had borne when she had been sent away in a pregnant state by Phrastor. οἱ οἰκεῖοι ἔλαβον ἂν τὰ αὐτοῦ What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? ‘For if Phrastor had died childless. his relations would have got his property. #249) and the future participle passive (GE pp. how valuable is a woman in time of sickness when she is at the side of a man who is suffering. But in his state of need he was courted by Neaira and Phano. For they went to him. I am sure you know yourselves. For if Phrastor had died without a child.’ See GE p. his relatives would have taken his property. Translation for 13B I want to provide you with another piece of evidence from Phrastor and the members of his phratry and of his clan that this Neaira is an alien. and they brought remedies (things useful) for the illness and visited him. . But if Phano had been the daughter of a citizen woman. nor did he want to die without a child.182 Section 13B withdrew his charge. 7 ὡς θεραπεύσουσαι καὶ … ἐπιμελήσομεναι ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose (GE p. #250) and that you can recognise ὡς + the future participle used to express purpose (GE p. Since they were doing this.’ Note the future inﬁnitive. before he got better. 272–273. #254. Phrastor promised that he would do this. 17–18 εἰ γὰρ ἄπαις ἀπέθανε Φράστωρ. Grammar Now make sure that you know the aorist inﬁnitive passive (GE p. #252). #251): ‘They went to him to look after him and …’ 13–14 καὶ πρὶν ὑγιαίνειν ὑπέσχετο δὴ τοῦτο ποιήσειν ὁ Φράστωρ ‘And before he got better. to look after him and to care for him enthusiastically (for Phrastor had no one who would look after him). but he wanted to take back Phano’s child before he died (although he knew that he was not legitimate). and anger and hatred. Before he was ill there had been a long-standing difference with his relations. jurors. 271. Stephanos would not have been reconciled. Phrastor promised that he would do this. making the natural and reasonable calculation that he was in a poor condition and did not expect to survive. 13B Page 164 3 ἐξεπέμϕθη What tense? It comes from ἐκπέμπω. 271. since he did not want his relations to inherit his property. #251) and πρίν + the inﬁnitive = ‘before’ (GE pp. For not long after Neaira’s daughter was divorced. 270. to take back Phano’s child and to make him his son.
win οἰσθησόμενος/ἐνεχθησόμενος -η -ον about to be carried στήσων -ουσα -ον στησόμενος -η -ον σταθησόμενος -η -ον ληψόμενος -η -ον ληψόμενος -η -ον ληφθησόμενος -η -ον ὡς + FUTURE PARTICIPLE 13A–B: 3 about to set up about to stand. ransomed about to persuade about to obey about to be persuaded οἶσων -ουσα -ον about to carry οἰσόμενος -η -ον about to carry off for oneself. πρὶν τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπιέναι. PASSIVE 13A–B: 2 λύσων -ουσα -ον λυσόμενος -η -ον λυθήσομενος -η -ον πείσων -ουσα -ον πεισόμενος -η -ον πεισθησόμενος -η -ον about to loose about to ransome about to be loosed. λυθῆναι. ὡς δώσοντες πρίν + INFINITIVE 13A–B: 4 1. φαγεῖν 4. ἐκβαλεῖν . ἐνεχθῆναι. πεισθῆναι 2. ὡς σώσοντας ἑαυτούς 3. ἀπελθεῖν 3. πρὶν π(ε)ίθεσθαι. ὡς ληψομένη αὐτήν 2. MIDDLE. set up for oneself about to be set up about to take about to take for oneself. πρὶν ἐκβάλλειν. ὡς πείσων αὐτήν 4. take hold of about to be taken 1. πρὶν ἐσθίειν. τεθῆναι FUTURE PARTICIPLES ACTIVE.Exercises for section 13A–B 183 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13A–B THE AORIST INFINITIVE PASSIVE 13A–B: 1 δοθῆναι. πεισθῆναι.
tell I place I take away I know I escape notice I am I compel I show. I am thrown out. πείθω ἐκπέμπω ἐξαπατάω ἐξελέγχω ὑβρίζω ἐκβάλλω διατίθημι εἰμί οἶδα ἀποδίδωμι τίθημι δείκνυμι ἀπόλλυμι ἀποδίδωμι ἀϕίστημι τίθημι Exercise 3 is on the use of ὡς + future participle to express purpose. prove I ﬁnd out I die I receive from I fall out. while Exercise 4 gives you practice in πρίν + inﬁnitive = ‘before’. set up I provide I give in marriage I speak. ἐκβαλοῦντι ἐντευξομένῃ εἰσαχθησόμενος καταστήσοντι παρέξοντες ἐκδώσοντα ἐρῶν θησόντων ἀϕαιρησόμενος γνωσομένην λήσουσαν ἐσόμενον ἀναγκασθησομένῳ ἐπιδειξουσῶν πευσομένων ἀποθανουμένῃ παραληψομένῃ ἐκπεσούμενοι Aorist passive inﬁnitives πεισθῆναι ἐκπεμϕθῆναι ἐξαπατηθῆναι ἐξελεγχθῆναι ὑβρισθῆναι ἐκβληθῆναι διατεθῆναι Other inﬁnitives εἶναι εἰδέναι ἀποδιδόναι θεῖναι δεικνύναι ἀπολλύναι ἀποδοῦναι ἀϕιστάναι τιθέναι ἐκβάλλω ἐντυγχάνω εἰσάγω καθίστημι παρέχω ἐκδίδωμι λέγω τίθημι ἀϕαιρέω γιγνώσκω λανθάνω εἰμί ἀναγκάζω ἐπιδείκνυμι πυνθάνομαι ἀποθνῄσκω παραλαμβάνω ἐκπίπτω I throw out. lead in I establish. get divorced 2. divorce I meet I introduce.184 Revision exercises for section 13A–B REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13A–B B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. .
5 ἀλλὰ βιασθεὶς διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν ‘but forced by his illness’. Phrastor withdrew the charge ii(i) πρὶν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον before he came to court i(ii) πρὶν ἐκπέμψαι τὴν Φανώ before he divorced Phano (iii) πρὶν ὑπισχνεῖσθαι ἀναλήψεσθαι τὸ παιδίον before he promised that he would take back the child (iv) πρὶν λεχθῆναι τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας before these words were spoken by Neaira. 279. Those men came to the house of Stephanos to take away Neaira. 13C Page 165 1–2 ὅτι οὐκ ἂν ἔπραξε τοῦτο ὁ Φράστωρ. See GE p. 10–13 The structure of the sentence is as follows: ἀλλὰ οἱ γεννῆται. #254): ‘Phrastor would not have done that if he had not been ill. ὡς διατρίψουσαι καὶ ἐργασόμεναι c.Section 13C 185 3. εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε ἄν + the aorist indicative expresses an unfulﬁlled condition in past time (GE p. b. This example is followed by three more: διὰ τὸ ἄπαις εἶναι καὶ τὸ θεραπεύειν αὐτὰς αὑτὸν καὶ τὸ τοὺς οἰκείους μισεῖν. #257. Here the inﬁnitive is used as a noun with the article. ὡς ἀπολογησόμενος καὶ ἀπολυθησόμενος 4. The women went off to Athens to live (spend time) in Stephanos’ house and to work. 276. 280. The man went into the lawcourt to defend himself and to be acquitted. ὡς ἐρῶν… καὶ ἀκουσόμενος d. Therefore I am going to him to speak the truth and listen to lies. 4. εἰδότες … καὶ ἀκούσαντες … ἀποψηϕίζονται τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ οὐκ ἐνέγραφον … There is an . Stephanos brought Phrastor to the lawcourt ii(i) πρὶν τὸν Φράστορα γράψασθαι γραϕήν before Phrastor indicted him i(ii) πρὶν τὸ τῆς Φανοῦς παιδίον γενέσθαι before Phano’s child was born (iii) πρὶν τὸ παιδίον ἀναληϕθῆναι ὑπὸ Φράστορος before the child was taken back by Phrastor (iv) πρὶν γνῶναι ὅτι ἐξελεγχθήσεται ἀδικῶν before he knew that he would be convicted of wrong-doing. #258). Note that a whole accusative and inﬁnitive phrase can be used in this way (GE p. 6–7 εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε … οὐκ ἂν ἀνέλαβε … What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? Page 166 10 εἰδότες Can you recognise this participle? It comes from οἶδα. a. ὡς ἄξοντες b. a.’ 2 ὡς … τάχιστα ‘as soon as …’ 4–5 ὅτι οὐχ ἑκὼν ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον οὐχ ἑκών ‘not willingly’: ‘that he did not willingly take back the child’.
but was forced to do it because of his sickness and the fact that he was childless and because the women were looking after him and because he hated his relations. the sister of Diphilos. the legitimate daughter of Satyros of the deme of Melite. For Phrastor. λαχόντος οὖν τοῦ Φράστορος Genitive absolute. voted against the child and did not register him in the clan. If Phano had been the daughter of a female citizen. But if Phano had been the daughter of a citizen. the members of the clan would not have voted against the child. ἀλλ’ εἰ ὁ παῖς … What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? What mood and tense are the verbs? Translation for 13C Now I shall prove to you by a great and clear piece of evidence that Phrastor would not have done this if he had not been ill. οὐκ ἂν ὠργίσθη Στέϕανος. and having heard that Phrastor had divorced her and had then because of his illness taken back the child. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13C 1. knowing that the woman was the daughter of Neaira. he would not have taken back the child. Phrastor abandoned the oath and went away before he could swear that his son was legitimate. This is proof for you that he did not willingly take back the child. Stephanos would not have been angry. For as soon as Phrastor recovered from that illness. When the members of the clan challenged him. But if his son had been legitimate and born from a citizen wife. οἱ οἰκεῖοι ἂν ἔλαβον τὰ αὐτοῦ. And furthermore. and having heard that Phrastor. his relatives would have taken his possessions. For if Phrastor had not been ill. because of his illness. the members of the clan challenged him to swear by the sacred mysteries that he truly believed the child to be his own son from a citizen wife legally married in accordance with the law. having divorced her. voted against the boy and …’ Note that this is another unfulﬁlled condition. introduced Phano’s son into the phratries and into the Brytidae. προκαλουμένων δ’ αὐτὸν τῶν γεννητῶν Another genitive absolute. But the members of the clan. If Phrastor had died childless.186 Revision exercises for section 13C 13–14 14 16–17 18 accusative + participle clause depending on εἰδότες and an accusative + participle + inﬁnitive clause depending on ἀκούσαντες. ‘But the clansmen. I want to show you another proof that this Neaira is an alien. he would have sworn. εἰ ἀστῆς θυγάτηρ ἦν Φανώ. when he was ill. of whom Phrastor is a member. εἰ ἄπαις ἀπέθανε Φράστωρ. knowing that his wife was the daughter of Neaira. Therefore when Phrastor brought a suit against them. but would have registered him in the clan. a. b. he took a citizen wife according to the laws. had then taken back the child. .
For Stephanos bears witness against Neaira because he was not willing to go to court on behalf of her daughter about her dowry. Φράστωρ οὐκ ἂν ἐξηπατήθη. d. to take back the child and make him his son. Phrastor would not have brought this accusation against him. e. and Phrastor bears witness that he divorced the daughter of this Neaira and did not give back the dowry. both Stephanos here who has her now and is living with her and Phrastor who married her daughter. If Stephanos had not brought this suit against him. 13D Page 167 3–4 ὁ μὲν γὰρ Στέφανος … ‘For Stephanos bears witness against Neaira through his unwillingness (διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι) to engage in litigation on behalf of her daughter about the dowry. Neither εἰμί nor οἶδα have an aorist. so the context will determine the translation. to take back the child and to make him his son. but he did not swear that … and that later he married a citizen woman …’ 11–13 Look to see if there is an ἄν and note the mood and tense of the verbs.… and that he himself introduced him to the clan. οὐκ ἂν ἐγράψατο Φράστωρ αὐτὸν γραϕήν. And furthermore.Section 13D 187 c. and then was himself persuaded by Neaira and Phano.B. and that he later married a citizen wife according to the law. but then. and he himself introduced the boy to the members of the clan. Phano would not have been sent away.’ 5–9 Φράστωρ δὲ μαρτυρεῖ ἐκβαλεῖν … καὶ οὐκ ἀποδοῦναι … ἔπειτα δὲ αὐτὸς … πεισθῆναι διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν καὶ τὸ … οἰκείους ἀναλαβεῖν τὸ παιδίον καὶ … ποιήσασθαι. αὐτὸς δὲ εἰσαγαγεῖν … ἀλλ’ οὐκ ὀμόσαι … ὕστερον δὲ γῆμαι … A string of inﬁnitives depends on μαρτυρεῖ: ‘Phrastor bears witness that he divorced … and did not give back the dowry. For if Neaira had been a citizen. was persuaded by … on account of his illness and because he was childless and because of his hostility to his relations. he would have thrown her out (divorced her) as quickly as possible. but did not swear that he was the son of a citizen woman. on account of his sickness and childlessness and his hatred of his relations. If Phano had been called the daughter of a foreigner. N. Phrastor would not have been deceived. Translation for 13D Therefore I clearly demonstrate to you that the very members of Neaira’s own family have furnished proof that she is an alien. If Phrastor had known that Phano was the daughter of Neaira. if . εἰ Φανὼ ξένης θυγάτηρ ἐκλήθη. εἰ ᾔδει Φανὼ Nεαίρας οὖσαν θυγατέρα ὁ Φράστωρ. For Phano would have been a citizen. These actions are perfectly clear and form great proofs that they knew that this Neaira was an alien. εἰ μὴ ἔλαχε Στέϕανος τὴν δίκην ταύτην. ἐξέβαλεν ἂν ὡς τάχιστα.
τὸ θεραπεύειν g. The child clearly belongs to an alien woman. And he made mention of these facts. διὰ τὸ μὴ ὀμόσαι d. because they knew that he was not legitimate. τῷ βιάζεσθαι D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. a. Because of the fact that Phrastor was not willing to swear an oath.188 Revision exercises for section 13D Phano had been a citizen. that he was weak and that he was depressed and that he was being looked after by Neaira. 3. Stephanos is clearly committing an injustice towards the city and irreverence towards the gods. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13D VERBS IN THE INFINITIVE USED AS NOUNS 13D: 1 1. ὁ Φράστωρ ἔγημε τὴν Φανὼ πρὶν εἰδέναι αὐτὴν Νεαίρας θυγατέρα οὖσαν. 2. 5. 9. τὸ ἀσθενεῖν b. ὁ Στέϕανος ἦλθε πρὸς τὸν Φράστορα ὡς ἐγγυήσων αὐτῷ τὴν Φανώ. 3. τοῦ ἀσθενεῖν τε ἕνεκα καὶ εἰς ἀπορίαν καταστῆναι καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας θεραπεύεσθαι h. διὰ τὸ εἰδέναι f. ἄνευ τοῦ μισεῖν διὰ τὸ διανοεῖσθαι τοῦ θορυβῆσαι ἕνεκα. Care is a good thing. Impiety is a great evil. 10. διὰ τὸ φυγεῖν μετὰ τὸ μέλλειν ἀντὶ τοῦ παύσασθαι τῷ μάχεσθαι τοῦ φυλάξαι ἕνεκα 6. and because the members of the clan voted against the boy. Illness is an evil. because the clansmen voted against him and did not register him in the clan. τῷ ἀπορεῖν διὰ τὸ βοᾶν REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13D B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. Stephanos was clearly doing wrong because he did not swear. εἰ μὴ ἐθεράπευσε τὸν Φράστορα ἡ Φανώ. 8. τὸ ἀσεβεῖν i. . The clansmen were forced to vote against the child. 2. 4. οὐκ ἂν ἀνέλαβεν ἐκεῖνος τὸ παιδίον. the clan members would not have voted against her son. I was compelled to go in by force (being forced). 7. διὰ τὸ τοὺς γεννήτας ἀποψηϕίσασθαι αὐτοῦ καὶ μὴ ἐγγράψαι εἰς τὸ γένος e. διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν καὶ τὸ μισεῖν τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ τὸ ἄπαις εἶναι c. Phrastor took back the child on account of his illness and his hatred of his relations and his childlessness.
#260–262. Notice that ξένῃ οὔσῃ is dative agreeing with αὐτῇ.’ Translation for 13E Because of this. When Theogenes took up ofﬁce. gave the daughter of Neaira to Theogenes as a wife and betrothed her as being his own daughter. Φράστωρ ἂν ὤμοσεν. Cf. αὗται αἱ πράξεις δηλώσουσιν Note the rhetorical inversion of the clauses again: ‘That I am speaking the truth.Section 13E 189 4. εἰ γνήσιος ἦν ὁ παῖς. 11 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν οἷ ‘and that she went in to where’. these actions will prove. 20 ὅτι δ’ ἀληθῆ λέγω. being an alien’. ποῖ ‘where to?’ 15–16 οὐ μόνον … ἀλλὰ καί … ‘not only … but also …’ 15–20 A series of examples of the perfect tense! 18 ἐκδούς Can you recognise this? It comes from ἐκδίδωμι and agrees with the subject. see GE pp. For they openly dared to allege that the daughter of Neaira was a citizen. ὁποία … Nεαίρας and ὅπως … ἠδίκησαν: ‘what sort of shamelessness …’ and ‘how they wronged the state’. And this woman made the secret sacriﬁces for you on behalf of the city. Before Theogenes entered on his ofﬁce. For Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor what sort of habits she had. Stephanos. If you want to ﬁnd out about it before you meet it in reading.’ 6 ὡς πάρεδρος γενησόμενος ὡς + future participle expresses purpose. being a foreigner. There was once a certain Theogenes who was elected as basileus (King Archon). 5. 11–12 καὶ εἶδεν ἃ οὐ προσῆκεν αὐτῇ ὁρᾶν. the perfect active (I have -ed). And she went into the place where no other Athenian goes except the . 9–10 οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει ὁ Θεογένης ὅτου θυγάτηρ ἐστὶ οὐδὲ ὁποῖά ἐστιν αὐτῆς τὰ ἔθη ‘for Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor what sort of character she had’ (‘what sort were the characteristics of her’). Consider then what shamelessness Stephanos and Neaira showed and how they wronged the city. 4 ἦν γάρ ποτε Θεογένης τις … ‘There was a man called Theogenes. followed by two clauses. So greatly did this man despise you and the laws. Stephanos gave him money so that he would become his assistant and share in his position. becoming his assistant by giving him money. It is very easy to recognise. Φράστωρ ἀνέλαβε τὸ τῆς Φανοῦς παιδίον διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν καὶ τὸ τὴν Φανὼ θεραπεύειν αὐτόν. everyone knew that Phano was clearly an alien and not a citizen. and saw what it was not ﬁtting for her to see. this Stephanos. 13E In this section you will meet a new tense. ξένῃ οὔσῃ ‘and she saw what it was not ﬁtting for her to see. being well born but poor and inexperienced in affairs. 282–283. Page 168 2 σκοπεῖτε τοίνυν ‘Consider then’.
) have lived in ἐπιδημέω ἐπιδεδημήκατε I have written γράϕω γεγράϕαμεν you (pl. #264 (this is worth studying before you go on reading). . and she was presented to Dionysos as his bride.πεπ.190 Section 13F wife of the basileus.μεμ. sacred and secret. they have set free λύω λέλυκεν you have borne witness μαρτυρέω μεμαρτύρηκας he has conquered νικάω νενικήκασι(ν) we have honoured τιμάω τετίμηκα you (s. 2. These are formed just as you would expect by adding the optative endings to the future indicative stems. For he has made the laws invalid and has shown contempt for the gods. 3–4 ἤρετο ἡ βουλή ‘the council asked’. τετ.κεκτεθ. 3.βεβ.λελ.κεχ.πεπ.τεθ.γεγ.) have shouted βοάω βεβόηκας he has ordered κελεύω κεκελεύκασι(ν) we have done πράττω πέπραχα I have loved ϕιλέω πεϕιλήκαμεν you (s. 287. these events will prove.ἐπιδεδ. 285.πεϕ. For you will be casting your vote not only on your own behalf and on behalf of the laws.πεϕ.πεπ. #263). REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13E B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1.ἐκβεβ. Page 170 2–3 γενομένων … ἱερῶν.ἐκπεπ.and -είην (GE p. and she performed on behalf of the city the ancestral rites to the gods which are numerous. The future optatives (GE p.λελνεν. 285–286.ἐπιδεδ. That I am speaking the truth. I have shown you then that Stephanos has acted most irreverently. which is easily recognised by -θ. The aorist optative passive. I want to tell you in greater detail about these things. #266).γεγ.γεγ2. The use of the optative in indirect speech (GE pp. but for respect towards the gods. And then this woman has performed the rites and sacriﬁces on behalf of the city. Followed by two indirect questions: τίς αὐτὰ ποιήσειε and πῶς πράξειαν οἱ ἄρχοντες. by giving the daughter of Neaira as a wife to Theogenes when he was holding the ofﬁce of basileus. ἀναβάντων … ἀρχόντων Two genitive absolutes.) have gone χωρέω κεχωρήκατε they have worried ϕροντίζω πεϕρόντικεν 13F Here you will meet: 1.
imploring and entreating. at once pitying him for his innocence and at the same time thinking that he had truly been deceived by Stephanos. because of this he had allied himself to him by marriage before he found out clearly what sort of person he was. + inﬁnitive. ‘That I am not lying’ he said ‘I shall demonstrate to you by a great proof. And immediately the Council started to ask who was this wife of Theogenes. Greek does not repeat ‘he said’./acc. ‘was inclined to punish’. but he had been deceived by Stephanos. I shall send the woman away from my house. When these sacred rites had taken place. This shows that they are part of what he said. And when it found out whose daughter Theogenes had as a wife. genitive absolute./acc. But the sentence starts with an inﬁnitive which follows διὰ … τὸ: ‘because of his inexperience in affairs and his innocence he had made Stephanos …’ 17–19 The structure is: genitive absolute. the Council of the Areopagos. and the nine archons had gone up onto the Hill of Ares (Areopagos). Translation for 13F Stephanos.Section 13F 191 5–7 The pattern continues. the Council on the Areopagos inquired about the sacred rites. he immediately banished the woman. 23 ἐξαπατηθέντι ‘granted a pardon to him having been deceived’. He said that Stephanos appeared to be well disposed towards him. 13–14 Here the construction changes to nom. main verb (ἐδεῖτο) subject + participle + participle. since she is not the daughter of Stephanos but of Neaira. genitive absolute + ὅτι clause with two verbs in the optative (λάβοι. who had performed them and how the archons had acted. 7 ἐζημίου This is a special use of the imperfect tense. + inﬁnitives that this is indirect speech. ἐπέσχεν (main verb). ἐάσειε) + inﬁnitive.’ Since Theogenes promised that he would do this and was entreating. held back. and this woman performed these holy rites. it showed concern about the rites and proposed to punish Theogenes. When arguments had taken place and the Council of the Areopagos was angry and punishing Theogenes on the grounds that he had taken such a wife and allowed her to perform the secret rites on behalf of the city. 7–10 The structure of this sentence is: genitive absolute. but shows by the use of nom. married his daughter to Theogenes while he was holding the ofﬁce of basileus. But on account of his inexperience in affairs and his naivety he had made Stephanos his assistant so that he could administer the ofﬁce. Note that the verbs in the ὅτι clause are all in the optative. ‘on the grounds that he had been deceived’. the . ἡ βουλή (subject) ἅμα μὲν ἐλεήσασα … ἅμα δὲ ἡγουμένη + inﬁnitive. For he said that he did not know she was the daughter of Neaira. ‘proposed to punish’. then. and what sort of things she had done. When Theogenes came down from the Areopagos. and had himself accepted Phano as being his (Stephanos’) legitimate daughter in accordance with the law. 10 ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὅτι ‘for he said that’. Theogenes began to beg them.
5. the Areopagites ceased judging Theogenes and being angry with him. δοθείην. 4. ποιηθείην. ἀποθάνοι παρέσοιντο συνίοιεν κολάσοι REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13F B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1.) will see why they are angry.) will blame μέμψοισθε Ι shall run δραμοίμην 13F: 3 he will be guarded φυλαχθήσοιτο they will be given δοθήσοιντο we shall invite προσκαλοῖμεν we shall carry οἰσοίμεθα 1. ὅτου θυγάτηρ εἴη. You (pl. THE FUTURE OPTATIVE 13F: 2 I shall vote ψηφισοίμην you (pl. Theogenes said that he did not know what were Phano’s habits and that he had been persuaded by Stephanos to do this. εὑρεθείην. and pardoned him because he had been deceived. 3. ὅτι οὐκ εἰδείη ὁποῖοι εἶεν. κελευθείην.) knew where the enemy were assembling. He said that the citizens would not be present. ὅτι Φανὼ ἐκδοθείη. I know why he does not obey/ is not persuaded. The council was annoyed at the affair. a. He answered that the king had died. from his house. that Phano had been given in marriage to Phrastor and that the sacred rites on behalf of the city had been performed by a foreigner. I knew why he would punish the slave. ὅτι ἐργάζοιτο c. ὡς τὰ ἱερὰ πραχθείη . πεισθείην. 2. For Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor that she had worked with her body. who had deceived him. τεθείην. ὅτι πεισθείη d. The jurors asked what Stephanos had done.192 Revision exercises for section 13F daughter of Neaira. πεμφθείην. and removed Stephanos. δουλωθείην. and what was the impiety of Neaira and how she had wronged the city. from the council board. ὅ τι πράξειεν ὁποία εἴη ὅπως ἀδικήσειεν b. διαφθαρείην. You (pl. τιμηθείην.) will be saved σωθήσοισθε you (pl. 6. ληφθείην. When Phano had been sent away. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13F THE AORIST OPTATIVE PASSIVE 13F: 1 βληθείην.
Page 171 2 πεποιήκασι What tense? Page 172 4 καταπεϕρονήκασιν What tense? 5 μεμαρτυρήκασιν What tense? καταπεϕρονηκέναι What is it? Perfect inﬁnitive active. 292–293. How did the archons behave? ἠρόμην ὅπως πράξειαν οἱ ἄρχοντες. τὸν Στέϕανον is the subject of all the participles. Stephanos and Neaira have done the most sacrilegious things. #270. The rest of this section is full of various forms of the perfect active and middle. What sort of woman was Phano? ἠρόμην ὁποία γυνὴ εἴη ἡ Φανώ. on behalf of the state) and the gods. You will meet this construction later in GE pp. ‘For many people have borne witness that they have shown contempt for the city and for the gods. 13G Here you will meet the perfect middle and passive. Translation for 13G Oh what lawlessness! For Stephanos committed many disgraceful acts. 12–13 οἳ ἂν ἀποϕαίνωσι ‘whoever show’: ἄν + subjunctive makes the relative clause ‘indeﬁnite’. Didn’t you hear that we went into the lawcourt and that those men were condemned and didn’t you hear what was said in the prosecution? ὡς εἰσέλθοιμεν. ὡς καταδικασθεῖεν. b. c. Who was Theogenes’ wife? ἠρόμην ἥτις εἴη ἡ γυνὴ ἡ Θεογένους. #267–268). γεγένημαι These are perfect middle (GE pp. #282. See GE pp.’ 8 πεπολίτευμαι. From where (for what cause) did Theogenes divorce his wife? ἠρόμην ὁπόθεν ἐκβάλοι τὴν γυναῖκα ὁ Θεογένης. 14 ἀλλ’ εὖ ἴσμεν ‘But we know very well that’ is followed by a series of accusative + participle phrases. d. a. 304–305. STRYMODOROS . For they have shown contempt for the laws of the state (lit. the perfect inﬁnitives and participles and some important irregular perfects (GE pp. 291–292. ἅττα λεχθείη 2. Who did this? ἠρόμην ὅστις ταῦτα ποιήσειεν. 291–295. The perfect middle and passive are the same. EUERGIDES If indeed Apollodoros is speaking the truth. #267–273).Section 13G 193 e. The inﬁnitive shows that this is an indirect statement. e.
’ For you know well that all the defendants claim that they have performed their state duties patriotically and that they have won many glorious victories in the games (contests) and that they have accomplished much good for the city. and who were introduced to the phratries by Stephanos. Reasonably. See list at GE p. #272. Page 173 8 Στέϕανος αὐτὸς ὑϕ’ αὑτοῦ ‘Stephanos himself has been condemned by himself. nor has he been a good citizen. and was not born a citizen. 15 πεϕύκασι ‘They have been born’. 7 εἴληϕε This is an irregular perfect from λαμβάνω. So that it is clear that Stephanos will be convicted of lying. which takes the dative. nor has he been a trierarch. i. STR. nor has he been appointed choregos. nor has he done any good to the city.’ 12 εἴρηται Perfect passive from λέγω: see GE p. that ‘I have been a good citizen’ and ‘I have been responsible for no disaster in the city.194 SΤR. who were Neaira’s. For the children. ‘they exist’. Translation for 13H What then? What will Stephanos say in his defence? Will he say that Neaira was a citizen and that he lives with her in accordance with the laws? KOMIAS But Apollodoros has employed the strongest evidence. 295. Stephanos will say the sort of things which all defendants say in their defence. #272. This shows clearly how close the perfect is to the present in meaning. ‘they are born to make mistakes’. at least. For the dikasts have often acquitted those who have done wrong who can point out the virtues of their ancestors and their own good services. What then? That he did not take Neaira as his wife but as a concubine in his house? EUERGIDES But Stephanos has brought evidence against himself. But we know well that Stephanos is not rich. Section 13H KOMIAS EU. and the STRYMODOROS . 295. I wonder what Stephanos will ever say in his defence. For many people have borne witness that they have shown contempt for both the city and the gods. 13H Page 172 3 κέχρηται What tense? What verb? It comes from χράομαι. 5 ἐξελεγχθήσεται What tense? What verb? Try ἐξελέγχω. proving that Neaira was a hetaira and became the slave of Nikarete. It is probable. if he says such things.e.
these clearly prove that Neaira was living with Stephanos as his wife. Therefore Neaira has been put in the most terrible danger on account of the things that have been done by Stephanos. and some irregular perfects.Section 13I 195 STR. You will need to learn these by heart. and that you yourselves have been greatly wronged and insulted. 173. all men indeed are born to make mistakes. judges. Note the form of the reduplication when the verb starts with a vowel. Translation for 13I You have heard the evidence. and you have learned in detail that Neaira is an alien and has shown a lack of reverence towards the gods. followed by two sets of nominative + participle phrases. Yes. and it is clear that the truth has been spoken by Apollodoros. who was given in marriage to an Athenian man. EU. which show awkward cases where you cannot use an ordinary reduplication. Grammar Now make sure that you know both active and passive forms of the perfect indicative. and make sure also that you look at the lists in GE pp. daughter. also ἠδικημένοι and ὑβρισμένοι. 2 ἠσεβηκυῖαν Acc. fem. You must therefore take vengeance upon those who have been impious to the gods and you must punish those who have wronged the city and are disposed to sacrilege rather than to piety. 291–294. of the perfect participle of ἀσεβέω.’ Page 174 8 πεϕυκότας Cf. line 15 ‘those who have been born to …’: ‘those who by nature are more inclined to impiety rather than piety’. 13I Page 173 1–3 μεμαθήκατε This is followed by two sets of accusative + participle phrases. know that this Stephanos deserves to pay no lesser penalty than this Neaira. Before you pass judgment. p. as it seems to me. but a much bigger one. 3–4 ὁ Στέϕανος ἄξιός ἐστιν οὐκ ἐλάττω δοῦναι δίκην … ἀλλὰ καὶ πολλῷ μείζω ‘Stephanos is worthy to pay no less penalty than …. #272–273. #267–271). s. 294–295. has thus shown much contempt for the laws and you and has been irreverent to the gods. by declaring himself to be an Athenian. And Stephanos also is done for. but a much greater one for what he has done. For I have proved that he. . and their participles and inﬁnitives (GE pp.
he has been wronged.196 Exercises for section 13G–I EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13G–I PERFECT INDICATIVE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE 13G–I: 1 κεκώλυται τεθύμεθα γεγάμημαι τετιμημένοι εἰσίν δεδήλωσθε 13G–I: 2 he has been prevented we have been sacriﬁced I have been married they have been honoured you (pl. γεγαμῆσθαι. τετιμῆσθαι. . he has gone. you (pl.) have been shown κεκωλῦσθαι. τεθύσθαι.) have hurled you (s.) have suffered. they are standing. δεδηλῶσθαι 13G–I: 3 κεκωλυκότος κεκωλυκότες κεκωλυμένου κεκωλυμένοι τεθυκότος τεθυκότες τεθυμένου τεθυμένοι γεγαμηκότος γεγαμηκότες γεγαμημένου γεγαμημένοι τετιμηκότος τετιμηκότες τετιμημένου τετιμημένοι δεδηλωκότος δεδηλωκότες δεδηλωμένου δεδηλωμένοι 13G–I: 4 κεκωλυκυίας κεκωλυκυῖαι κεκωλυμένης κεκωλυμέναι τεθυκυίας τεθυκυῖαι τεθυμένης τεθυμέναι γεγαμηκυίας γεγαμηκυῖαι γεγαμημένης γεγαμημέναι τετιμηκυίας τετιμηκυῖαι τετιμημένης τετιμημέναι δεδηλωκυίας δεδηλωκυῖαι δεδηλωμένης δεδηλωμέναι κεκωλυκότος κεκωλυκότα κεκωλυμένου κεκωλυμένα τεθυκότος τεθυκότα τεθυμένου τεθυμένα γεγαμηκότος γεγαμηκότα γεγαμημένου γεγαμημένα τετιμηκότος τετιμηκότα τετιμημένου τετιμημένα δεδηλωκότος δεδηλωκότα δεδηλωμένου δεδηλωμένα it has been announced.
γεγένηται You have been treated most violently. οἶδα καταμεμαρτυρημένος αὐτὸς ὑπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. διαπέπρακται Phano’s son has been introduced to the brotherhood by Stephanos. ϕάσκω ὑμᾶς μεγάλα ὑβρίσθαι καὶ ἠδικῆσθαι. ϕάσκω σε εὖ πεπολιτεῦσθαι. 3. ϕάσκω ὑμᾶς τεκμηρίῳ ϕανερῷ κεχρῆσθαι. d. ἠδίκημαι These words have been spoken by Neaira. g. οἶδα ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ταῦτα διαπεπραγμένους. ἠδίκημαι REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13G–I B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. οἶδα τοῦτο εὶργασμένον τὸν κατήγορον. καταμεμαρτυρήμεθα Those men have done these things. κέχρησαι I myself have been condemned by myself (lit. ϕάσκω ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ταῦτα διαπεπρᾶχθαι. i. h. πεπόνθαμεν. ὕβρισαι ἠδίκησαι The prosecutor has accomplished this. οἶδα ἡμᾶς ἠδικημένους μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. g. You have governed well. j. a. ϕάσκω καταμεμαρτυρῆσθαι αὐτὸς ὑπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. b. ϕάσκω τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας εἰρῆσθαι. ἐζήτηκας. e. εὖ πεπολίτευσθε We have been greatly wronged by Stephanos. c. εἴρηται You have used clear proof. I have had witness borne against me by myself). j.Revision exercises for section 13G–I 197 13G–I: 5 εἰρήκασι. ἴσμεν τὸν Στέϕανον οὐδέποτε δίκην δεδωκότα. h. a. 2. οἶδα ὑμᾶς μεγάλα ὑβρισμένους καὶ ἠδικημένους. b. ϕάσκω τούτους αἰτίους γεγενῆσθαι πολλῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. and you have been greatly wronged. ϕάσκω τὸν Φανοῦς παῖδα εἰσῆχθαι ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας. d. gentlemen. f. f. οἶδα τούτους αἰτίους γεγενημένους πολλῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. ἕστηκα. . οἶδα τὸν Φανοῦς παῖδα εἰσηγμένον ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας. c. ϕάσκω ἡμᾶς ἠδικῆσθαι μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. Stephanos has never paid the penalty. ἐστέρηται. οὔ ϕαμεν τὸν Στέϕανον δίκην ποτε δεδωκέναι. εἰσηγμένοι εἰσίν These men have been the cause of many evils in the city. οἶδα τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας εἰρημένους. ϕάσκω τοῦτο εἰργάσθαι τὸν κατήγορον. gentlemen. ἀφῄρηται. εἰργασμένοι εἰσίν οἶδα σε εὖ πεπολιτευμένον. οἶδα ὑμᾶς τεκμηρίῳ ϕανερῷ κεχρημένους. e. i. a.
Neaira has been irreverent towards the gods. εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε. he praised his words and said that because Menekles was an old man and alone he needed me to look after him. καὶ διὰ τὴν ἔχθραν τὴν πρὸς τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι αὐτοὺς λαβεῖν τὰ αὑτοῦ. οὐ βουλόμενος ἄπαις τελευτᾶν. You have been appointed jurors. ἐπιδέδειχα τὴν Φανὼ τεθυκυῖαν τὰ ἱερὰ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως. as you know. 2. After this. if I had been able. Στέϕανος εὖ πεπολίτευται καὶ πολλὰ καὶ καλὰ πεποίηκεν. δῆλον ὅτι. 3. ϕατὲ δικασταὶ καθεστηκέναι. Stephanos has given Phano in marriage as his own daughter.’ And when my brother heard this. . Prose τὴν οὖν Φανὼ τῆς Νεαίρας θυγατέρα οὖσαν ἐπιδεδειγμένην εὐθὺς ἐξέβαλεν ὁ Φράστωρ. 4. c. ἔϕασκες τὴν Νέαιραν ἠσεβηκέναι εἰς τοὺς θεούς. ἴστε δικασταὶ καθεστηκότες. ϕὴς τὸν Στέϕανον ὡς τὴν αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα τὴν Φανὼ ἐκδεδωκέναι. ‘I am always abroad. Since.’ And Menekles said that it was a good idea (that he was speaking well) and so adopted me. Menekles began to take thought so that he might not be childless. indeed I would have had children from this family. Therefore I want to make one of you my son. ‘who is always at home. and who would bury him when he had died and would carry out the customary tasks on his behalf in the period after his death. D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK Sentences 1. βουλομένη τὸν Φράστορα τὸ παιδίον ἀναλαβεῖν.198 Revision exercises for section 13G–I b. 2. ‘For’. he found no other relation closer to him than us. Phano is an alien by birth (has been born). ἀναστὰς γὰρ γυναῖκα γνησίαν κατὰ τοὺς νόμους ἔγημεν. εὖ ἴσμεν πάντες ὅτι οὐδὲν καλὸν οὔτε εἴρηται οὔτε πεποίηται οὐδέποτε ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. then. ὁ γὰρ Φράστωρ οὐδέποτ’ ἂν ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον. meaning me. e. will look after your affairs and mine. d. Θεογένης ἔϕη ἐξαπατηθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. he started to enter into an agreement with us and he said ‘Fate did not allow me to have children with your sister. ᾔδεισθα τὴν Νέαιραν ἠσεβηκυῖαν εἰς τοὺς θεούς. ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον πρὶν ἀναστῆναι. E – TEST EXERCISE 13 1. οἶσθα τὸν Στέϕανον ὡς τὴν αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα τὴν Φανὼ ἐκδεδωκότα. ϕημὶ τὴν Φανὼ ξένην πεϕυκέναι. 5. but my brother here’. he said. but that he might have a child who would look after him before he died. But. εὖ οἶδα τὴν Φανὼ ξένην πεϕυκυῖαν. Make him your son. ἡ βουλὴ ἤρετο ὁποίαν γυναῖκα ἔγημεν ὁ ἄρχων βασιλεύς. καὶ οὐ διὰ πολλοῦ ἠσθένησεν ὁ Φράστωρ. ἡ δὲ ἐκβεβλημένη ὀλίγον χρόνον ἔμεινεν.
Instead. gentlemen of the jury. . vote for justice in accordance with the laws.Revision exercises for section 13G–I 199 My opponent here wishes now to disinherit me and to render the dead man childless and nameless. take away the name from me. being persuaded by him. and bearing in mind the law and the oath which you have sworn and the things that have been said about the matter. Do not therefore. help us and that man who is now in the house of Hades. since the matter has come to you and you have become responsible for it.
[this woman] who was neither left a citizen by her parents nor was she made a citizen by the people? Will you allow her to act irreverently towards the gods with impunity. νομίζω νομιέω. fem. which prepares for πρίν. and before you did z’. 300–304. #274–281) and one of its commonest uses with ἄν. Do not translate πρότερον. 8–9 πρίν is followed by two accusative and inﬁnitive clauses ‘before she did x and y. 304–305. Translation for 14A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Gentlemen of the jury. what ﬁne thing will you say that you have accomplished to those who ask you? For [formerly] her crimes existed. to the crimes). she who has openly prostituted herself throughout the whole of Greece? For where has she not worked with her body? Or where has she not gone for her day-to-day earnings? Now that Neaira is clearly known by all as the kind of woman she is. of the relative pronoun: ‘she whom …’ ἥ What is this? ἤ This has a smooth breathing. so it cannot be a relative pronoun. 10 ἐπειδὴ δὲ πέπυσθε καὶ ἴστε … Notice the present force of the perfect ‘since you have found out and you all know (now. But. ἥν This is accusative s. will you vote that she is a citizen? And if you vote in this way. at this moment)’. Try ‘or’.Section Fourteen: Guarding a woman’s purity 14A Page 176 ἐάσετε Future of ἐάω. before this woman was charged by me and brought to trial and before all of you found out who she was and what sort of impiety she had committed. whose future is ψηϕιοῦμαι. Cf. and since you are able to punish her. #282). This makes a clause indeﬁnite (GE pp. ἐλήλυθεν What tense? What verb? Learn it! ψηϕιεῖσθε This comes from ψηϕίζομαι. 14B You now meet the subjunctive (GE pp. will you then allow this Neaira to insult the city so disgracefully and so contemptuously. you yourselves will be acting impiously towards the gods if you do not punish this woman. and the city was indifferent (lit. 200 . since you have found out and since you all know.
’ Will not the most self-controlled of women. 4–6 Look carefully at all the tenses here. though an alien. 6 διηγήσεσθε What tense is this? 7 κατηγορήθη What tense is this? 8–11 οὔκουν ἤδη αἱ σωϕρονέσταται τῶν γυναικῶν and καὶ δὴ καὶ ταῖς ἀνοήτοις γυναιξί. l. ‘whenever he says’. #389 of GE. 436–442. #282).e. i. 9 ἐπειδὰν πύθωνται ‘When they ﬁnd out’. she lived with a citizen against the law and because she married her daughter to Theogenes when he was basileus and she performed the sacred and secret rites on behalf of the city and was given as a bride to Dionysos. Translation for 14B And what would each one of you say when you go back to the house to your wife or your daughter or your mother if you have voted (having voted) to acquit Neaira? For when (whenever) someone asks you ‘Where were you?’ and you say ‘We were trying a case’. This gives the predicted reaction of thoughtful women and foolish women. that someone will immediately ask ‘Whom were you trying?’ and you will say ‘Neaira’ (of course) ‘because. will ask ‘What then did you do?’ and you will say ‘We acquitted her.Section 14B 201 ‘when he says’. For you will seem to be contemptuous and yourselves to be in agreement with Neaira’s standards of behaviour. Do not confuse this ἄν with ἄν + optative. . hearing this. 11 ἄδειαν διδόναι ποιεῖν ‘To grant licence to do. m. 3. Cf.’ (And you will go through the other things about the charge saying how well and carefully and accurately on each point she was prosecuted. which is potential and means ‘could’ or ‘would’ (GE #283) or ἄν + indicative in unfulﬁlled conditions. you will seem to be granting licence to foolish women to do what(ever) they like. and f. when they ﬁnd out. endings are identical. ἀτιμώρητος p.’ ὅ τι ἂν βούλωνται Another indeﬁnite clause: ‘what(ever) they like’. 176. be angry with you because you thought it right that Neaira should equally with them have a share in the business of the city and in the sacred rites? And moreover. Page 177 1 τί δὲ ϕήσειεν ἄν ἄν + optative: ‘What would each of you say …’ 2 ἐπειδὰν γάρ τις ἔρηται ὑμᾶς ἄν + subjunctive ‘when someone asks (if they actually do ask). 4 ὅτι should probably be translated as ‘because’.) And they. 304–305.’ 3 ἐρήσεται What tense is this? You may ﬁnd it useful to look up the principal parts of ἐρωτάω in the irregular verb list on pp. Note that ἀνόητος is a compound adjective and has only two terminations. This is the indeﬁnite construction expressed by ἄν + the subjunctive (GE pp.
then. it will be possible’: see GE p. ‘however’. What do you say. Strymodoros. 12–13 Note the opposites ἄκυροι. What do you say about what he has said? Are you. pleased by his words? EUERGIDES I am certainly very pleased. What then? Must we condemn Neaira? EU. 9 ἐὰν γὰρ ἀποψηϕισώμεθα Nεαίρας. Euergides. Of course. Not only that.202 Section 14D 14C Page 178 6 ἐπειδὰν γάρ τις καλῶς λέγῃ An indeﬁnite clause: ‘when anyone speaks well’. 198. For whenever anyone speaks well and truthfully. KOM. STR. etc.) expressed by ἄν + the subjunctive. Komias? Do you think the laws will become powerless? KOMIAS You are concerned with hetairas and the laws. My concern is with female citizens. STR. Strymodoros. Consider. STRYMODOROS 14D This section is full of future conditions (ἐάν + subjunctive) and indeﬁnite relative and adverbial clauses (‘whoever’. but there is also the fact that the established laws will become powerless. you would understand. who does not enjoy listening? STR. More indeﬁnite clauses. 19–20 What sort of condition is expressed here by ἄν + imperfect indicative? Translation for 14C But why are you silent. and hetairas will have the power to do whatever they like. For if we acquit Neaira it will be permissible for prostitutes to live with whoever they like. ἐξέσται ‘For if we acquit Neaira. Euergides. with the speech which Apollodoros made. . Strymodorus. but I am concerned with none of these things. 10–11 ἄν + subjunctive. and you would be concerned about female citizens. It is normal to express a future condition as an indeﬁnite. now I have heard the speech which Apollodoros has made. too. but I don’t understand. Your concern is with female citizens? How do you mean? Perhaps you are saying something important. #176. κύριαι. and to declare that their children belong to whoever they happen to ﬁnd [to father them]. ‘in whatever way’. of the aorist passive subjunctive of ἀπορέω. If you were a woman. Page 179 1 ἀπορηθῇ Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. and why do you neither praise nor criticise the arguments? For I am very pleased.
In this way the lawmakers take care that the daughters of citizens will not be unmarried – STR. of the aorist passive subjunctive of ἀπολύω. For hetairas will be allowed to have children with whomever they like and to share in mysteries and sacred rites and honours in the city. But if the Athenians have children however they please. Translation for 14D For now.Section 14E 203 5 6 8 10 21 καθεστήκῃ Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. who do not have a dowry? The function of prostitutes will come completely to the daughters of citizens because they have no dowry and the reputation of free women will come to hetairas. but they will be able to marry whomsoever they like. πένητος ὄντος is genitive in apposition to ἀστοῦ in the previous line. σκοποῦσιν ὅπως + future indicative: ‘see to it that …’. who will marry the daughters of poor men. it will not be necessary for Athenians to marry citizen women. of the perfect active subjunctive of καθίστημι. If nature grants a girl moderate beauty. even if a woman is in dire straits and her father has fallen into poverty and cannot give his daughter a dowry. -ῃ indicates the subjunctive. as it does in ἀπορηθῇ. if Athenians marry whomsoever they like. ‘has gone through the argument’. EUERGIDES What then? KOM. how will it be possible for us to distinguish between the citizen and the alien? And if we cannot distinguish between the citizen and the alien. If Neaira is acquitted (freed). even if that citizen is poor. ‘take care that …’ ἀποδῷ 3rd s. friends. The perfect is used because ‘he has been placed in a situation’ = ‘he is in a situation’. 6 καὶ ὅταν μὲν τοῦ κατηγορεῖν γένησθε ‘and whenever you are concerned with prosecution’. the law provides a sufﬁcient dowry. for Apollodoros is ending his speech. EU. διελήλυθε 3rd s. it will be permissible for the Athenians to live with hetairas and have children however they please. Apollodoros has delivered his speech well. but this matter has been expressed by Komias even better and more sincerely. Therefore. ἐὰν δὲ ἀπολυθῇ Nέαιρα ‘If Neaira is set free’. aorist active subjunctive of ἀποδίδωμι. ἐάν τις βούληται ‘If someone wants’: ἐάν + subjunctive. he must marry the daughter of a citizen. But be quiet. STRYMODOROS What do you mean? KOM. εἰ καὶ πένητος ὄντος ‘Even if he is a poor man’. perfect indicative of διέρχομαι. If someone wants to rear children that are citizens. ‘acquitted’: ἀπολυθῇ is the 3rd s. . This is why I am concerned about citizen women. KOMIAS 14E Page 180 3 ὁμοίως Nεαίρᾳ τῇ πόρνῃ ‘in the same way as Neaira the prostitute’.
But. KOMIAS And the defendant too will drag you round in a circle. Do not show respect for these women in the same way as for Neaira the prostitute. And when you are concerned with prosecution. STRYMODOROS But what shall I say when my children and my wife ask whether I condemned or acquitted her? EU. the laws through which we live in the city. STR. whether. σιγῴης ἄν … προσέχοις ἄν ἄν + optative = a polite request. But Neaira with her many disgraceful ways has had intercourse with many men many times each day. First listen and then decide (judge). being Neaira. one of you on behalf of his wife. Look after them. like a sophist. Good. If Neaira is condemned. you will say that you acquitted her. STR. she has done these things. what next? EUERGIDES . So great then is the prosecution which Apollodoros has delivered. for the prosecutor leads me round in a circle. another on behalf of his daughter. think only of this one thing. Translation for 14E I want each one of you to know that you are casting your vote. another of his city and its laws and its religion. STR. But when we have cast our vote. Strymodoros. another of his mother. although I am eager to do it. listen to the laws themselves.204 Section 14F 8 ὅταν δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀπολογεῖσθαι ἦτε ‘and whenever you are concerned with the defence’. But now we must hear the defence of Stephanos and when we have heard it we must cast our vote. And when you are concerned with the defence. and by which you have sworn to give judgment. as it seems. and puts me in great perplexity. gentlemen of the jury. look after them with much good discipline and care. and if she is acquitted. 14F There are many more examples of the use of ἄν + the subjunctive in this section. Strymodoros. you will say that you condemned her. Page 181 10 ὡς ἀπολογησόμενος ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose. And when you look upon the face of Neaira. Of course. How then will it be possible for me to judge the trial? ΕU. remember the condemnation of the laws and the proof of the things which have been said which you have heard. and give them in marriage in accordance with the laws. ‘would you be quiet and concentrate?’ 11–12 ὅπως + the future indicative: ‘Take care that you…’ Translation for 14F Good. I cannot remember the prosecution.
we shall receive our three obols. παύῃ no future subjunctive ἐκπέσῃ σχῶσι(ν) I have married he will go they are we have become they placed we make/do (for ourselves) they see they knew they were giving he carried 14: 3 γεγαμήκω ἴῃ ὦσι(ν) γεγενημένοι ὦμεν θῶσι ποιώμεθα ὁρῶσι(ν) γνῶσι(ν) imperfect (pres. see that you remember the things said by Apollodoros and that you pay attention to everything which Stephanos may say. For Stephanos is now standing up to make his defence. Whatever evidence the witnesses give and whatever they say. a. It is very pleasant when I go home with my three obols in my mouth. Strymodoros. What next? When we have got up from our seats and cast our votes. And as for you. μαρτυρῶσι λέγωσιν . ὅστις ἂν ὦσιν. we always judge carefully. Strymodoros. subj. ἐπειδὰν εἰδῶ. 205 EU.) will obey he fell out/was thrown out they had 14: 2 ἁμάρτῃ the imperfect subjunctive shares the expect of the present subj. Would you please be quiet and pay attention. With reason! But stop chattering.Revision exercises for section 14 KOM. ὅπου ἂν ᾖ ἐπειδὰν ἀπίωσιν/ἀπέλθωσιν ἐὰν δουλῶμεν/δουλώσωμεν. see above) ἐνέγκῃ ἐὰν ὁρῶσιν/ἰδῶσιν ἐπειδὰν ἀκούω/ἀκούσω ὅστις ἂν ἴῃ/ἔλθῃ. and all the household welcome me because of the three obols. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 14 B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 14 THE SUBJUNCTIVE 14: 1 he made a mistake he was stopping he will persuade/you (s. Komias. is διδῶσιν.
206 Revision exercises for section 14 b. 3. if someone wants to make a new law. Whoever is not condemned but acquitted by the jurors. πρόσσχητε προθυμῆσθε j. 5. εἰσίῃς ἐντύχῃ D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK Sentences 1. μὴ καταδικασθῇ ἀπολυθῇ e. οὔτε γὰρ οὑτοσὶ οὔτε οἱ πρόγονοι πρὸς τὸ εὐσεβεῖν πεϕύκασιν ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὸ ἀσεβεῖν. ἐπειδὰν οἱ κατήγοροι λέγωσιν. αἱ γυναῖκες ἀσπάζονται αὐτοὐς. you will condemn (vote against) Neaira. ἀπολύσεις τὸν ϕεύγοντα. χαλεπὴ γίγνεται. For there they think the citizens ought to observe the long-established laws and preserve tradition. καταστῇ f. When(ever) a citizen goes to law or the clansmen reject (vote against) a child born from an alien. ἐὰν ϕιλῇ ὑπὸ τῶν θυγατέρων. But if it does not. 4. your enemies will always take vengeance on you. ἀγωνίσηται ἀποψηϕίσωνται d. ἐὰν προσέχῃς τὸν νοῦν πρὸς τὴν ἀπολογίαν. εὖ πεπολιτεῦσθαι καὶ πολλά τε καὶ ἀγαθὰ διαπεπρᾶχθαι. therefore. So that. he proposes it with his neck in a noose. ἡγῆσθε τιμᾶτε h. the proposer lives and gets away. all the citizens are pleased. If an evil man loses his citizen’s rights (is placed in loss of citizen’s rights). see that you ﬂatter her. Note that it is possible to translate this passage into Greek in a number of different ways. that is the penalty that the man who has been condemned owes to the city. When(ever) the prosecutor speaks and persuades us. ἀεὶ τὰ αὐτὰ λέγουσιν. ὅταν οἱ δικασταὶ οἴκαδε ἔλθωσιν. You may. 2. he is killed when the noose is drawn tight. δῆλον ὅτι. If you concentrate your mind carefully on the prosecution and are eager. οὐ δῆτα. ϕήσει. δώσουσί σοι ὅ τι ἂν βούλῃ. E – TEST EXERCISE 14 1. And if the law seems to be good and useful. ὅταν γυνή τις χρήματων λάβηται. 2. I want to tell you how they frame the laws in Lokris (among the Lokrians). ἢ τοιοῦτό τι πρᾶγμα ἀκηκόατέ ποτε. βούλῃ δηλοῖς g. The law provides an adequate dowry to any woman whose father does not give a dowry. λέγῃ πείθῃ c. This is only one of them. Whenever you want to say something terrible and you reveal the truth. When you enter the house and your wife meets you. In fact they do not dare to propose new laws. Whatever ﬁne you think just and inﬂict. we condemn. καίτοι εὖ ἴσμεν πάντες ὅτι οὐδὲν οὔτε καλὸν οὔτε ἀγαθὸν διεπράχθη ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ οὐδέποτε. ﬁnd that you have constructed a different version and are still perfectly correct. μὴ δῷ i. Prose ἀπολογούμενος οὖν τί λέξει ὁ Στέϕανος. the laws are preserved. but they observe the ancient laws . we regard as innocent.
he is said to have dared to put forward the following law: if anyone knocks out the eye of a one-eyed man. who happened to have one eye.Revision exercises for section 14 207 strictly. the one who knocked out the eye must offer his own eye to be knocked out in return. . if a man knocks out an eye. he will have to give both his eyes to be knocked out in return. An enemy is said to have threatened his enemy. For in this way they would both suffer the same injury. only one new law is said to have been passed. the one-eyed man was upset. For there is a law established in Lokris that. that he would knock out this one eye. In the course of many years. And the Lokrians are said to have passed this law alone in more than two hundred years. When this threat had been made. and thinking that his life would be unliveable if he suffered this.
It is easiest to translate it as an adverb. SERVANT Of course [she is] the best. This squashing together of two separate words (τὰ ἐμά) is called ‘crasis’. πῶς γὰρ οὔ. Note (e) here contains the warning: ‘Word order in verse can be far more ﬂexible than in prose. see GE #247). again. It is quite common in verse authors. 3 πῶς δ’ οὐκ …. Consult GE p. 310. crucial for the continued existence of the home. #286. 4–5 Difﬁcult. We have tried to keep the translation as literal as possible throughout. ‘gloriously’. 11 ἐκ … ἑλοῦσα This splitting of a verb from its prepositional preﬁx is called ‘tmesis’ (‘cutting’).’ While it is probably true that you will ﬁnd an increase of difﬁculty in this section. utterances can be far more oblique and tightly packed with meaning. 15A Page 184 1 ἴστω The third person singular imperative of οἶδα (GE #207). Translation for 15A CHORUS FEMALE Let her know then [that she] is going to die gloriously and by far the best woman of those under the sun.Section Fifteen: Alkestis in Euripides’ play In this section you are introduced to the verse of Greek Tragedy in a touching scene from Euripides’ Alkestis (produced in 438 BC). οἶδα is followed by a participle (‘know that …’. Who will disagree? What should this outstanding woman be called (how should she be described)? How could anyone declare more [clearly] that she holds her husband in honour than by 208 . The vocabulary tells you that κατθανουμένη is the future participle of καταθνῄσκω. (literally ‘for how not?’ = ‘of course’) has appeared from Section 1 onwards. 310. but it is not always easy to recognise whether the preposition is there in its own right or if it is a case of ‘tmesis’. 15 πίτνω This form of πίπτω is very common in poetry. 13 ‘Εστία Hestia is the goddess of the hearth. 16 τἀμά See GE p. Consult the translation. the Greek should prove manageable. εὐκλεής = ‘a glorious [woman]’. #286 for a list of tragic usages.
I die. has reduplication and uses future endings. 6 ᾽δάκρυσε The ﬁrst syllable (ε) is elided (struck off) after the vowel at the end of the previous word (prodelision). and standing before the Household Hearth.(‘not weeping. For when she realised that the appointed day had come. And join a dear wife in marriage to the boy and a noble husband to the girl. adds a sense of grandeur. I shall beg you to look after my orphaned children. which is fairly common in poetry.e. for shrinking from betraying you and my husband. she washed her white skin in waters from the river. not lamenting’). the vowel at the end of a word disappears. #284–285.e.Section 15B 209 being willing to die for him? And the whole city knows these things. but perhaps [will be more] fortunate. she could not be more chaste. Have a look at this rare form at GE pp. then indeed she wept and said these things: ‘O bed. and the coming disaster did not change the graceful nature of her complexion. You will see that it is middle or passive. 4 μεθίστη Imperfect (GE #230–234). having taken out from their cedar home (i.’ 15B Page 186 1 δόμους Poetic plural – the house is in fact singular. Some other woman will have you for her own. 3 Note the preﬁx ἀ. Here means ‘from the action of …’ περί + gen. but may they happily complete a pleasant life in their father’s land. i. And may the children not die – as I their mother am being destroyed – before their time. and. 310. she prayed: ‘Mistress – [I am addressing you] for I am going beneath the earth – appealing to you for the last time. For I do not hate you. where I lost my virgin maidenhood to this man for whose sake I die. she adorned herself becomingly. unweeping. but this use of the plural. elision usually works the other way round. 8 ἐκ + gen. 309–310. Translation for 15B She approached all the altars which [are] throughout the house of Admetos and she garlanded them and addressed them in prayer. As you will remember. chest) clothes and decoration. but you will wonder as you hear what she did in the house. without lamentation. farewell. you have destroyed me alone. 5 κἄπειτα Crasis (GE p.’ . Then rushing into her bedroom and [falling onto] her bed. #286). Here means ‘for the sake of …’ 11 κεκτήσεται Future perfect.
he would. Such are the evils in the house of Admetos. taking them into her arms.210 Section 15C 15C Page 187 5 πολλά Neuter plural used as an adverb. #287–290 and try to scan the ﬁrst four lines of section 14B. throwing herself from (lit. he weeps. And embracing [the bed]. meaning ‘often’. Translate ‘in both hands’. she wishes to look towards the rays of the sun – as [she] never [will] again – but now for the last time. She stretched out her right hand to each of them. Then read it naturally. 10 ἄλλοτ’ ἄλλον ‘at one time one. page 188 16 λελήσεται Future perfect of λανθάνομαι (GE pp. Then read aloud to yourself as much of 14B as you can. 311–313. 309–310. but nevertheless still breathing (although [just] a little). 12 κοὔτις Crasis of καὶ οὔτις. Translation for 15C FEMALE SERVANT CHORUS F. You will have this explained to you in Section 17. have perished. betray) him. trying to bring out the iambic rhythm first of all. and often going out of the bedroom she turned back and ﬂung herself back again on the bed. 17 που The enclitic που can mean ‘I suppose’. 22 χειρός Literally ‘of his hand’. having died). She. falling out of) the bed. Her children. to be sure. and no one was so low-born that she did not speak to him – and was addressed by him in return. And. All the servants were weeping throughout the house. Tragic verse metre Read GE pp. now the other. Here it gives the answer ‘I suppose he does’ to the question the Chorus ask. as she was on the point of dying. at another time another’. and begs her not to forsake (lit. seeking the impossible. were weeping. if he had died (lit. clinging to their mother’s robes. For she is dying and wastes away through the disease. holding his dear wife in his arms.S. embraced now one. Translate ‘in his hands’. pitying their mistress. but escaping death he has so much grief – which he will never have forgotten. Exhausted. Does Admetos grieve over these evils. she kissed it and bedewed all the bed with a ﬂood [of tears] welling from her eyes. if he must be deprived of a good woman? Yes. a pathetic weight in his arms. 19 χεροῖν This is a dual ending. . #284–285). she went headlong. But when she had had enough of many tears.
beneath the wall itself. and I am going home. and ϕοβοῦμαι μή + subjunctive = ‘I am afraid that something may happen’ (GE #293). Also there are verbal nouns ending in -τέος which express obligation (‘must’). you seem to me to be depressed. ἔχω + adverb expresses the state that someone is in. κακῶς ἔχω ‘I am in a bad way. for what purpose were you spending your time in the agora? AR. καλῶς ἔχω ‘I am well’. For you seem to be upset about something. there he meets Aristarchos the son of Ariston. state and individuals In this section you will meet a number of different features of grammar and syntax that are clearly described in GE pp. who is very depressed. Apollodoros. #291–294. addresses him. Translation for 16A Apollodoros is going straight towards Ilisos. I went to the ofﬁcials. Apollodoros.g. What do you say? Did you go to them about puriﬁcation. GE #294–295. Apollodoros’ next question shows two of the procedures which they might advise on. 315. e. 16A Page 192 3 ἀθύμως ἔχοντι Agrees with Ἀριστάρχῳ. But. ἠδικήκει What tense? 17 διεξελθόντι δέ μοι … οὐκ ἔϕασαν ἐξεῖναι … Literally ‘to me having related … they said that it was not possible to …’ ἐπεπόνθη What verb? What tense? Try πάσχω πείσομαι ἔπαθον πεπόνθα. as it seems. Apollodoros. my friend. When he is at the gate. AP. #291. Where are you going to and where have you come from. AP. or about burial? APOLLODOROS 211 .’ 10 τοὺς ἐξηγητάς These were state ofﬁcials who advised what to do in cases of murder.Section Sixteen: Ofﬁcial justice – ships. seeing Aristarchos coming towards him. 13 ἐπεποιήκει What tense? see GE p. Aristarchos? ARISTARCHOS From the agora. Notice particularly μή + aorist subjunctive = ‘don’t …’ (GE #292). Tell me then. 315–318. walking along the road outside the wall.
ARISTARCHOS But I am afraid that I may ﬁnish you off in telling you. One must not despair but take heart. and don’t be despondent any longer. as it seems. For it is not a short story. #293. What then? Do you want to listen while we go for a walk or while we sit down? The path along the Ilisos is in every way suitable for us to speak and to listen as we go. 315–316. my friend. 5 διέξει What tense? What person? This is the second person singular of διέξειμι. For I have time to spare (leisure). AP. We must consider this matter from the beginning. 18 συμβουλεύσωμαι What mood and tense after ἵνα? 19 χάριν γὰρ εἴσομαι Have you remembered that εἴσομαι is the future of οἶδα? Translation for 16B Don’t despair. Then I must tell everything from the beginning. #294–295. Apollodoros. For this man had wronged me particularly.212 AR. concentrating in every way on this. going into the farm and offering violence to my family and what is more killing an old woman who was a freedwoman. 317–318. For you must not be upset by what has happened nor be despondent. AR. I went to the ofﬁcials. Taking this tragedy to heart and wanting to take revenge on this man. Tell me therefore. #292). 6 ϕοβοῦμαι μὴ σ’ ἀπολέσω See GE p. I went for this reason (thus) being angry with a violent man. Fears for the future in primary sequence can be expressed by μή + subjunctive. Theophemos by name. for you are a clever prosecutor and reasonably experienced in legal matters. μηδὲ ἀθυμήσῃς μή + aorist subjunctive = ‘Don’t …’ (GE pp. it is in fact the aorist subjunctive. but take heart. how you will relate the affair to me as clearly as possible. Speak now. and don’t hold back. it is ﬁtting for you to hear it (the hearing is ﬁtting for you). 15 βοηθήσω What mood and tense is this? compare ἀπολέσω. my friend. Don’t be afraid that this will happen. they said that it was not possible to take revenge in the way I had in mind. 316. for what he had done. but when I had told them what I had suffered and what Theophemos had done. προθυμητέον See GE pp. ἵνα + subjunctive expresses purpose. Note that although this looks like a future indicative at ﬁrst sight. That is what we have here. Verb forms in -τέoς mean ‘must’. Therefore don’t regard me without respect (do not hold me in dishonour). 2 ἀθυμητέον. Section 16B Yes. And indeed. 16B Page 194 1 μὴ ἀπορήσῃς. APOLLODOROS . the ﬁrst aorist indicative is ἀπώλεσα and its subjunctive is therefore ἀπολέσω. The future is ἀπολῶ. and do not conceal anything. Aristarchos.
2. if you listen.) stay 4. Certainly. The gratitude would be twofold. 3.) had conquered.) say this VERBS OF FEARING 16A–B: 3 μὴ τοῦτο ποίει μὴ δράμητε μὴ μένετε μὴ πέσῃς μὴ λέγετε ταῦτα 1. so that I can learn what has happened. held power 1. if in your walk you go all the way to Megara. So that. You speak. Why not? For it is not yet the stiﬂing midday heat. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16A–B THE PLUPERFECT 16A–B: 1 ἐτετιμήκης ἐτεθήκει ἐτεθνήκεμεν ἐβεβλήκεσαν ἐβεβήκη ἐπεφιλήμεθα ἐδεδούλωντο ἐκεκρατήκετε μή + SUBJUNCTIVE 16A–B: 2 you (s.) had honoured he had placed we had died they had thrown I had gone we had been loved they had been enslaved you (pl.) do this 2. I shall not stop accompanying you. 213 AR.) are afraid he was enslaved φοβεῖσθε μὴ δουλωθῇ I am afraid they did not ﬁght φοβοῦμαι μὴ οὐ μάχωνται .Exercises for section 16A–B AP. arrived φοβοῦνται μὴ ἀφίκηται we are afraid they ﬂed φοβούμεθα μὴ φύγωσιν he is afraid we stayed φοβεῖται μὴ μείνωμεν you (pl. don’t (s. AP.) fall. 4. I am very eager to listen. so that I can help you in your despair and despondency. then. die 5. they are afraid he came. And indeed I shall be grateful to you if you speak. don’t (pl. so that when I have heard I can take counsel with you.) run 3. Listen. I shall be grateful to you. AR. 5. don’t (pl. don’t (pl. don’t (s.
b. μὴ καταϕρονήσῃς τῶν θεῶν. d. μὴ παραλάβῃς τοὺς νεανίσκους. when …’ Note τότε and ὅτε. c. a. μὴ ἐπίσχῃς. I am afraid that Demosthenes did not save the men. ἡμᾶς/ἡμῖν ἀκριβῶς σκεπτέον περὶ ταῦτα. Remember all the arguments. 7 ἦν τότε. . τῷ ἀνδρὶ/τὸν ἄνδρα οἰστέον τὴν συμϕοράν. the man may be disheartened. this is the relative form of the interrogative πόθεν ‘from where?’. ‘the ofﬁce ﬁnishing (going out)’. ὑμᾶς/ὑμῖν πολεμητέον. ἵνα μάθῃς ‘so that you may learn’. 14–15 ἵνα … προστάττωμεν καὶ ἀναγκάζωμεν Purpose clause. The man must endure the disaster. It is necessary to send you home. μὴ ἐπιθυμήσητε. e. οἴκαδε πεμπτέον σέ. μὴ κωλύσητε τὸν ἄνδρα. 3. Hold back. ἵνα + subjunctive expresses purpose. g. 320. j. Despise the gods. 16C Prevent the man. e. Take care (see that) you do not tell lies to the jurors about what happened. b. μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς. i. a. σοὶ/σὲ ἰτέον οἴκαδε. f. μὴ κατείπῃς τὸν τῆς ἀπολογίας λόγον. You must go home. They must help. k. ὡς + superlative = ‘as … as possible’. We are afraid that. #296). Forget this matter. d. c. Be despondent. βοηθητέον αὐτοὺς/αὐτοῖς. 321. 13 ἐξῆν What verb does this come from? Imperfect of ἔξεστι. ὅτε … ‘There was at that time. f. Restrain yourself. hearing this. 4–5 ἐξιούσης τῆς ἀρχῆς Genitive absolute. μὴ θῇ τὴν ψῆϕον. Take revenge on your friends. Tell the argument of the defence. #297. Page 196 1 ὅθεν ‘from where’. b. You must make war.214 Section 16C REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16A–B B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. h. Cast your vote. οὐκ ἐξόν Accusative absolute ‘it not being possible …’ 14 γράϕει Χαιρέδημος Note the change to present tense for vividness. 2. d. I am dreadfully despondent in case my friend may not do this. We must consider these things in detail. 6 καίπερ δέον καίπερ + participle = although … δέον is the neuter singular of the participle of δεῖ. a. Be eager. c. 10 ὡς τάχιστα See GE p. used impersonally ‘although it being necessary …’ (GE p. μὴ μνημονεύσητε πάντας τοὺς λόγους. μὴ ἐπιλάθησθε τούτου τοῦ πράγματος. Take the young men. μὴ τιμωρήσησθε τοὺς ϕίλους.
as they were before. there was at that time. so that it was not possible to buy them. so that he too can prepare the ship. Since it was necessary for me to do this. I received none of the equipment from him. in primary sequence. when I was about to become a trierarch.Exercises for section 16C 215 15 ὃς ἂν μὴ ἀποδιδῷ Indeﬁnite clause: ‘whoever does not return them’. But although it was obligatory for Theophemos to hand over the equipment. For I happened to be holding the ofﬁce of trierarch. Therefore there was great necessity for me to get the equipment so that I could prepare the ship and. #265. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16C THE ACCUSATIVE ABSOLUTE 16C: 1 1. not in the subjunctive. 19 δέον Accusative absolute again. when his term of ofﬁce expires. But although it was necessary for us to send out the ships as quickly as possible. there was no supply of equipment for the ships in the dockyard. Chairedemos proposes a resolution so that we who have been appointed as trierarchs may order and compel those who had been trierarchs (whoever had not given it back) to give back the equipment. ‘It being necessary …’ Translation for 16C I want therefore to tell you the origin of the enmity towards Theophemos (from where it arose) so that you may learn what happened and know that he wronged not only me but also the people and the Boule (Council). for you know very well that it is necessary for someone who has been a trierarch. there was not in the Piraeus an unlimited supply of sailcloth. and as trierarch I had to receive the equipment and the trireme from Theophemos. great danger to the city because of the rebellion of the allies. so that it was necessary for the trierarchs to send out a rescue operation of triremes quickly. and the people who owed them had not given them back. I went to Theophemos in order to get the equipment. ἐξὸν ἡμῖν ἀπιέναι it being possible for us to go away since we can go away . And since it was not possible to buy them. tow and rope. 18 ἦν Back to the past tense. among whom was Theophemos. And the resolution orders us to get the equipment in whatever way we can so that we may prepare the ships as quickly as possible and send out the rescue mission. 286. to hand over the trireme and its equipment to the person who is going to become trierarch. Note that as the main verb is now in the past we are in historic (or secondary) sequence and so the verbs in the ἵνα clause which follows are in the optative mood. In addition to this. send it out as quickly as possible. And moreover. For those who owed it had not given back the equipment. having prepared it. See GE p.
γράϕει Χαιρέδημος ψήϕισμα. It was necessary for us to prepare the ships as quickly as possible. τοῖς παῖσιν ἐξὸν παίζειν it being possible for the children to play since the children are allowed to play 5. I went to the Council. . δέον ὑμᾶς θεραπεύειν τὰς γυναῖκας it being necessary for you to look after the women since you must look after the women 3. βέλτιστος ὡς ἐλάχιστος ὡς σαφέστατος ὡς σωφρονέστατος ὡς φοβερώτατος ὡς ἀδικώτατος ὡς μέγιστος ὡς κάκιστος. δέον ἡμᾶς παρασκευάζειν ὡς τάχιστα τὰς ναῦς.216 Revision exercises for section 16C 2. δέον τὸν ὀϕείλοντα τῇ πόλει τὰ σκεύη παραδιδόναι τῷ τριηραρχήσοντι. b. I went to Theophemos. a. προσῆλθον πρὸς τὴν βουλήν. ἐγὼ ὡς τὸν Θεόϕημον προσῆλθον. δέον τοὺς ἄνδρας ἐκδοῦναι τὰς θυγατέρας it being necessary for the men to give their daughters in marriage since the men/husbands must give their daughters in marriage 16C: 2 ὡς ἄριστος. It was not possible to buy any of the things needed in the Piraeus. Then it is not possible for me to prepare the trireme. δόξαν/δοκοῦν μοι ποιῆσαι τοῦτο it seeming best to do this because I thought it best to do this 4. χείριστος the best possible the least/smallest possible the clearest possible the most prudent possible the most frightening possible the most unjust possible the biggest/greatest possible the worst possible REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16C B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. οὐκ ἐξὸν ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ οὐδὲν πρίασθαι ὧν ἔδει. οἱ τριήραρχοι οὐκ ἐδύναντο παρασκευάζειν τὰς ναῦς. It is necessary for the one who owes it to the city to give back the equipment to the one who is about to become trierarch. d. εἶτα οὐκ ἐξόν μοι τὴν τριήρη παρασκευάζειν. Chairedemos proposes a resolution. c. The trierarchs were not able to prepare the ships.
10 ἦλθον … ἵνα ἴδοιμι Purpose clause in secondary sequence: ‘so that I might see him’. I asked for the equipment and told him to tell Theophemos. I went to the house of Theophemos to see him. 2 ἐκέλευoν αὐτὸν ϕράσαι ‘ordered him to tell’ (aorist inﬁnitive). ἀπεκρίνατο … ὅτι … εἴη Two clauses in indirect speech in secondary sequence with the verb in the subordinate clause in the optative. 325. from somewhere else where Theophemos lived. ὁπότε + ἄν denotes an indeﬁnite clause. Euergos answered that the property was not shared and that his brother lived separately. For there is a resolution of the Boule to get the equipment in whatever way we can. and taking an ofﬁcial from the board of ofﬁcials. Therefore I made my request and delayed for some days so that Euergos might tell Theophemos. #265. whenever the people who owe it do not return it.Exercises for section 16D 217 16D You have already met the idea of sequence of tenses in clauses in indirect speech introduced by ὅτι. 3 ὁπόταν ‘when(ever)’. The woman came to take her. therefore. and p. Translation for 16D But since Theophemos was not there and it was not possible for me to see him. So. having taken as many witnesses as possible. Having found out. ἵνα λάβοι αὐτήν 2. See GE p. In purpose clauses (and indeﬁnite clauses and fears for the future) the sequence of tenses is: primary – subjunctive. I saw the men ﬂeeing with the intention of saving themselves. Page 198 1 Note genitive absolute followed by accusative absolute followed by aorist participle agreeing with the subject of the verb. 286. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16D PURPOSE CLAUSES 16D: 1 1. #299. #300. See GE p. and when I asked. 323. ὅπως σώσειαν αὑτούς . the brother of Theophemos. 5 Note the use of the imperfect. secondary – optative. but kept abusing me. going to Euergos. where the verb in the subordinate clause is indicative in primary sequence and optative in secondary sequence. I asked him whether the property was shared or not. 6–7 ἠρόμην … πότερον … εἴη. The situation was continuing until the action in the next sentence. but Euergos did not give back the equipment.
2 ὅπου ἂν νῦν γε τυγχάνῃ ὤν Primary sequence. ἵνα μάρτυρές μοι εἶεν … Purpose clause in secondary sequence. 10 εἴ τινας ἴδοι Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. 3 ὅπου ὢν τυγχάνοι Secondary sequence.218 Section 16E 3. ὦ βέλτιστε. ἵνα πείσαι αὐτήν 4. Page 199 1–2 Note the use of the imperfect. 4. #300 about indeﬁnite clauses in primary and secondary sequence. in secondary sequence it has the optative without ἄν. The man gave money to the woman in order to persuade her. and Theophemos kept refusing. the sequence being historic (secondary). I asked him for the register of the equipment and showed him the resolution of the Boule. 2. here and later in this section. 325. representing a future indicative in direct speech. after the woman had fetched him. wherever he now happened to be’. 11–13 ἐκέλευον … ἢ … ἢ … ‘I ordered him … either to … or to …’ 13 ληψοίμην Notice the future optative. πρόσειμι πρὸς τὴν βουλὴν ἵνα ψήϕισμα γράϕωσιν. καίπερ τὸν Θεόϕημον δέoν ἀποδοῦναι τὰ σκεύη. Where shall we go to give the food to the poor? ὅπως διδῶμεν REVISION EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16D D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. Aristarchos was in the process of making his demands. and the woman answered that ‘he was not inside. Note that in primary sequence the indeﬁnite clause has subjunctive + ἄν. 5. but others of the trierarchs [did] too. Finding that he was not inside. wherever he happened to be. μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς. ἆρα ϕοβῇ μὴ αὖθις πάσχῃς τι ὑπὸ τούτων τῶν πονηρῶν. which ordered me to get the equipment in whatever way I could. Translation for 16E Having knocked at the door. whenever someone did not give back the equipment. οὐ δύναμαι ἀναγκάζειν αὐτὸν ταῦτα ποιῆσαι. I told the woman who answered to go after him. 10–11 καλέσαντος δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ παρόντων μαρτύρων τῶν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ κληθέντων Genitive absolutes. ἦλθον πρὸς τὴν ϕίλου τινὸς οἰκίαν ἵνα πυθοίμην ὅπου οἰκοίη ὁ Θεόϕημος. I asked where he was. 16E Notice GE p. And when Theophemos arrived. And indeed I was not the only one who acted in this way. 3. .
When(ever) I see him … ὁπότε ἴδοιμι αὐτόν… 3. (ii) The master ordered him to give back to the city whatever he happened to have. d. b. Theophemos did not hand it over. βούλεται κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη. wherever he was. b. I ordered my slave to summon the citizens from the road. . κελεύω τὸν παῖδα καλέσαι τοὺς πολίτας. if he said that he did not owe the equipment. (ii) When he came in. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16E INDEFINITES IN SECONDARY SEQUENCE 16E: 1 1. so that they might be witnesses for me of what had been said. Who(ever) they order … ὅντινα κελεύοιεν… 4. οὐκ ἐπαύοντο ἑπόμενοι. He wanted to collect the equipment so that he could prepare the trireme. (i) I had already found out that he happened to be married. (i) I asked the slave where his master was. (i) The slave summoned all the citizens whom he could see from the road so that they could be witnesses. If he does not do this … εἰ μὴ ποιοίη τοῦτο… 2. a. I began to request Theophemos again either himself to follow me to the Boule. i(i) Whenever he came in. so that they might be witnesses for me of what had been said. ἵνα τὰ γεγενημένα μάθοιεν. If you give me those things … εἴ μοι διδοίης ταῦτα… REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16E B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. I am afraid that Euergos may not explain the matter to Theophemos. c. 2. They do not cease following so that they may learn what has happened. c. Therefore. And when the boy had summoned them. a. before I did anything else. he saw the woman sitting on the altar. I said that I would take securities from him in accordance with the laws and the resolutions.Revision exercises for section 16E 219 But when the resolution had been shown to him. (ii) I was asking the woman to fetch her master. and when the witnesses summoned by him were present. If not. and the register had been requested. or to return the equipment. he used to see the woman sitting down. d. ἵνα μάρτυρές μοι ὦσι τῶν λεχθέντων. When(ever) I learn … ἐπειδὴ μάθοιμι… 5. ἵνα τὴν τριήρη παρασκευάζῃ. I was telling the slave to summon the citizens. if he could see any. ἐϕοβούμην μὴ Εὔεργος οὐ δείξειε τὸ πρᾶγμα τῷ Θεοϕήμῳ.
#301. I had found out that he was not married. Theophemos was convicted and ﬁned. having collected as many of them as he could. (i) It seemed to us that each word we spoke about Love should be as beautiful as possible. Theophemos struck me on the mouth with his ﬁst and I. I started to lead away the woman who had been standing at the door. And before going in. wanted him to be convicted and ﬁned. For indeed the Boule knew very well that once Theophemos was impeached he would be convicted and ﬁned. and I let the woman go. 16F Page 200 2 ἑστηκυῖαν Perfect participle of ἵστημι: ‘standing’. made up of the perfect participle + the imperfect indicative of εἰμί: ‘all I had suffered’. 328. ‘to be captured’ or ‘to be convicted’. having arrived in Aegina. See GE p. 5 ἐπεπύσμην What tense is this? It would have been a gross breach of good manners and of social conventions for a man to enter another’s house without invitation if that house contained a wife. but went into the house to get some security for the equipment. and when the members of the Boule found out that the city had been offended and that I had been wronged. and I had been struck by him. the securities were taken away by Theophemos. defended myself. This convention is further illustrated in Section 17. 329. having called those present to witness. I went to the Boule to show my bruises and to tell all that I had suffered while trying to fetch the equipment for the city. being annoyed at what I had suffered and seeing what state I had been reduced to by Theophemos. although he was ordered by me. Therefore I was ordered by the Boule to impeach him on the grounds that he was committing a crime and hindering the expedition. As I went in. Then when the judgment was passed in the Boule. then. the one who had gone to fetch him. Translation for 16F Since he was willing to do none of these things. made up of the perfect participle + the optative of εἰμί. (ii) Lysander. Since. 10 ἁλῶναι See GE p. For the door happened to be open (to have been opened). #302 for the principal parts of ἁλίσκομαι. And the Boule. For the Boule considered that it was not I who had been insulted but itself and the people and the law. so that I might have a witness. And Theophemos took her away from me. gave back the city to the Aeginetans. 9 ἐπεπόνθη This is the usual form of the pluperfect indicative. γεγαμηκὼς εἴη This is the perfect optative. 8 πεπονθὼς ἦ This is the equivalent of the pluperfect indicative. And although it was possible for him to .220 Section 16F (ii) The slave was ordered to summon any citizens he saw from the road to be witnesses e.
#304. 4. AP. Now that we have got here. Let us stop then. ἕως ἂν … γένηται Note the subjunctives. Would you lead on? By Hera. APOLLODOROS . 15–16 τεκμαιρομένῳ Agrees with ἔμοιγε: ‘it seems to me inferring …’ Translation for 16G You were indeed moderate and reasonable about the things which Theophemos had done. AR. καθιζώμεθα. ‘How was Theophemos disposed towards you? What was his attitude to you?’ κακῶς Answers πῶς in the previous sentence. although I had been wronged. Page 202 15 πῶς πρὸς σε διέκειτο ὁ Θεόϕημος. ‘until (ever) …’ 4–6 παυώμεθα. if we like.) Let us stop therefore and sit in peace beside the Ilisos. AR. (This must be done if it seems good to you. Lead on then. Of course. and let us consider where we shall sit down. was moderate and reasonable and agreed to a ﬁne of twenty-ﬁve drachmas. 2. 330–331. ἔγνω βάντες ἁλοίη βῆναι γνῷ 16G ἔβη γνόντες βαίη γνῶναι βῇ ἑάλω ἁλόντες γνοίη ἁλῶναι ἁλῷ Page 201 4 παυώμεθα See GE p. Aristarchos. it is a beautiful spot. #303. I shall ﬁnd myself in a state of great distress. 330. Let us go there then. ‘let us cease’. ARISTARCHOS We must certainly do this if you want. There is shade there and a slight breeze and grass to sit on. 3. See GE pp. and if I walk more. ἕως ἄν + subjunctive. διακεῖμαι + adverb describes someone’s attitude or state of mind. AP. so that we can sit and rest.Section 16G 221 be ﬁned ﬁve hundred drachmas. until I can recover myself from my weakness. let us remain until I recover from my weakness. But why don’t we stop walking? For the heat is now stiﬂing. I. until the heat becomes gentler. 5. Do you see that very tall plane tree? AP. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16F ἁλίσκομαι 16F: 1 1.
They match the order of events: ἐνθυμούμενος … βουλόμενος … ἔλαχε … ϕάσκων … (the main verb is underlined). until everything has been told. as it seems to me judging from the evidence of your despondency. ἀκούσωμεν μὴ ἀπίωμεν λαβώμεθα στῶμεν μὴ δῶμεν ἕως ἄν ‘UNTIL’ 16G: 2 1. 4. as you were saying. 3. 5. 5. Aristarchos. What [happened] after that? How was Theophemos disposed to you? (What was his attitude to you?) Badly. Listen then. 2. . if nothing prevents you? Since it seems to me that I shall keep you here until you tell me everything. 2. But you. Why then do you not ﬁnish telling me the story. 3. 4.) hand over the witnesses ἕως ἂν εὑρίσκω τὴν ναῦν until (such time as) I ﬁnd the ship 16H Page 202 1 ἐνενικήκη Tense? 2–3 Notice the use of the participles in the narrative. won the impeachment case.222 Section 16H AR. ἕως ἂν ὁρῶμεν τοὺς ἄνδρας until (such time as) we see the men ἕως ἂν ὑπισχνῆται ἀκούσεσθαι until (such time as) he promises to listen ἕως ἂν διδῶσι τὰ χρήματα until (such time as) they give the money ἕως ἂν παραλαμβάνητε τοὺς μάρτυρας until (such time as) you (pl. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16G ‘LET US…’ (SUBJUNCTIVE) 16G: 1 1. so that you may learn more clearly. 6–8 More participles: παρασχόμενος … ὑποσχόμενος … ἐξηπάτησε … 9–10 Again: ζημιωθείς … προσελθὼν … ἐκέλευον … 11 ἀντὶ τοῦ καταδίκην ἀπολαβεῖν Here ἀντί + genitive is followed by the inﬁnitive used as a noun: ‘instead of accepting the ﬁne’. But naturally nothing prevents me from going through the story.
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16F–H D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. I went to summon the witness. ἐπανῆλθον πρὸς τὴν βουλήν. and promising that he would hand over [for torture] the body of the woman who had been standing at the door (which he has not done). ἐκεῖ καθιζώμεθα ἕως ἂν ἠπιώτερον γένηται τὸ πνῖγος. was the start of the trouble. 5. But Theophemos instead of collecting the ﬁne went to my farm. not fearing that the jurors would condemn me. I listen.Revision exercises for section 16F–H 223 Translation for 16H I had in fact won the impeachment case. ἐὰν εἴπῃ. When I had incurred a ﬁne in this way. having produced lying witnesses. ᾖα ἵνα εἰσαγγείλαιμι τὸν μάρτυρα. 2. 4. he brought a suit for assault against me. If I were to persuade you. ὁπότε οἱ τριήραρχοι καταλάβοιέν τινα μὴ ἀποδιδόντα τὰ σκεύη. since I was innocent. Ι will listen. ἀκούω ἀκούσομαι If you speak. εἴ σοι πείθοιμι πείσοιο ἂν σύ. But Theophemos. τὸ ψήϕισμα ἐκέλευσε τοὺς τριηράρχους κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη ᾧ τρόπῳ ῥᾷστα δύναιντο. For Theophemos at once took the ﬁne very much to heart and. 2. but this. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16H SEQUENCE OF TENSES 16H: 1 φοβοῦνται μὴ αὐτοὑς ζημιώσῃ. 4. declaring that I had begun the blows at the door. who were persuaded to cast their vote for Theophemos. 1. deceived the jurors. παυώμεθα πορευόμενοι καὶ καθιζώμεθα. wanting to be revenged. I kept quiet. Euergos his brother and Mnesiboulos his cousin. going to Theophemos I asked him to accompany me to the bank to collect the ﬁne. . πρὶν οἰκάδε ἐπανιέναιι. you would persuade me. They are afraid that he may punish them. not many days later. ἐνταῦθα μενοῦμεν ἕως ἂν ἐκ τῆς ἀσθενείας συλλέγωμεν ἡμᾶς αὐτούς. 3. Sentences 1. He was afraid that anyone might escape. as they say. 5. ἐφοβεῖτο μή τις ἐκφύγοι. 3. For I least of all expected that I would be convicted.
I went in immediately in front of the general and began to speak with him [i.e. καὶ αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔνδον ὄντα καταλαβών. and to pay me the expenses for the extra time that I had served.’ . I collected as many of the citizens as I could as witnesses. ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν προσελθὼν πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Θεοϕήμου οἰκίαν. ἐϕοβούμην μὴ τὰ σκεύη οὐκ ἀποδιδοίη. τὴν βουλὴν ἔδει πράττειν τι ἵνα τριήρων βοήθειαν ὡς τάχιστα παρασκευάζοιμεν.’ When he said this. I asked him to take over my ship from me. Having found Polykles there and the trierarchs and their successors and some others of the citizens.224 Revision exercises for section 16F–H 2. οἱ δὲ τριήραρχοι τῷ μὴ ἀποδίδοντι. E – TEST EXERCISE 16 When this man arrived in Thasos. καὶ τῆς πολέως ἐν μεγάλῳ κινδύνῳ οὔσης. when you ought to be doing the same as the other trierarchs.’ When I said this. and the marines. But when I made this challenge. ὥστε ὁ μὲν Χαιρέδημος ψήϕισμα ἔγραψεν. if you say they have been corrupted by me. I answered him: ‘As for the sailors and the marines. you who alone of the trierarchs have your own private equipment and pay a great deal of money to the sailors? You have become a teacher of bad habits in the army. for it is no longer my business to be trierarch. corrupting the sailors and the marines. he said: ‘Who could endure your madness and extravagance. When I challenged him in this way. For I had written down all the expenses in detail. I wanted to calculate this with him in detail while witnesses of what had been spent were with me. I could refute his objection at once. εἴ τινα εὕροιεν. so that. ἐδείκνυον τὸ ψήϕισμα. take the trireme yourself and provide sailors and marines for yourself who will sail with you without receiving any money. Prose οὐκ ἐξὸν κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη. if he objected to anything. Polykles]. Polykles answered that he could not care less what I said (that there was no concern to him of what I said). and I went to him in the agora in Thasos. I told him to take over the ship from me as my successor. Take the ship. and to pay me the expenses for the period which I had served as trierarch beyond my time. he answered that his joint-trierarch had not come to the ship: ‘I will not therefore take over the ship on my own.
Before I knew what had happened. An important item of grammar is the verb (ἀϕ)ἵημι (GE pp. in secondary. Compare this with Hagnophilos’ punctilious attitude in 17B. 336–339. as much as was still left to me’. See GE p. Much of the syntax introduced continues to illustrate the primary – subjunctive.Section Seventeen: Private justice – trouble down at the farm This continues the story begun in Section 16. he took ﬁfty soft-ﬂeeced sheep of mine. ὅσα ἔτι ὑπόλοιπά μοι ἦν ‘all the furniture. look up (ἐκ) βάλλω in the list of irregular verbs on GE pp. #307. ἕως (‘until’) (ever) can introduce an indeﬁnite clause with. 10–11 εἰσελθόντες ἐπὶ τὴν γυναῖκά μου Notice the disgraceful intrusion into the women’s quarters. which were being pastured by the shepherd. See also GE p. #308). 10 ἐκβληθείσης δὲ τῆς θύρας Genitive absolute. before the exercise on it. For he did not wait until I produced the money. Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. #309–310 Page 206 8 ᾖξαν This comes from the verb ᾄσσω ‘to dash’ or ‘to dart’. i. 436–442 #389. in primary sequence. There will be more about this after 17A. ἄν + subjunctive and. but going off. An indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. See vocabulary. ‘having been released free’. This is the aorist passive participle. 11–12 πάντα τὰ σκεύη. 17A Page 205 1–2 ἕως τὰ χρήματα παρέχοιμι See GE p. secondary – optative pattern. optative without ἄν. 22 ἕως εἰσέλθοιεν ‘until they came in’. Translation for 17A Theophemos then did not allow me to pay him the money. 15–16 Note the parts of ἀϕίημι.e ‘having been freed’ (GE p. #308). 12 ἃ βούλοιντο Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence: ‘whatever they wanted’. Can you recognise the verb it comes from? If not. Theophemos had taken not only the sheep but also everything that was 225 . 338. 341. #307. 336. 336. ἕως ἅλοιεν. ἐλευθέρα ἀϕειμένη: perfect passive participle.
and I have lived there since I was a youth). While they were having breakfast in the courtyard. (You may prefer to leave this until you have ﬁnished reading the whole section. the rest of the women servants (for they were in the tower. who was returning a bronze water jar that had been borrowed from a friend and was very valuable. my wife happened to be having breakfast with the children in the courtyard. And when the door had been broken down.226 Section 17A accompanying the herd. Theophemos and Euergos went into the farm (I farm near the racecourse. and they went off. as for example in the inﬁnitive ἀϕιέναι. εἰμί and εἶμι do not have rough breathings and ἵημι does. before they entered the house.) ἀπεῖναι or ἀπιέναι. and carried out all the furniture that was left to me in the house. did not wait until they came in. When all these things had been taken. but closed the tower before they charged it. Grammar ἵημι (stem ἑ) behaves exactly like τίθημι (stem θε) but it looks more complicated because its stem starts with a vowel instead of a consonant.) . and to avoid confusing it with both εἰμί and εἶμι. taking whatever they liked. It was obligatory for me to look after her. 17A: 2. where they lodge) when they heard the tumult and the shouting. whereas parts of εἰμί and εἶμι will appear as (e. and the shepherd along with them and then also a boy servant. While the furniture was being seized by them. But when the household slaves did not wait to be caught but escaped ﬁrst (anticipated them escaping). elderly now. they went to the house and broke open the door that leads into the garden. thus in compounds the difference can be clearly seen. But when her husband died. she came back to me. When you have learned it. NB. In addition to this. and with her was my old nurse. she had lived with her husband. ἐτέθην εἵθην τεθείς ἑθείς It is worth taking a great deal of trouble to learn ἀϕίημι. and ﬁrst of all they dashed at the household slaves. When she was freed by my father. since she was an old woman and there was no one to look after her. they rushed in on my wife and children. try the following exercise.g. a kindly and loyal creature who was a freedwoman (for my father had freed her. since she had been my nurse). Compare some of the tenses: Present Active Middle Participles τίθημι ἵημι τίθεμαι ἵεμαι τιθείς ἱείς Imperfect ἐτίθην ἵην ἐτιθέμην ἱέμην Future θήσω ἥσω θήσομαι ἥσομαι θήσων ἥσων Aorist ἔθηκα ἧκα ἐθέμην εἵμην θείς εἵς Aorist pass. these men charged in and found them and seized the furniture.
to give/have given it will be placed to have been set up give! having put (f. δώσεις ἔθεντο ἐστάθη δεδώκασιν θείη ἱστάμενοι δοῦναι he gave put! they will set up ἀφιείη to place he is rising it is being set up having given (m. 4.pl. στήσασθαι 10. 7. 3. βουλεύονται ἕως ἂν συγχωρήσωσιν. 2. They were ﬁghting until they were victorious. δραμεῖν βούλονται ἕως ἂν στῆναι μὴ οἷοί τ’ ὦσιν. We are staying until he comes. 14.) ἀφῇ to set up (for oneself) you (s.pl. LET GO.pl.acc. μένομεν ἕως ἂν ἔλθῃ. 2. ἐμάχοντο ἕως νικῷεν. ἔδει σε εὔχεσθαι ἕως σωθείης. 5. (ἀφ)ἵημι ‘RELEASE. 15.) will let go they let go he/it was released they have released letting go to release/have released he/it will be released to have been released let go! having released 17. 3. They are debating until such time as they agree. θεῖσαι .) will give they placed it was set up they have given ἀφείη setting up (for oneself) m. 4. 11.Exercises for section 17A 227 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17A ἕως ‘until’ 17A: 1 1. 5. SHOOT’ 17A: 2 1. 6. They are willing to run until they are unable to stand.) ἀφῆκε ἄφες ἀφήσουσιν ἀφιέναι ἀφίεται ἀφέντας he let go let go! they will let go to let go he is being released having released ἀφέσθαι ἀφήσεις ἀφεῖντο ἀφείθη ἀφείκασιν ἀφιέμενοι ἀφεῖναι ἀφεθήσεται ἀφεθῆναι ἀφοῦ ἀφεῖσαι to release (for oneself) you (s.) ought to have prayed until you were saved. δοῦ 20. σταθῆναι 19. ἔδωκε θές στήσουσιν διδοίη τιθέναι ἵσταται δόντας 8. You (s. 16. θῇ 9. τεθήσεται 18. 13. 12.
(having been set free / having been released (aor. She knew the sheep had been taken because a neighbour had told her.) / will be set free / is being set free / was being set free) b.)) (while being set free / while being released (present passive participles f. The slave girl. as a result …’ This expresses a result clause. #313./m. Page 208 7 οὐ παύονται πρὶν ἂν λάβωσι For πρίν meaning ‘until’ see GE p. διατίθημι + adverb is a common idiom. a. married a man who had also been released by his master (perfect passive participles). #311. See GE . cf. with subjunctive + ἄν in primary. The slave girl has been set free by my father./m. (was set free (aor. Hence it can mean ‘breast’. 342. part. 10–11 οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν γραῦν ὥστε … ‘They treated the old woman in such a way that …’./m. It follows the normal pattern for indeﬁnite clauses.) / was releasing / will release) c. and she knew that the money was at the bank because she had heard it from Aristarchos. which here means ‘valued’ or ‘reckoned’. pass. 9 εἰς τὸν κόλπον The basic meaning of κόλπος is ‘a curve’. ‘a bay in the coastline’. pass.)) d. act. ‘lap’.)) (being about to be set free / being about to be released (future passive participles f. 13–14 οὕτω πονηροὶ ἦσαν ὥστε … ‘They were so wicked that …’ οὕτως … ὥστε …. 342–343. f. (is releasing / has released (perf. Latin sinus. 2–5 The words in parenthesis explain how Aristarchos’ wife knew the facts which she is speaking about. and optative without ἄν in secondary sequence. (have released / are releasing / will release / were releasing) 17B Page 207 2 τετιμημένα Perfect passive participle from τιμάω. ‘so … that. ‘the fold of a garment’. The Athenians released the slaves who had fought in that seabattle. See GE pp. 10 ἀϕείλοντο What verb does this come from? Try ἀϕαιρέω.228 Section 17B EXERCISE FOR 17A B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. My father released the slave girl. having been set free by my father.
341. in contrast with the unprincipled brothers. And they were going away not only taking my furniture.) ‘And the money is waiting for you at the bank. #309. who is my neighbour. summoned by Anthemion. if the master had been present. particularly as you also have the value of the ﬁne. his brother. Some of them called to the passers-by from their own roof-tops. And she had scratches on her throat. one of my neighbours. until Hermogenes. Here ἕως is followed by the indicative because this is a deﬁnite time (not an indeﬁnite time). but instead of the ‘if’ clause.’ (For she had heard this from me. Translation for 17B So they did not get in there. but. he saw the furniture being carried out and Euergos and Theophemos coming out of my house. 19–21 Notice that Hagnophilos. they did not stop until they had taken very many things. took the cup which was lying beside her from which she had been drinking. and said that ‘You have the ﬁfty sheep and the boy and the shepherd. which are equal in value to the ﬁne. so that they should not take it. when she saw them inside. and was being throttled by them and her chest was bruised.’ This represents an unfulﬁlled condition in past time (ἄν + aorist indicative). there is a genitive absolute. they saw my house was being plundered by them. παρόντος δὲ τοῦ κυρίου. The use of indicative shows that the result actually happened. They were so shameless that they did not stop trying to strangle the old woman and beating her until she fell to the ground. being in Anthemion’s farm.’ (For one of the neighbours had knocked on the door and reported this. #314–317. and others. And Hagnophilos came. My wife told them not to do this. See GE p. .Section 17B 229 pp. εἴη The optative is used because this is indirect speech in secondary sequence.) ‘Therefore do not take the rest of the furniture before my husband returns with the ﬁne.’ Although my wife said this. going into the other road. but they carried out the furniture from the rest of the house. 24–25 ἕως … εἶπεν ‘until he told them’. and then they took the cup from the fold of her dress. and put it in the fold of her dress. εἰσῆλθεν ἄν ‘If the master had been present he would have gone in. told him to stand by. seeing her. But Theophemos and Euergos. but he did not enter my house (for the master of the house was not present. 345–346. saying that the furniture was hers and was valued as part of her dowry. But the nurse. When the neighbours’ servants heard the noise and the shouting. met them and said that he was my son. but also leading my son. and seeing Hagnophilos passing. snatched it away and treated the old woman so badly that her arms and wrists were blood-stained when she was pinioned and dragged along by them. he would have gone in). as if he were a household slave. observes the conventions and will not enter Aristarchos’ house while he is absent.
until such time as he falls Indeﬁnite in primary sequence. Before I left my house. 3.pl. and I did not go home until the things that had happened were reported to me there. διατίθημι. I had told my wife that the money was lying at the bank. until he fell Used deﬁnitely.) are being treated /be treated! διακεῖσθε 5 διατίθενται they are being treated διακεῖνται NB. 2. . REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17B B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX 1. All the διατίθημι items have been treated as passive.n. διατίθεσθe you (pl. b. διετίθετο he was treated διέκειτο 2. The old woman was in a bad way because she had been beaten up. should fall Used indeﬁnitely. διατιθέμενοι being treated (m. 5. 1. said the neighbour. διάκειμαι ‘TREAT. a. optative shows this must be in secondary sequence. ‘But do not ask this either’. The slave girls stayed in the tower until the men went away. ἡ γραῦς κακῶς διέκειτο διὰ τὸ συγκοπῆναι. 2. Nos.) διακείμενοι 3. indicative shows it happened. ‘For these men are violent and will not cease plundering the house until they have taken everything away. but could equally well be middle.230 Revision exercises for section 17B EXERCISES FOR 17B ἕως ‘UNTIL. before falling πρίν + inﬁnitive. 4. therefore in the past. I was in the Piraeus while my house was being robbed. The woman asked Theophemos not to take the furniture until her husband returned. BE TREATED’ 17B: 2 1. a.’ d. διατιθεῖτο optative διακέοιτο 4. 3 and 5 might change in poetry by dropping the ἄν. e. until such time as we fall Indeﬁnite in primary sequence. c. WHILE’ and πρίν ‘UNTIL’ 17B: 1 until he fell.
‘to abuse someone’. 17 τὰ ἡρπασμένα What participle? What verb? Try ἁρπάζω. c. 345–346. octagon.’ 6–8 ἐκέλευον δ᾿ αὐτὸν … ἀπολαμβάνειν … ἀκολουθεῖν … θεραπεύειν … εἰσάγειν … ἐκέλευον is followed by a series of inﬁnitives. Cf. #313 for the relationship between διατίθημι and διακεῖμαι. ordinal and adverb forms. Theophemos and Euergides treated the old woman in such a way that her wrists were blood-stained. takes a double accusative: ‘to speak bad words [to] someone’. ἡ γραῦς ἐνέθηκεν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τὸ κυμβίον ὅ παρέκειτο αὐτῇ. Note that ὥστε + the indicative stresses that the result actually happened. d. and the thing heard (the happenings) are in the accusative. decimal. #300 for indeﬁnite clauses in secondary sequence. The old woman put the cup. #318. #314–317 for the use of ὥστε + inﬁnitive to express a result clause: ‘in such a state that (as a result) she was in danger of her life’. 325. 15–16 This might be the moment to learn the numerals at GE pp. 9 κακά με πολλὰ εἶπεν Note that κακὰ λέγειν. like κακὰ ποιειν (53). ‘the having happened things’. 346–347. in the fold of her dress. The woman told Theophemos that the money was lying in the bank. hexagon. which was lying beside her. Θεόϕημος καὶ Eὔεργος οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν γραῦν ὥστε ὕϕαιμοι ἐγένοντο oἱ βραχίονες. 3 τὰ ἐκπεϕορημένα Perfect passive participle. also μύριοι and myriads. ‘ordered him to …’ 8 ὃν βούλοιντο Why is the optative mood used here? See GE p. Page 210 11 μεθ᾿ ἑτέρων ὁμοίων αὑτῷ ‘with others like himself’. ἡ γυνὴ εἶπε τῷ Θεοϕήμῳ ὅτι τὸ ἀργύριον κεῖται ἐπὶ τῇ τραπέζῃ. 342–343. 4–5 καὶ ἀκούων τῆς γυναικὸς τὰ γενόμενα Remember that after ἀκούω the source of the sound (his wife) is in the genitive. You will ﬁnd useful resemblances to Latin and to mathematical terms (pentagon. 17C Page 209 1 τὰ γεγενημένα This is the neuter plural of the perfect participle of γίγνομαι. See GE pp. Note that αὑτῷ = ἑαυτῷ (the reﬂexive form) and so has a rough breathing. ‘He heard the words of the woman. . NB. 3–4 τὴν γραῦν οὕτω διακειμένην ὥστε … See GE pp.Section 17C 231 b. kilometre) as well as correspondence between the cardinal.
but I paid the ﬁne at once. and I paid the ﬁne. Euergos. But then Theophemos came along with reluctance. Meanwhile I was paying the money to Theophemos. and I asked him to give back the sheep and the slaves and the furniture which had been seized by him. While I was saying this and earnestly entreating him. I made those present witnesses of this reply. but Theophemos refused to give them back to me (said he would not give them back to me) . But Theophemos was so grasping that he took the ﬁne and kept the sheep and the slaves and the furniture. taking witnesses. GE pp.232 Section 17C 17–18 οὐκ ἔϕη ἀποδώσειν … ‘He said that he would not give back …’ Note the position of οὐ. It is always placed before ϕημί (rather than before the inﬁnitive). look up the principal parts of ἔρχομαι. check ἐκτίνω in the vocabulary. a stonemason who was working on the monument near by. three hundred and thirteen drachmas and two obols. and the old woman in such a state that she was in danger of her life. You should be able to recognise the participle from the context. after carrying off the rest of the furniture from the house. But this Euergos immediately set out from the city with others like himself to go to my farm. breaking open the door (which they had broken open on the previous day as well).When he gave this answer. Grammar Don’t forget to learn the numerals. 21 οὕτως ἐπλεονέκτει … ὥστε … A result clause is introduced: ‘was so grasping that…’ 22 ἐκτετεισμένης τῆς δίκης Genitive absolute. a messenger came to me. I went to the country. I told him ﬁrst to accept the ﬁne and to follow (me) to the bank. went off taking my furniture. Translation for 17C Well then. The remaining furniture. in the presence of many witnesses. meaning ‘He refused …’ or ‘He denied …’ 20 εἰσεληλυθότα Can you recognise this? If not. causing delays and saying that he wanted to get witnesses himself. saying that Euergos had gone away again. whatever had been in the tower on the day before and did not happen to be outside. but seeing all the things that had been carried off from the house. said many bad things to me). one thousand. but I was not now able to catch these men (for I did not arrive until they had gone). .436–442. For I did not know that Euergos had gone to my house on that day. then to look after the old woman whom they had beaten and to bring in whatever doctor they liked. had been carried down by me because of our need. I was very angry and went to Theophemos on the next day at dawn in the city. the moment the ﬁne had been paid. 23 οἴχοιτο Why is the optative used here? Because it is indirect speech in secondary sequence. and hearing from my wife what had happened. #389. Theophemos got angry and abused me vigorously (lit. If not. when these events were reported to me in the Piraeus by neighbours. and.
Note that GE pp. 1. Those men were so abominable that they were (actually) not ashamed to rush in to my wife. They are doing everything so that they do not (as a result) pay the penalty. Those men were so wicked that they (actually) beat the woman and took away the cup from her.e. ‘after …’ . ὥστε τύπτειν τὴν γυναῖκα και ἀϕελέσθαι ἀπ᾿ αὐτῆς τὸ κυμβίον. ἐδυνήθην See GE p. coming into the shrine. which is the commonest way to express result in English. ὥστε μὴ αἰσχυνέσθαι εἰς τὴν γυναῖκα εἰσιόντες. while ὥστε + indicative states a matter of fact and therefore has negative οὐ. 345–346. c. but in practice it will often sound more natural to translate ὥστε + inﬁnitive by ‘so that’. They do everything so as not to pay the penalty. just as ὥστε + inﬁnitive is the commonest way to express result in Greek. ὥστε μὴ δίκην διδόναι. b. This may be useful for the exercise. #314–317 suggest that ὥστε + inﬁnitive should be translated by ‘so as to’ and ὥστε + indicative by ‘so that’. Those men were so abominable as not to be ashamed at going in to my wife. 17D Page 211 1 Note that ἔδει is past: ‘What then was I to do?’ or ‘What ought I to have done?’ 3–4 συνεκόπη Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. he (actually) dragged a suppliant away from the altar. 350. 4–5 ἐβουλήθη. no θ). second aorist passive (i. a. and the distinction between the ‘potential’ and the ‘actual’ result is a valid one. 6 ἕκτῃ oὔσῃ ἡμέρᾳ Dative expressing a point of time: ‘on the sixth day’. ὥστε εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἱκέτην ἀϕελκύσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ βωμοῦ. ὕστερον ἤ ‘later than …’. The men were wicked enough to beat the woman and take away the cup from her. d. The fellow reached such a pitch of impiety that. The fellow reached such a pitch of impiety as to come into the shrine and drag a suppliant away from the altar. #324 for a list of deponent verbs which have their aorists in passive form.Section 17D 233 EXERCISE FOR SECTION 17C RESULT CLAUSES B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX Note that ὥστε + inﬁnitive has negative μή.
See GE p. the fact that they had charged into the farm and reached such a pitch of depravity that they had not been ashamed to burst in on my wife and children. 12 διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀϕεῖναι Once again the inﬁnitive is used as a noun: ‘owing to the fact that she did not give up the cup’. and that you do not bring a suit for murder before the king archon. from what you say. nor is she a slave. and to beat up the old woman for the sake of a cup. #317. εὐλαβήθητι μή … ‘take care lest …’ The construction is the same as after a verb of fearing. But having puriﬁed yourself on behalf of your household and yourself. But yesterday.’ . and the ﬁne had been paid? But then. I brought in a doctor whom I had used for many years. Therefore Aristarchos could not legally bring a case against Theophemos and Euergos for her murder. and where should I have turned. Having heard the story from me. Translation for 17D What should I have done. and I told them all that had happened. I was at once very angry. and take vengeance in any other way you like. All he could do was to go through a ritual of puriﬁcation to free himself and his household from the pollution of the death. #305. and I went early (as I have said) to the ofﬁcers to ﬁnd out what should be done about this. In addition to this I recalled the goodwill of the woman and that she had died because she would not give up the cup. 9 τό τε ὁρμηθῆναι αὐτούς … καὶ ἐλθεῖν τό is followed by two inﬁnitives used as nouns with the subject in the accusative: ‘the fact that they had charged … and that they had come …’ εἰς τοῦτο ἀσελγείας ἐλθεῖν ὥστε … ‘to reach such a pitch of depravity that …’ Literally ‘to reach this [point] of depravity that …’ See GE pp. 16 The case for prosecution could only be brought by a relation or the master of the deceased. but your wife and children.234 Section 17D 7–8 ἵνα εἰδείην ‘so that I might know’. #321. bear the tragedy as easily as you can. I ordered Theophemos to look after the old woman who had been beaten and to bring in whatever doctor he wished. the old woman was in danger of her life. 332. and try to think up some other means of vengeance. The old woman was neither family nor slave. take care that you do not make a public denunciation of anyone by name. since the furniture had been carried off. if nothing else. ὅ τι ποιητέον ‘what must be done’. ‘because she would not give up the cup’. my old nurse died. Purpose clause in secondary sequence. Apollodoros. See GE p. the ofﬁcers gave this advice: ‘Since you yourself were not present. But when Theophemos was not willing and I could not persuade him. #293 and p. and to carry off the furniture. and since other witnesses did not appear for you. on the sixth day after they had charged into the house. 15 εὐλαβήθητι Aorist passive imperative. 345–346. For the woman is not one of your family. 316. 349.
#328). Page 212 1 ποιήσω. φαθί 5.Section 17E 235 EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17D MORE IMPERATIVES 17D: 1 1. 351. τιμήθητι 5.) be honoured (s.) . γένωμαι All these are deliberative subjunctives. στήτω 4. 351–352. and the second μή introduces the fear for the future with its verb in the subjunctive in primary sequence (optative in secondary): GE #292. See GE p. κολασθέντων 3. Make sure that you have digested it and fully understand it all. and #293. the deliberative subjunctive (GE p. ‘I do not hate them in such a way as I like myself. 7 δεινὸν ἂν εἴη Note the ἄν. λήφθητε 4. (Socrates was unusual in taking the opposite view that it is never right to do wrong. or Reference Grammar 404. ἄν + optative expresses potential: ‘could’ or ‘would’. 351. What effect does it have? 7–8 The desire to inﬂict vengeance on one’s enemies was regarded as natural and proper by the majority of people in the ancient world.’ 5 τί δρῶμεν Why is the subjunctive used here? 6 σκοπῶμεν ‘Let us consider’. #325. γνώτω This section introduces two new pieces of syntax. 2 χρῶμαι χράομαι + dative means ‘to use’ or ‘to treat someone’.) be written (pl. and correlatives (GE pp. #328. γράφητε 17D: 2 let him/her be set free (s. λυθήτω 2. 4–5 οὐ γὰρ οὕτω τούτους μισῶ ὡς ἐμαυτὸν φιλῶ For the use of correlatives see GE pp. 3 οὐδ᾿ ἄν … ‘Nor would I dare to lie even if I knew well that …’ Here you need to understand ‘dare to lie’ repeated from the previous line. μὴ φοβηθῇς μή … ‘Don’t be afraid lest …’ μή + aorist subjunctive expresses the prohibition. #325–327). 2–3 οὕτως … ὥστε … + inﬁnitive indicates result. βῆθι 17E 3. ‘What am I to do?’. even in retaliation. ‘Where am I to turn?’ etc.) 1. Here ‘I do not know what to do with myself’ (GE p. Otherwise it brings in as much as it can of the syntax that you have learned in Sections 16 and 17.) let them be punished be taken (pl. 351. γνῶτε 2. 351–352. τράπωμαι. #327).’ ‘I do not hate them as much as I like myself.
I am delighted by what you say. even if I knew that I would convict my enemies of doing wrong. ἐὰν θεὸς ἐθέλῃ ‘If god is willing. Let us do this. #282. καὶ μὴ ἄλλως ποιήσῃς Literally this means ‘Don’t do otherwise’. my excellent friend. ἀναλάβωμεν What mood and why? οὐ κυνὶ πλανητέον ‘It ought not to be wandered by a dog. and do not be afraid that I won’t share your enthusiasm.’ ἵνα βουλευσώμεθα Why the subjunctive? It is the verb in a purpose clause in primary sequence. For I do not dislike them as much as I like myself.’ ‘Not even a dog should be wandering about.’ See GE p. I will come to you tomorrow. APOLLODOROS Let us consider together. if God wills it. my good friend. AR. 317. by the Gods. but it is frequently used to beg someone to do what you suggest: e. Consider then what we are to do. ἀϕικοῦ What part of the verb is this? Revise aorist imperatives. For surely I would not be so foolish as to dare to lie to the jurors. and #206–207. See GE Reference Grammar p. #402. #398. You have the story. What am I to do? Where am I to turn? What will become of me? For I do not know what to do with myself. please come (and don’t do otherwise). nor would I do so. ARISTARCHOS . For it is raining. and. χάριν εἴσομαι What tense of οἶδα is this? ποιώμεθα. for sharing my enthusiasm.236 Section 17E 10 11 12 12–13 13 16 16–17 In general. #294 for verbal nouns expressing obligation. and for conditions in general. ποίησον. not even a dog should be wandering about now. Apollodoros. so that we can take counsel about these very things. Let us be going. and I agree that I must do nothing before I have consulted with you. For indeed it would be a terrible thing for a good friend not to share his friends’ desire to be revenged on their enemies. 460. See GE #298–299 or Reference Grammar #399. AP. Come to my house tomorrow at dawn. 457. Reference Grammar p. Thus a friend could be expected to give all possible help in making plans for revenge. the Greek for ‘Do please come’ would be ‘Come and don’t do otherwise. Indeed I shall be grateful to you. then. vengeance was just as much a matter of honour for the man in the street as for the Homeric hero. So it is necessary for me most of all to help you in your perplexity. πρὶν ἂν συμβουλεύωμαι For πρίν meaning ‘until’ see GE #311–312 and compare this with indeﬁnite clauses in general. AR.’ For future conditions see GE pp. But you act thus for me. if you are not sure: GE #198–199. AP. Translation for 17E So be it.g. But let us do this later and resume our talk. The idea comes from the opening of Menander’s Misoumenos. 304–305.
περιμένετε δή· οὐ γὰρ δεῖ ὑμᾶς ἀπελθεῖν πρὶν ἂν ἐπανελθῇ ὁ ἐμὸς ἀνήρ. there is leisure. τῇ δὲ ὑστεραίᾳ. Sentences 1. If they were to see us. they would rightly laugh at us. It is said that once upon a time cicadas were men. to use a subordinate clause instead of a participle. 3. ἔϕη. singing and talking to one another. For. πάντα λαβόντες ἀπῆλθον. But if they see us talking and sailing uncharmed past them as if they were the Sirens. TEST EXERCISE 17 Let us talk then. 4. then some men of that time were so astounded and listened with such delight that while singing they neglected food and drink and did not SOCRATES . οὕτως ὠλιγώρουν ὥστε εἰσελθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν ἐκϕορεῖν τὰ σκεύη. as it seems).Revision exercises for section 17 237 REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17 D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK 1. αἱ θεράπαιναι οὐκ ἔμειναν ἕως ἅλoιεν. or to choose a different Greek word in some places. 2. as it seems. προσελθὼν πρὸς αὐτόν. my dear Phaedrus.’ οἱ δὲ οὐκ ἀκούσαντες τῆς γυναικὸς ταῦτα λεγούσης. although it is proper to call you a lover of music and literature. ὠργίσθην ὅτι ὑβρισταὶ ὄντες οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν τίτθην ὥστε περὶ ψυχῆς ἐκινδύνευεν. ἡ δὲ ἐμὴ γυνὴ ὀργισθεῖσα. For I really am unaware of it. τὸν ἐμὸν υἱὸν ἦγον ἕως γείτων τις εἶπεν ὅτι υἱὸς οὐ δούλου ἀλλὰ πολίτου εἴη. SOC. It is quite possible. πάντ᾿ ἀκούσας. ‘ἆρ’ οὐκ ἤδη πεντήκοντα ἔχετε πρόβατα. at midday not talking but sleeping and being bewitched by them through idleness of thought. ἐκέλευσα ἀκολουθεῖν ἐμοὶ ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν ἵνα τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἐνταῦθα κείμενον συλλάβῃ. But when the Muses were born and song appeared. What am I to do? It is clear that I must tell you. 5. Prose There are a several alternative ways of translating the English into Greek. I am afraid that you may appear to be uncultured if you are ignorant of such matters. ἐγὼ δέ. And at the same time the cicadas seem to me to be watching us. ‘μὴ τὰ σκεύη λάβητε’. it seems (lit. ἐκινδύνευσα οὕτως ὀργισθῆναι ὥστε τὸν Θεόϕημον αὐτὸς παίειν. like most people. PHAEDRUS What is the gift? Don’t keep it a secret. οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο ἐκϕοροῦντες τὰ σκεύη ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας πρὶν πάντα ἁρπάσειεν (ἁρπάζοιεν). before the Muses existed. ἄγγελός τις προσελθὼν πρὸς τὸν Πειραιᾶ ἐπήγγειλεν ἐμοὶ τὰ γεγενημένα. 2. regarding us as slaves who sleep like sheep round the spring. certainly we have the time. perhaps they would be pleased and grant us the gift which they have from the gods to give to men. for example. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα.
for many reasons we must have some conversation and we must not sleep in the middle of the day. receiving this gift from the Muses.(ὥς). From now on you may ﬁnd it increasingly useful to use the Reference Grammar. and after that. gives a summary of the main syntactical constructions. gives lists of prepositions and particles. that they should need no food.238 Revision exercises for section 17 ΡΗ. And from these men the race of cicadas later sprang. notice that they were dying. verbs. adjectives. pronouns. going to the Muses. We must indeed make conversation. provides an essential list of irregular verbs and their principal parts (ultimately you should make it your goal to know all these by heart). give uses of ὡς. Therefore. but that without food or drink they should sing until they died. they should tell them which of men honoured the Muses. participles and inﬁnitives. # 390–391 # 392–394 # 396–406 . # 352–388 # 389 has tables of nouns.
When the appointed time came for these also to be born (time of birth). though normal in Homer. This is rare in Attic Greek. aorist. It is likely that he is here imitating the style of the sophist Protagoras. ‘fated’. ὅσα πυρὶ καὶ γῇ κεράννυται ‘as many as are mixed with ﬁre and earth’.Section Eighteen: How Zeus gave justice to men This passage is reproduced unadapted from Plato. earth. Here the article is used as a demonstrative pronoun. νείμαντος. into whose mouth he puts the speech. 3 τῶν = ἐκείνων. and also that the aorist stem of νέμω is νειμ-. νέμει.) 6–9 Note the careful patterning of the phrases: τοῖς μέν … τοὺς δέ …. This refers to air and water. 18A Page 216 1 The verb ‘to be’ is often used in the sense of ‘to exist’. the gods formed them within the earth out of a mixture (having mixed) of earth and ﬁre and of the 239 . it is a fascinating passage which describes the creation of the world and the social necessity for man of possessing δίκη and αἰδώς (a sense of right and a moral awareness of others and their response to one’s actions). τοὺς δέ … τοῖς δέ … (ABBA) followed by ἃ μὲν γὰρ σμικρότητι ἤμπισχε … ἃ δὲ ηὖξε μεγέθει … 10 καὶ τἆλλα = καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ‘and he assigned the other qualities also …’ Translation for 18A There was once a time when gods existed but mortal creatures did not. air.) 5–6 νεῖμαι. the other two elements. ﬁre and water. (Some Greek philosophers believed that all things were composed of four elements. 2 χρόνος εἱρμαρμένος ‘allotted’ in the sense of ‘allotted by destiny’. perhaps in tragedy. but the iambic rhythms also suggest that the myth may be based on a long established story which had been told often in verse. The introduction to this section in Reading Greek is important. νέμων Note the repetitions. The style is not typical of Plato. Whatever its origins. 6 ἐπίσκεψαι Can you recognise this? What kind of imperative is it? (2nd s. γῆς ἔνδoν ‘within the earth’. Protagoras 320c–323a.
What part of the verb is ἰοῦσιν? 4 τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ‘these same things (i. he protected by that very quality. Herodotus (3. 8 ὀλιγο-γονία.e. These he made less fertile. taking care that no species should be destroyed. Steroids thicken your physique. Cf. subject has a singular verb. sufﬁcient to ward off the winter’s cold and capable of withstanding also the summer’s heat. And when they were ready to bring them to the light. 18B Page 218 1 ἀλληλοϕθοριῶν This is made up of two words: ἀλλήλους which means ‘One another’. ‘family’. διαϕθείρω. ‘you review it’. Having thus persuaded him. 2 στερεοῖς ‘thick’. 6–7 ἔστι δ᾿ οἷς ἔδωκεν … ‘and there were some to whom he gave …’ This use of ἔστι + relative pronoun is a fairly common idiom. ὥρας ‘hours’ or ‘seasons’. 3 Notice ἱκανοῖς μέν … δυνατοῖς δέ … and understand a repeat of ἀμῦναι in the second phrase. ‘And when I have done it’. while for others.240 Section 18B things that are compounded with ﬁre and earth. for some fruit from the trees. ‘pachyderm’. ‘dermatology’.108) also points out that animals that are preyed on reproduce rapidly. εἰς εὐνὰς ἰοῦσιν ‘for them going to bed’. some he armed with weapons. clothing them with thick hair or tough skins. for some grass from the earth. while . the same skins should serve as individual and natural coverings for each one. some with hooves and some with tough and bloodless skin. The root γεν-. γονstands for ‘race’. ‘dermatitis’. Remember that a n. pl. 5 ἄλλοις ἄλλας ‘different foods for different creatures’. And he shod them too. he contrived comfort against the seasons sent from Zeus. skins)’. he began to distribute the powers. but to the weaker he gave speed. ‘solid’. stereophonic sound is ‘dense’ or ‘thick’. they ordered Prometheus and Epimetheus to equip them and assign powers suitable to each one. ‘epidermis’. and he assigned the other qualities also. Translation for 18B When he had provided enough means of escape for them from mutual slaughter. πολυ-γονία These should be guessable. he devised some other power for their protection. To those on whom he bestowed smallness. ‘birth’. and he planned that when they went to bed. In his distribution. Next he provided different sorts of food for them. 7. balancing everything in this way. he said. he gave some creatures strength without speed. he allotted winged ﬂight or an underground dwelling. those whom he enlarged in size. Epimetheus asked Prometheus [to allow him] to do the distributing himself. and the root ϕθορ as in διαϕθορά ‘destruction’. And there were some to whom he gave the ﬂesh of other animals for their food. and for some roots. He planned these things. to whom he gave an unarmed nature. This is the subject of ὑπάρχοι. δέρμασιν Cf.
and in nouns and adjectives. 3 ἠπόρει ὅ τι χρήσαιτο This is a deliberative question in secondary sequence: ‘What am I to use?’ becomes ‘He was in doubt what he was to use. Translation for 18C Now. Page 220 13 ἐϕιλοτεχνείτην This is a dual. 356. καταναλώσας ἀναλίσκω (ἀναλωσ-) means ‘I spend’ or ‘I expend’. 356. You will probably be able to recognise them when you meet them. But the human race was still left over for him. Man now has the skills to stay alive. 18C Page 219 1 ἅτε + participle means ‘since’. and so this phrase encompasses both meanings. as here. ‘in as much as’. 8 τὴν ἔντεχνον σοϕίαν ἔντεχνον is a compound adjective and has only two terminations. but has not yet acquired social skills which enable him to live in a community. agree with σοϕίαν. since Epimetheus was not particularly brilliant. e. when two people or things are the subject. he made more fertile. thus conserving the species (providing safety for the race).Section 18C 241 those on whom they fed.g. Prometheus comes …’ 6–7 ἀπορίᾳ οὖν σχόμενος … ἥντινα σωτηρίαν … εὕρoι See note on line 3 above. #331–332. a chariot team or. Hephaistos is the god of ﬁre and the master-craftsman. Athene is the goddess of wisdom. The power of speech is what distinguishes man from beasts. See GE pp. two hands. 9–10 Notice the contrast between τὴν περὶ τὸν βίον σοϕίαν and τὴν πολιτικήν. #329. but it is not essential to learn them by heart. in fact. It is worth looking at the pattern of the duals. possibly ‘technical knowledge’ would suit the context best here. In addition. and so both their attributes are reﬂected in the phrase. It is difﬁcult to ﬁnd an adequate translation. ἀποροῦντι δὲ αὐτῷ ἔρχεται Προμηθεύς ‘to him being in doubt. τέχνη covers both the skill of the craftsman and the creative genius of the artist. 2 τὰ ἄλογα ‘the speechless ones’.’ See GE p. 10 ταύτῃ ‘in this way’. 8–9 ἀμήχανον … γενέσθαι ‘for it was impossible for it (αὐτὴν = τὴν ἔντεχνον σοϕίαν) to be possessed (κτητήν) by anyone (τῳ = τινί) or to be useful (χρησίμην) without ﬁre’. See GE p. The dual can be used in verbs. he did not notice that he had used up all the powers on the animals (he escaped his own notice having used up the powers). thus it does. #330. a couple. and so τὰ ἄλογα becomes the normal word for ‘beasts’. 356–358. usually when they are a pair. without any .
they had to give up and then in their small groups they once again fell prey to wild beasts. And so he secretly entered the house shared by Athene and Hephaistos in which they practised their art. 5 κατ᾽ ἀρχάς This means ‘in the beginning’. ἅτε + participle expressing the cause. English ‘sporadically’. While he was still at a loss. he gave them to man. being at a loss to ﬁnd any protection for man. but Prometheus. man imagines gods in his own image: ‘But if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could draw and make works of art with their hands as men do. but it can mean ‘one’s portion in life’. 6) points out. and Prometheus no longer had permission to enter the acropolis. just like the body that each species possesses. As a result of this man had the means of life. hence ‘one’s due’. unshod. 7 δημιουργική Α δημιουργός is a craftsman (from δῆμος and ἔργον). Μοῖρα (personiﬁed) is the goddess of fate. but he did not have political skill. for that was in the keeping of Zeus. ‘at ﬁrst’. In this way man acquired skill to keep him alive. and cattle would make them like cattle. The μοῖρα referred to here is the skill of ﬁre and the technical skill to use it. so the story goes.242 Section 18D attributes. Men had to live in scattered groups because they had not the πολιτικὴ τέχνη to live peacefully and cooperatively in cities (or to organise an army). 10 ἅτε οὐκ ἔχοντες ‘since they did not have’. cf. stole from Hephaistos and Athene the gift of technical skill together with ﬁre – for without ﬁre it was impossible for anyone to possess or use this skill – and so he gave it to man. but that man was naked.’ 5–11 This is a most ingenious explanation of the need for social skills. thanks to Epimetheus. the house of Zeus – moreover. therefore. Whenever they tried. not ‘to think’. 18D Page 221 1 μοίρας Here this simply means ‘portion’. and already the appointed day had come on which man too had to emerge from the earth into the light. σποράδην This is an adverb. and he did not know what to do. It can also mean ‘that which is rightly one’s portion’. hence ‘destiny’. ‘doom’. . 9–10 ὅτ’ οὖν ἀθροισθεῖεν ‘whenever they gathered together’. the sentinels of Zeus were terrible. As Xenophanes (fr. The verb in the optative shows that this is an indeﬁnite clause. 2 θεoὺς ἐνόμισε Here νομίζω means ‘to acknowledge’. then horses would draw the images of their gods and make their bodies like horses. Prometheus came to inspect the work (the distribution) and he saw that the other creatures were well provided with everything. Prometheus. and stealing Hephaistos’ art of working with ﬁre and the other art of Athene. without a bed and without weapons. had later on to stand trial for theft. which were divine prerogatives.
the capacity to feel ashamed if you act wrongly to others. respect for others and their rights. hence. Therefore they were destroyed by the wild beasts.Section 18E 243 10–11 ὥστε … διεϕθείροντο The verb in the indicative. men lived to begin with in scattered groups. It contains an element of fear – men behave well through fear of what others may think of them if they do not. They did indeed seek to come together and to protect themselves by founding cities. See vocabulary. as you already know. and it is everywhere apparent in Homer – the heroes must not ‘lose face’. Thus provided for. it can range from abstract justice to a legal case or the penalty inﬂicted. making it emphatic: ‘lest it might be destroyed totally’. but the narrative is still about a past event and the verbs in the subordinate clauses still reﬂect a secondary sequence. and there were no cities. but is the aorist participle of δείδω. and the technical skill which was sufﬁcient help to them in getting food was not adequate for ﬁghting the beasts – for they did not yet have the political skill of which the art of war is a part. . E. δίκη is here more abstract. Translation for 18D Since man had a share in the portion of the gods. and secondly. ﬁrst of all. he alone of living creatures believed in the gods and set to work to build altars and images of the gods. 2 ἵν᾽ εἶεν … ‘so that they might be …’ A purpose clause in secondary sequence. rather than the inﬁnitive. and invented houses and clothes and shoes and bedding and food from the earth. αἰδώς means ‘shame’. 18E Page 222 1 δείσας This is in no way related to δεῖ. although. 2 αἰδῶ τε καὶ δίκην Two immensely important words which have a wide range of meanings. since they were in every way weaker than them. they injured one another because they did not have political skills. with the result that they scattered again and were again devoured. because of his divine kinship. Notice the position of πᾶν at the end of the clause. he quickly discovered speech and names by his art. Dodds in The Greeks and the Irrational discusses the nature of the ‘shame culture’. something that actually took place. but whenever they gathered in communities. That means the present is used instead of the past to make the story more dramatic. ‘modesty’. the main verb πέμπει is a ‘historic present’. R. shows that this is an actual result. or private morality and public observance of the law. In this passage the two words express the two qualities which make community living possible: respect for others and a sense of justice and the rule of law. an irregular verb.
#325–326. p. . 320. You will see that δοίη is optative. See Reference Grammar #402. The normal prose use would be ἀποκτείνειν. The brutal extermination of those without the right qualities underlines the importance which Zeus attaches to them. and the basic human qualities which all should share. αὕτη. The use of μή. κτείνειν Poetic. ‘the universe’ (‘the cosmos’) or the ‘world’ (‘cosmopolitan’). which illustrates the difference between specialist knowledge and expertise. ‘Am I to assign these (qualities) in this way?’ See GE p. and thus reﬂects secondary sequence. θῶ. the summing-up of the meaning of the myth. makes the participle phrase indeﬁnite: ‘whoever is incapable of …’ rather than ‘the one who is not capable …’ Here the difference in meaning is slight. ‘order’. In effect it means ‘the Athenians in particular’.) Note once again the chiasmus (ABBA pattern) in πόλεων κόσμοι τε καὶ δεσμοὶ ϕιλίας. τίνα οὖν τρόπον ‘in what way’. The accusative is used adverbially. (Cf. used in a deliberative question. ἐρωτᾷ Continuing use of the historic present. genitive. Notice how the meaning has deteriorated over the centuries into ‘idiot’. ὦ Σώκρατες. or Reference Grammar #395. but here it simply means ‘individuals’.244 Section 18E 3 4 4 5 6 7 7–8 8–9 9–10 10 12–13 14 15 κόσμοι κόσμος is another important and wide-ranging word. δεσμοί These are ‘bonds’ or ‘fetters’. 460. #296. rather than οὐ. Here the sense is ‘order’. ὡς νόσον πόλεως This is the law they must enforce. προσῆκον Accusative absolute. nominative – nominative. Be careful not to confuse εἷς with εἰς. He goes on to describe how Athenian education was aimed. οὕτω δή Introduces the conclusion. Protagoras rests his case. but it is the aorist subjunctive (aorist stem νειμ-). δεσμωτήριον ‘a prison’. 351. νείμω Do you recognise the deliberative subjunctives? μετεχόντων Can you recognise this? ‘Let them all have a share …’ οὐ γὰρ ἂν γένοιντο πόλεις. i. at developing the potential for political skill. See GE p. ὅταν μὲν … ᾖ λόγος ‘whenever the argument is concerned with …’ ὅταν δὲ … ἴωσιν A balancing and contrasting clause to the previous one. νείμω Can you recognise what mood this is. genitive. τούτου αἰτία Q. τὸν μὴ δυνάμενον … κτείνειν. from earliest childhood.e.D. ἰδιώταις Often ἰδιώτης means ‘a private individual as opposed to one of a citizen group’. εἰ ὀλίγοι αὐτῶν μετέχοιεν The optative mood of the verbs and presence of ἄν will tell you what sort of a condition this is. It means ‘decoration’ (‘cosmetic’). but in some cases it can be signiﬁcant. and why? It is not the future (νεμῶ). and then ‘the thing that is ordered’. οἵ τε ἄλλοι καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι Literally this means ‘both the others and the Athenians’.E.
is the reason for this. the Athenians. whenever the debate is about skill in architecture or any other expertise. they do not tolerate it. said Zeus. for there could never be cities if only a few people shared in these qualities as in the other arts. and the same is true of other experts. fearing that our whole race would be destroyed. That. and if anyone outside these few gives advice.’ Thus it is for these reasons. like other people. or am I to assign them to all men?’ ‘To all men’. as you say – reasonably in my view – but whenever they seek advice on political wisdom. Hermes asked Zeus in what way he was to give justice and respect to men: ‘Am I to distribute these gifts in the same way as the skills have been allocated? They have been distributed in this way: one man having the skill of a doctor is sufﬁcient for many individuals (laymen). Am I then to give justice and respect to men in this way. Socrates.Section 18E 245 Translation for 18E Therefore Zeus. And moreover lay it down as a law from me that if anyone is incapable of sharing in justice and respect he must be put to death as a plague to the city. since they think it is proper for every man to have a share in this virtue or there would not be any cities. which must always follow the path of justice and moderation. they rightly listen to every man. ‘and let all men have a share. Socrates. that. sent Hermes to take to men the qualities of respect for others and a sense of justice so that there could be order in the cities and bonds of friendship uniting men. believe that only a few are capable of giving advice. .
ὀλβιώτατον Note the emphatic position. and the vocabularies will help you as well. you may want to look at GE pp. for all practical purposes. 6 ἀπολέει Here the future of ἀπόλλυμι means something like ‘will lose’ rather than ‘will destroy’. 11 μή τί oἱ κρεμάμενον … ‘lest anything having been hung over him might…’ 246 . ‘written off’). 227–229. οὐδαμῇ ‘nowhere’. #333–334 ‘The Dialect of Herodotus’. 8 ἐωθότα δὲ στρατηγέειν μιν … Object of ἐξέπεμπε in the next line.34–45. The form is uncontracted. and it is always easy to confuse it with ὤν ‘being’. It is very important to read both the introduction on pp. This is not punishment for an evil act. 5 ὦν = οὖν. but it shows Croesus’ feeling that he had only one son. Note this carefully.Section Nineteen: The story of Adrastos This passage is reproduced unadapted from Herodotus. However. a brutal word for ‘handicapped’ (cf. 2 ἑωυτόν = ἑαυτόν. μιν ‘him’. Apart from the accent. or ‘stood beside him’. but punishment for ‘thinking more than mortal thoughts’. Croesus commits an act of ‘hubris’ by exhibiting pride in his continuing happiness. oἱ ‘to him’. Herodotus writes in the Ionic dialect (see Introduction). 19A Page 230 1 νέμεσις ‘retribution’. pp. Perpetual happiness is the prerogative of the gods and not of man. and thus attracts the vengeance of the gods. 4 διέϕθαρτο Literally this means that ‘he had been destroyed’. it ‘stood over him’. 359–360. 9–10 ἀκόντια δὲ καὶ δοράτια καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα πάντα Objects of both ἐκκομίσας and συνένησε. as are many of the verbs. before you start. 225–226 of RGT and the beginning of the story. its position near the beginning of a sentence should help to distinguish it. 2–3 ἐπέστη ὄνειρoς The dream is personiﬁed. Histories 1. which is translated for you. You will ﬁnd that you get used to this quite quickly. You will meet it frequently.
(Cf. A suppliant would sit by the hearth and was under the protection of Zeus Epistios.Section 19B 247 Translation for 19A After Solon had gone. p. 19B Page 232 1 ἔχοντος … τὸν γάμον ‘(with) his (οἱ) son having his marriage in hand …’ ἀπικνέεται = ἀϕικνεῖται. ‘guest’. 9 ἐμεωυτοῦ = ἐμαυτοῦ. overtook Croesus. of whom one was disabled (for he was deaf and dumb). but you can tell that the verb is past because of the ending. . 1–2 συμϕορῇ ἐχόμενος Literally ‘being held by disaster’. 6 ὁκόθεν = ὁπόθεν. 239. 360. the relationship of guestfriendship would be established. also in the next line κόθεν = πόθεν. οὐ καθαρὸς χεῖρας ‘not clean in respect of his hands’. and then. but the other was far superior to his contemporaries in every way. ‘puriﬁcatory’. to make a reasonable guess. See GE p. line 10. 5 ἐπυνθάνετο The imperfect tense suggests that Croesus ‘began the process of ﬁnding out’ or ‘wanted to ﬁnd out’. Catharsis is the rite of puriﬁcation which the perpetrator of a crime (whether voluntarily or involuntarily committed) must undergo before he can cease to be regarded as polluted and return to normal life and relationships. great retribution from god. This is an accusative of respect. he ﬁrst brought a woman in marriage for the boy. because he thought himself to be the happiest of all men. Thus ξένος can mean ‘stranger’. fearing the dream. although he had been accustomed to command the Lydians in battle. ἐών = ὤν ‘being’. it is the object of ἐπικυρῆσαι.) Once he had been accepted into the house. lest anything hanging over the boy might fall on him. ἀέκων is the uncontracted form of ἄκων. ‘host’ and ‘friend’. And it was this Atys that the dream pointed out to Croesus that he would lose. 7 ἐπίστιος = ἐϕέστιος. and he also removed javelins and spears and all such weapons as men use in war from the men’s quarters and stacked them in the inner chambers. is used here as a noun. #335. Croesus no longer sent him out on this sort of venture anywhere. Croesus had two sons. Then when he woke up and took counsel with himself. 19F. Straightaway a dream came to him when he was asleep which revealed to him the truth of the evils which were going to happen with regard to his son. his name was Atys. This means literally ‘by the hearth’. 3 καθαρσίου The neuter of the adjective καθάρσιος. perhaps ‘gripped by disaster’. ἀμείβετο There is no augment. struck by an iron spear-head.
GE pp. It will be best for you (you will proﬁt most) if you bear this misfortune as lightly as possible. ‘O King. Dative plural of the participle.’at the dentist’s’. ποιέεσκον later in the same line. begged him to cleanse him of his blood-guilt in accordance with the laws of the country. I am the son of Gordias. ‘You are the son of men who are my friends and you have come to friends. coming to the house of Croesus. I have been driven out by my father and deprived of everything. Although we are eager to destroy it. did it no harm. I am called Adrastos. 54: ‘τὸ χρῆμα τῶν νυκτῶν’. #389. No augment for either. and I am here because I killed my own brother by accident. 436–442. When Croesus had performed the customary rites. Page 234 10 οἱ ‘to him’. and related to the royal family. See list of irregular verbs. 11 τοῖσι ἰοῦσι ‘to those going’. a huge monster of a boar appeared. 12 ἐν ἡμετέρου ‘in [the house] of ours’. p. messengers from the Mysians spoke thus: ‘O King. 3 διαϕθείρεσκε The ending in -έσκω is ‘frequentative’. often setting out against it. he started to ask who he was and where he came from. being a Phrygian by birth. where you shall be in need of nothing while you remain in my house. Cf. The process of puriﬁcation is very similar in Lydia and in Greece (among the Lydians and among the Hellenes). Cf Section 5A line 6.248 Section 19C ἐξεληλαμένος From ἐξ-ελαύνω ἐλάω ἤλασα ἐλήλακα ἐλήλαμαι ἠλάθην. on the Mysian Mount Olympus. 4 ἀπικόμενοι = ἀϕικόμενοι. Translation for 19C So he took up residence in the house of Croesus. we cannot do so. but were harmed by it. there arrived in Sardis a man who was beset by misfortune and whose hands were polluted (not pure). And Croesus did cleanse him. the son of Midas. Cf. saying these words: ‘You. and shows that the action took place repeatedly. this creature used to destroy the Mysians’ crops. Translation for 19B While his son was occupied with his wedding. and at this same period. and the Mysians. Now therefore we ask you to send us your . a huge monster of a boar has appeared in our land. who are you and where in Phrygia do you come from? What man or woman did you kill?’ And he answered. Making forays from this mountain. Finally. who were my suppliant.’ Croesus answered him in these words. This man. sir. which is destroying our crops. coming to Croesus. ‘at the doctor’s’.’ 19C Page 233 2 ὑὸς χρῆμα μέγα Literally ‘a great thing of a boar’.
ὀλιγοχρόνιον You will be able to guess this if you derive it from the two words you know. 16 τoι = σοι. there is no ἄν used with χρῆν. ϕοιτέοντας does not agree with ἡμῖν. #336 for the meaning of οὔ ϕημι.Section 19D 249 son and a selected band of young men and hounds. I shall send selected bands of Lydians and the whole pack of hounds and I shall order those who go to be as eager as possible to join in ridding your land of this creature. 12 πρός ‘with regard to’.’ This is the aorist imperative from μεθίημι. 13–14 εἴ κως … ‘if in some way …’ διακλέψαι ‘steal you (from death or Fate)’. 19D Page 234 2 οὐ ϕαμένου See GE p. ‘deaf’. 14 τυγχάνεις ἐών Here the meaning is ‘you really are’ rather than ‘you happen to be’. 17 τό is both the object of μανθάνεις and accusative of respect with λέληθέ σε ‘there is something which you do not understand. ‘Do not mention my son any more. ‘in consideration of’. σϕι ‘to them’. going to wars and to hunts to win fame’. χρῆν … This is an unfulﬁlled condition. 15 διεϕθαρμένον τὴν ἀκοήν ‘destroyed in respect of his hearing’. τὴν ἀκοήν is an accusative of respect. remembering the words of the dream. Cf. 3–4 τὰ κάλλιστα … ἡμῖν ἦν … ϕοιτέοντας εὐδοκιμέειν Literally ‘the most glorious and noble deeds were once formerly to us (mine). . Page 236 19–21 εἰ μὲν γὰρ … εἶπε … . so that we may rid our country of it. 8 μέθες ‘Let me go. but Croesus. but. However. spoke these words to them.’ This was his answer. because it is seen as part of an accusative and inﬁnitive phrase which explains the ﬁrst statement.’ They made these requests. 11 ὄψις ὀνείρoυ … ἐπιστᾶσα This echoes the ἐπέστη in Section 18A. 5 ἀποκληίσας ἔχεις Herodotus often uses a past tense made up of ἔχω + aorist participle. i. Latin nego.e. for I would not send him to you. he is newly married and this is what concerns him now. 6 τέοισι ὄμμασι τέοισι = τίσι: ‘with what eyes?’ How will he look to observers? What will people think of him? How will he appear in their eyes? 7 κοῖος = ποῖος. 361. 7–8 Notice the crescendo of indignant questions. as often. and in respect of which the dream has escaped your notice (which you have failed to observe in the dream)’. for χρῆν was felt to be virtually potential on its own.
Father. So. it is the case that you conquer me. what sort of man to my new-wed wife? With what sort of husband will she seem to be living? You must therefore either let me go to the hunt. ‘odontology’. it is not because I have noticed any cowardice or any other disagreeable trait in you that I do this. ‘somehow’.’ Croesus answered.250 Section 19E 20 ὀδόντος Cf. but what you do not understand and have failed to observe in respect of the dream. For you are in reality my only son. having heard what the Mysians were asking. Cf. the young man spoke thus to him: ‘Previously. as far as I am concerned (for me). then. or something else like this. I change my mind and let you go to the hunt.’ Croesus answered in these words: ‘My son. it was most honourable and noble for me to go to war and to the hunt to win glory. defeated by you. Now to what eyes must I appear as I walk to and from the agora? (What must people think of me?) What sort of person shall I seem to the citizens. let me go. it is a weapon that is to kill me. although you have noticed no cowardice or lack of spirit in me. ἢ ἄλλου τευ ὅ τι τούτῳ οἶκε ‘or of anything else which seems like to this’.’ 19E Page 237 1 εἴπας This is the aorist participle formed from the ﬁrst aorist εἶπα which is the alternative to εἶπον. ‘I forgive your protectiveness for me.’ The young man answered with these words. as it is. . Translation for 19D Although the Mysians were contented with this. ‘My son. showing me your opinion about the dream. τευ = τινός. ‘orthodontist’. Because of this dream. but what sort of hands does a boar have. it is right that I should point out to you. the son of Croesus went to him. but because the apparition of a dream came to me in my sleep. and standing by me said that you would be short-lived. But now you have barred me from both these activities. ‘someone’. what sort of iron spearhead does it have that you should fear? For if it had said to you that I would be killed by a boar’s tusk. since you have had such a dream. taking precautions to see if I can somehow steal you [from death] for as long as I live (for the period of my life). 23 ἔστι τῇ ‘there is a way in which …’. You say that the dream says that I will die by an iron spearhead. and that you would perish by an iron spearhead. Since therefore our ﬁght is not against men. ἔστι τις ‘there is a sort of person who …’. then you ought to be doing what you are doing. But. or persuade me by reason that these things are better for me if done this way. I hastened this marriage of yours and I do not send you on this undertaking. οἶκε = ἔοικε. τοι = σοι. Since Croesus was refusing to send his son to them. and I do not consider that he exists. for the other one is deaf (disabled in respect of hearing). Father.
who ﬁrst did you a good turn. 5 What does ὁρμωμένου agree with? 6 ἐπὶ δηλήσι = ἐπὶ δηλήσει ‘with a view to harm’.’ .Section 19E 251 3 ὑποδεξάμενος ἔχω Another example of this form of past tense. nor could I wish it. to return my generosity. ἤια = ᾖα. 7 ἀπολαμπρυνέαι For -έεαι. since you are eager. and you can expect to see your son. Page 238 9 οἰκός = ἐοικός ‘likely’ or ‘ﬁtting’. 19D line 5. it is your birthright and besides you have the strength.’ Translation for 19E Having said this. ἔγωγε ἂν οὐκ ἤια ἄν + the past tense of εἶμι (‘I go’) make this an unfulﬁlled condition. and for many reasons I would restrain myself. lest any evil thieves appear to do you harm on the road. 10 πάρα = πάρεστι ‘it is present’. because you owe it to me. and it is my duty to please you (for I owe it to you to return your generosity). In addition. ‘Adrastos.’ 11–13 Notice the highly dramatic use of short phrases as the climax is reached: ‘I am ready to do this / your son / whom you order me to guard / unharmed / thanks to his guardian / expect to return to you. χρηστοῖσί με ἀμείβεσθαι ‘to repay me with good things’. I ask you to be the guardian of my son when he sets out for the hunt. 4 προποιήσαντος χρηστὰ ἐς σέ ‘having done good things for you previously’. return to you unharmed so far as depends on his guardian. whom you command me to guard. ‘in other circumstances’. Cf. of future tense. ϕανέωσι Can you recognise this? ϕαίνω has a second aorist passive ἐϕάνην. τὸ βούλεσθαι = ‘the will’. for it is not seemly for a man who has experienced such a disaster to join his peers who are more fortunate. Croesus sent for the Phrygian Adrastos. 2nd person sing. ἀποκληίσας ἔχεις. and I have received you in my household. it is right for you to go where you can distinguish yourself by your deeds. This is the aorist subjunctive. and when he arrived he spoke to him like this. ἂν ἶσχον ἄν + the imperfect indicative continues the unfulﬁlled condition: ‘I would be holding myself back. Here the aorist passive form is used instead of the aorist middle. I gave you puriﬁcation when you had been stricken by an unpleasant misfortune (for which I do not blame you). under other circumstances I would not go to such a contest. But now. providing for all your expenses. I am ready to do these things.’ Adrastos answered: ‘O King. 8 ἄλλως ‘otherwise’. in an uncontracted form. now therefore. ‘the wish’ – the inﬁnitive is used as a noun.
the one who had been cleansed of blood-guilt.252 Section 19F 19F Page 239 2–5 Notice the succession of short clear phrases as the dramatic climax is reached. The killer and the killed. Page 240 14–17 Again the short. 12 τὸν ξεῖνον ϕονέα τοῦ παιδός The contrast is enhanced by the juxtaposition. clear phrases. ταράσσω means ‘to throw into confusion’. and ﬁnally the quiet statement of utter despair. ‘shattered’. This technique is used even more forcefully later in this passage. the plea for death with the brutal word ἐπικατασϕάξαι thrown into prominence as the ﬁrst word in its clause. The brief plain phrases leading inexorably to the disaster are deeply moving. and its effect on Croesus. ἐπίστιος and ἑταιρήιος. so ‘overwhelmed’. τυγχάνει The present tense is used for dramatic effect. the attitude of surrender. 9–13 Croesus calls on Zeus in three capacities. . 10 πεπονθὼς εἴη The perfect optative is used because this is in indirect speech in secondary sequence: ‘bearing witness to the things which he had suffered’. καθάρσιος. He is given no name and he dominates the coming passage. illustrating the tragic consequences of his observance of the proper duties in each case. Once again the inevitable progress of predestined events is made clear. 3 ἐζήτεον. following behind. and the succession of vivid impressions. 5–6 The emphasis is on the fulﬁlment of the prophecy. Croesus’ act and the bond of guest-friendship between them. called Adrastos’. ἐσηκόντιζον Imperfect: ‘they began to …’ 5 ἁμαρτάνει. 13–14 The focus of attention moves from the Lydians (‘there they were’). (You can tell it is future by the single λ and the -εω ending. This reminds us of Adrastos’ history. and is often associated with sacriﬁcial slaughter. 2. under the auspices of Zeus Epistios he had taken him into his house and under the auspices of Zeus Hetairesios he had befriended him and sent out as guardian of his son the man who proved to be his murderer. 6 ἀγγελέων Future participle expressing purpose. 13 ϕύλακα … πολεμιώτατον Here the antithesis is marked by placing the contrasting words at the beginning and the end of the clause. Similarly. Notice also the formal description of Adrastos as ‘the stranger. then to the corpse and then to the solitary ﬁgure of the killer. Under the auspices of Zeus Katharsios he had puriﬁed the stranger. ‘he struck the son of Croesus’ reminds us of the full signiﬁcance of the relationship with Croesus. as with a defeated army.) 8 συντεταραγμένος A very strong word. ‘distraught’. The formal expression seems to give a ritual quality which emphasises the universal truth underlying the story and to make it more than the personal fate of individuals. 15 ἐπικατασϕάξαι σϕάζω means ‘to kill with a sword’.
’ . he said that life was no longer liveable for him. they set off after this accompanied by the selected young men and the hounds. even though he was in such personal distress. Cf. Euripides’ Hippolytus. And there the stranger. hearing this. but hit the son of Croesus. and calling upon him as the god of friendship on the grounds that he had sent him as a guardian for his son and found him to be a most deadly enemy. then our attention moves to Ἄδρηστος δέ … (Adrastos is now given his full formal name at this ﬁnal moment of the story. but it was some god. of all the men whom he knew. In his grief at this tragedy. Translation for 19F When he had answered Croesus with these words. and stretching out his hands. But Croesus. since you condemn yourself to death. and having found it and surrounded it they began to hurl javelins at it. he called in anger upon Zeus the Puriﬁer. he begged him to slay him over the corpse. naming this same god. When they arrived at Mount Olympus. ἐπικατασϕάζει τῷ τύμβῳ ἑωυτόν. and. Κροῖσος μέν … buries his son. in contrast perhaps to the relentless force of destiny fulﬁlling the design of the gods. and the murderer followed behind. in the sense that by killing his son he has destroyed his life. calling upon him as the god of the hearth because having received the stranger into his house he had unwittingly nurtured the murderer of his son. missed the boar.) Finally. hurled his javelin at the boar. being hit by a spearhead. the man called Adrastos. After this. was even more grieved because he himself had cleansed of murder the man who had killed him. and someone ran to tell Croesus what had happened. he offered himself to Croesus. they started to look for the boar. ‘realising that. the Lydians came bearing the corpse. fulﬁlled the prophecy of the dream. and spoke thus to him: ‘Stranger. and he called upon him as the god of the hearth and the god of friendship. (Adrastos is the ‘destroyer’ of the man who puriﬁed him. You are not the one who is responsible for this tragedy. nobility and forgiveness. A digniﬁed and moving end. he told him about the ﬁght and the fate of his son. who prophesied to me long ago the events that would come to pass. overwhelmed by the death of his son.Then indeed he. speaking of his former disaster. and how in addition to it he had destroyed the man who had cleansed him. ὁ ϕονεὺς μέν … . But Croesus. pitied Adrastos. Among mortals there can be pity. and when he reached Sardis. I have full justice from you.Section 19F 253 17–21 The reaction of Croesus. 21–25 The climax opens quietly. the one who had been ritually cleansed of murder. where the reconciliation of Theseus and his son contrasts with the unrelenting vengefulness of Aphrodite.) Next. except in so far as you unintentionally did the deed. he was βαρυσυμϕορώτατος’ (a most weighty and impressive word saved to the last to make it even more emphatic). And standing before the body. when all is quiet and the mourners have gone from the tomb. bearing witness to the things that he had suffered at the hands of the stranger. 20 εἶς = εἶ ‘you are’. ϕονεὺς δέ … the repetition recalls the double tragedy.
καλούμενος. ποιοῦμεν Περσῶν ταύταις. ἕνεκα ἐγένου. killed himself upon the tomb. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 19 THE DIALECT OF HERODOTUS (a) (b) (c) (e) (f) (g) νεανίας. But Adrastos.254 Exercise for section 19 Croesus then buried his son as was ﬁtting. χρηστοῖς . and the destroyer of the man who had cleansed him. without having to struggle quite so hard to understand the Greek. ἀπολεῖ. the one who had been the killer of his own brother. φυλάττω μόνος. when it was quiet and the crowd of people had gone from the tomb (when it was quiet of people about the tomb). the son of Gordias the son of Midas. you can appreciate fully both the dramatic effect of the story and the varied artistry of Herodotus’ narrative technique. so that. συμφορά πράττω. regarding himself as the most accursed of all men whom he knew. Note You may perhaps want to read through this whole section again.
21 στῆ = ἔστη.Section Twenty: Odysseus and Nausikaa Here you have the whole of Odyssey 6. with Athene making her way to Phaeacia. #349–352 ‘Homeric dialect – the main features’. but they had in their minds a huge collection of formulaic phrases which ﬁtted neatly into a hexameter line and they could use these to tell the story. καθεῦδε = καθηῦδε. πολύτλας δῖος ’Oδυσσεύς A formulaic phrase. and it is interesting to consider how Homer uses them. ‘anemometer’ = ‘wind-measurer’. having covered himself with leaves. Remember that this is poetry in the oral tradition. Odysseus is often referred to by this description. No augment. ῥ’ = ῥά. -τλας is from τλάω ‘I endure’. Make sure you read the excellent Introduction. See GE p. You will quickly come to recognise such phrases. 243–244. with the ‘winedark sea’ (ἐπὶ οἴνοπα πόντον) and the ‘black. Do you remember the rhapsode in Section 1H. The passage in English gives the earlier history of the Phaeacian people. and notice GE p. #337(a). partly in Greek and partly in translation. 20A Page 246 1 ὥς with an accent = οὕτως ‘so’. 362. 255 . 3 βῆ = ἔβη. An abbreviated form of ἄρα: ‘then’. #337 on some vital features of Homeric dialect and syntax. 362. There is also the Reference Grammar pp. 362–364. #338–339 on Homeric hexameters and Greek metre. The absence of the augment is very common in Homer. page 247 20 ἀνέμου Cf. ‘thus’. and GE pp. ‘anemone’ = ‘wind-ﬂower’. μιν = αὐτήν. and it is entirely apt. ἔνθα Odysseus is sleeping under an olive bush. thus ‘much-enduring’. This is known as ‘ring composition’ and is a common feature in Homer. πολύτλας: πολύ = ‘much’. RGT pp. and then returns to where it started. 378–382. hollow or swift ship’? These were ‘formulas’. Oral poets did not commit a poem to memory verbatim. 4ff.
although it has no augment. Present subjunctive. καλά Understand εἵματα from the previous line.256 Section 20A πρὸς … ἔειπεν ‘spoke to’. #350). There is also a particle τοι which means ‘in fact’. κεχάριστο This is the pluperfect of χαρίζομαι (not the perfect. The preposition is ‘cut off’ from its verb. ‘let us go’. You can see it is pluperfect because. This is the ‘dative of the person concerned’. another ethic dative ‘as far as you are concerned’. ‘addressed’. 29 τοι Here this probably means ‘in fact’. This is called ‘tmesis’ (‘cutting’). Here it is almost certainly the pronoun: compare this example with 20B line 59. 33 τοι Here probably the particle ‘indeed’. 32 τοι = σοι. #337(d). #337(k). ἔην = ἦν. but only the context will help you to decide between them. and does not express purpose. the bird of Athene. Therefore this is an indeﬁnite clause. 362. ἔσσεαι = ἔσει ‘you will be’. ἡ γλαύξ is ‘the owl’. although in Homer an indeﬁnite is very close to a future: ‘those who will lead you’. not -σται. ἀνθρώπους ἀναβαίνει Understand another ἀνά before ἀνθρώπους: ‘goes up among men’. ἕπομαι takes the dative. ὤψ = ‘face’ or ‘eyes’. . it ends in -στο. It is usually the second word in the sentence. and is frequently found with μήτηρ. See GE p. 362. and is not equivalent to σοι. 28 τὰ δὲ τοῖσι The article is normally used for ‘them’ or ‘these’ in Homer instead of αὐτόν and οὗτος. #337(j). 31 ἴομεν = ἴωμεν. GE p. In poetry the preposition is often left out if it is used as the preﬁx to the verb. 30 πότνια μήτηρ πότνια is a stock epithet for goddesses and great ladies. 22 ναυσικλειτοῖο Genitive ending (GE p. GE p. Here the verb is used with two accusatives. ‘look here’. 32–33 ὄϕρα …ἐντύνεαι ὄϕρα + subjunctive/optative expresses purpose. This is a standard epithet for Athene. It is often translated ‘lady’. but it could be either in the context. it means either ‘grey-eyed’ or owl-faced’. 280. as seen on the Athenian silver drachma. 25 τί νύ σ’ ὧδε … Literally ‘How did your mother bear you thus lazy?’. #337(i)). as GE says in the vocabulary for 19A). ‘addressed her a word’. The Phaeacians were famed for their nautical skills. 23 οἱ = αὐτῇ (GE p. γλαυκός = ‘gleaming’ or ‘grey-green’. ‘And you must provide others for those who …’ οἵ κέ σ’ ἄγωνται κε or κεν = ἄν. 362. πλυνέουσαι Future participle expressing purpose. αὐτήν Agrees with σε (understood). ‘How did your mother come to have such a lazy daughter?’ 26 τοι = σοι. 27 ἵνα + indicative means ‘where’. 362. where μοι is equivalent to τοι in this line. Page 248 24 γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη Another formula.
‘thus’. like a breath of wind. 189–190. godlike Odysseus slept there. 40 ἀπὸ … εἰσί Tmesis again. since you will not be a maiden much longer.428–9) Translation for 20A So much-enduring. 39 πολὺ κάλλιον Understand ἐστί. Possessive dative. 47 διεπέϕραδε Aorist of διαϕράζω. the home of the gods. overcome by sleep and weariness. who was of the same age as her and was very dear to her heart. ἐπότρυνον Aorist imperative (GE pp. For from these things indeed a good reputation spreads among men. ‘where is your race too’. See GE p. Nor ever wind blows loudly. for already the noblest of all the Phaeacian men throughout the people are courting you – you are of the same race as them. and stood above her head and addressed her a word. line 19 ἀκηδέα σιγαλόεντα. In between these repeated phrases there is a marvellous description of Olympus. 38 ῥήγεα σιγαλόεντα Cf. famous for ships. and a father and lady mother rejoice. 41–47 Ring composition again: (line 4) ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη … ἔνθ᾽ ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις (line 10). 41 ὣς εἰποῦσα ‘so speaking’. when you must wear ﬁne [clothes] yourself and provide others for those who will escort you. hurried to the bed of the girl. 37 ἡμιόνους ‘mules’ as in Section 8E. ἐϕοπλίσαι Aorist inﬁnitive of ἐϕοπλίζω. making herself like the daughter of Dymas. the grey-eyed Athene addressed her. #198–199). ‘Come on’. Cf.’ . Likening herself to her. or any snow. ‘where is the race to you yourself also’. (Idylls of the King 1. for the washing-places are far from the city. And it is much better for you yourself to go in this way than on foot. 381. ἄμαξαν ‘wagon’ as in Section 6H. or rain.Section 20A 257 35 τοι = σοι. ask your famous father before dawn to equip you with mules and a wagon to take the girdles. how has your mother borne such a lazy [daughter as] you? The shining clothes are lying uncared for by you (as far as you are concerned) – and your wedding is near. but Athene went to the people and the city of the Phaeacian men … * * * She. #351(iv). e. But come. 43 ἔμμεναι = εἶναι This is a common form of the inﬁnitive in Homer. It was copied by Lucretius in De rerum natura 3.g. 18–22. ‘and they are your nation too’. 42 Οὔλυμπόνδε The sufﬁx -δε means ‘towards’. ὥς with an accent = οὕτως ‘so’. followed by a command. But let us go and do the washing as soon as dawn appears. οἰκάδε. the robes and the shining covers. so that you may get ready very quickly. ‘phrase’. and by Tennyson: Where falls not hail. and I will go with you as a helper. ‘are distant from’. 36 ἄγ᾽ = ἄγε. ‘Nausikaa.
60 σοὶ αὐτῷ ἔοικε This is followed by accusative + inﬁnitive: ‘it is right for you yourself to discuss plans (βουλὰς βουλεύειν) being among the foremost men (ἐόντα) having (ἔχοντα) clean clothes on your body’. nor does snow come near. ἵν᾽ ἀγγείλειε ἵνα + optative expresses purpose in secondary sequence. where they say the safe seat of the gods is for ever. 53 θύραζε = θύρασδε. See GE p. ἁλι. as often in Homer. 66 αἴδετο ‘felt reticent about’. not ashamed. at once she was amazed at the dream and she went through the palace to tell it to her parents. It was particularly valuable. almost certainly a stock epithet. ‘nobles’ (not ‘kings’). 19A line 19. See GE p. it is not shaken by winds. τοκεῦσι ‘to her parents’. as daughter to father. 20B Page 250 48 μιν ‘her’.258 Section 20B So speaking. 53 ἠλάκατα στρωϕῶσ’ ἁλιπόρϕυρα ‘spinning the sea-purple wool’. when she had spoken to the girl. hence ‘royal purple’. 52 σὺν ἀμϕιπόλοισι γυναιξίν Another formula which ﬁts the second half of the hexameter.is from the word meaning ‘salt’ or ‘sea’. 53–54 τῷ δὲ … ξύμβλητο ‘She met him …’ ἐρχομένῳ agrees with τῷ. dear’. or crimson. a very common idiom in Homer. Nausikaa uses this same phrase (p. 380 #350. Translation for 20B At once fair-throned dawn came and she woke fair-robed Nausikaa. Note the accent. ἴμεναι is a form of inﬁnitive. It means ‘she went’. . and then described more fully with ἡ μέν … in line 52. 265. Nausikaa was modest about her marriage. ‘Sea-purple’ because purple. Cf. 56 μάλ᾽ ἄγχι ‘very close’. nor wet by showers. 54 βασιλῆας ‘chieftains’. It cannot be τοι = σοι. and τῷ δέ … in line 53. the grey-eyed Athene went away to Olympus. 50 βῆ δ᾽ ἴμεναι Literally ‘she went to go’. 381. 71 τοί = οἱ ‘they’. ‘right up close’. itemised in the next line. line 308) when speaking to Odysseus. 57 πάππα ϕίλ’ This is informal: ‘Daddy. but a very clear sky spreads over it. θαλερὸν γάμον ‘fruitful marriage’. in it the blessed gods enjoy themselves all their days. οὐκ ἂν δή μοι ἐϕοπλίσσειας A polite request: ‘Wouldn’t you provide me with …’ 59 τά = ἅ ‘which’. and a white radiance covers it. ‘in the purple’. 55 ἵνα + indicative means ‘where’. dye came from the murex (a shell-ﬁsh). There the grey-eyed one went. cloudless. explained by Ναυσικάαν εὔπεπλον in the next line. 68 τευ = τινος. µοι Another ethic dative (dative of the person concerned). #351(iv).
Section 20C 259 her dear father and mother. but he realised all and replied: ‘I do not be grudge you mules. but here he is more fortunate. when you are with your nobles. they all wish to go to the dance with newly washed clothes. The servants will equip for you a high well-wheeled wagon. . #350. ἔχουσι ἔχω often has the sense of ‘have (as their home)’. 173. ﬁtted with a canopy. She found them indoors. nor anything else. Remember the sophist in Section 6F ‘catching up the argument like a ball’. for she was hesitant to mention fruitful marriage to her dear father. ἀλλά (as in line 110) means ‘but’. All these things are a concern to my mind. = ‘loudly’. Go. on his way to his distinguished counsellors to a council to which the Phaeacian nobles called him.’ So saying. lines 33–39. Perhaps ‘Oh dear me!’ 119–121 A most important consideration on arriving in a strange land. Page 253 119 ὤ μοι ἐγώ Difﬁcult to translate naturally. πόλιν ‘to the city’. he ordered the servants and they obeyed. And it is ﬁtting for you yourself. spinning sea-purple wool. she (her mother) was sitting by the hearth. I know.’ 112 ἄλλ’ ἐνόησε Note the accent on ἄλλο: ‘planned something else’. with her servant women. ἄϋσαν Three syllables. The preposition is omitted. Odysseus had the same thoughts before he met the Cyclops. two are married and three are thriving bachelors. won’t you get ready for me a high well-wheeled wagon. If the inhabitants are ‘god-fearing’. the breathing (ἀ) and the diaeresis (ϋ) show this.’ Almost ‘It was time to go home.e. so that I may take the lovely clothes to the river to wash them? They are lying there. i. 121 σϕίν ‘to them’. She stood very close to him and addressed her dear father: ‘Daddy dear. 119 τέων = τίνων. 115 σϕαῖραν ‘sphere’. they will respect the laws of hospitality and look after the stranger kindly. child.’ So she spoke. It is a possessive dative. him she met going towards the door. dirty. 113 ὡς + optative expresses purpose in secondary sequence. Five dear sons have been born to you in the palace. 123 νυμϕάων This recalls the simile likening Nausikaa to Artemis and her nymphs on p. See GE p. 20C Page 252 110 ἔμελλε ‘She was going to return home. 117 ἐπὶ μακρόν Adverbial. to discuss plans with clean clothes on your body. 380. ‘inhabit’. βασίλεια Nominative and feminine. ἡγήσαιτο takes the dative and it is in the optative because it continues the purpose clause started in line 113. 114 oἱ = ‘him’ (dative).
accusative. ‘let me …’ ἠδέ ‘and’. so at this point it is focused on Odysseus. Note that the verb (δαίεται) is singular. literally. Aorist of κλάζω without the augment. ‘his eyes’. as with a neuter plural subject. Cf. 129 ϕύλλων Goes with πτόρθον in the previous line. ἐν probably belongs to δαίεται and is cut off by tmesis. 134 δόμον Here referring to the ‘pens’ where the sheep and cattle were kept. οἱ is a possessive dative. let me try and see for myself. ὄσσε A dual (GE #331–332). #350. 130 βῆ δ᾽ ἴμεν See note on 20B line 50 above. or are they hospitable and have a god-fearing mind? The female shriek of maidens surrounded me – of nymphs. 132 ὀΐεσσιν Four syllables. who inhabit the steep peaks of mountains and sources of rivers and grassy meadows. ‘gastric’. note on 20C line 117 ἄϋσαν. ϕωτός Be careful not to confuse ϕώς ϕωτός ‘man’ and τὸ ϕῶς (ϕάος) ‘light’. and he too is storm-tossed and driven by desperate necessity to come from the wild to seek help in a civilised community. 133 ἑ = ‘him’. sitting up. of εἶμι. Cf.260 Section 20D 126 πειρήσομαι ἠδὲ ἴδωμαι These verbs are both subjunctives. ‘a different one in a different direction’. 131 εἶσ’ = εἶσι: 3rd s. Odysseus appears as savage and terrible as a lion to the girls. ‘Oh dear me. ἠμέν … ἠδέ … ‘both … and …’ Translation for 20C But when she was about to go back home again. and they shrieked loudly.’ 20D Page 254 128 κλάσε = ἔκλασε. savage and not just. 137 ϕάνη = ἐϕάνη. ‘who goes’. 136 περ = καίπερ. The princess then threw a ball to a hand-maiden. ‘a leafy branch’. ‘gastritis’ etc. . παχείῃ Cf. 130–134 Just as our attention was drawn to Nausikaa with a simile (Artemis and the nymphs). it missed the handmaiden and fell into the deep eddy. driven down from the hills by hunger to raid the village animals. is apt. the aorist of ϕαίνομαι. 138 ἄλλυδις ἄλλη The whole phrase means ‘in different directions’ (as in GE). a thick-skinned animal. to the land of what people have I come this time? Are they violent. considered in his heart and mind. that Odysseus should wake up and see the beautiful girl who would lead him to the city of the Phaeacian men. ‘pachyderm’. Godlike Odysseus awoke. and. The simile of the mountain lion. γαστήρ Cf. Or am I now somewhere near men who speak with human voices? But come. after yoking the mules and folding the ﬁne clothing. then again the grey-eyed goddess Athene planned something else. See GE p. 380.
‘Are you a god or a mortal?’ A splendid piece of ﬂattery and also of reassurance. ‘Honeyed words’ is a frequent formula. for Athene put courage in her heart and removed the fear from her limbs. 145 κέρδιον ‘more proﬁtable’. Do not confuse this with οἷος ‘such as’. so ‘holding her ground’. Its basic root is μέλι ‘honey’.Section 20E 261 139 οἴη The feminine of οἶος ‘alone’. ‘to see if she would show him the city and give him clothes’. godlike Odysseus emerged from the bushes. who goes on. and is picked up by κερδαλέον (‘subtle’. Translation for 20D Speaking thus. the arch-persuader. Literally ‘maintaining herself’. to make trial of the sheep. for no man is going to offend or rape a goddess. in case the girl should grow angry in her heart with him for taking her knees. 144 δοίη Aorist optative of δίδωμι. Odysseus debated whether to take her knees and beseech the beautiful girl or simply with honeyed words at a distance to beseech her to show him the city and give him clothing. holding her ground. She stood and faced him. Alcinous’ daughter alone remained. naked though he was. and ‘honeyed’ would be equally appropriate here. So Odysseus was going to meet the maidens with beautiful hair. p. He seemed terrible to them. At once he addressed to her a honeyed and cunning speech. It seemed to him. . and they ran in different directions along the jutting shores. ‘soothing’. disﬁgured with brine. though rained upon and blown upon. 147 μὴ … χολώσαιτο ‘lest she be angry’. to be better to beseech her with honeyed words from a distance. 142 γούνων … λαβών Touching or clasping the knees was a sign of supplication. εὐώπιδα κούρην Another formulaic phrase. line 113. but he attacks the oxen or sheep. Both are in an indirect question in secondary sequence. He went forward like a mountain-bred lion trusting in his strength. 141 σχομένη Middle participle of ἔχω. hunger orders him to go even into the densely-packed pens. 252. with his broad hand he broke a leafy branch from the thick-foliaged bush so that shielding (around) his body he could hide his male genitals. δείξειε is also an aorist optative. It literally means Ί clasp your knees’ – the very thing that Odysseus has not done! θεός νύ τις ἦ βροτός ἐσσι. ‘crafty’) in line 148. 20E Page 256 149 γουνοῦμαι GE gives this as ‘beseech’. 143 μειλιχίοισι GE gives this as ‘winning’. ‘more advantageous’. for need was upon him. they are often employed by Odysseus. This shows the shrewdly calculating mind of Odysseus. and his eyes burn. or goes after the wild deer. Cf. as he thought about it.
168–169 δείδια … γούνων ἅψασθαι Another example of ring composition. . 155–157 There are more constructions here that go with the sense rather than with strict grammar. 160–165 Note the transition from his admiration and awe at the beauty of Nausikaa to his own story and the ‘hint’ to her (mentioned in the introduction). 158–159 The climax and another reference to Nausikaa’s marriage. and both Nausikaa and her parents hope at some time that Odysseus might perhaps remain and become her husband. This is a recurring theme in the Phaeacia story. etc. and the feminine participle εἰσοιχνεῦσαν ‘agrees’ with the neuter noun θάλος. 172 νήσου ἀπ᾽ Ὠγυγίης This was the island of Calypso where Odysseus was detained for seven years. 170 χθιζός An adjective agreeing with the subject Odysseus. Zeus. The point of the comparison is the slender beauty of the palm and the awe it induces in the beholder. 252. that she may be a mortal. τοῖον agrees with ἔρνος. …’ 153 εἰ δέ τίς ἐσσι βροτῶν … More ﬂattery and reassurance as Odysseus develops the second possibility. created the palm and the bay tree. Literally ‘yesterday’s’. 167 δόρυ This refers to the palm. Page 258 170–174 Now he speaks of his past sufferings and his foreboding for the future. Odysseus has. It was there that Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis and in honour of this their father.262 Section 20E 150 θεός … τοί τοί is a plural relative pronoun. The construction follows the sense: ‘if you are one of the gods who’. 162 Delos was sacred to Apollo. where Nausikaa is likened to Artemis. It is also particularly suitable. and brings us back in the ‘ring-composition’ structure to the starting-point of the simile. after a singular antecedent θεός. γουνοῦμαι in line 8 at the start of the speech. 151 Ἀρτέμιδι This recalls the simile on p. lines 102–109. since Artemis is a virgin goddess. of course. also to explain to Nausikaa why he is not clasping her knees in the attitude of formal supplication. 152 εἶδός τε μέγεθός τε ϕυήν τ’… All these are accusatives of respect: ‘I liken you to Artemis in appearance. that he has been a person of some importance: line164 πολὺς δέ μοι ἕσπετο λαός. Translate ‘yesterday’. 162–163 Note the order in which the ideas are presented: ‘in Delos once … such a … by the altar of Apollo … of a palm … the young shoot springing up … I saw’. λευσσόντων ‘agrees’ with σϕισι in line 155 ‘when they see …’. οἴνοπα πόντον ‘the wine-dark sea’. 173 ὄϕρα … πάθω ὄϕρα + subjunctive expresses purpose: ‘so that I may suffer some trouble (κακόν) here as well (καί)’. Cf. a formulaic phrase.
I look at you in awe. But he in his heart is most blessed above [all] others who. and I do not know any other of the people who inhabit this city and land. give me a rag to put round myself. for surely the heart within them always warms very much with pleasure through you when they see such young beauty entering the dance. a husband and a home. near the altar of Apollo. 180 δοῖεν Optative for a wish. princess. have pity. and may they grant beautiful harmony: for there is nothing greater and better than this. and thrice blessed are your brothers. In the same way as. so. lady. 174 τελέουσι In form this could be present or future. I am astonished and I am terribly afraid to touch your knees. whatever they wrapped the washing in. but hard grief has come upon me. 181 ὀπάσειαν Another optative expressing a wish. ‘To you may the gods give all that you desire in your heart. awe holds me as I look. ἢ ὅθ’ ‘than when …’ 183 ὁμοϕρονέοντε. than when in harmony of mind a man and woman share a home. ‘This’ is explained in the next line. now a god has cast me up here. neither man nor woman. since no such shoot ever yet came up from the earth.Section 20E 263 173–174 οὐ γὰρ ὀΐω παύσεσθαι ‘I do not think it will cease. He means any old piece of material. leads you home [as his wife]. ‘I have not seen with my eyes such a one. ῥάκος Very close to ‘rag’. I saw such a young shoot of a date-palm growing up. I had gone there. Translation for 20E ‘I beseech you by your knees. for so long the waves and swift storms carried me always from the island of Ogygia. and a large company followed me. 175 σε Governed by ἐς in the next line: ‘I came to you ﬁrst. when I saw it. the subject is ἀνὴρ ἠδὲ γυνή. ἔχητον These are both duals.’ 178 δεῖξον Aorist imperative of δείκνυμι. so that I may suffer some evil here too. after loading you with gifts. In Delos once. are you a god or a mortal? If you are a god. I delighted in my heart for a long time. on that journey on which evil troubles were destined to befall me. I liken you most closely to Artemis. ‘than this’. But.’ παύσεσθαι = future middle inﬁnitive of παύω. princess. on the twentieth day. 182 τοῦ Genitive of comparison. The sense suggests future. ‘may they grant’. ‘a rag to put round me’. ‘Yesterday. Show me the city. ‘may they give’. such as inhabit the broad heaven. stature and beauty. ἀμϕιβαλέσθαι An explanatory inﬁnitive. If you are one of the mortals who live upon earth. in appearance. I escaped from the wine-dark sea. for I do not think it will stop. . daughter of great Zeus. thrice blessed are your father and lady mother. if you had any wrapping for the clothes when you came here. but the gods will accomplish even more before that. after suffering many evils I have come to you ﬁrst.
189 ἐθέλῃσιν = ἐθέλῃ. διερός occurs in Homer only here and in Od. This is an epithet which is applied only to women. starting with the previous line. beyond the reach of pirates and enemies and with their magic ships that need no helmsman to take them anywhere they wish to go. ῥά = ἄρα. 201 This is easy to mistranslate: – not ‘this is not a mortal man’. almost in a fairy-tale land. see 218b) it is right (ἐπέοιχ᾽) for a poor suppliant (ἱκέτην ταλαπείριον) not to lack (μὴ δεύεσθαι is understood from οὐ δευήσεαι in the previous line) having met [someone]. 9. but ‘there is not a mortal man living who …’ The accent on ἔσθ᾽ shows that it means ‘exists’ rather than ‘is’. is ‘So you will lack neither clothing nor anything else which it is right for a poor suppliant [to have] when he has met [someone to help him]. Cf. Once again the religious requirement of hospitality is emphasised. You ﬁrst met these lines in Section 4C p.264 Section 20F they are a great grief to their enemies and a delight to their friends. ἔσχατοι The Phaeacians live far away on the edge of the known world.) clothing or anything else which (ὧν is genitive by relative attraction. 210 λούσατε Note that this is active.’ 20F Page 260 186 λευκώλενος ‘white-armed’. ‘just as he pleases’. 204–205 ἀπάνευθε. not to take him to a place where he can wash himself. 187–189 Nausikaa means that since Odysseus is sensible and intelligent he must accept whatever fate Zeus sends him.’ 198 ἦ ῥα A common formulaic phrase: ἦ = ‘she spoke’. 191–193 A complicated clause. lines 31–32. subj. ἔμμεναι = εἶναι. Tradition has it that Phaeacia is the modern Corfu. The μοι is rather like our colloquial phrase ‘Will you do this for me?’ 200 ϕάσθ᾽ Here this is more like ‘consider’ than ‘say’. On Minoan frescos women are conventionally coloured white and men terracotta. 207 πρὸς Διός πρός here means ‘under the protection of’. and women who do not work in the ﬁelds and get sun-burned. Odysseus is described in the ﬁrst line of this book as πολύτλας. 190 τετλάμεν Inﬁnitive of τλάω.43. 197 GE tells you that ἐκ governs τοῦ and that ἔχεται ἐκ means here ‘depend on’. they themselves are greatly respected.’ 194 ἐρέω Future of λέγω. 48. It is a compound adjective with only two terminations. It is therefore complimentary. . Nausikaa tells her maids to wash Odysseus. please’. Euthydemos). The meaning. so that the -ος ending can be feminine.’ In grammatical detail: ‘You will not lack (+ gen.. pres. ἦ δ᾽ ὅς in sections 7D and 7E (Plato. ‘On him the power and might of the Phaeacians depend. 199 στῆτέ μοι ‘stop. hence. 3rd s.
214 πάρ = παρά Note the shortening of some prepositions to monosyllables – κάδ has just occurred and recurs in line 230. The two verbs look like futures. since you seem to be neither an evil nor a foolish man. But. I am the daughter of great-hearted Alcinous. although the ordinary plural is used in lines 225 and 235. 212 κάδ … εἷσαν Note κάδ = κατά. where we would have to say ‘washed the brine from his body’. on him the power and might of the Phaeacians depend. where are you ﬂeeing after seeing a man? Surely you do not think this is one of the hostile men? That mortal man does not exist.’ She spoke. ‘washed his body’ and ‘washed the brine’. where there is shelter from the wind. and a gift is small but welcome. and gave orders to her handmaidens with pretty hair: ‘Stop. give the stranger meat and drink. the root of ἕζω = ἕδος.Section 20G 265 Translation for 20F Then white-armed Nausikaa answered him in reply: ‘Stranger. Odysseus refuses their assistance because his body is in such a dreadful state after his hardships that he ‘is ashamed to be naked among maidens with well-ordered hair’. 224 νίζετο The verb takes two accusatives here. The Phaeacians inhabit this city and land. 221 αἰδέομαι It was normal practice in the world of Homer for girl-slaves to bath male visitors. I will show you the city and tell you the name of the people. you will not lack for clothing nor anything else which it is right for a poor suppliant [to have] when he has met [someone to help him]. since you have come to our city and land. We live far away in the loud-roaring sea. and wash him in the river. nor will he ever be born. ἀνά can be treated in the same way. nor does any other of mortals have dealings with us. Olympian Zeus himself apportions happiness to mankind.’ 20G Page 261 211 ἔσταν = ἔστησαν ‘they stopped’. the furthest [of peoples]. But now. for we are very dear to the immortal gods. handmaidens. for all strangers and beggars are under the protection of Zeus. just as he pleases. whom we must now look after. 219 ὤμοιϊν Dual – he has two shoulders. to each. handmaidens. . but are in fact aorist subjunctives. who would come to the land of Phaeacian men bringing slaughter. It means ‘unharvested’ and so ‘unharvestable’ and so ‘barren’. and you must doubtless endure them. to good and bad. Page 262 218–220 ὄϕρ᾽ … ἀπολούσομαι … χρίσομαι ὄϕρα + subjunctive expresses purpose. and so he has given you these things. They escorted Odysseus to a sheltered spot and sat him down there. 226 ἀτρυγέτοιο A regular epithet for the sea. But this is some poor wanderer who has arrived here.
next to him they put a cloak and a tunic as clothing and gave him moist olive-oil in a golden oil-jar. daughter of great-hearted Alkinoos. grant me to reach my house and see my day of homecoming. never to see her again. 244 αἲ γάρ = εἰ γάρ. 231 ὑακινθίνῳ ἄνθει ὁμοίας Presumably thick. with the gods’ loveliness on her stood beside the pillar that supported the roof with its joinery. εἰ γάρ + optative expresses a wish. Then indeed godlike Odysseus said to the handmaidens: ‘Handmaidens. 238 μετηύδα From μεταυδάω ‘I speak to’. lines 457–468. ‘greater to look upon’. For indeed ointment has been absent from my body for a long time. and spoke to him aloud and addressed him in winged words. how I was the ﬁrst you owed your life to. and they stood and encouraged each other. so that I myself may wash the brine from my shoulders and anoint myself with olive-oil. stand thus far off.266 Section 20G 228 ἕσσαθ᾽ First aorist middle of ἕννυμι: ‘he put on’. high-thundering husband of Hera. 232–234 In this simile Athene enhances the appearance of Odysseus as a skilled craftsman puts the ﬁnishing touches to a work of art.’ Translation for 20G So she spoke. all the days of my life. For. You may remember the passage from Plato in Section 18. Once again the marriage theme. ‘on him’. But I will not wash in front of you . and gazed upon Odysseus with all her eyes and admired him. Nausikaa is to be disappointed. maiden. and they went far off and told the girl. So even when I am there I will pray to you as a goddess. my life was your gift. They sat Odysseus down in shelter. ‘whom … have taught all skill’. 245 οἱ ἅδοι ‘and that it might be pleasing to him …’ ἅδοι is the aorist optative of ἁνδάνω. saying: ‘Goodbye. πόσις ‘husband’. 233 δέδαεν Takes two objects. stranger. where Athene and Hephaistos are the gods who are the masters of the craftsman’s art. 248 πόσιν Here = ‘drink’. Then Nausicaa. and they told him to wash in the stream of the river. But from the river godlike Odysseus washed from his body the brine which lay thick upon his back and . where there is an underlying pathos when Odysseus speaks his last words to her the day before he leaves for Ithaca.’ So he spoke. with ‘on his head and shoulders’ in apposition. even so may Zeus. 230 εἰσιδέειν An explanatory inﬁnitive. clustering curls are like the wild hyacinth petals. and think of me sometimes when you are back at home. for I am ashamed to be naked coming among maidens with lovely hair. 235 τῷ Indirect object.’ Then resourceful Odysseus spoke in turn and answered her: ‘Nausicaa. as Nausikaa daughter of great-hearted Alcinous ordered. The last we hear of her is in Book 8.
after some debate. Earlier he seemed to me to be wretched. As when a skilled craftsman. and put on the clothes which the unmarried girl provided for him. He is welcomed and. Now read on in English to the end of Book 6. down from his head she sent bushy hair. on his head and shoulders. so she poured on him grace. ‘Listen to me. he goes to the palace and appeals to the Queen. Not against the will of all the gods who inhabit Olympus has this man come among the godlike Phaeacians. Would that such a man might be called my husband dwelling here. shining with beauty and grace.Section 20G 267 broad shoulders. On the next day (Book 8) the Phaeacians hold games at which Odysseus establishes his prowess. give the stranger meat and drink. In Book 13 he departs from Phaeacia and the story moves forward again to his return to Ithaca and all the problems which await him there. white-armed handmaidens.’ So she spoke. daughter of Zeus. handmaidens. and after the banquet the singer Demodocus tells the story of the wooden horse at Troy. . Then going along the seashore. made him taller and broader to look upon. Odysseus is moved to tears. In Book 7 Odysseus follows Nausikaa’s advice and. and they readily heard and obeyed her. like the hyacinth ﬂower. because for a long time he had not tasted food. In Books 9–12 he tells what has happened to him since he left Troy until the time he was washed up on the shore of the island of Calypso. But when he had washed all and richly anointed himself. whom Hephaistos and Pallas Athene have taught all skill. Then indeed much-enduring godlike Odysseus drank and ate greedily. In the evening there is a banquet. Then indeed she spoke to her beautiful-haired handmaidens. But. so that I may say something. and that it might please him to remain here. From his head he wiped the scum of the unharvested sea. but now he is like the gods who inhabit the broad heaven. then Athene. and put beside Odysseus meat and drink. given hospitality. and Alcinous at last asks him who he is. the maiden watched him admiringly. Odysseus reveals his identity and starts to tell his story. lays gold on silver and completes graceful work. he sat far off. with Athene’s help.