An Independent Study Guide to
First published in 1978 and now thoroughly revised, Reading Greek is a best-selling oneyear introductory course in ancient Greek for students of any age. It combines the best of modern and traditional language-learning techniques and is used in schools, summer schools and universities across the world. This Independent Study Guide is intended to help students who are learning Greek on their own or with only limited access to a teacher. It contains notes on the texts that appear in the Text and Vocabulary volume, translations of all the texts, answers to the exercises in the Grammar and Exercises volume and crossreferences to the relevant fifth-century background in The World of Athens. There are instructions on how to use the course and the Study Guide. The book will also be useful to students in schools, universities and summer schools who have to learn Greek rapidly.
THE JOINT ASSOCIATION OF CLASSICAL TEACHERS’ GREEK COURSE
An Independent Study Guide to
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Authors’ note Author’s note on the revised edition Preface Abbreviations used in the text Grammatical Introduction Section One: The insurance scam Section Two: The glorious past Section Three: Athens and Sparta Section Four: Lawlessness in Athenian life Section Five: ‘Socrates corrupts the young’ Section Six Section Seven: Socrates and intellectual inquiry Section Eight: Aristophanes’ Birds Section Nine: Aristophanes’ Wasps Section Ten: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata Section Eleven: Aristophanes’ Akharnians Section Twelve: Neaira as slave Section Thirteen: Neaira as married woman Section Fourteen: Guarding a woman’s purity Section Fifteen: Alkestis in Euripides’ play Section Sixteen: Ofﬁcial justice: ships. state and individuals Section Seventeen: Private justice: trouble down at the farm Section Eighteen: How Zeus gave justice to men Section Nineteen: The story of Adrastos Section Twenty: Odysseus and Nausikaa
page vi vii ix xi 1 3 20 30 42 57 71 84 101 113 137 149 158 180 200 208 211 225 239 246 255
This study guide has been written by members of the JACT Greek Committee for use by those who are using the JACT course Reading Greek published by the Cambridge University Press. or with only limited access to a teacher. and from those fellow teachers who have read it with a critical eye. In particular they would like to thank Professor Malcolm Willcock who has saved them from innumerable errors by his meticulous proof-reading of the trial stages. They are also very grateful to him and to Professor Eric Handley for reading the page-proofs and to the copy-editor Susan Moore for all her skilled assistance. universities and summer schools who have to learn Greek rapidly and intensively. However we hope that it may also prove useful to pupils in schools. The authors would like to express their gratitude for the helpful comments they have received from those who have used the Independent Study Guide in its trial stages. It is intended primarily for those who are learning Greek on their own. Jeannie Cohen Carol Handley James Morwood James Neville
in spite of the fact that much of the grammatical material in them is also explained in the new Grammar and Exercises volume of Reading Greek. Carol Handley
. which gives the reader very much more information about the grammar and syntax of Greek and has added a great many more exercises to help consolidate learning and understanding. This revised edition of the Independent Study Guide contains answers to all the new exercises and all references are to the new edition of Reading Greek.Author’s note on the revised edition
A new edition of Reading Greek has been prepared. The notes to help with the passages in Reading Greek Text are largely unchanged. It was felt that different learners ﬁnd different forms of explanations helpful. I am extremely grateful to Anthony Bowen for his meticulous proof-reading and numerous suggested improvements. and so it is hoped that some duplication may prove to be an advantage rather than an irritant.
3. and records readings from passages in RGT.Preface
How to use this course You have three books: Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary (RGT) Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises (GE) Independent Study Guide to Reading Greek (ISG) In addition there is a CD Speaking Greek which illustrates pronunciation. and will also allow you to check whether you have got everything right. as it is an important check on your grasp of the section. which gives you background information about Athenian history and life. The ﬁrst two books. translations of the text. You may also like to have The World of Athens (second edition 2008). You read the passage in RGT with the aid of the running vocabulary for the section. Then you do the exercises for the section to make sure that you have understood the grammar. They are designed to help you with the reading and to amplify the explanation of the grammar in GE. You may want to do each section of the exercises as you study the grammar in GE. The notes will give you some general advice at the start of a new section and some additional help as you read the text. and a key to the exercises in GE. but they will help you to practise the language and to make sure that you understand the grammar. were designed to be used together so that 1. they will refer you to relevant pages and paragraphs in GE and in RGT. However. 4. Since the
. so that you get immediate practice in a new feature of language. Then you learn the grammar and the lists of ‘vocabulary to be learnt’ in GE.
The Independent Study Guide (ISG) contains notes on translating the text of RGT. 2. you should always do the ﬁnal ‘Test Exercise’ in each section. RGT and GE. Then you look at the explanations of the grammar in GE. It is not essential to do all the exercises on morphology and syntax. The translations of the text and the exercises will help you if you get stuck.
It is a matter of personal choice whether you prefer to look out for new forms in reading. Some people prefer to look at the explanations of the grammar in a new section before they embark on reading the text.x
translations are there to help you to understand the Greek. and then ﬁnd out how they work. but it will work just as well if you prefer the second. In the ﬁrst section. You will be surprised at how much more you remember if you do this. It is always a good idea to re-read the text of a section after you have ﬁnished it. they are literal rather than elegant in style. or whether you like to look at a new pattern of grammar and then see how it is used in the text. It will also help you to absorb more of the very varied vocabulary which is used in Reading Greek to provide a greater range of interest and a wider experience of the language from an early stage. ISG assumes that you will be using the ﬁrst procedure.
giving chapter and paragraph numbers.
.Abbreviations used in the text
ISG RGT GE WA
= The Independent Study Guide = Reading Greek: Text and Vocabulary = Reading Greek: Grammar and Exercises = The World of Athens
References with no preﬁx are to the text of this ISG.
For centuries it was common practice in English usage to turn all Greek spellings into their Latin equivalents. at the same time.g. 4–7 #1–7). but ‘Akhilleus’ comes as a shock. we all recognise ‘Achilles’. 1–3). but the difﬁculty with this practice is that some words and names. Editors therefore have to make a decision whether to be consistently ‘Latin’ or consistently ‘Greek’. E.Grammatical Introduction
In the Introduction to Grammar and Exercises you will ﬁnd the Greek alphabet and a guide to pronunciation (GE pp. this is not straightforward. The latter course has been followed in this book. If you have the Speaking Greek CD it is very helpful to listen to the ﬁrst section. ‘The sounds of Greek’. in particular. have become so much part of our English heritage that they look strange and unfamiliar in their ‘Greek’ form. More recently it has been fashionable to keep to a spelling that is closer to the original Greek. or whether to keep the familiar words in their ‘Latin’ form while treating the less familiar words in a ‘Greek’ way. In their English form the words will be: Byzantium (Busdantion) Dicaeopolis or Dikaiopolis Euboea or Euboia Zenothemis or Sdenothemis Hegestratus or Hegestratos Parthenon Chios (Khios) acropolis (akropolis) emporium (emporion)
As you see.
The words in their Greek form (without accents) are: drama panthēr δραμα πανθηρ comma cōlon κομμα κωλον
. as well as a description of the basic terms used to describe the grammar (GE pp. 3.
Try the exercise on the alphabet on GE p. Reading and writing Look at the alphabet and the pronunciation guide in GE pages 1–3.
ὁ Ἡγέστρατος is the subject. but also to look closely at the endings of words. τοὺς ναύτας is the object.
. or you will ﬁnd that you are making avoidable mistakes in understanding Greek. You will ﬁnd more information about the Greek language in Part B of GE in the Reference Grammar (GE pp. #7)
1. #408–454). ὁ Ζηνόθεμις is the subject. τὸν Ἡγέστρατον is the object. You will have to train yourself consciously to notice the endings. 6–7. 369–463.2
crocus geranium hippopotamus ibis asbestos charactēr scēnē Periclēs Sophoclēs Euripidēs *Hippocratēs
κροκος γερανιον ἱπποποταμος ἰβις ἀσβεστος χαρακτηρ σκηνη Περικλης Σοφοκλης Εὐριπιδης Ἱπποκρατης
Sōcratēs Zeus Artemis *Hēraclēs asthma dyspepsia cinēma orchēstra mēlon iris
Σωκρατης Ζευς Ἀρτεμις Ἡρακλης ἀσθμα δυσπεψια κινημα ὀρχηστρα μηλον ἰρις
Case: Subject and object (pp. 3. 465–495. #340–406) and in Part C Language Surveys (GE pp. However. Hegestratos as subject will be Hegestratos as object will be Zenothemis as subject will be ὁ Ἡγέστρατος τὸν Ἡγέστρατον ὁ Ζηνόθεμις
When you have studied the Grammatical introduction you will be aware that in reading Greek it is necessary to learn not only to interpret the new script. τὸν Ζηνόθεμιν is the object. This is something which we do not need to do in English. 2. most of this will be of future interest. and you should certainly not try to absorb it all at this stage. ἡ γυνὴ is the subject.
does not always have the same word order as English. It should help you to get used to the script and the sound of the language. Then try working out the translation of that ﬁrst paragraph. 8–12. not word order. In Chios. 1–7)
The ship is in Byzantium. the ship sails to Athens and the Piraeus. ὁ κυβερνήτης). 4–7. and the Grammar for Section 1A–B #8–11.g. And in Byzantium. ἐν Βυζαντίῳ) and that all the nouns appear with their articles (e. NB. then Sdenothemis goes into the ship. pausing at the end of every sentence and repeating the Greek aloud.
1. The ship sails to Chios. as you see. And in Euboea.Section One: The insurance scam
Speaking Greek CD First.)
. Finally. Replay the ﬁrst paragraph (lines 1–7). please see the Grammatical introduction GE 1–7 pp. with the aid of the running vocabulary on p. Greek. This is because in Greek (as in Latin) case-endings.g. You will ﬁnd the answers to the exercises in this volume after our grammar and notes on 1A and 1B (p. and ﬁnally the captain and the sailors go into the ship. then look at GE pp.
Translation for 1A (ll. You will ﬁnd that several complete phrases are listed (e. 5. 6). determine the functions of words in the sentence – the subject and object. This procedure is recommended for the whole of Section 1. the rhapsode boards. Then the ship sails to Euboea. #8–11. If you are uncertain. check with the translation suggested below. If you think you would prefer to ﬁnd out about the grammar and how it works before you start reading. (If these terms are not familiar to you. Dikaiopolis gets on board. Hegestratos goes into the ship. Now listen to the whole of Section 1A as read on the Speaking Greek CD. read the English introduction at the beginning of Section 1A.
13). listen to Section 1B on the CD. What do Dikaiopolis and the captain see? Dikaiopolis and the captain see the acropolis and the Parthenon. to omit the ‘both’. using the same method. or is the last word in a clause.) Note also the change in verb-ending between βαίνει (line 2) and εἰσβαίνουσιν (line 3): βαίνει is 3rd person singular (‘he. They can be tabulated as follows:
Plural ἡ τήν τό τό οἱ (τούς) αἱ τάς (τά) (τά)
Singular Nominative ὁ Accusative τόν
(You may be puzzled by the change in accent. and it may seem more natural. Suddenly. The preposition πρός (‘towards’) in line 6 is followed by the accusative case (τὰς Ἀθήνας.
Using the same method as that recommended for Section 1A. The preposition ἐν (‘in’) is followed by the dative (ἐν Χίῳ. So you will see τὸ πλοῖον in the text.
Notice again the ﬂexibility of Greek word order: you will ﬁnd that it is essential to concentrate upon word-endings and not word order to determine the structure. If the -ουσι or -ῶσι ending is followed by a word beginning with a vowel. Note slight variation in the verb-ending -ῶσι(ν) in ὁρῶσι(ν) (lines 11. βαίνουσι(ν) is 3rd person plural (‘they go’). Notice that Greek often includes a τε and καί to form a closely linked pair. Now move on to the second paragraph of 1A.
Translation for 1A (ll. it means (literally) ‘both … and’. then the (ν) is added.4
2. 4. and Sdenothemis looks towards the land.
2. ἐν Eὐβοίᾳ). when translating. An acute accent on the last syllable usually changes to a grave when it is followed by another word. 8–14) (continued)
3. What does Sdenothemis see? Sdenothemis sees the acropolis and the Parthenon. Dikaiopolis and the captain hear a noise. though in English this often seems strained.
Notice the various different forms of the deﬁnite article. before trying to translate it. it goes’). Then both Dikaiopolis and the captain look towards the land. Then read it to yourself. τὸν Πειραιᾶ). she. 5.
. but τό in the above table.
So the ship sails. It is a printing convention to change this grave back to an acute when the word is printed in isolation with no word following it.
Translation for 1B
Come over here. are set out fully in GE pp. Hey! A noise. Do you not see the Parthenon? DIK. Dikaiopolis. Now I too can see the acropolis. But come over here and look. #12):
the regular the variant -ω -ῶ -εις -ᾷς -ει -ᾷ -oμεν -ῶμεν -ετε -ᾶτε -ουσι(ν) -ῶσι(ν)
Learn the regular ones ﬁrst. Ο Zeus! How beautiful is the Parthenon. DIK. captain. Note that καί can mean ‘and’. Yes. 12 There is no indeﬁnite article (‘a’. 14. Sdenothemis. how beautiful is the dockyard. Do you also see the dockyard? CAPT. Cf. The other endings. Don’t worry. C A P T A I N You are right.
3 ἆρα καὶ σὺ τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ὁρᾷς. οὐ is used with statements. captain. Sdenothemis? SDEN. and [how] beautiful the Piraeus. 9) The rhapsode goes. ‘He doesn’t worry’ would be οὐ ϕροντίζει. Sdenothemis. Thus ὁ ψόϕος = ‘the noise’. Here the other person-endings of the present tense are introduced. The ship is at Byzantium. but ψόϕος = ‘a noise’. or ‘you too’. I hear nothing. For I see the dockyard and the Piraeus. SDEN. Can you also see the acropolis? DIKAIOPOLIS Where is the acropolis? For I cannot see the acropolis. Yes. Ο Zeus. Come over here and look. 15 μὴ ϕρόντιζε ‘Don’t worry!’ μὴ is the negative used with imperatives. No. Do you hear? What is the noise? Do you also hear the noise. 19–20. You speak the truth. Thus. #23–25 and are explained in 1E–F. which are logical variants. SDEN. ‘an’) in Greek. by Zeus. I too hear the noise again. and [how] beautiful [is] the acropolis. CAPT. ‘Can you too see the Acropolis?’ καί means ‘also’ and σύ emphasises you. For again I hear the noise. line 11 ὁρῶ καὶ ἐγώ. only the absence of the deﬁnite article.Section 1B
Notice that in Greek a semicolon is used as a question mark. So you and I hear the noise. The sailors see the land and the rhapsode. (Lit. and look. For I see the acropolis. Note the pattern of endings (GE p.
Translate the following sentences: (p.) Listen! A noise. ‘also’ or ‘even’. Often here it is used in phrases like ‘I too’.
Verbs. clearly. SDΕN. You are right.
skeleton masc. dative. dat. nom. 4. singular masculine. 9. 10. 9. masters fem. #42). gen. Go on reading and listening to the CD. stage fem. nerve. sing. 10)
feminine. plural EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1A–B
the city the king the old men the triremes of [the] democracy for [the] Homer of the atoms by the skills
τὴν καλὴν ἀκρόπολιν τὸν καλὸν Παρθενῶνα ταῖς καλαῖς βοαῖς τῷ καλῷ πλοίῳ τῇ καλῇ ἀκροπόλει
Note that the accent on καλός has changed from acute in the table to grave καλὸς in the exercise.
. nom. acc. 7. heads fem. 8. nom/acc. accusative. eyes
6. acc. you need not remember this. 5. democracy neut. accusative. nom. gen. sinew masc. pl. 3. breathing. plural feminine. f. sing. sponges neut. 2. sing. sing. or n. pl. Unless you are planning to learn to use all accents.. singular m.
fem. acc. genitive. genitive. pl. nominative. singular masculine. gasping masc. plural feminine.
Now you will have more practice with the different persons of the verb. 10. 2. accusative.
neut. sing. This is because an acute accent on the last syllable of a word changes to grave when it is followed by another word (unless that word is an enclitic GE p. pl. singular masculine.6
Practice (p. dative. 3.
ὁ καλὸς κυβερνήτης τὸ καλὸν πλοῖον τοῦ καλοῦ ἔργου τὰς καλὰς Ἀθήνας τοῖς καλοῖς ἀνθρώποις
6. 5. dat. 8.. 4. gen. sing. tragedy
ADJECTIVES 1A–B: 2
1.. 30. plural feminine. 7.
The same sufﬁx -θεν as in πόθεν appears in κάτωθεν ‘from below’. For I see –
In this section you met the remaining person-endings: 2nd person plural: βαίνετε (14) and imperative plural: ϕροντίζετε (1). Listen. friends. But where is the noise [coming] from? From below. it is Hegestratos that the captain and the sailors see.Section 1D
Notice the words for ‘where from’ πόθεν and ‘where to’ πoῖ. how beautiful are the markets. Hegestratos is making the noise below. and don’t say ‘How beautiful are the markets.
In this section you will meet another contracted verb. Sdenothemis.
Translation for 1C
CAPTAIN SDEN. Do you also see the markets? AND DIKAIOPOLIS We also see them. So what? Ο Poseidon. You should have no difﬁculty in recognising the person from the ending (GE p. Dikaiopolis – Where are you going? Where are you going? Why don’t you stay. CΑΡΤ. means ‘why?’
Translation for 1D
So down goes the captain. Why don’t we go down? Come on. The verb is particularly important here. friends. and down go both Dikaiopolis and the sailors. friends? Don’t worry. But come over here and look. But look over here. διὰ τί. SDEN. DIK. CΑΡΤ.
I do not hear [it]. For the noise [is] from below. you! What are you doing? But what are you doing. over here. The only way we can express this emphasis in English is to say something like ‘It is Hegestratos whom …’ 8 τί with an accent means ‘what?’. one with an -ε.rather than an -α-. Don’t worry. 20. Dikaiopolis. For I see the markets and the merchant ships. so it is brought forward to the beginning of the phrase. how beautiful are the merchant ships.’ For we hear the noise clearly. And below. Hegestratos? What [is] the noise?
Hey. but τι without an accent (see line 13) means ‘something’.
1 καταβαίνει μὲν …. #24). literally ‘on account of what?’. καταβαίνουσι δὲ … Notice the word order. 3 Similarly notice that τὸν ‘Hγέστρατον is brought forward for emphasis.
sailors. Dikaiopolis? Hegestratos is sinking the ship? But why don’t you catch the man. not me.) go down! (pl. don’t wait! (s. 4. 7.)are going down you (pl. 5.
you (s. CAPT. Hegestratos. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1C–D
VERBS IN -ω 1C–D: 1
1. Help.) look! (s. Ο Zeus! For Hegestratos is not telling the truth. 10. 2.) don’t hear we are looking they remain he/she does not ﬂee you (s.) Sailors.
φεύγει διώκουσι(ν) βλέπεις μένομεν οὐκ ἀκούει
IMPERATIVES 1C–D: 3
1.) are not looking 8. Hegestratos? HE.) are ﬂeeing
6. οὐδὲν ἔχω ἔγωγε. over here. What are you saying. 3. I have nothing. 2.
ἀκούουσι(ν) βλέπει διώκετε βαίνω οὐ μένουσι(ν)
Exercises for section 1C–D
I am not doing anything. DIKAIOPOLIS Come over here and look.) are running away 10.) listen! (s. 9. 7. you (pl. and I’m throwing myself out of the ship. he/she hears 9.
don’t look! (pl. For Hegestratos has an axe in his right hand. 4. The fellow is sinking the ship. For Hegestratos has something in his right hand. 5. he/she/it remains
1.)/ you (pl. 4. HE. Ο dear. 3. I’m off. 5. nor do I hear any noise.) ﬂee!(pl.
Notice again the way in which the pronouns can be used to emphasise the person in the verb-ending. 10. 9. you (s.) are going/ go! (pl. DIK.
go! (s. e.) are pursuing
6. 8.g. Don’t worry. captain. 3. sailors? Over here. pursue! (pl.) don’t go in! (pl. What have you in your right hand. 8. captain. CΑΡΤ.: τί πoιεῖς σύ.)
. they go 7. friend. CAPT.)/ you (pl. 2. help and pursue [him].).
#23–25 sets this out and shows how the stem vowel contracts with the endings. C A P T A I N Don’t worry about it. verbs ending in -εω. For the men are coming up here now. and the sailors help. Sdenothemis. Throw yourself into the sea. For the sailors are coming up and are in pursuit. captain? The men are dying.
1F Translation for 1F
Hegestratos and Sdenothemis do not wait around but run away.Section 1F
1 ὁ μὲν ‘Hγέστρατος … oἱ δὲ ναῦται … The particles μέν and δέ are frequently used to make a contrast. Oh dear! Where is the lifeboat? Where is it. Where are you running away to? I’m escaping into the sea. but run away yourself as well. The lifeboat drifts away from the ship. sailors. Help. -αω and -οω. The important words are often brought forward to the beginning of the sentence or phrase.
The main new point of grammar here is the conjugation of ‘contract’ verbs. Hegestratos. and they are dying badly. For the lifeboat is in the sea. They can never be the ﬁrst word in a phrase.
. Notice the word order in this passage. Come along. Hegestratos? Look. the sailors are chasing me.
Translation for 1E
Hegestratos ﬂees from below. Oh dear! For now I see the sailors clearly. I’m dying – DIKAIOPOLIS Do you see those men.
But what are you doing. Sdenothemis – oh dear! SDEN. and throw yourself out of the ship. and chase Hegestratos. save yourself. For the men throw themselves into the sea and look for the lifeboat. GE pp.You will ﬁnd it easy to recognise the persons from the pattern of the endings. I’m running away. HE. Sdenothemis remains above. The sailors clearly see their ﬂight from the ship. Hegestratos? I can’t see the lifeboat. and the captain unties the lifeboat. Hegestratos looks towards Sdenothemis. Dikaiopolis. We are dying. help! ΗΕ. Sdenothemis towards the sailors. For the lifeboat is clearly drifting away from the ship. I am. Don’t wait. 19–21. For the men are bad.
SDΕN. and don’t wait around.
) are doing/making don’t show! he/she is showing
1. 2.) he/she is doing/making he/she sees don’t show! (pl.) help you (s. 2. 2. 10.
stay (s. 3. 9. 8. 8. 2. 7. 4. 3. 4.
ποιεῖ μὴ ποίει ὁρᾷ ὅρα μὴ βαῖνε
. 4. 9.) make/do you (pl. 9.) see he/she sees they see we are doing/making they show
you (s. 3.) you (pl. 3. 10. 5.) go. 8. 3. 10. 9.)
6. 8. Go! you (s. 7.
ὁρῶσι(ν) ποιεῖ ποιεῖτε δηλῶ βοηθοῦσι(ν)
6. 5. 5.
ἀσθενεῖ ἐλευθεροῦμεν ἐξαπατᾷ νοσῶ τιμᾶτε
CONTRACT IMPERATIVES 1E–F: 4
1.) show he/she helps
see! do/make! (s. 4.10
Exercises for section 1E–F
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1E–F
CONTRACT VERBS 1E–F: 1
τιμῶ γαμεῖς οἰκοῦσι(ν) σιγῶμεν ἀσεβεῖτε
6. 8. 9.
ποιεῖ ποιοῦσι(ν) δηλοῖς ὁρῶμεν ποιεῖ
1. 7. 7. 5. 10.) show you (s. 10.
μὴ μένετε δίωκε δηλοῦτε μὴ ἄκουε βοήθει
καί Here means ‘also’. And moreover the harbour is near by. ‘The women are clever. but Greek will use the article in this situation. ἔργοις
5. our lifeboat is clearly drifting away and our safety [is] not assured. So we are not in danger. ἔργῳ 8. and you always save people from the sea. (The captain goes down and looks round.’ 16 σῶον μέν … σῶοι δέ … Note the contrast pointed by μέν and δέ. save us [bring us safely] into the harbour. Thus the Greeks would say ‘The men are lazy’. The possessive is normally only used to stress ownership. So our safety [is] assured. ἀνθρώπους 7. We say ‘Men are lazy’ or ‘Women are clever’. ἀνθρώποις. ἔργον
. You will meet this repeatedly in this section. (The captain comes up.Exercises for section 1G
2 σῶοι δὲ καὶ ἡμεῖς Notice that the verb ‘to be’ is often left out in Greek if the meaning is clear. When English speaks of a class of people it does not use the article. ἄνθρωπον 2. Our ship is safe and we also are safe. 3 περι-σκοπῶ Compound verb. Dikaiopolis. Ο Poseidon. ἔργων 3. or if the context is ambiguous. ἔργῳ 6. ἀνθρώπῳ.) CAPT. and are we safe as well? Why don’t I go down below and look around carefully? For I [am] the captain: so it [is] my job. Be quiet. 5 ἡ ἡμετέρα σωτηρία Notice that Greek normally uses only the deﬁnite article where we in English would often use the possessive adjective. ἀνθρώπῳ. ἀνθρώπων. But Dikaiopolis remains above.) DIKAIOPOLIS Now. and our safety [depends] on me.
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1G
THE DECLENSIONS 1G: 1
1. We are now dying badly: for our ship is clearly sinking into the sea. 9 τοὺς ἀνθρώπους Another of the differences in the way Greek uses the article.
Translation for 1G
But is our ship safe. Greek will say ‘the father’ or ‘the safety’ if it is clear from the context that it means ‘his father’ or ‘our safety’. For we always make sacriﬁces to you. ἄνθρωποι 4. It means ‘to look (σκοπῶ) round’ (περι).
ἀνθρώπους acc. 3. τῶν κακῶν ἀνθρώπων 4. τοῖς ἡμετέροις ἔργοις 3. pl. pl. τὴν καλὴν γῆν 2. 2. 5. ἐστι(ν)
1. τῶν καλῶν ἐμπορίων 8. s. ποιεῖ
MORE ADJECTIVES 1G: 3
4. They have been carefully designed so that. you should do the revision exercises only after completing work on text.
from the ships towards the markets into the ship in the lifeboats towards the men
1. The Test Exercises.12
1. The more you do. ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου 2.
in the markets into the ships in the work from the men from the market
1. if you feel you have grasped these aspects. τοὺς ἡμετέρους ἀνθρώπους
5. s. εἰς τὸν λέμβον 3. How many of the exercises you do will depend upon your own choice and interest. ἀνθρώπου gen. 7. 2. πρὸς τὸν λέμβον 6. 8. εἰς τὸ πλοῖον 7. ὁρᾷ 5. however. grammar and vocabulary. διώκουσι(ν) 3. ἄνθρωπον acc. you should regard as essential. the more competent you will become. then you can omit these exercises or do them quickly. πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους 8. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου 4. 9.
PREPOSITIONS 1G: 5
4. τῷ ἡμετέρῳ πλοίῳ 7. εἰς τὰ ἐμπόρια
As you are advised in GE. ἀνθρώπων gen. pl. τὰ καλὰ ἔργα 6. 10. The exercises on Word shape and Syntax are designed to help you absorb and retain particular features of the language. ἀνθρώποις dat. ἐστι(ν) 2. ἐν τοῖς πλοίοις REVISION EXERCISES
5. 4. 3. if you have mastered all elements of the language
. τοῖς κακοῖς ἀνθρώποις
. ἀναβαίνω you (pl. βλέπομεν he/she makes.) go pl. οἱ ἄνθρωποι. τοῖς ψόφοις.) s. τὸν καλὸν ἄνθρωπον
Notes on English into Greek
Don’t worry about word order yet. τῶν ἀνθρώπων 4.) s. ὅρα you (pl.) pl. ἀποχωρεῖς or go away! (pl. τὰ καλὰ νεώρια c. ὁρᾷς or see! (pl. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1A–G Note the advice on tackling these exercises in GE pp. But go on noticing how it works in Greek. worry (pl. φρόντιζε or you (pl. the error or omission should alert you to the area needing further consolidation. to do with sailing I see/look into I run away. ποιοῦσι(ν) he/she sees pl. a. τοῖς καλοῖς ἀνθρώποις e.) s. καταβαίνει we come up s.Revision exercises for section 1A–G
required so far (vocabulary. βαίνετε I see pl. morphology and syntax). βοηθεῖτε 2. you will be able to do the Test Exercises without any looking up at all. τὰ πλοῖα.) are worrying s.) see s. If you ﬁnd you do have to look up a word or an ending. does pl. nautical I steer nautical. φροντίζεις they go down s. maritime. ἀποχώρει 3. τὸ νεώριον. or if you make a mistake in your translation.
you (s. 33–35
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
I go I chase sea helmsman sailor I see I ﬂee
B – WORD SHAPE
I go out I chase out belonging to the sea. run from
1. τῷ καλῷ ἐμπορίῳ d. ὁρῶσι(ν) help! (s. ὁ καλὸς ἄνθρωπος b.) are going away s. τῷ λέμβῳ.
I see. although it has occurred in the Text. The sailors pursue Sdenothemis. τοὺς ἄνδρας in 5.
5. The men don’t see the life-boats. Hegestratos ﬂees from below. But Hegestratos remains below and is sinking the ship. For Hegestratos is making the noise.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. The men are coming up. The sailors come up from below. sailors. The men see the sailors clearly and throw themselves into the sea. You have not yet learned the pattern for this noun.for ‘man’ in 3 and 5. 4.14
Revision exercises for section 1A–G
If you used ἀνήρ ἀνδρ. τοὺς ἀνθρώπους. μὴ (ἀπο)ϕεύγετε.
Sdenothemis goes into the ship.
Who is making the noise? Do you see. For the fellow has an axe. Come over here and look. 2. ὁ Ζηνόθεμις 3. Sdenothemis is looking towards the land. ὁ λέμβος 5. Dikaiopolis saves the men. διώκετε τὸν ἄνθρωπον/τὸν ἄνδρα. For he has an axe in his right hand.
. ἔλθετε καὶ βοηθεῖτε. 2. you may have got it wrong. while Sdenothemis remains above. But suddenly they hear the noise. τὸν Ἡγέστρατον. ὁ ἄνθρωπος/ὁ ανὴρ (ἀπο)φεύγει πρὸς τὸ πλοῖον. The captain and Dikaiopolis are up above. and in the sea they die. Dikaiopolis? Yes. ὁ ἄνθρωπος 4. oἱ ϕίλοι οὐ μένουσιν. Don’t worry. but help and chase the man. They look towards the land and see both the dockyards and the Parthenon. It would be ὁ ανὴρ in 3. Then they go down. Don’t wait around.
CAPTAIN DIKAIOPOLIS CΑΡΤ. The sailors don’t see Hegestratos.
C – SYNTAX
Hegestratos sees the acropolis. 3. The men escape into the sea.
E – TEST EXERCISE 1 A–G
The ship departs from Euboea and sails towards the Piraeus. The helmsman casts off the life-boats. ὁ Ἡγέστρατος οὐχ ὁρᾷ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/τοὺς ἄνδρας Can you not see the Acropolis? ἆρα ὁρᾷς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/τοὺς ἄνδρας καὶ σύ.
captain? Do you know? For I do not clearly know. 4 ῥαψῳδός τις ‘a rhapsode’. more poetically. 17 ἐν νηὶ μελαίνῃ This is another common Homeric phrase. 36. There is on the ship a rhapsode. The -ιζω ending in Greek verbs is like our ‘-ize/-ise’ ending. We are sailing towards the harbour. RHAPSODE ‘We are sailing on the wine-dark sea. 5 ὁμηρίζει Transliterate ﬁrst. and I do not know where we are. would mean ‘Who?’ or ‘What sailor?’ 3 λέγει ὅτι Remember ὅτι carefully: it is extremely common. So the captain says that they are sailing into the harbour. itinerant reciter of Homer. as ‘wine-dark’. νηί is irregular dative of ναῦς (line 28) meaning ‘ship’. 1–2 ναύτης δέ τις This is the indeﬁnite τις. though note that μῶρος is an adjective. then see if you can identify the person. ‘We are sailing in a black ship. coming ﬁrst. ‘What’s that …?’ 19 μῶρος English ‘moron’ suggests the answer. but pronoun σύ should help. παίζει πρός It means ‘makes fun of’.Section 1H
1 λιμένα Check the English introduction above. For the sailor does not clearly know where they are: for it is night. Note also the English explanation in introduction.’
. τίς with an accent. 9 οἶδα Yet another new form. also explained by its pronoun σύ. rather like a medieval troubadour. 36.e. C A P T A I N I know clearly. The rhapsode is always quoting Homer. again reinforced by the inclusion of the pronoun. εἶ Another new person of the verb.
Translation for 1H
So the captain steers the ship towards the harbour. my friend. 21 ἐν νηὶ θοῇ. Dikaiopolis makes fun of the rhapsode like Socrates with his students. Thus this might be translated ‘Homerise’. because of the night. RHAP. ‘What (is) the …?’. and extensively used in this and subsequent sections. See GE p. without an accent. 13 οἴνοπα πόντον A lovely phrase and frequent in Homer. A rhapsode is a professional. i. #44. A sailor asks the captain where they are. Literally it means ‘wine-faced’ but it is usually rendered. but a problem for translators. He’s a rhapsode. For I see nothing. sailor. See GE p. which follows the word it agrees with. You are right. and κοίλῃ ἐνὶ νηί Two more common Homeric phrases. but the ἡμεῖς indicates which person of the verb this is.’ SAIL. #44. What’s the fellow saying? DIKAIOPOLIS It’s clear that the fellow is quoting Homer. 8 ἐσμεν New here. 18 τί τὸ … Literally. Where are we. οἶσθα Also new.
2 ἀπαίδευτος The preﬁx α. No.
But I am not stupid: I know many things. and don’t know anything. person indicated by pronoun. by Zeus.
DIK. For Homer knows matters of war. Here the effect is ludicrous. so the whole Greek word means ‘uneducated’. a soldier. Be quiet. I know much because Homer knows much. I am not uneducated about Homer. but are joking at us.
1 εἰμί A new form. the business of the soldier. For the fellow does not know anything accurately. ‘In a swift ship’ we are sailing. This form of argument reﬂects some forms of Socratic and Platonic dialectic where an attempt is made to use words in as deﬁned a way as numbers. ‘asymmetrical’).
Translation for 1I–J
RHAPSODE DIKAIOPOLIS RHAP. strategic – So you also know matters of strategy?
. although the original idea resulted in a new and valuable tool of reasoning. Note the thrust of the rhapsode’s argument: he knew much about Homer – Homer knew much about everything – therefore he (the rhapsode) knew much about everything. rhapsode? What’s that ‘in a black ship’? For our ship isn’t black. How do you know many things? It is clear that you are uneducated. It is clear that you are stupid.is the root of the English word ‘p(a) edagogue’. ‘polemics’. στρατηγός was so called because he was an army (στρατός) leader (ἄγω – ‘I lead’). δήπου is often heavily sarcastic in its meaning. 7–12 The various -ικος adjectives here correspond to many -ic/ical adjectives in English: e. Similarly a στρατιώτης was a member of the army.
What are you saying. sailors? Come here and listen. meaning ‘one’ (here = ‘one and the same’). tactical.is often a negative one in Greek (cf. 5 ἄριστος An aristocracy is rule by the ‘best’ people. ‘in a hollow ship.’ Do you hear. It is clear that our rhapsode is stupid. παιδ. i.
1 μία Feminine form of εἷς.e. ‘nautical’ and ‘strategic’ should help to establish the meaning of three. γιγνώσκω A new word (Latin cognosco). rhapsode. and matters nautical. DIK. English ‘amoral’. For you do not know whether our ship is ‘black’ or ‘swift’ or ‘hollow’.16
DIK. 11 δήπου Like ‘of course’ in English. but is joking at us.g. hence στρατιωτικά refers to soldiering.
RHAP. 6 διότι ‘because’.
RHAP. 36. Dikaiopolis. 7. It’s my job. DIK. DIK. DIK. So good rhapsodes are at the same time also good generals? Yes. DIK. Yes. οἶδε(ν)
. and I also am experienced [in them]. Dikaiopolis. 2. And you are the best rhapsode of the Greeks? Certainly. the rhapsode is indeed a fool. SAILOR
RHAP. Dikaiopolis. RHAP. the best general of the Greeks? Of course.
you (s. but he does not know precisely whether the ship is ‘black’ or ‘swift’ or ‘hollow’. meet them in Test Exercise 1H–J. 5. εἶ 3.
he/she/it is we know you (pl. the plural forms of οἶδα have not. RHAP. Dikaiopolis. RHAP.) are you (pl. 8. For Socrates always jokes in this way at his students. Dikaiopolis. Are you then. sailors? Is the rhapsode a fool or not? By Zeus. the best general of the Greeks. οἶδα 2.) are you (s. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1H–J
IRREGULAR VERBS 1H–J: 1
1. DIK.) know we are
6. What? Are you then experienced in matters of strategy. rhapsode? Yes. 4. Nevertheless it is sensible to learn them now and it is worth learning them very carefully. DIK. that you are Socratising and joking with me. For Homer is experienced in matters of strategy. ἴσασι(ν) 6.Exercises for section 1H–J
RHAP. The fellow is. ἐστί(ν) 5. It is clear. 9. The Greeks are always children. You will.
Note carefully the conjugation of both irregular verbs εἰμί and οἶδα (GE p. 10. What do you say. in fact. So the best general of the Greeks is a fool.
Of course. DIK. rhapsode. Are then the skill of a rhapsode and the skill of a general one [and the same]? One [and the same] skill. 3.) know they are I am they know
4. #44): it is essential to know both thoroughly – and although most of εἰμί has appeared in the Text. of course. RHAP.
You (pl. We both know and see much. οἶδα καὶ οὐκ οἶδα τά τε ναυτικὰ καὶ τὰ στρατηγικά. οἶδε(ν) 10.) are he/she knows you (s. 4. b.) I am we know
εἶ γιγνώσκουσι(ν) ἴστε εἰσί(ν) οἶδε(ν) παίζετε ἐσμέν οἶδα
C – SYNTAX
1. 5. οὐκ οἶδε τὰ στρατηγικά. 3. come clear I am a Greek person I wait a general
I go round I go (or come) round I make clear. ἐσμέν τε καὶ ἴσμεν. ἐστέ
1. ἔστι καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν. 5.
I go away I go.
. The Greek is a rhapsode.
Revision exercises for section 1H–J
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1H–J
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
1. 3. reveal I am in Greek (adjective) I wait around I command (an army)
B – WORD SHAPE
9.) know about both seafaring and generalship. 2. d.) know he/she is they know play! (s.
The rhapsode is a Greek. Rhapsodes (as a class of people*) are the best generals. Do they know about both soldiering and generalship?
1. 4. 2.) both exist and do not exist (are and are not).
πολλὰ ἴσασιν. The rhapsode is a fool. c. ἐσμέν 8. You know much (many things).
4. nor do you know anything accurately. It is clear that the man knows much about Homer. The captain says that the ship is near the harbour. *This is where Greek uses the def. rhapsode.
Do you know the business of a rhapsode. Suddenly the rhapsode recites Homer. The captain is a rhapsode/A rhapsode is captain. Dikaiopolis teases the rhapsode. μέν and δέ are never used side by side. but I know that you are a fool. Likewise οὐ δέ εἰμι is not on: μέν and δέ do not follow negatives. not a general. What do you mean? (Lit. (σὺ) οὐκ ἔμπειρος εἶ περὶ τὸ ἔργον. to denote a class of people.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. art. I am expert in many things. you are not expert. Rhapsodes are the best generals. rhapsode? Of course.
It is clear that Dikaiopolis is teasing the rhapsode.
DIKAIOPOLIS RHAPSODE DIΚ. DIΚ. RHAP.Revision exercises for section 1H–J
e. You are not skilled. I also know the skills of a general.
E – TEST EXERCISE 1H–J
So the ship sails towards the Piraeus. and English does not. So they ask the captain where it is. On matters of strategy. πολλὰ δὲ γιγνώσκω.
Note: μῶρος δὲ μέν and μῶρος μὲν δέ are not permitted. What are you saying?) For you are a rhapsode. but foolish. but the sailors do not know where the ship is. however.
. For you are the best rhapsode of the Greeks and expert in Homer. Do you not know that the good rhapsode is at the same time also a good general? No. Do you not know that the man is always joking? ἆρ᾽ οὐκ οἶδεν ὅτι ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς ἀκριβῶς λέγει. δῆλόν ἐστιν ὅτι ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς πολλὰ γιγνώσκει. ἀλλὰ μῶρος μὲν οὔκ εἰμι. 2. ὁ ἄριστος στρατηγός ἐστι ῥαψῳδός. 3. The rhapsode is a captain. f. 5.
and it often does not have an object. #55–58) which you will eventually have to learn. English ‘dialogue’ may help.) διαλέγονται Note the person ending. The verbs you will meet in this section occur only in the middle and do not have an active voice. #52–53. The middle describes what the subject does for (or to) himself.
1 ἡ μὲν ναῦς The article shows this is nominative. for meaning. then back to ἀλλήλους = ‘each other’.Section Two: The glorious past
In this section you will practise a third variant of the contracted verbs that you met in Section 1. You may want to make a chart of the present indicative middle and to add the new endings as you meet them. if circumstances permit!). ἀλλήλους – leave blank for a moment. You will add -οω verbs (GE p. as in ὁ δὲ Δικαιόπολις. 30. but you will be able to recognise what case they are in from the article used with them. which person of the verb must it be? What should it mean? Sense demands a verb of motion – in fact. #43. ἔρχεται New ending. and is very common. 43–46. You will also meet a new pattern of verb in what is called the middle voice (GE pp. 3 ἡδέως Part of speech? (English ‘hedonism’ may guide you to the meaning of this word. 46–48. These are all in the active voice. or does for his own advantage. The active voice describes what the subject does to the object. 44–45. try reading through the whole of the ﬁrst page (aloud. using the running vocabulary and the following notes for guidance if you need them. 20.
. 22–23. See GE p. Then try translating the paragraph. μέν warns you that there will be a contrast in the following clause or sentence marked by δέ.
After reading the English introduction. #24) to -αω and -εω ones. βραδέως The ending in -ως shows that this is an adverb (see GE pp. the verb can mean either ‘come’ or ‘go’. You will also meet some more noun types (GE pp. It is easy to recognise which person the ending indicates. #52–54). 2 πρὸς ἀλλήλους πρὸς should be known. or you may just prefer to keep referring to GE pp. #28–29).
23 ἡσυχάζετε Imperative. know much about Homer. the Greeks used ‘Medes’ and ‘Persians’ almost interchangeably. 20 οὐδὲν ἴσμεν ἀκριβῶς ἡμεῖς oἱ ναῦται Notice the word order. Μηδικοῖς being neuter plural. but note that as well as meaning ‘be silent’. #62. ἡμεῖς indicates the person. ‘go’. so the meaning is: ‘the around-Salamis sea-battle’. 11 ἄγε δή GE gives ‘come!’ for ἄγε. 10 ῥητορικά Cf. and why doesn’t he tell what happened in the Persian Wars and how the Greeks and Persians fought and what deeds they dared and how many fell?’ The rhapsode gladly relates the sea-battle. τὴν περὶ Σαλαμῖνα ναυμαχίαν This is a phrase within a phrase as is shown by the linking device connecting τήν with ναυμαχίαν. but notice that here it is not used like δεῦρο ἐλθέ. 15 ἡμετέραν Possessive adjective. but more like English ‘Come on!’ – a spur to action and not necessarily an instruction to move. ‘recount’. GE gives ‘keep quiet’. ‘Why doesn’t … ?’ You will see the same pattern in ‘διὰ τί οὐ λέγει…. 9–11 The ﬁrst three lines are mostly recapitulation of words/phrases occurring earlier.
12 ἐρχόμεθα The verb has occurred earlier in the sense ‘come’. τολμῶσι = ‘dare’ (τολμάω and its noun τόλμα are much used later in this section). 6 τίνα ἔργα τολμῶσι The context should help you towards the general sense of ‘what deeds they did’. ἐν τοῖς Μηδικοῖς (literally) ‘in the Medic (things)’. therefore = ‘our’. hence ναυμαχία ‘sea-battle’. 5 τί γίγνεται The context should help. the phrase means ‘in the Persian Wars’. The ship is already going past Salamis and the captain says: ‘Why does the rhapsode not relate the sea-battle at Salamis. derived from ἡμεῖς (‘we’).
You. rhapsode. rather than ‘make the very beautiful story’. [is he] not?). ‘rhetoric’. it can also mean something like ‘settle down’ or ‘calm down’. See also the noun νίκην. μάχη means ‘battle’ and ναῦς ‘ship’. Dikaiopolis and the sailors and the captain and the rhapsode are talking happily to each other. hence ‘go through’ as in ‘relate’. τόλμαν See note earlier (line 6). See GE p.
Translation for 2A
The ship goes slowly towards the Piraeus. You therefore know much about rhetoric also (for Homer [is] rhetorical. Come along then. Notice διὰ τί οὐ followed by a question mark.Section 2A
4–5 διὰ τί ὁ ῥαψῳδὸς οὐ διέρχεται…. νικῶσιν Here the verb is encountered for the ﬁrst time. ‘what happens’. 49. 21 κάλλιστον ποίει τὸν λόγoν The word order shows that this means ‘make the/ your story very beautiful’.= ‘through’. come
. δι.’ 4 διέρχεται Both elements have been met – the ἔρχεται = ‘come’/’go’.
For you. viz. Tell us what happened in the Persian Wars and how the Greeks and foreigners fought and how many fell. Ξέρξου θείου βασιλῆος ‘of Xerxes. the very last book.
. give the idea. Tell us then the Persian Wars and the sea-battle at Salamis and our daring and victory. 3 ἀποροῦσι A verb for which there is no direct English equivalent: it means ‘be in a state of not knowing what to do’. and make your story very ﬁne. See GE p. 49. ‘quandary’. the ones of the Athenians’. the god-like king’: in the original it is Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος ‘of Achilles. This is not in the vocabulary for 2B. son of Peleus’. in the Iliad. στρατιά was what the στρατηγός led. though it is in the Total Vocabulary. etc. line 16: ‘We are safe. and listen. an army. #61. ‘helplessness’.). announces at the very outset a central theme of the poem – the wrath of Achilles. this. ‘sing’. ἄειδε Imperative. but it occurred on p. So we gladly listen. and we are going slowly past Salamis towards Athens. ‘many’. Keep quiet then. although nouns like ‘perplexity’. ‘the ships. sailors. which dominates throughout and is ﬁnally resolved only in Book 24. because the quarrel of Agamemnon and Achilles led to near-disaster for the Greeks. line 9. here. to help the poet in telling his story. my friend. A common enough occurrence – it’s surprising we have no verb for this. know clearly the events at Salamis.22
over here and tell us the events at Salamis. ‘large’. 9 εὔχονται ‘they pray’.’ ἀπορία The noun form of ἀπορέω (see above in line 3). rhapsode. 1G. But speak. οὐλομένην ‘accursed’: in the Iliad. because the invasion of Xerxes threatened the freedom of the Greeks. 4 στρατιά στρατηγός has been learnt (Section 1J). RHAPSODE Of course. so they may present a few problems. therefore we are not ἐν κινδύνῳ. I always make my stories very ﬁne. ϕοβοῦνται Another new verb: what are phobias? πολλή ‘much’. goddess of memory. An oligarchy is rule by a few. The Persians do not defeat us nor do they enslave us. We sailors know nothing accurately. 8 θυσίας Also above. 5–6 αἱ νῆες αἱ τῶν Ἀθηναίων Notice the repeated αἱ which adds a description.
1 These lines are adapted from the opening lines of the Iliad. SAILORS Yes. and the sailors know nothing. For there is the island of Salamis. μῆνιν ‘wrath’ (acc. ὀλίγοι ‘small’. 16. the invocation of the Muse. Θεά ‘Goddess’. 7 κίνδυνος You have not yet been asked to learn this word. ‘few’.
how many are the shouts. so that it is not ‘the Greeks’. ‘aggression’. The Athenians free Greece and save their country through their daring.element should be familiar. This is a common idiom in Greek: ‘freedom is a good thing’. ἀγαθόν ‘good’ – but neuter gender. so the accusative is the same as the nominative. Note that Greek uses the article with ἐλευθερία because it is a general idea. ‘on behalf of’.
Translation for 2B
‘Sing. For the Persian army [is] large. 1G. So the Athenians sacriﬁce their sacriﬁces to the gods and pray much. i. the destructive wrath of Xerxes the god-like king. 19 βεβαία … ἡ … σωτηρία Cf. 13 ὅσαι This means ‘How much/many …’ as used in exclamations. line 15). and the accusative τόλμαν (ρ. while the Athenians are at a loss and are afraid. goddess. 18 ὕβριν Difﬁcult because not exactly like the English usage of ‘hubris’. whereas ἐλευθερία is feminine.’ So the foreigners slowly approach the city. says nothing worth-while. line 18. but ‘Greece’. line 6). how great the perplexities. ‘you don’t know anything’. the struggle of the free peoples of the West against the totalitarian regime of the East. ‘often’. 12 τόλμα Not yet learnt. Great then [is] the danger of the Athenians. 23. here with the adverbial sufﬁx -άκις or -κις it means ‘many times’. For freedom [is] a good thing. 14 ἱκετεῖαι ‘supplications’. Notice also that it is accusative singular and feminine. although the verb τολμάω has occurred (2A. Great [is] the daring of the Greeks and their generals. And in the sea-battle.
1 οὐδὲν λέγει Literally ‘says nothing’. Many [are] the Persian ships. 11 πολλάκις The πολ. Here the sense is ‘violence’. Herodotus describes the Persian Wars in terms that often sound surprisingly familiar. 16 τὴν Ἑλλάδα Note the word order (the subject is after the verb). talks rubbish. whereas English does not. great their perplexity and great also their fear. how many the supplications to the gods! Finally the Athenians defeat the Persian ﬂeet and the Persians fall and they do not enslave the Athenians. τὸ πλῆθος This is a neuter noun (of a type you have not yet met). and this is the object. For courage and daring always defeat aggression and superior numbers. τῆς ἐλευθερίας = ‘freedom’.
. Finally the Persians arrive and the Greeks ﬁght. 4 οὐκ οἶσθα οὐδέν Notice the reinforcing negative. ὑπέρ = ‘for’. they go quickly into their ships and ﬁght for their freedom.e. but few the ships of the Athenians. So thus the salvation of the Greeks becomes secure. and the Athenians few.Section 2C
10 ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας A crucial phrase for a crucial concept to the Greeks.
20 ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα ἔνθα literally means ‘then’. and you are telling us falsehoods. free your children. We are looking for the truth. and stays near Salamis. The captain says that the rhapsode is speaking rubbish. For they now clearly hear the shout: ‘O Children of the Greeks. My grandfather is a Salamis-ﬁghter and he often tells me the events at Salamis truly. ἀνά ‘up’. go! Free your country. οὕτως means ‘like this’. The sailors settle down. as in English ‘antagonist’. when it refers to what has gone before. Listen. my grandfather [tells] the facts. For my grandfather tells the events at Salamis as follows. the ﬁne deeds of the Greeks. fear develops (occurs) at the same time in the foreigners. and hear again.18. viz. For you perhaps tell us a ﬁne story. while we Greeks keep quiet. ‘where’ according to context. The Persian ﬂeet arrives. ‘when’. your wives! Now [is] the struggle for everything!’
2 θεᾶται What one does in a θέατρον. like you. ἕῳ is dative of a very irregular noun meaning ‘dawn’. and note also ‘petrol’.
Translation for 2C
The rhapsode is silent. Here it is used idiomatically to mean ‘this way and that’. Persae 353–5. But at dawn a shout arises (occurs) and when the trumpet echoes from the rocks. The phrase thus means ‘at dawn’.24
15 ὧδε Means ‘like this’. friend. RHAPSODE What are you saying? In what way am I not making my story very ﬁne? CΑΡT. Matthew 16. RΗAP. ‘watches’. 23 ἐκ … πετρῶν What is the meaning of the English name ‘Peter’? Cf. when it refers to what is going to follow. 26. ‘petroleum’ ( =‘rock-oil’). Consider. ‘back water’. 3 ἀναχωροῦσιν Both elements have been met: χωρεῖ ‘go’. completely unadapted. but not falsely. 21 ἅμα ἕῳ Perhaps needs some explanation: ἅμα is an adverb meaning ‘at the same time as’. friend. When night comes. and you don’t know anything. ‘there’.
You are talking rubbish. But how do you know whether I am telling the truth or falsehoods? CΑΡT. sailors. 22 σάλπιγξ ἠχεῖ Illustrated on RGT p. here combined in the sense of ‘retreat’. Then the captain also relates the events at Salamis.
. the Persian ships sail slowly this way and that. Be quiet then. ἴτε An irregular imperative (corresponds with Latin ite) meaning ‘come!/go!’ ἀγών ‘struggle’. So you do not make your story very ﬁne. 25 This is taken from Aeschylus.
12 oἱ μὲν … oἱ δέ … It means ‘Of the Persians. and others capture their ships and their sailors. and I back water. δεινόν ‘terrible’. 7–9 ἐπιπλέω ἐπι.’ And I quickly sail to the attack and am no longer afraid. Clearly here the clause after ἀλλά is going to mean something contrasted with the clause before it. ‘nous’ has been adopted as a word for intelligence. In modern Greek ἐν τάξει means ‘in order’.g.in compounds often has the sense of ‘against’. so here ‘sail against’/ ‘attack’. Now we are ﬁghting in good order and in rank. likewise ἐπέρχονται (line 1). ‘misogynist’. α. some ﬂee. 25 ϕεῦ Exclamation of despair or disgust. which has the same root as the verb νοέω. Cf. 9 κόσμῳ ‘order’ – with interesting derivations: cosmos = ‘ordered state of the universe’.
Translation for 2D
So the enemy ships approach quickly for a sea-battle (Xerxes the king is watching the sea-battle with pleasure). 10 τάξιν ‘arrangement’ – taxonomy is the classiﬁcation. So the Greeks become free through their courage. ὁμο. actually itself the Greek word for ‘mind’. cosmetic = ‘ordered state of the dress/face’. ‘misanthrope’. I am afraid of the phantom. Suddenly there appears the phantom of a woman. And of the Greeks.being the regular Greek negative preﬁx. occurring in English ‘dinosaur’. τῶν ‘Ελλήνων. of organisms into named groups (ὄνομα = ‘a name’). ἀκόσμως … ἀτάκτως Opposites of the previous two words. and others remain and fall. a ‘terrible lizard’ (σαῦρος). When the Athenians pursue the Persians. some pursue the Persians. ‘OΚ’. So here it is ‘be like-minded’. and the rest of the Greeks also sail swiftly to the attack and move against the Persians. Finally of the Persians. other ‘meta-’ compounds in English have a sense of ‘change’. Xerxes also ﬂees and no longer watches the sea-battle. τοῦ πολέμου causal genitives. or ‘agree’. why are you still retreating? Do not be afraid of the Persians but go to the rescue and be bold. Metabolism is the change of food into energy. And the other Greeks retreat. 23 ὁμονοοῦσιν The elements of the word may help. similarly.
. very terrible.g. But the phantom says: ‘Friends. some … others …’ 22 μεταβολή Means ‘change’. and a few English compounds beginning ‘mis-’ may help towards the meaning e. And the Persians do not enslave the Athenians. μισοῦσιν Again English compounds may help – as well as the context.Section 2D
4 ϕαίνεται … ϕάσμα ϕάσμα = ‘apparition’. In this way the gods punish the aggression of the Persians and save the city. κοσμέω also means ‘I decorate’. or arrangement. while the foreigners are ﬁghting in disarray and out of rank since they are not bold like us. English ‘phenomenon’ which is derived from ϕαίνομαι ‘I appear’. e.in compounds = ‘same’. ‘metamorphosis’.
captain.) are afraid I am not watching he/she/it shows
1. Perhaps the most important thing to notice is how -ο. 10. they enslave 4. we are not going 3.) For recognition of the case of the noun.
go (pl. 6. 14. 51. but hate each other because of the war. it is important to notice the differences between the different types of feminine noun.
8. to be learnt before attempting the exercises. Now they no longer agree. they are ﬁghting 5.)
1. 5.)are going and ﬁghting he/she/it is afraid he/she is enslaving he/she is watching you (s.26
Exercises for section 2A–D
You speak well. 2.
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2A–D
MIDDLE VERBS 2A–D: 1
he/she/it becomes/ happens/occurs 2. 10. it is enough to remember the endings for the feminine of the deﬁnite article and the fact that nouns of the ﬁrst declension may have either -α. 12.) and ﬁght or you (pl. 3. Then there was agreement among the Greeks. 4. don’t ﬁght! 6. Note also the extra vocabulary on p. 46–47. 9. 11.predominates throughout. we are enslaving 7. #55–57.
μὴ θεᾶσθε ἔρχονται οὐ φοβεῖται γίγνεσθε δουλοῦσθε φοβοῦμαι
7. (See GE pp.
ἐρχόμεθα φοβοῦνται δουλοῦται θεᾶται οὐ γίγνονται ἔρχῃ
. Notice also the masculine nouns (1d #58) which are slightly different in some cases of the singular and the same as the feminines in the plural. Much more important are the middle verbs in GE pp. But the change in events is now great: for at that time the Greeks were friends with each other. alas for the Greeks. Feminine nouns: if you are doing English–Greek exercises. Now we know clearly and accurately about the Persian Wars. go (s. alas for the war!
Contracted verbs in -όω: there should be little difﬁculty in recognising the person of these verbs from the endings you already know.or -η. 19–21 #23–25. 12. 8. while all the plurals are the same. and now there is hatred. 13.in the singular endings. 9. Alas. 11.
οἱ ναῦται 6. 5. 9. νεανίας τὴν βοήν. τῶν ἀποριῶν
PREPOSITIONS 2A–D: 5
5. θάλατται τοῖς ναύταις. 1c. 4. 6. 6. ἀπορία. 2.
τὸν ναύτην. 4. 3. ἡ τόλμα 4. θαλαττῶν. θάλατταν τῷ ναύτῃ. νεανίαις ὁ ναύτης. 7. against the enemy 8. 2. beside the man 12. away from the Athenians
1. ναυτῶν. 5. 3. because of the perplexity 10. TYPES 1a.Exercises for section 2A–D
NOUNS. θαλάτταις ἡ βοή. νεανιῶν ταῖς βοαῖς. 8. 1d 2A–D: 3
1. 9. from the armies 11. νεανίαν τῶν βοῶν. τὰς βοάς 2. 10. 4. 3. ἀπορίαν.
ἐν τοῖς βαρβάροις ἐν τῇ ναυμαχίᾳ ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ εἰς τὴν γῆν ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ
among the barbarians/foreigners in the sea-battle in the deed/task into the land in the Piraeus
. alongside. ἀπορίαις. θάλαττα τοὺς ναύτας. 7. τὸν νεανίαν
1. because of the sea-battle 9. 5. τῷ ναύτῃ 3. ἀποριῶν. τὴν τόλμαν 8. νεανίας αἱ βοαί. 3. 10. 8. ἀπορίαι. νεανίᾳ
διὰ τὰς βοάς ἐκ τῶν πλοίων παρὰ τοὺς φίλους ἐπὶ τὴν στρατιάν διὰ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν
6. 4. 2. 1b.
παρὰ τὰς θεάς διὰ τὰς ὁμολογίας ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους διὰ τὴν νίκην
1. 5. τῇ βοῇ 7. 2.
because of the war against the barbarians alongside the ship away from the friends because of the sailors alongside the Athenians
ἡ ἀπορία. τὴν τόλμαν. αἱ νῖκαι. wickedness the warrior. expertise I work.) δουλοῖ. δουλοῦ you (pl.) μάχῃ.) watch or watch! (pl. task pleasantly bad I ﬁght stupid ship/I ﬁght victory/I win I make/do/create war I am silent army I dare dear. carry out a task I am pleased. ταῖς καλαῖς νίκαις
1.) enslave. I make war silence the army. I campaign. friendship/love fear I tell lies
we relate.) ﬁght or ﬁght! (pl. the soldier the daring man.
. τὰς βοάς. μάχου 2. unﬁghtable stupidity.) fear ϕοβεῖσθε they watch θεᾶται You (pl. τὴν πολεμίαν βοήν. enslave! (pl. the battle. lacking courage. τὴν στρατιάν. a friend I fear falsely
B – WORD SHAPE
the truth accuracy woman I shout experience. τὴν νίκην. ἡ καλλίστη βοή. expert work. τῇ ἐμῇ ἀπορίᾳ. go through διέρχομαι he/she ﬁghts μάχονται you (s. τοῖς κυβερνήταις. ὁ ναύτης. unconquerable the maker/creator/poet the warrior/ﬁghter. I lack courage I love. 3.) θεᾷ or θεῶ he approaches προσέρχονται they fear ϕοβεῖται I fear φοβούμεθα they happen γίγνεται you attack ἐπέρχεσθε you (pl. τῶν ναυτῶν. pleasure evil. αἱ ἐμαὶ βοαί. τῷ ναύτῃ. folly I ﬁght a sea-battle unconquered.28
Revision exercises for section 2
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
true accurately man a shout experienced.
The ship goes towards the sea-battle. Then both the Athenians and the rest of the Greeks keep quiet.
. the Athenians quickly embark on their ships and sail towards Salamis. Finally they are no longer afraid. οἱ ναῦται oἱ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ oἱ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ ναῦται e. 2. and. ἀλλὰ μάχεσθε καὶ ἐλεύθεροι γίγνεσθε. ὁ κυβερνήτης ἡδέως διέρχεται τὴν ἡμετέραν ναυμαχίαν. the Persians advance swiftly to battle. 3. but the Greeks are at a loss and are afraid. And when the day comes. oἱ ναῦται πρὸς τὸν ῥαψῳδὸν διαλέγονται. So the foreigners ﬂee. Don’t retreat.
E – TEST EXERCISE 2
So when the Persian army and ﬂeet are approaching. ὦ ναῦται. oἱ δὲ τῶν Ἀθηναίων πολέμιοι πίπτουσιν. and Xerxes also ﬂees. So they ﬁght in good order and defeat the foreigners. friends. Finally the Persian ﬂeet arrives. when night comes. but are daring and attack the foreigners. τέλος οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι νικῶσιν.
a. τὰ ἔργα τὰ τῶν Περσῶν τὰ τῶν Περσῶν ἔργα b. The best rhapsode always makes his stories very beautiful.Revision exercises for section 2
C – SYNTAX
1. τὸ πλοῖον τὸ τῶν πολεμίων τὸ τῶν πολεμίων πλοῖον
The deeds of the Persians The army of the barbarians The shout in the harbour The sailors in the ship The ship of the enemy
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. 5. ἡ στρατιὰ ἡ τῶν βαρβάρων ἡ τῶν βαρβάρων στρατιά c. and the Persian generals are afraid. but ﬁght! μὴ ϕοβεῖσθε. We know that the Greek army is approaching. ἡ βοὴ ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι βοή d. So in this way the Greeks become free through their courage. ἴστε ὅτι oἱ τῶν Περσῶν στρατηγοὶ ἀναχωροῦσιν. 4. Then the Athenians ﬁght. their ships sail slowly up and down.
10–11 Note the way that Greek echoes the interrogative πόθεν by its indirect form ὁπόθεν in reply to the question. Literally. pl. Notice that the indeﬁnite τις. τόν indicates masculine accusative singular: the ending itself is -α. pl. #66–68. 2 λαμπάδα τινά Another accusative singular.Section Three: Athens and Sparta
In this section you will meet the 3rd declension nouns formally. is also 3rd declension. πῦρ.
. ‘Save us into the harbour’. See GE pp. which regularly follows its noun.) in grid. Note that 3rd declension nouns have a number of different forms in the nominative. There are a number of variants which will be introduced gradually. as above. 13 τὰ πυρά The article indicates neuter plural. both ending in -α (for neuter nouns in the nominative and accusative always have the same ending). -α -α -ων -σι(ν)
This covers most of the forms you are likely to encounter in this section. which may be entered in a grid for 3rd declension endings. you should learn each new noun. A simpliﬁed form of the patterns can be summarised as follows:
s. + f. ‘ﬁre’. -ες -ας -ων -σι(ν) neut. gives us ‘pyromaniac’. but attention now focuses on the ending of λιμένα. + acc. but ‘Bring us safely into the harbour’ sounds better. but if you want to feel really conﬁdent and to cope with English into Greek. 3 ἡ λαμπάς The article indicates that this is nominative singular. It is not difﬁcult to recognise the case if you are working from Greek into English. as above. Enter neuter plural (nom.
1 πρὸς τὸν λιμένα The phrase should be familiar. 54–56. It is important to learn the stem to which the other case-endings are attached (as in Latin). ‘pyrotechnics’ etc. 15 σῷζε ἡμᾶς εἰς τὸν λιμένα Note the difference in usage in Greek and English. its gender and its stem and any peculiarities as you meet it. Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative various -α -ος -ι m.
and the ship is already turning into the harbour. 60–61. he immediately hurries towards the harbour. What are you saying? Do you say ﬁre signals? Ο Zeus! Come along. #69. But I am saving you. Dikaiopolis. 26. So the captain asks where the light is from. but ﬁre signals. οὗτος can be used by itself as a pronoun to mean ‘this man’. We are hurrying because the ﬁre signals show some danger. #35) c.
New in this section is the word οὗτος ‘this’: so you may wish to have an empty grid ready to ﬁll in its forms as they occur. pl. DIK. What are you saying? Where is the light [coming] from? Where from? Look! (The captain also looks towards the island.
Translation for 3A
Thus then the ship goes slowly towards the harbour. 64. by Zeus. pl. DIK. #25). Dikaiopolis sees a light on Salamis. captain: I see a light on the island. You will see that in the latter case the article is also used: ‘this the din’. CAPT. Don’t be afraid. When he sees the light. followed by singular verb) from the line before. ἐκεῖνος ‘that’ (GE p. but indeﬁnite! The accent comes from enclitic ἐστιν (GE p. We are now approaching the harbour.
Come over here and look. SAILOR CAPT. captain. What do the ﬁre signals show? They show clearly that enemy ships are coming against us.’ This is an idiom. hurry and get us safe into the harbour.) Ο Zeus! It is not a light you are seeing.) 20–21 εὖ οἶδα ὅτι ‘I know that well. δηλοῖ is here a verb. SAIL. No clause follows the ὅτι. ‘They show clearly that …’ νῆες ναῦς is highly irregular (GE p. #42b. 61. although the -ες ending is also the regular nom. DIK. 30. 3rd person singular (GE p.
CAPTAIN DIKAIOPOLIS CAPT. hurry. #69) is used in the same way. or it can be used as a demonstrative adjective with a noun (οὗτος ὁ θόρυβος) to mean ‘this din’. or you may prefer to look at GE pp.) Look. neuter plural subjects have a singular verb (GE p. We are in danger. SAIL. (Looks towards Salamis.Section 3B
τίς not interrogative. 20. #74 gives full forms). τὰ πυρά is neuter plural (as above in line 13) b. But why are we hurrying? Is there some danger for us? [Yes]. I know that well. 21 τὰ πυρὰ δηλοῖ Notice that a. subj. ending and may be entered on the grid. 23 σαϕῶς δηλοῖ The subject is τὰ πυρά (n. I am hurrying.
20 τροπωτῆρα … ὑπηρέσιον There is no point in trying to guess these! The former is an ‘oar-loop’. POL. his neighbour. and many men appear in the streets and watch the ﬁre signals. note the use of the article as well.) Tell me. 63.32
1 oἱ ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ See GE p. 1–2 πολύς … πολλαί Both are parts of πολύς ‘many’ (as in English ‘poly-’ compounds). and neuter nom. Here the article is followed by a prepositional phrase instead of a noun. someone with no authority.not πολλ. Tell me. neighbour. ‘the shout. 23 παῖς This means ‘child’ or ‘boy’ but is frequently used with the meaning of ‘slave’ i. and this is one of them. neighbour. But why don’t you come with me?
. And then I am going quickly to my ship. #63. and acc. ταῦτα τὰ πυρά Neuter plural of οὗτος. singular the stem is πολ. 49. and nowhere [is there] order. what is this shouting? What is this confusion. and many shouts. #73. 3 ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς There is just a small number of 2nd declension nouns which are feminine. 15 Notice how ποῖ ‘where to’ is answered by οἴκαδε ‘to my home’.as in the rest of the cases. #73. see the men. Protarchos and Polos. great the shouting in the harbour. Notice that in the masc. where are you running to? PROT. This is the meaning given in the running vocabulary for 3B and is the meaning throughout this section. The stem μεγαλ. the latter is a ‘cushion’ (usually tallowed underneath) to assist the rower in sliding backwards and forwards whilst rowing. PROTARCHOS (Runs homeward.e. 63. and look over there. For it is night. 14. to secure the oar to the thole-pin (a pin fixed in the port-hole) and/or the rower’s wrist. I am running home for my weapons. like πολύς. singular.) Come over here. (Runs out of his house. much confusion occurs in the harbour.
Translation for 3B
When the people in the Piraeus see these ﬁre signals. For this danger is terrible and great. 8–9 ἡ βοὴ ἡ ἐν τῷ λιμένι Notice the repeated article. Each member of the trireme’s crew kept his own. and acc. Do you not see those ﬁre signals? Look: it is clear that Salamis is in danger. See GE p. this is a very common type of phrase. The full pattern is given in GE p. ‘homewards’. 8 μέγας ‘big’ (as in English ‘mega-’ compounds) has slight irregularities. and neuter nom. ‘The [people] in the Piraeus’. the one in the harbour’.is the norm except in masc. neighbour? Do you know? For great is the confusion.
2. but you cannot see me.). νύκτα. πατρίδας ἡ λαμπάς. but not us. γείτονας. 6.
τὸν ἄνδρα.) do nothing. 4. σωτῆρες τὰς λαμπάδας. We are ﬁghting. τοῦ σωτῆρος 4. 8. 9. πατρίδες τὴν λαμπάδα. Your (pl. λιμήν. τῷ ἀνδρί
παρὰ τὸν λιμένα εἰς τὴν πατρίδα ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας πρὸς τοὺς γείτονας διὰ τὸν παῖδα
. 3. 5. So Polos brings out his oar-loop and cushion.
εἰς τοὺς λιμένας ἐπὶ τὸν γείτονα διὰ τὴν νύκτα ἐπὶ τοὺς παῖδας διὰ τὴν πατρίδα
PERSONAL PRONOUNS 3A–B: 4
1. παῖδας. 7. 7. γείτων. 8. πατρίς τοὺς ἄνδρας. νύκτες. 8. σωτήρ
1. POL. τῇ λαμπάδι
1. τῆς πατρίδος 2. Our safety is in your (pl. 3.) are keeping quiet/doing nothing. παῖς. τοῖς λιμέσι(ν) 6. men. 4. γείτονες. 4. not in ours. Don’t chase us. 2.
Indeed I am coming with you. τῶν παίδων 3. and Protarchos’ slave brings out his weapons and his torch.). γείτονα. 2. λιμένας. νύκτας. PROT. Then the men go towards the harbour. παῖδα. For it is clear that we are going to a sea-battle. We are dying. But wait. σωτῆρας αἱ λαμπάδες. ταῖς νυξί(ν) 8. I [can] see you (s.) or which of us is afraid of the men? 5. λιμένα. Which of you (pl. but you (pl. νύξ. λιμένες.) freedom is in my hands/ is in my power/ is my responsibility. but you (s. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3A–B
THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS 3A–B: 1
1. 3. σωτῆρα οἱ ἄνδρες. 5. but watch us.Exercises for section 3A–B
POL. τῶν γειτόνων 7. πατρίδα ὁ ἀνήρ. The wicked men defeat you (pl. 6. 7. friend.) (hands). But where are you running to? I’m [going] home for my oar-loop and cushion. 10.
d. d. b. b.
a man earth/work I know to there experienced I watch a din. from there / thence without experience the spectacle. without danger the student belonging to the house or family. c.
τὸν ἔμπειρον ἄνδρα τὴν κακὴν νύκτα τὸν σῶον παῖδα τὴν καλὴν πατρίδα ὁ ἀγαθὸς γείτων ἡ καλλίστη λαμπάς ὁ πολέμιος λιμήν ἡ ἐλευθέρα πατρίς τοῦ ἐμπείρου ἀνδρός τῆς κακῆς νυκτός τοῦ σώου παιδός τῆς καλῆς πατρίδος τῷ ἐμπείρῳ ἀνδρί τῇ καλλίστῃ λαμπάδι τῷ πολεμίῳ λιμένι τῇ ἐλευθέρᾳ πατρίδι
. c. a. πρὸς σέ
5. uneducated apparent. ἀπὸ ὑμῶν 6. the theatre I create a disturbance I am in danger of. d. obvious
B – WORD SHAPE
1. c. a. ὑμεῖς ἡμεῖς 3. d. ἐμὲ σέ 8. a. brave farmer. the spectator. b. ἡμῶν 7. b. c. I farm I do not know there. ἐν ἐμοί 4. domestic hoplite (heavy-armed soldier) education. commotion the danger I learn house weapons a child I appear
manly. ἐν ἡμῖν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3A–B
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
Revision exercises for section 3A–B
1. 2. I educate. ἡμᾶς 2.
17–18 οὐκ ἀϕικνεῖται Λακεδαιμόνιος οὐδείς. 17 οὐδεμία Feminine of οὐδείς (GE p. ‘democracy’. 32–33 Notice the order of the words and the ideas. from which we get our ‘-cracy’ words.element means ‘ruler’. hence ‘farmer’ (note Virgil’s Georgics (farming matters) if that helps ﬁx the meaning). ‘not easily. 29 γεωργοί Compounded from γῆ ‘land’ and ἔργον ‘work’. Supply εἰσί.
28 καὶ δὴ καί Often used at the end of a string of points as a ﬁnal ‘clincher’: ‘and what’s more’. τριηρ. 24 κρατοῦσι κράτος is the Greek for ‘power’. the imagined interjection. 75. 21 τίνες οἱ λόγοι. 2 ἄλλως δὲ οὐδαμῶς ‘otherwise nowise’ i.Section 3C
C – SYNTAX
the expert man the bad night the saved child the beautiful fatherland the good neighbour the most beautiful light/lamp the enemy harbour the free fatherland
4 δεινὸς ὁ ἐν Σαλαμῖνι κίνδυνος Supply ἐστί. which will be followed by μηδέ. ταύτην Refers back to τέχνη. whereas μή.
. ‘bureaucracy’ etc.e. 30 τὸ … ναυτικόν ‘the nautical thing’. is used in negative commands or prohibitions. ‘says one of you’. 41 τριηράρχων The -αρχ. #86). 10–11 μὴ ποίει τοῦτο μηδὲ ϕοβοῦ … Notice that the negatives οὐ and οὐδέ are used in negative statements. i. 75. but with difﬁculty and with much practice …’ 34–35 ϕησί τις ὑμῶν A typical rhetorical trick. οὐδὲ λαμβάνει οὐδένα … Notice that additional compound negatives simply strengthen the negative sense (GE p. 7–8 πτώσσει … ὥσπερ Ἀχαιὸς ὑϕ’ Ἕκτορι The sailor is ‘Homerising’.‘of a trireme’. ‘aristocracy’. ‘otherwise there’s no way [they can learn]’. #86). hence ‘captain of a trireme’ or ‘trierarch’.e. ‘expertise at sea’. 26 Notice the contrast between ἐμπειρίαν τινά and οὐδεμίαν … ἐμπειρίαν.
what are you doing? What fear takes hold of you? For you are the best general of the Greeks. of the Spartans. RHAPSODE What are you saying? Are the Spartans arriving? I am afraid of the Spartans. Listen then to what Pericles says in the ecclesia (assembly) about the war and about nautical matters: ‘Do not be afraid. we are already near the harbour. For you know well that not easily. but it often makes the statement vague and tentative. For those men take sailors and kill them. It can mean ‘somewhere’. we [have supremacy] at sea.
2 θόρυβος γίγνεται πολύς Notice the word order. Don’t do this. He’s afraid of the Spartans. Nautical [expertise] is a skill: and this “skill” men learn through practice. So don’t be afraid. που (Without an accent. SAILOR Look.” ’ DIK. Look. but with difﬁculty and with much practice. I am. but we. this rhapsode ‘is cowering’ in the ship ‘like an Achaean at Hector’s mercy’. rhapsode: but where is the man? For I cannot see that man. ‘The one who orders’. my friend. those sailors are swarming into the harbour. how many warships. πολύς is delayed to the end to make it more emphatic. Do you not remember the words of Pericles? RHAP. 3 κελευστής Derived from κελεύω. as they do other skills. translated in English above as ‘boatswain’ because he was the one who gave orders to the rowers. Ο Zeus! Terrible is the danger in Salamis and great. how much confusion. I know that well. Athenians. SAIL. SAIL. DIK. Look. since they are farmers and not seafarers. But we too have some experience on land. how many men! Look! Like ants. nor killing anybody.
. and no other way. rhapsode. nor taking anybody. οἴκοθεν ‘from home’. do you learn this skill. And now see the harbour! How many torches [there are]. “do they not practise?” I reply “No. What are the words? Tell me: for I do not remember. while they have no experience in nautical matters. Great is the number both of ships and of trierarchs. the Spartans do not easily learn nautical matters. since we have supremacy at sea. Cf.
6 οἴκοι ‘at home’. And moreover. and οἴκαδε ‘to home’. “But the Spartans”. one of you says. like ‘I suppose’ in English. But no ship is arriving. Tell me.) This is the indeﬁnite form of ποῦ ‘where’. and don’t be afraid of these Spartans.36
Translation for 3C
Meanwhile Dikaiopolis and the sailors are still talking to each other. For those men have supremacy on land. are preventing them. and it is clear that not one of the Spartans is arriving.
where is our trierarch? Clearly at home. Near the ship is a boatswain. and that man is asleep at home. is calling you – me! TRI. 19–20 ἢ οὐχ οὕτως. But I’m sleeping soundly – POL. Tell me. there is much confusion going on. ὦ παῖ ϕέρε is like ἄγε and means ‘come on. So Polos runs quickly towards the trierarch. from the deme Kydathenaion. presumably. POL.e. Why don’t I knock on this door? Trierarch! Trierarch! I’m calling you! TRIERARCH Go to hell! But who’s knocking at the door? What’s this business? Who’s calling me? Who’s shouting? POL.) Alas! Wait. do something’.
. and look for the trierarch and tell him about this danger in Salamis. What are you saying? Impossible? Go to hell! Don’t joke with me. But don’t sleep. why are you still waiting? Why don’t you call your master? For I am looking for him. γε emphasises οὕτως. trierarch: Salamis is in danger. Polos. The master is sleeping soundly. Boy! Boy! What are you doing? Is the boy asleep? Boy! Boy! BOY Who is it? Who is shouting? Why are you calling me? Who are you looking for? POL. He’s asleep. Do you not see those ﬁre signals? TRI. Alas! Terrible is the danger of the Athenians. POL. 21 ϕέρε. BOA. The men keep quiet and watch the spectacle. BOY But it’s impossible. Finally he arrives at the door.
Translation for 3D
When Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode arrive on land. Of course. boatswain. Polos. ‘throw [yourself] to the crows’ – a colloquial Greek expression meaning ‘go to hell’. POL. So hurry. boatswain. POL. is the trierarch inside? Or isn’t he? BOY He is. boy. from which Polos came – a normal method of identiﬁcation. The answer to questions is often given in the form of a positive statement: ‘Is he there?’ is more often answered by ‘He is there’ than by ‘Yes’. Tell me. Polos. I’m coming quickly. οὕτως γε ‘[He] certainly [is] thus’.
29 Κυδαθηναιεύς A member of the deme (roughly ward/parish in Attica) Kydathenaion. ‘or isn’t he?’ Greek will often add the alternative – and note the form of reply.Section 3D
14 παῖ ‘Boy’ is being used in the sense of ‘slave’. Come and look over there. and this man is shouting. i. ‘or not thus?’ (literally). 25 βάλλε εἰς κόρακας Literally. What are you saying? Are you joking with me? (He sees the ﬁre signals on the island. Come along then.
8. cf.) Now call the time again. this. in. (He pours the libation. men. σπονδὴν σπένδω.
TRIERARCH TRI. 5. the boat sails away. in. 6. 9. out … Well done! Now I pour a libation to the gods and pray prayers. 7–8 τὰς εὐχὰς εὔχομαι Greek likes these repetitive phrases. It would be the normal practice to pour a libation and to say a prayer at the start of a voyage. in. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3C–E
ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS: οὗτος . 16 κατακέλευε Compound indicates giving time to rowers – ‘Now call the time. Quickly now. 4. out. out.) Ο Lord Poseidon – for you are the best saviour of sailors and we often sacriﬁce our sacriﬁces to you for our safety – get us safely back to our country. In. Our ship is sailing away.
Call the time. And when he gives the order. and the trierarch also embarks. boatswain. boatswain.
Translation for 3E
Finally the sailors and the boatswain embark on the ships. ἐκεῖνοι οἱ λιμένες 2. in. out’. out.
τοῦτον τὸν λιμένα αὗται αἱ λαμπάδες οὗτος ὁ γείτων τούτους τοὺς παῖδας ταύτην τὴν πατρίδα τούτους τοὺς ἄνδρας τοῦτο τὸ ἔργον αὗται αἱ νύκτες οὗτοι οἱ σωτῆρες ταῦτα τὰ ὅπλα
this harbour these torches/lights this neighbour these children this country these men this deed/task these nights these saviours these weapons
1. 3. In. BOATSWAIN
BOA. out. ἐκείνας τὰς λαμπάδας
those harbours those lamps/lights
. Well done. 10. and θυσίας θύομεν. BOA. out. Give the order. In. (He prays his prayers.38
6 ὠὸπ ὄπ Not meaningful words – just a sort of ‘in. ἐκεῖνος . 7. boatswain. TRI. that 3C–E: 1
1. 2. out.
πολλοὺς λιμένας πολλαὶ λαμπάδες πολλοὶ γείτονες πολὺς πόλεμος πολλὰ ὅπλα πολλὰς νύκτας πολλὴ ἀπορία
many harbours many lights/lamps many neighbours much war many weapons many nights much perplexity
1. ἐκείνῃ τῇ λαμπάδι τούτων. μέγας ἄνηρ
a big harbour a great light big neighbours a great deed large countries a big man
1. 3. ἐκείνῳ τῷ λιμένι τούτοις. ἐκείνης τῆς πατρίδος ταύταις. 4. 10.
τούτου. μέγας 3C–E: 4
1. 8. 7. 7.
ἐκεῖνον τὸν γείτονα ἐκεῖνοι οἱ παῖδες ἐκείνη ἡ πατρίς ἐκεῖνοι οἱ ἄνδρες ἐκεῖνος ὁ σωτήρ ἐκεῖναι αἱ νύκτες ἐκεῖνο τὸ ἔργον ἐκεῖνα τὰ πυρά
that neighbour those children that country/fatherland those men that saviour those nights that deed/task those ﬁre-signals
1. 9. 7. 5. πολλοῦ καὶ μεγάλου λιμένος 2. μεγάλας πατρίδας 6. μεγάλοι γείτονες 4. 4. πολλῆς καὶ μεγάλης λαμπάδος 4. μέγα ἔργον 5. πολλῶν καὶ μεγάλων λόγων
. 2. 2. ἐκείνων τῶν ἔργων
MANY. 4. ἐκείνων τῶν παίδων τούτῳ. 5. πολλῷ καὶ μεγάλῳ ἀνθρώπῳ 3. 3.Exercises for section 3C–E
3. 6. ἐκείνοις τοῖς ἀνδράσι ταύτης. GREAT: πολύς . μέγαν λιμένα 2. ἐκείνου τοῦ γείτονος ταύτῃ. 6. 6. ἐκείναις ταῖς νυξίν τούτων. μεγάλη λαμπάς 3. 5. 8.
κελευστής ‘orderer’. σπένδω ‘I pour a libation’. εὐχή ‘prayer’. ἐκεῖσε ‘over there’. e. a. βοάω ‘I shout’.
οὕτως ‘thus’. πρὸς τὸν Δία 5. (speciﬁcally in this chapter) ‘boatswain’.
τοῦτον τὸν ἄνδρα ταῦτα τὰ ἔργα ταύτην τὴν λαμπάδα τὰς βοὰς ταύτας τούτους τοὺς λιμένας οὗτος ὁ γείτων αὗται αἱ λαμπάδες τὰ πυρὰ ταῦτα ἡ πατρὶς αὕτη οὗτοι oἱ ἄνδρες μέγα τὸ ἔργον πολλὴν ἐμπειρίαν μέγαν λιμένα πολλὰ δεινά
. b. βοή ‘a shout’. ἡμέτερος ‘our’. ἔμπειρος ‘experienced’. παρὰ τὰς ναῦς 3. οὗτος ‘this’. d. βοή ‘a shout’ + θέω ‘I run’ = ‘I run to the help of’. ὑμεῖς ‘you’ (pl. ἐμπειρία ‘experience’. πολλῇ καὶ μεγάλῃ ἀπορίᾳ
IRREGULAR NOUNS 3C–E: 7
1. βοηθέω ‘I help’. διὰ τὸν Δία 2. e. d. σπονδή ‘libation’.). i. b. c. ἐκεῖνος ‘that (there)’. c. 3. κατακελεύω ‘I give the time’. c. κελεύω ‘I order’. ἡμεῖς ‘we’. 2. ὑμέτερος ‘your’ (belonging to lots of you).e. πολλοῖς καὶ μεγάλοις ἐργοῖς 6. εἰς τὴν ναῦν
4. ἐν ‘in’. ἐπὶ τὰς ναῦς
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3C–E
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
1. d. b. ἔνδον ‘inside’.
B – WORD SHAPE
Revision exercises for section 3C–E
5. εὔχομαι ‘I pray’.
and the Spartans by land. 5. this man. 4. 3. ἐκεῖνος ὁ μῶρος ῥαψῳδὸς ϕοβεῖται τούτους τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους. That man is stupid about many things. but this man [is stupid] about nothing. 2. 2. εἰς τὸν λιμένα (3) ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους (4) 2. the captain steers towards a great harbour. And it is clear that these ships are going to a sea-battle. (a) μέγας (5) (b) ναυτικήν (9)
τρέχουσιν (5) (c) δῆλον (11)
3. Finally these trierarchs arrive at the harbour and get on board. these ﬁre-signals. For they know that the danger is great. πολλαὶ δὲ αἱ βοαί. great is the deed. 5) 4. μέγας μὲν γὰρ ὁ θόρυβος. this neighbour. The sailors say that the Athenians are supreme at sea.Revision exercises for section 3C–E
C – SYNTAX
1. but they are sleeping peacefully. For great is the danger of the Athenians. The captain knows well that it is not a light but the ﬁre signals. For the boatswains are looking for the trierarchs.
Note: there are many more possible answers 1. these shouts. For he fears the Spartans. the men have much experience in naval matters. So he hurries into the harbour: for those ﬁre signals reveal that the enemy are attacking the Athenians.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. the sailor sees many strange things. Don’t you know whether those men are sailors or not? οὐχ οἶδα πότερον ἐκεῖνος (ὁ ἄνθρωπος/ἀνήρ) στρατηγός ἐστιν ἢ οὔ. ἐκεῖναι μὲν γὰρ ἔμπειροι περὶ πολλά. Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode go towards the ships. The men in the harbour watch the ﬁre signals and run home for their weapons. So when the ship arrives in the harbour. these men. these deeds. αὕτη δὲ οὔ. Then they offer their sacriﬁces and pour their libations and put out to sea. these lamps. these harbours. πολλοὶ δὲ (ἄνθρωποι/ ἄνδρες) ϕαίνονται. this country. this lamp. and great the confusion of the men. Dikaiopolis sees a light on the island. ἡ οὖν ναῦς πρὸς ἐκεῖνον τὸν λιμένα βραδέως πλεῖ. This good captain does not hear these shouts.
So the captain looks quickly towards Salamis. λαμπάδα ὁρᾷ (1) θεῶνται τὰ πυρά (4. And the Spartans do not easily learn nautical technique. Great fear seizes the rhapsode.
E – TEST EXERCISE 3C–E
While this ship is sailing past the island. ἐπέρχονται (4) θεῶνται (4) 3.
which you have learned (see GE p. you might begin with ‘he. The endings are just the same as in the nouns like λιμήν. 71. 77–78. 6 κακοδαίμων ‘ill-starred’ is perhaps the closest English can get to this idea. Participles are very widely used in Greek: this means. of another noun. being a sailor. πλῆθος is neuter (GE p. #77–80). but note that the Greek has no ‘bad’ implications – it is a neutral term meaning ‘god’. Here. however un-English it may seem. for example. likes Pericles’ before modifying to another clause – ‘because/as/since he is a sailor. ‘divine spirit’. a common pairing. #78) so the two agree. There are also more types of 3rd declension nouns. then re-phrase more idiomatically. the new grammatical material includes the use of participles – of the verb ‘to be’ in Sections A–B. ἡ πυρά ‘funeral pyre’.
1 ὅσον πλῆθος Once again the exclamatory use of ὅσος. in effect.Section Four: Lawlessness in Athenian life
In this Section. γεωργὸς ὤν ‘because/as/since I’m a farmer’. The Long Walls joined Athens to the Piraeus. This is the ﬁrst example of the present participle. of active and middle verbs in Sections C–D.
. #88). 54. 11 Similarly. 8 Notice πρῶτον μὲν …. 3 πυράς τινας The meaning should be clear (cf. Participles have a wide range of usages in Greek (see GE p. it is often best to translate literally ﬁrst. that you should observe carefully the way they are used and not move on from Section 4 until you are quite happy with all the usages of participles encountered in this Section. #66). he likes Pericles’. adjectives and pronouns (see GE pp. 4 πρὸς τῶν θεῶν ‘by the gods’ – the case usage will be explained later. It means the opposite of ‘divinely favoured’: some god is wishing evil upon you. δαίμων English ‘demon’ is derived from this word. See the map on page 38 of RGT. pl. #82).70–72. τὰ πυρά in Section 3) but note that here we have the acc. ‘What a great crowd … !’ 2 τὰ τείχη τεῖχος is another neuter noun of the 3rd declension like πλῆθος. ἔπειτα δέ …. 73. 10–11 ναύτης ὤν ‘being a sailor’. This is a 3rd declension adjective (see GE p. When translating.
no longer being’. See GE p. This is the feminine form of the participle. #87 for the full paradigm of the participle. οὐκέτ᾽ ὄντα ‘my son. O. could be defended. 25 οὖσα δεινή is here the clue to determining the form. κρατοῦμεν As on p. has already mentioned the plague which devastated Athens: νόσος generally means ‘disease’. with the basic sense of ‘leave’. The policy of Pericles explained here was that it was not safe to risk a major land battle against the Spartans. case and gender show that it agrees with τὰς οἰκήσεις. ‘we are superior/supreme’. ‘It is men who make a city and not walls or ships with no men inside them. 56–7.element in the middle. Thucydides 7. 13 καταλείπετε Note the -λειπ. 29 οὖσαν Agreeing with τὴν ἐμὴν γυναῖκα. 28 τὸν ἐμὸν υἱόν. Note the adjective stem without a ‘τ’ and the participle stem with one. 15–16 πόλις … ἄνδρες Cf. κακοδαίμονα … οὖσαν. 23 οὔσας Use ὀλίγας to determine which form this is. κακοδαίμονας ὄντας These show clearly the similarities and differences between the participle and the adjective.’ See also Sophocles. therefore the countryside of Attica could not be defended and the advice was given to farmers to abandon their property and take refuge in Athens where the city.T. 19–20 τὰ δὲ πρόβατα … διαπεμπόμεθα So that’s what Dikaiopolis was doing over in Euboea way back in Section 1A!
21 πολλοὶ ὄντες Another form of the participle. 24 νόσος Distinguish carefully from νήσος. Also there is a separate feminine. 77. while Athens waged war by sea (Thucydides 2.13–17). here speciﬁcally ‘the plague’. RGT p. 27 ὀλοϕύρομαι You may be able to deduce the meaning of this from the illustration on p.and the stem of the participle is -oντ-.77. as you will see in line 40 below. 42. the Long Walls and Piraeus. The English introduction. but that the stem of the adjectives is -oν. Deduce number. 36 line 35. 31 τοὺς ἐν τῇ πόλει ‘the people in the city’ (remember GE p. and that the adjective does not have a separate feminine form whereas the participle does. The number. Notice that the endings are almost the same as the adjectives. #63).Section 4A
12–13 Note how μέν and δέ are used to point the contrast between ‘us’ and the Lacedaemonians. 49. case and gender from πολλοί and enter in grid. The verb ‘to be’ is often used in the sense of ‘to be alive’. ‘my son who is no longer alive’. ‘to exist’.
. 41. and then understand κρατοῦσι in the next phrase. so which form? 30–31 κακοδαίμονα ὄντα.
and τοὺς ἀσεβεῖς (line 28) and τοὺς εὐσεβεῖς (line 28). ἀσέβεια. which is now the object of ϕέρω.
21 σέβομαι Cf.
. They are all from the same root. in this way Pericles persuades us. then in the temples. The ﬂocks we transport across to Euboea. But I’m not a sailor but a farmer. being heavy. 12 ὢ τῆς ὕβρεως The case is a genitive of exclamation. For he says: ‘We have supremacy at sea. You will not meet this type of 3rd declension adjective properly until Section 10. ‘What violence/aggression!’ Similarly with ὢ τῆς ἀνομίας (15) and ὢ τῆς ἀσεβείας (16). also ill-starred. who am ill-starred. by the gods. who is no longer. 25 ὥσπερ πρόβατα Our idiom is ‘like ﬂies’. DIKAIOPOLIS The city is indeed unfortunate. But Pericles [is] a very good general. After this the plague occurs. slowly. and bring your property into the city. I think Pericles [is] responsible. Dikaiopolis? Alas! What’s this? I see funeral pyres. the crowd is unfortunate and the farmers in particular are unfortunate. who is no longer. the situation becomes difﬁcult. which are few. and my own wife. ‘I carry it. So leave your homes.’ So. English ‘barometer’ etc. and then also Pericles. English ‘necromancy’. many women. But it is clear that that man likes Pericles because he’s a sailor. There you have the situation. farmers. Tell me.’ 11 ὦ ’νθρωπε = ὦ ἄνθρωπε. The war is primarily responsible. since he is a persuasive orator. Since I’m a farmer. also ill-starred. 3 νεκρός Cf. Why has the city such a great crowd. rhapsode. ‘necrophilia’. When we – and there are many of us – arrive in the city.
2 βαρύς ‘heavy’. You see the city. cf. but men. Do not worry. what’s the reason? Indeed it is clear that some evil god is punishing the city. and your land. it is terrible and destroys many men. βαρὺν ὄντα This is accusative and refers to the νεκρός. The plague also destroys my household. RHAP. For I am still lamenting my own son. many children. For a city is not dwellings or land. It will be explained later – for the present. rhapsode. For the sailor – DIK. You see the [people] in the city. and we live ﬁrst in the Long Walls. but the Spartans [have supremacy] on land. We bring in from the country our children and our wives and the rest of our property. The city-people have the houses.44
Translation for 4A
Heracles! What a lot of people! The walls seem full. You see me.
fellow. I don’t care. though you are a mortal. men are dying like ﬂies in their homes and in the temples. the most pious of men? Look. quickly! Wait. And don’t talk to me about laws and aggressive behaviour. DIKAIOPOLIS What are you saying? You are carrying a corpse? Y. I honour Aphrodite particularly. old man. but θεός as a feminine form is more common. throw the corpse onto this pyre. What are you saying? Corpses are falling upon corpses. what’s this? Are you throwing a corpse onto that pyre? What irreverence! Stop – Y. and it is my pyre. Come on. ‘Man is the dream of a shadow’. But what are you doing? Don’t do this. Y. And do you speak to me of gods and laws? You fool – the gods either don’t exist or don’t care about us. since the plague is destroying both the pious and the impious alike.’
O. She is a beautiful and kindly goddess. Y. Where are my mother and father. 2.Μ. a citizen? What aggressive behaviour! Don’t hit [me]. master. Come here. He no longer sees any point in trying to observe the old religion and morality. So I’m turning to Aphrodite and pleasure.
Translation for 4B
33 ἐϕήμεροι English ‘ephemeral’ helps.Μ. neither fear of the gods nor the laws of men? Y. but note the literal meaning ‘lasting for one day’ (ἡμέρα ‘day’). she makes life happy.
Stop. by the gods. what are you doing? Are you hitting a citizen? What lawlessness! Stop! Alas. Don’t get in my way. 35 Pindar quotation. Foul [man]! Are you hitting me. a comment on the transience of human existence.M. The young man is depicted here as exhibiting the sort of moral deterioration which Thucydides describes as one of the effects of the plague (Thuc. Don’t get in my way. boy. who were always pious? Now where is my brother.Μ. boy. wait and don’t hurry. O. But I don’t dishonour the gods.53). DIK.Μ.M. stop! Y. stop! You are dishonouring the gods. a pyre. Don’t you know that men are short-lived? What are we? What are we not?
YOUNG MAN SLAVE
‘Man is the dream of a shadow. The only deity he has any time for is Aphrodite.Μ. For I’m not afraid of punishment. But today I am burying my son.Μ. 39 ἡ θεός There is a noun ἡ θεά. O. because they are ﬁne. I’m carrying it slowly.
. O L D M A N What’s this? What are these shouts? You there. For this corpse is heavy. and as it’s heavy.Μ. Since the goddess is beautiful and kindly. Do you not reverence the gods? Do you not honour the laws of man? Does nothing stop you. DIK.
τάξιν τὰ ἄστη. τινά
. τι. 6. τῷ πράγματι 10. τῷ ἄστει 7. οὐδέν πόλιν – εὔφρονα. 2. πόλις. εὔφρονας. rhapsode. 8. τινάς τάξις – εὔφρων. οὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδέν 4A–B: 3
1. 3. οὐδεμίαν πρέσβεις – εὔφρονες. οὐδέν οἰκήσεις – εὔφρονες. πρᾶγμα τὸν πρέσβυν ἡ οἴκησις. 70). τινά. πόλιν. τινές. τινάς ἄστυ – εὔφρον. πράγματα. 5. εὔφρονας.
πλῆθος – εὖφρον. τάξεις ὁ πρέσβυς τὸ ἄστυ. σκεύη τοὺς πρέσβεις τὰς οἰκήσεις. before you try the exercises. 5. 5. τινες. ταῖς πόλεσι(ν)
TYPE 3 ADJECTIVES. τάξεις
1. 70–72. 4. 3. 7. 6. πόλεις. τοῦ πρέσβεως 8. and long for my own deme? For in the city there is nothing other than lawlessness and impiety and plague and a great quantity of corpses. 4.46
οἱ πρέσβεις τὴν οἴκησιν. #81–86. 2. πλῆθος.
Grammar for this part of Section 4 is given at GE pp. that I hate the city because I am a farmer. τάξις αἱ οἰκήσεις. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4A–B
TYPE 3 NOUNS 4A–B: 1
1. τις . πόλεις. Check that you know it and understand it. 7. τι. τις. 3. 9. #77–80 and pp. 73–76. πλήθη. τοῦ πλήθους 9.
τῷ πλήθει τοῖς ἄστεσι(ν) τῇ πόλει τοῦ πράγματος τῶν πρέσβεων
6. οὐδεμία σκεύη – εὔφρονα. τι. 4. There is also some vocabulary to be learnt (p. 2. 10.
Exercises for section 4A–B
Are you surprised.
ὄντας ὄντα ὄντα
6. τινί. 3. Uneducated I die. ὤν
1. τινῶν τάξεως – εὔφρονος. do not be surprised if you cannot ‘deduce’ all the meanings.Revision exercises for section 4A–B
1. 2. οὐδενός πρέσβεων – εὐφρόνων. 4. 4.
οὖσαν ὄν ὄντες ὤν οὖσαν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4A–B
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
Once again. 4. τισι(ν)
Check that you understand GE pp. 1. οὖσαν 9. 2. οὐδενός πόλει – εὔφρονι. whereas nouns which end in -μα describe a thing done: e. mortal I become I reveal. οὐδενί πράγματος – εὔφρονος. death origin. but ποίημα is ‘a poem’. ποίησις = ‘making poetry’. Note that nouns which end in -σις normally express the doing of something. 5. 6.
PRESENT PARTICIPLES 4A–B: 5
πλήθει – εὔφρονι. τινός. τινί. οὐδενί ἄστεσι – εὔφροσι(ν). 3. οὖσαι 10. summons
. ὄντες 7. τινος. show I embark I ask I seek I watch I call education.
ὄντες οὖσα ὄντες. genesis revelation embarkation question search spectacle calling. 2. lesson immortal.g. 5. 3. #87–88 before trying the next exercises. 5. ὄν 8. 76–78.
ἡ ἐμὴ γυνή.
κακοδαίμων ὤν / οὖσα (masc. and my daughter who is now a corpse. power learning (the process).Μ. τὸ πλῆθος.48
Revision exercises for section 4A–B
beautiful I am powerful I learn I make. Ἀθηναῖος ὢν καὶ εὐδαίμων. We have many problems because of the plague.) … ἡμεῖς ὀλίγοι ὄντες … ὑμᾶς πολλοὺς ὄντας.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. μέγα ὄν. b. ϕίλαι οὖσαι. τίς ὢν σύ … . … σέ. κατὰ θάλατταν κρατοῦμεν. e. Why are you lamenting. I do not dishonour the gods. who are unlucky. οὐ ϕοβοῦμαι.
. 2. daring deed falsehood. which are very good. μεγάλους ὄντας. You seem to be ill-fated indeed. For I am lamenting both my son. 3. Ο. honour the gods’ laws. who is no more. ἀγαθὸν ὄν. But what is the reason? How are the people dying? Because of the plague. since he is very good. though it is beautiful.M. corpses fall upon corpses and people die because they are ill-fated. do.
E – TEST EXERCISE 4A–B
YOUNG MAN OLD MAN Y. 5. friend. dishonoured recklessness. I do not honour the city. ὦ γυναῖκες … ἐγώ. ναῦται ὄντες. c. κακὴν οὖσαν. or fem. Y. σὺ γεωργὸς ὢν οἶσθα τοὺς νόμους.Μ. learning (the thing learned) poem. Λακεδαιμόνιον ὄντα καὶ κακοδαίμονα. or a daughter or a wife? I am doing this because I am ill-fated. κακοδαίμων οὖσα. 4. is not afraid of the Spartans who are hostile. ϕοβεῖται τὴν νόσον. the city is in much perplexity and the people are short-lived and ill-fated. create general army quickly I honour I dare falsely
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
beauty strength. The people. d. poetic art stratagem army. lie
1. The Athenians defeat by sea those men who are experienced on land. friend? Are you lamenting a son.
Come over here and tell [me]. This general. τὸ τῶν νεκρῶν πλῆθος. οὐκ ἀτιμάζει τοὺς θεούς. expedition speed honour.
Since I am a mortal. who is ill-fated. friend. For I see the multitude of people are ill-fated.
The Greek usage is often not as strong as English ‘suffer’: here it’s almost ‘What’s the matter with him?’ 16 δῆλοί εἰσι διώκοντες δῆλοι is used personally here. agrees with υἱόν οὖσαν line 4.Section 4C
O. κακοδαίμονας line 12 4. The action that is ‘not noticed’ is expressed as a participle (in this case τρέχων). 82–83. The noun means ‘traveller’. 10 ὁδοιπόρος Both elements have been met.
So do not dishonour the gods and do not commit irreverent acts against the city. in place of δῆλον ὅτι... The endings are exactly the same as those for the verb ‘to be’ which are set out in GE p.M. m.
6 λανθάνει A very awkward verb to translate as English has no direct equivalent. 3.
ὄντα lines 2 and 4.. you may like to make an empty grid in which to ﬁll in the various cases as they occur. 52 (not the hat or sticks!). Literally. ἀτίμαζε. #95 gives ‘escape the notice of’.. It means ‘to happen to be doing something’ or ‘to be really doing something’. #87. ‘undergo’. ‘Are you unaware of the man running?’. GE p.
1. ὁδός ‘road’ and πορεύομαι ‘I travel’. #90 followed by the participles of contract verbs GE #91. sing. f. using as your example the verb παύω. sing. but be resolute and honour the gods. φίλε is vocative ἀπορίᾳ is dative
This section introduces the present participle of active verbs: as above (Sections A–B). 9 ἀποφεύγων τυγχάνει τυγχάνω is another verb that is normally accompanied by a participle (see GE p. there are more examples at lines 10 and 11] 2. ἀσέβει. ‘Do you not notice the man running?’ 7 προστρέχοντα You can tell from the -οντα ending that it agrees with αὐτόν. ἔλθε εἰπέ line 1. 86. s. τίμα lines 13 and 14. or ‘they are clearly pursuing’. #95). 14 πάσχει GE gives as ‘suffer’. which is the nearest English phrase: it means to do something either intentionally or accidentally unnoticed by yourself or another. ‘they are clear pursuing …’ You will probably want to translate as ‘it is clear that they are pursuing’. 11 χλαμύδα This is the garment worn in the illustration on p. κακοδαίμονες line 8 ἐφημέρους line 11. ‘experience’. ‘Or does the man escape your notice running?’ before trying to rephrase more idiomatically. 77. You can also see the present participle of παύω set out on GE pp. It is probably best to stick to the literal translation to begin with. 86. s. agrees with θυγατέρα [nb.
Tell me. Dikaiopolis. 260. SAT. GE gives as ‘anticipate X (acc. Come here. DIK. ‘hard’ or ‘bad’. Clearly they are pursuing the man.
35 δυστυχής The force of δυσ. Here the former is more likely: the fugitive escapes into the sanctuary before the Eleven can prevent him from doing so. Whoever is it? RHAP. For I see him running towards [us]. a man is running this way. καίπερ ‘although’ is always followed by a participle. But he is not a slave and he seems to be a traveller. what’s the din? What are those shouts? What’s happening? RHAPSODE Look. or of doing it before they can do it. by Zeus. Or do you not notice that the man has a cloak? RHAP. Once again it helps if you translate it literally. I am aware of him. ‘dyspepsia’. But what’s this situation? A herald is approaching and – the Eleven and the public slaves. Cf. Look! The man is running into the shrine of Heracles. Do you see the man? Or are you not aware of the man running this way? DIK. But he’s in that shrine. as he’s a Spartan.and often has the sense of ‘with difﬁculty’. No. Dikaiopolis. as a suppliant. lines 207–208. But the man has anticipated the Eleven by running into the shrine. #95. Suddenly a man runs up to them. Perhaps he is a slave and happens to be running away.50
18 ϕθάνει Another awkward verb to translate and another of the group in GE p.) in -ing’: the basic sense is usually of doing something either before another can stop you. It’s clear that he’s turning in for sanctuary. English ‘dyslexia’. And now some men are approaching. But perhaps he is a foreigner. slaves. 86. that he’s running into the shrine? RHAP.
Translation for 4C
Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode travel towards the city. 28 τὸν ϕεύγοντα As above. But the situation is strange. DIK. S A T Y R O S Where is the Spartan ﬂeeing to? Where is he? You there – do you know where the fugitive is? Or are you not aware of the man ﬂeeing? RHAP. or ‘the fugitive’. into that shrine! Quickly lead away the stranger. You speak rightly. ‘dystrophy’. 23 ὁ φεύγων Literally ‘the running away one’. this time as the object. rhapsode. Odyssey Book 6 can be found in its original context in RGT p. 31–32 This quotation from Homer.in compounds is the opposite of εὐ.
. What’s the matter with him. before turning your literal translation into acceptable English. DIK. ‘the fugitive’.
84.) calling upon the gods’. ‘you see’ or ‘see!’ The context favours the latter. both Athens and Sparta at different times asked Persia for help. but such an event is recorded by Herodotus. 23 τὸν τοὺς θεοὺς ἐπικαλούμενον Notice that the participle can be itself an object. Sparta’s later
. and the oath is a characteristically Spartan one. The middle participles are easily recognised. but lead the man away.Section 4D
DIK. The two gods are the twins Castor and Pollux. 87.’ Don’t worry about that. 19 τοὺς … ἔχοντας Article + participle ‘the ones having …’. 52. HERALD DIK. he is sacrosanct. slaves. 13 ὦνδρες = ὦ ἄνδρες.
Don’t drag away the fugitive. seen below in ὀλοφυρόμενος (18). ‘All strangers are under the protection of Zeus. 84–85. Here the article is used to link the noun to the adjective μέγαν. and he anticipated you by running into the shrine. What lawlessness! Indeed the stranger appears to be unlucky. #92–93) and the participles of the contracted verbs (GE p. 32 πρεσβευτής As an ambassador he would of course (as today) be regarded as having diplomatic immunity.
RHAP. herald. In fact. ‘the man (obj. like καλός καλή καλόν
2 καθίζεται … ἱκέτης ὤν Illustrated at RGT p. 29 ναὶ τὼ σιώ GE translates as ‘by the two gods’ (σιώ is Doric dialect for θεώ). although he’s a Spartan. 11 ἀπόκοπτε τὰς χεῖρας Sounds rather drastic. often this is best translated by a relative clause. which may help towards meaning. ‘those who …’ περὶ Δία ἱκέσιον καὶ ξένιον Zeus was regarded as protecting suppliants as well as strangers and foreigners. The stranger happens to be a suppliant. we would say ‘the king’). #97). thinking that if they succeeded in obtaining Persian support they would be victorious. 35–36 πρὸς βασιλέα τὸν μέγαν βασιλεύς (without the article) is regularly used of the King of Persia (contrast our usage: to emphasise. Because he’s a suppliant.
Now the middle participles are introduced (GE pp. The especial signiﬁcance here is that throughout the Peloponnesian War.91. παύομαι gives παυόμενος παυομένη παυόμενον. 15 ἐπικαλούμενος The ﬁrst example of a middle participle. 6. 21–22 τοὺς ἀσεβοῦντας As above in line 19. ‘those who have …’ 21 καθορᾶτε This could be either indicative or imperative. and govern an object. #93) and one further type of 3rd declension noun (GE p. ἐπικαλοῦμαι is a contracted verb: the regular participle-ending is -όμενος.
Translation for 4D
Look. Cf. men! DIK. RHAPSODE (The rhapsode is silent. 36–37 σὺ δὲ δῆλος εἶ φιλῶν τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους Literally ‘But you are clear loving the Lacedaemonians’. Dikaiopolis. ‘plenty’. Don’t you see those public slaves. ‘abundance’. Here it is assumed that the extreme ill-fortune of the stranger can only be explained by the belief that he is being punished for the wrongdoing of one of his forebears. (He does not stop calling upon the gods. 50 In the second line of the quotation from Solon: (a) ἀποϕαίνει is active in form. ‘reveals’. as a suppliant. ἀπορία can mean ‘shortage of provisions’. The public slaves drag away from the altar the man who is calling upon the gods. and don’t do anything.
43 νέμεσις μεγάλη The concept of divine retribution for wrongdoing is common in Greek Tragedy and in Herodotus (see Section 19 in RGT p. Cut off his hands. Nemesis can fall upon the wrongdoer himself or upon any one of his descendants. Satyros. 49 Δυσνομία A personiﬁed variation of ἀνομία. Ο city. and the opposite of Εὐνομία. who have their daggers? STR. The stranger is calling upon us.
. drag the fellow away to the other Spartans. 47–48 εὐνομία and εὐπορία are contrasted with ἀνομία and ἀπορία.5). SAT. rhapsode. be quiet yourself too. εὐνομία is the opposite of ἀνομία. 230. hence ‘makes to appear’. line 1 for one instance in the original context). εὐπορία is the opposite of ἀπορία though here in a slightly different meaning from ‘perplexity’ which you met before. therefore transitive.52
success in securing Persian support undoubtedly contributed to her victory in the end. SAT. agreeing with πάντα. god of suppliants and strangers. do you see? What impiety! For the unfortunate stranger is sitting on the altar. and ﬁnally speaks. or ‘you are clearly in favour of the Spartans’. slaves. Look down upon those who are committing impiety against Zeus. away from the altar. but the public slaves are dragging him away while the stranger is holding on to the altar and calling upon the gods. Stop calling upon the gods. STRANGER I call upon the gods – PUBLIC SLAVE But the stranger is holding on to the altar. fellow. so εὐπορία means the opposite. I call upon you. STR. since he’s a Spartan. You. ‘visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons unto the third or fourth generation’ (Exodus 20. rhapsode and doesn’t stop calling upon us. (b) εὔκοσμα and ἄρτια are neuter plural. look down upon what I am suffering. city! S A T Y R O S Drag away this man. and stop lamenting.) Oh gods. Once again notice the personal use of δῆλος with the participle.) But nevertheless.
drag away those who ﬂee into shrines? Do you kill those who turn aside for sanctuary? By the twain. DIK. παυομένων
. τρέχων. τρέχοντος. you are clearly being unjust towards men and impious towards the gods. 87.
DIK. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4C–D
MORE PRESENT PARTICIPLES 4C–D: 1
1. παυομένους 2. παυόμενος 4. It is clear that the gods hate the man.’
Check that you understand the participles (GE pp. In peacetime there is good order and plenty in the city. rhapsode. ‘So bad government brings very many evils to the city. τρέχοντες. The stranger does not stop shouting and revealing what he is suffering at the hands of the Athenians. But who is that stranger? He happens to be an ambassador – What are you saying? An ambassador? What lawlessness! Are you killing ambassadors? He is an ambassador and happens to be travelling towards the great King. παυόμεναι 3. although he is an ambassador and a suppliant. παυομένης
3. τρέχοντι. 82–85. παυομένην 7. παυόμενον
5. παυόμενος 8. For they are killing him. Notice also βασιλεύς (GE p. 85–86. παυομένῳ 2. παυόμενον
1. τρέχων. Athenians. 95. but in war there is lawlessness and shortage.
DIK. τρέχουσαν. παυομένου 4. Surely great retribution from the gods is coming upon him because of his ancestors and the aggression of his ancestors. including the forms for the contracted verbs. τρέχουσαι. For in peacetime these things do not happen. #97). #94. and their various uses listed in GE pp. τρέχον. τρεχούσης.Exercises for section 4C–D
STR. 87–88. Shut up then and stop bewailing the Spartan. SAT. But what’s the matter with our city? What’s happening? War seems to be a violent instructor. τρέχοντα. τρέχοντας. #98–100) on elision and crasis. But good government makes all appear well-ordered and perfect. τρεχόντων. and the useful notes (GE pp. SAT.
RHAP. παυόμενοι 6. The public slaves drag the Spartan away towards the market-place. But you clearly love the Spartans. #89–93).
f. 1. τρέχουσι(ν). εἴμ’ Ὀδυσσεύς
1. f. acc m. παυομένοις m. τρέχοντι. 3./acc. acc. s. παυομένῃ
7. κακός ἐστὶν ὁ πόλεμος 5.54
Revision exercises for section 4C–D
5. ἆρ’ ὁρᾷς. ἐν δὲ ἀπορίᾳ
4. n. s. ἀφ’ ἡμῶν
4. παίζων 3. ὁ δ’ ἀνήρ 2. f. pl. νῦν δὲ ἐπὶ οἰκίαν 2. s. acc. φεύγων. 5. sacred thing
. 4. τρέχουσι(ν). 8.
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4C–D
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
impiety temple. παυομένῳ 8. ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς 5. nom. βοῶντας
ELISION AND CRASIS 4C–D: 6
1. 3. 2. f. nom. ἀλλὰ ἐγώ 3. 2. nom. m. ἆρά εἰμι ἔμπειρος. 5. 5. 3. 8. 7. pl. βαίνουσα 2. of the doers to/for the women who are showing of the one who is afraid to/for the women who are doing to/for the one who sees to/for those who show 4. acc.
τὸν θεώμενον τὰς ὁρώσας τοὺς ποιοῦντας αἱ δηλοῦσαι οἱ φοβούμενοι ἡ ποιοῦσα τὴν ὁρῶσαν τὸ δηλοῦν τοῖς θεωμένοις τῇ ὁρώσῃ τῶν ποιούντων ταῖς δηλούσαις τοῦ φοβουμένου ταῖς ποιούσαις τῷ ὁρῶντι τοῖς δηλοῦσι(ν)
the one watching those/ the women seeing the ones doing the ones/the women showing those afraid the one/the woman doing the one/the woman seeing the one/it showing
to/for those watching to/for the woman who sees of those doing. τρεχούσῃ. 4. s. pl. παυομένοις 6. 6. nom.
1. 7. φεύγοντας τρέχοντα
a. ὁ ἀποϕεύγων d. The king is running away and does not stop running away. host I happen/unlucky.) The herald does not stop hating the strangers and being afraid. 5. I know who is escaping. Don’t you see that the master has some gear? (Does the master escape your notice having some gear?) ἆρα λανθάνει σε ὁ δοῦλος τὸν ἱκέτην ἀϕέλκων. But you are clearly a suppliant and you happen to be lamenting the situation. The stranger does not stop lamenting and revealing what he is suffering. The pursuers arrive and ask the rhapsode where the stranger happens to be. pursuing him. (The Lacedaemonian anticipates the pursuers running into the shrine. because some men are approaching quickly.
I do not see any Spartan escaping. outrage
1. The man escaping does not escape my notice (i.e.
E – TEST EXERCISE 4C–D
A stranger happens to be running into the shrine of Heracles. they drag him away. Why don’t they stop being afraid? ϕοβούμεναι. (Does the slave escape your notice dragging away the suppliant?) For the ambassadors anticipate the public slaves (by) running away. The stranger is clearly suffering something dreadful. but the rhapsode and Dikaiopolis keep quiet. Women (in general) are always afraid. c. So in this way lawlessness and impiety occur in the city of the Athenians. as they are afraid of the Eleven.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. Who are lamenting? Where are the people who are lamenting? οἱ ὀλοϕυρόμενοι.
. ὁ ξένος οὐ παύεται ἡμᾶς ἐπικαλούμενος καὶ βοῶν. ὁρῶμεν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους/ἄνδρας τρέχοντας. Who are ﬂeeing? Do you see them ﬂeeing? τοὺς ϕεύγοντας e. For the rhapsode is clearly aware that the stranger is running away. Who is running? I do not see the man running. The stranger eludes his pursuers [by] running into the shrine which is nearby. ἀποτρέχων f. For it is clear that the stranger does not escape the rhapsode’s notice running away.Revision exercises for section 4C–D
a suppliant I hate stranger. although he is shouting and calling upon the gods. ὁ γὰρ Λακεδαιμόνιος φθάνει τοὺς διώκοντας τρέχων εἰς τὸ ἱερόν. ὁ δ’ ἀνὴρ δῆλός ἐστι πρεσβευτὴς ὢν καὶ ἀποϕεύγων τυγχάνει.) When the pursuers see him in the shrine. guest. I am aware of the man who is escaping). 2. (Lit. unhappy offence
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
I beseech hated hospitality/I entertain chance I assault.
3. τὸν τρέχοντα b.
pl. (d) 3rd pl./acc. s. nom.
. (a) 3rd pl. s.56
Revision exercises for section 4C–D
1. (b) 3rd pl. (c) 3rd s. 2.
(c) n. nom. nom.
(d) m. pl.
53) + μανης (cf. and in 5C–D the future. Before beginning 5A you may ﬁnd it helpful to write out the present tense (active and middle) of παύω. For example: ‘I was going’ indicates an event that was taking place and not necessarily completed (consider its likely context: ‘I was going to the shop when …’. indicates a deﬁnitely completed action – but at an undeﬁned time (yesterday / last week / ten years ago etc. and GE p. Or see GE p. It is much less common than the aorist. English ‘hypnosis’ (and again note English at top of page). 6 τὸ χρῆμα τῶν νυκτῶν Literally ‘the business of the nights’ – GE glosses χρῆμα here as ‘length’. where the ‘when’ clause is likely to explain why I never reached the shop). ‘I have just come in’. while ‘aorist’ means ‘undeﬁned’. In 5A–B the imperfect tense is introduced. The meaning of ‘imperfect’ in this context is ‘incomplete’. by contrast. it may be helpful to look at the explanation in GE p. 93.Section Five: ‘Socrates corrupts the young’
This is a vital section. so far the narrative has been conﬁned to the present tense alone. Note: In Section 6 you will met another past tense called the aorist. Greek also has a perfect tense: this expresses a completed action in present time. ‘I went’. 4 ὕπνος Cf. 3 ἱππομανής Break it up into its constituent parts: ἱππος (illustrated p. ‘I have shut the door’. If you are not happy with the term imperfect. and it is not introduced until Section 13E. and another table for εἰμί. in which you will meet new tenses of the verb.).
2 χρήματα Illustrated at bottom of page 53. #102. ὀϕείλει The root cause of Strepsiades’ problem (see English note at top of page). and a list of the middle forms and εἰμί at the end of 5B. #103. English ‘mania’). #110. leaving room to the right of the table to enter imperfect endings as they occur. 98.
. 92. ‘unﬁnished’. A checklist of the active forms appears at the end of the notes to 5A.
17 ἐκάθευδον First example of the normal imperfect. 16 χθές ‘yesterday’. #105. the 1st person s. 94. 2nd s. ‘this son of mine here’. πικρούς ‘bitter’. Note that πικρόν is brought forward to emphasise it. and then you have to wait until the end of the sentence to ﬁnd out what we never ceased doing. 18 ἐδίωκον Which person (oἱ χρῆσται is the subject)? You can conﬁrm the formation by comparing ἐλάμβανον. what would you deduce to be the 1st person singular of the imperfect of παύω? ὅλην τὴν νύκτα The accusative case without a preposition is used to express duration of time. Past tenses in Greek have ἐ. ‘picric acid’. 23 ἦν Past tense of εἰμί – person? 24 ἐλάμβανε Compare ἐλάμβανεν (21). Note that the person is indicated by ἐγώ. This is called the ‘augment’.as a preﬁx. ‘polygamy’. Note that in the imperfect. have the same ending. which indicates that ἦ is the past tense of εἰμί. ε + α = η. 20–21 ἔσῳζεν. ‘for the whole night’. Cf. your present + imperfect table (active only) could look like this. Can you explain the variation? δι-ελέγετο First example of a middle imperfect – which person? Note that when the verb has a preposition as a preﬁx the augment is attached to the verb stem and not to the preposition.58
12 δάκνει Here = ‘worry’. #105. which is used later in this section. Similarly ὀλίγον χρόνον means ‘for a short time’. 13 τουτονί Adding the -ι to τοῦτον makes it even more demonstrative. ἐλάμβανεν Identify the person of the verb by looking at the respective subjects (οὐδείς. ὁ υἱός) and use the endings to form the corresponding person of παύω. and the 3rd person pl. 28 ἐπαυόμεθα Which person? Notice that the subject is delayed and the verb comes ﬁrst for emphasis: ‘we never ceased…’. See GE p. 30 γάμους English ‘monogamy’. See GE p. 31–34 Note the contrast between rustic simplicity and urban extravagance – Aristophanes makes much more of this than the text here does. Note that the augment and the ending have been spaced so that you can see the stem clearly:
1st s. Using these indicators. 25 ἤκουε This is what happens when the augment merges with a vowel. καθεύδων (9) and καθεύδει (9) indicate that 1st person singular of the present indicative must be καθεύδω. etc. παύω παύεις παύει ἔ -παυ -ον ἔ -παυ -ε(ν)
. If you followed the suggestion above. Interim check: the imperfect so far. though note its literal meaning is ‘bite’. should help with the meaning. 3rd s. 95.
And yesterday I was sleepless. But I am still sleepless and at a loss. For I owe much money because of this son of mine. Strepsiades intends to hit the slave. 5 κλαῖε Literally ‘weep’. hold) me. For she always used to take her son and talk to him about horses. then my creditors kept on pursuing me in my dreams and kept on exacting their due because of my son. sleep deeply! For the debts. And moreover even when sleeping the young man dreams of horses. but the father cannot sleep (lit. 3rd pl. How sweet was the country life! Marriage – how bitter! For my wife happens to be from the city. Alas! We never stopped arguing about the boy. 2nd pl. just as you are. and because I owe [much money] my creditors pursue me and are always exacting their due. Now the son happens to be sleeping deeply.
παύομεν παύετε παύουσι (ν)
ἔ -παυ -ον
Translation for 5A
Strepsiades happens to be lamenting because he owes a lot of money. I am unfortunate and sleepless. and being a citywoman she started to bring in much expense. 4 ἔλαιον ‘olive oil’. my debts which are heavy worry me. ‘idle’. always takes much money. Ο king Zeus! Why do you make marriages so bitter? For always my wife makes my life bitter. While I am sleepless.Section 5B
2 ἅπτε λυχνόν λυχνός is illustrated opposite. even when a boy he kept dreaming of horses. certainly. my wife and I: we were always arguing. which should help with the meaning of this phrase. for almost the whole night. 8 ἀργούς Compounded from ἀ. See! My son is sleeping deeply and does not cease sleeping. blaming him for the lack of oil – he should have ﬁlled the lamp. And while I was at a loss. Alas! Who was responsible? My wife [was] responsible.
Alas. For his son. ‘not working’ i. a vital commodity for the Athenians. I know that well. But you. being horse-mad. But when I was sleeping. ‘lazy’. For I was sleeping for a short while. sleep does not hold the father).e. It is still ruining me even now.
.(negative preﬁx) + ἔργoν. turn) onto my head. alas! Ο king Zeus! The length of the nights – how great it is! Day is not yet coming. fall (lit. as you well know. Alas unhappy me! Deep sleep does not yet come to (lit. but for the whole night I was always escaping from these lawsuits. nobody was saving me. This expense already then was ruining me. and this son of mine kept on taking lots of money because he was horse-mad. So her son always listened and learnt about horses. Yes.
παύομαι παύει παύεται παυόμεθα παύεσθε παύονται εἰμί εἶ ἐστί(ν) ἦ(ν) ἦν ἦμεν ἦσαν
ἐ -παύ -ετο
ἐ -παυ -όμεθα ἐσμέν ἐστέ ἐ -παύ -οντο εἰσί(ν)
For other persons. By now the tables for παύομαι and εἰμί should look like this:
Ist s. but were good and always obeyed. For I can’t see anything now. ἡμεῖς indicates the person. Strepsiades. But why don’t I save myself and my son from our debts? Why don’t I look for some scheme. 1st pl. 92. ἐπείθοντο Imperfect middle ending.
Translation for 5B
STREPSIADES SLAVE STR. although they are idle. How can I light the lamp. So they were not idle. 98. and put an end to these debts? Now.) were taking
ἐπαύετο ἐφερόμην. #102 and p.60
Exercises for section 5A–B
9 οὐ πείθονται The middle of πείθω means ‘I obey’. 2. nor did they treat their masters badly.
he/she was stopping I/they were carrying you (s. taking a direct object. ἐφέροντο ἐλαμβάνου
. 2nd pl. but they do not obey. see GE p. ‘I harm’. 3rd pl. For the war stops [me]. for it is deep night. 10 ἦσαν The past tense of εἰμί – person? 11 τοὺς δεσπότας κακὰ ἐποίουν ποιῶ here seems to take two objects. it does. For they were afraid of punishment. #110. 3rd s. save yourself! Hurray. What are you saying? The lamp has no oil? Unhappy me! Come here and weep! How evil is the war! I no longer punish my slaves. Alas for my troubles! For now we give orders. 3.
But what do I owe? Slave! Come here! Light the lamp. 2nd s. because κακὰ ποιῶ (‘I do bad things’) was treated as a single idea. hurray! I have a plan! Now why don’t I stop this young man sleeping? EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5A–B
THE IMPERFECT 5A–B: 1
1. master? Look! There is no oil in the lamp. then the old men always used to punish their slaves. But when we were young. ἦμεν The past tense of εἰμί. In fact. What would be the corresponding formation for παύομαι? 14 ἐμαυτόν and σεαυτόν (line 17) are reﬂexive pronouns: ‘myself’. ‘yourself’.
ἀπάγουσιν διαφθείρομεν εἰσφέρετε
IMPERFECT OF CONTRACT VERBS AND VERB ‘TO BE’ 5A–B: 4
1. 5. ἐτίμων 2.) lament he owes they pray
ἠκούομεν εἶχον ὠλοφύρεσθε ὤφειλε ηὔχοντο
1. he was afraid 8.) were bringing in
καταβαίνει ἀποκτείνεις ἀπάγω. ἔπασχε(ν) 3. 6.) were seeming 12. 10. they were freeing you (s. 6. 2.) killed I/they drove away we were destroying you (pl. ἐκελεύετε
1. 3. he/she/it was I was freeing. 5. 5. ὠφείλομεν
ADDITIONAL IMPERFECT PATTERNS 5A–B: 6
4. ἐκώλυον 5. they were doing you (s. 4. 3. 8. 12. 3.
he was ceasing you were obeying they were conversing we are afraid they were they were showing
7. 4. learned
I was. 5. 2.) were sacriﬁcing
AUGMENTS 5A–B: 2
1. you (s. we were turning 11. they are ﬁghting 9. he was lamenting
.) were owing he hears we were remaining he was doing
he came down you (s. 11. 4. 2.
he was stopping we were honouring I was doing.
we were learning you (pl.Exercises for section 5A–B
4.) are punishing he found out.
we hear they have you (pl. 5. 4.) were showing you (s. I was calling to witness 10. 2. 3.
2. We are young and punish the house-slaves. but these men are still pursuing me.) owed ὠϕείλετε we were in ἐνῆ you (pl. ἐτίμων 9. ἐφαινόμην 5.) were watching ἐθεῶ you (s.) used to obey ἐπείθεσθε they were afraid ἐϕοβεῖτο I was calling upon ἐπεκαλούμεθα I was stopping ἐπαύομεν he/she was ἦσαν you were afraid ἐϕοβεῖσθε he/she was watching ἐθεῶντο
. ἦμεν … ἐκολάζομεν … ἐγίγνοντο. ἐφοβεῖτο 3.
a. 3. ἐκάθευδον … ἐδίωκον. d. For in this way the houseslaves become good. ἐποιεῖτο 10. b. How bitter is marriage! For my wife always makes our marriage bitter. ἦν … ἐλάμβανε … διελέγετο. διελέγοντο
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5A–B
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
ἐκώλυε ἐπαύετο ἐπεκαλούμεθα ὤφειλες ἤκουον
6. 4. ἐβοᾶτε 7. Who is responsible? My wife. e. 2. For she always takes her son and talks to him about horses. 5. ἐπείθοντο 2. I am sleeping. c. we were conversing διελεγόμην we were watching ἐθεώμην they were bringing in εἰσέϕερεν you (s. The slaves do not fear their masters nor do they obey them.62
Revision Exercises for section 5A–B
1. ἦν … ἐπoίει. ἐφοβοῦντο … ἐπείθοντο. ἐδουλοῦντο 8. διελέγεσθε
Translation for 5C
Pheidippides. but the sailor did not stop chasing. although when this is merged with a consonant stem it is not always apparent. ϕιλήσεις there is an additional point to note: contracted verbs lengthen the vowel at the end of the stem before adding the same endings as uncontracted verbs. οἱ νεανίαι χρηστοὶ (ἀγαθοὶ) ἦσαν καὶ ἐπείθοντο. In almost all verbs the distinguishing mark is a ‘-σ-’. #112–114.
1 Φειδιππίδιον Note the diminutive form – affectionate? 5 αὔριov ‘tomorrow’. 2. You (s.
In this section you will meet the future tense. 58 line 10. #114. 4. See GE pp.and regular endings. #115–116 6 τουτονί τὸν ἵππιον Pheidippides swears by Poseidon. The sons owed much money. Pheidippides changes his oath to swear by Dionysus. ὁ πατὴρ ἀεὶ ἐκόλαζε τὸν υἱόν. ‘Will you obey?’ 13 Obediently. future middle of πείθω. god of horses (as well as god of the sea).inserted between present stem and person-ending. ‘obey!’ 10 πείσομαι Also future. but we did not make sacriﬁces.Section 5C
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
The young man was shouting. 3. The point will be further developed later. 6 ϕιλήσω … παύσομαι 1st person singular of active and middle respectively. 103. The farmers always used to honour the gods. 22 σώσει See note above on p. see GE pp. Note that verb-stems ending in dentals -τ/-δ/-θ/-ζ lose the ﬁnal consonant of the stem before adding -σ. this should alert you to what tense is coming next! ϕιλήσεις The ﬁrst example of the future – note ending -σ-εις. Note the -σ. οἱ δὲ δοῦλοι (οἰκέται) ἡμᾶς κακὰ ἐποίουν. 12 πείσῃ 2nd s. We used to pray to the goddess. ἡμεῖς μὲν ἐκελεύομεν.to form -ξ-. ἐβοῶμεν καὶ τοὺς δούλους (οἰκέτας) ἐπαύομεν διαλεγομένους.
1. βαθέως ἐκάθευδον ἀλλ’ ὁ υἱὸς οὐκ ἐπαύετο βοῶν. 102–103. father?
. 17 ἀκούσομαι Some verbs change from present active to future middle with no change in meaning. Pheidippidikins! What. 9 πείθου This is the middle imperative. 5. (With ϕιλήσω. See GE p. 103–104. 20 λέξω Verbs with stems ending in -γ/-κ/-χ combine the ﬁnal consonant of the stem with the -ς.) stopped the woman punishing the household slaves.
PHEI. I was listening and I am listening and I shall listen. ‘I consider’ with the sufﬁx -ηριον. ἄνθρακες English ‘anthracite’ may help towards meaning: ‘coals’. but I will [tell you]. Don’t worry. ‘bakery’. PHEI. For I have a plan and I am planning something. Here perhaps ‘argument’ ﬁts the meaning most closely. Don’t ever mention that horsey one.
1 οἰκίδιον The diminutive form of οἶκος/οἰκία. father. Will you love me tomorrow? By Poseidon here. STR. by Dionysus. STR. and I don’t ever stop [loving you]. STR. PHEI. STR. 9 μαθήσονται The future of μανθάνω (μαθ-). Look. STR. by Dionysus. PHEI. a very small thing. earthenware ovens. 105. So speak then! What are you ordering? I shall order a small thing. What were you telling me? I was telling you that I have an idea. Were you listening? Or weren’t you listening? Or am I speaking in vain? I’ll stop you sleeping. I’m planning something big. ‘brewery’ – the place where something is done. constructed from ϕροντίζω ‘I think’. I shall love you tomorrow and I shan’t stop ever. I am listening and obeying and I shall always obey. Some irregular verbs use the stem given in brackets to form the future. For perhaps this idea will stop us somehow from our debts. my son. See GE p. son.
Tell me. PHEI. father? What will you order? How will your idea save us? How shall we stop from our debts? You will do it? I will do it. do you love me? I [do]. 13 λόγον Always a difﬁcult word to translate.g. STR. 5 πνιγεύς Ilustrated on next page – these are bowl-shaped. What is your idea? What have you in mind and what are you planning? Were you saying? No. #120 for a list of ‘important futures’. PHEI. Hence ϕροντιστήριον means ‘thinkery’. What is your plan. son – for that one has the responsibility for my troubles – but listen and obey. PHEI. 6–7 Notice the implication that Socrates and his associates are well paid for their teaching – something which Socrates always vigorously denied. god of horses. STR.64
STR. Socrates is depicted as having two ‘arguments’ in his
. PHEI. Will you obey? I will obey. Tell [me]. which corresponds to English ‘-ery’ sufﬁx in e. 3 ϕροντιστήριον An Aristophanic coinage. Yes.
why don’t you go in (as) a student?’ διαϕθερεῖ One of only two examples in this section of a grammatical point that is easily overlooked (see GE p. ‘But you. but later acquiring pejorative overtones – hence the disgusted reaction from Pheidippides.do not insert -σ. See GE p. ‘Won’t you obey?’ γενήσομαι The future of γίγνομαι (γεν-). #117. #117). εἴσεισι. -ν.
Translation for 5D
STREPSIADES STR. Do you see this door and the house? I see it. εἴσιμεν The future of εἰσέρχομαι again (cf. -μ-. See GE p. based on the bracketed stem.. What is it. ἄριστε ἀνθρώπων Strepsiades reverts to his wheedling. PHEIDIPPIDES
Look over here.in the future can combine with a labial consonant stem (κοπ-) to produce -ψ-. σοϕισταί Originally a neutral term for philosophers. 105. 104.or -ρ. οἱ ἔνδον ‘those inside’.to form future. #117). #114. here it is also derogatory. This is doubly confusing because εἶμι (‘I shall go’) is identical in spelling with εἰμί (‘I am’). Socates went unshod. See GE p. and speaking they persuade their pupils that the heaven is a bell-oven and this bell-oven is around us and we are the coals. by verbal trickery etc. These men persuade their pupils.and added -έω to form future (see GE p. again based on the bracketed stem. and was hence a derogatory description for a man. Father? This is the thinkery of wise souls. However. εἴσει. is again based on the bracketed stem but with the vowel lengthened. and the ‘wrong’ argument. 103.(‘under’) -δητους (‘bound’): ‘unbound-under’ meant ‘shoeless’.104.Section 5D
23 24 27
28 29 32
34 35 36–38
‘thinkery’ (in the original play these ‘arguments’ actually appear as characters): the ‘right’ argument. To be pale was a sign of spending too much time indoors. 104. can make the weaker argument appear the stronger. σὺ δὲ διὰ τί οὐκ εἰσέρχῃ μαθητής. the accent distinguishes the two when not prefixed. 57 κόψω Notice how the -σ. ἀν-(negative) ὑπο. always teaching and
. ὠχρούς … ἀνυποδήτους Ochres are pale yellowish shades. In addition. οὔκoυν πείσῃ. Inside live wise men.
41 ἐκβαλῶ βάλλω has shortened the present stem to βαλ. #120. εἴσειμι The irregular future of εἰσέρχομαι. 50 γνώσομαι The future of γιγνώσκω (γνω-). as a sign of poverty. λήψονται The future of λαμβάνω (λαβ-). which. which argues correctly. Verbs with a present stem ending in -λ-. Hence Strepsiades’ interest in the latter argument. note on line 32). which gives the meaning of ὠχρούς. but have a contracted future in -έω.
#112–114). At this point you may ﬁnd it useful to revise the different formations of the future tense. STR. becoming [their] pupils? The pupils will learn arguments. Why don’t you go into the thinkery. In this way I shall stop those creditors taking their money. Yuck! Awful [people]. PHEI. I know: I myself will go into the thinkery and will become a pupil of the sophists and I will learn the unjust argument. being a student. PHEI. PHEI. What will you tell me? But as I was saying. STR. who will go in? Shall we go in together.
Do not neglect the very useful table of indeﬁnites and interrogatives in GE p. not sophists. #125. PHEI. Who are these men? What is the name of the men? I do not know the name. But what do the men teach? What will young men learn. And by Zeus no one of them will stop receiving much money from their pupils. I’m not going in today. For I love horses. STR. those inside have two arguments. wretched Socrates and Chaerephon. The students will learn these arguments? [Yes]. I know. I won’t do this.66
receiving a lot of money. an old man and slow in exact arguments. STR. but not into the thinkery of the sophists. PHEI. STR. hey. Won’t you obey and do this? I won’t obey and I won’t do this. god of horses. PHEI. 102–103. Then I’ll chase you out of the house and send you to hell! I’ll run away. But they are ﬁne. but I shall become the winner. You may ﬁnd it
. Why do you not go in as a student? For this way we shall stop ourselves from our debts. [go] into the thinkery? By Poseidon. I shall become pale. PHEI. 110. STR. For the unjust argument will put a stop to our debts. by Zeus. But if you won’t go in. You mean the pale shoeless [people]. What will I learn? The unjust argument. best of men? What are you saying? I. noble sophists. Which arguments do you mean. But how shall I. I’ll go into the house. STR. STR. #127a.
STR. And what’s more in lawsuits they will always defeat their opponents. the just and the unjust. Father? Which? I mean the just and unjust argument. be quiet! Will you not listen? I will listen. PHEI. learn philosophy? All the same I’ll go in. So learn: in this way the creditors will not recover any of these debts. Why don’t I knock at this door and shout? I’ll do this and I’ll knock at the door and shout.
PHEI. What shall I do? Pheidippides will not win. 109. And learn to decline Σωκράτης in GE p. Hey. the just one won’t.
PHEI. STR. you and I? I won’t. I won’t go in tomorrow and I won’t do so in any way. STR. before you go on (GE pp.
they will hinder he will order we shall travel you (s. endings: -ω.Exercises for section 5C–D
helpful to make a chart like this.) will cease you (s. ρ most –ιζω Contracted verbs παύω εὔχομαι κόπτω πείθω θαυμάζω διαϕθείρω νομίζω ποιέω τιμάω δηλόω Future παύσω εὔξομαι κόψω πείσω θαυμάσω διαϕθερῶ (έω) νομιῶ (έω) ποιήσω τιμήσω δηλώσω Aorist
The future of contracted verbs has ordinary. γ. 3. ν. 5.
Present Vowel stems Consonant stems κ. χ π. not contracted.) will prevent
κωλύουσι κελεύει πορευόμεθα παύῃ κωλύεις
CONSONANT STEMS 5C–D: 2
1. λ.) persuade
εὔξονται τύψει ἡσυχάσεις τρεψόμεθα πείσεις
. -ει … . 2. θ most ζ μ. leaving the third column free to add the ﬁrst person of the aorist tense as you learn it in the next section.) keep quiet we turn you (s.
they pray he hits you (s.
Irregular verbs μανθάνω λαμβάνω γιγνώσκω γίγνομαι μαθήσομαι λήψομαι γνώσομαι γενήσομαι
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5C–D
THE FUTURE TENSE 5C–D: 1
1. 3. 4. -εις. 5. δ. ϕ τ. but the stem vowel is lengthened. β. 2. 4.
he will take they will become we shall be you (pl.) will know he will become. you (s. 4.) will learn they will ﬁnd out he/she/it will be
7. they will set free
ADDITIONAL FUTURE PATTERNS 5C–D: 4
νικῶμεν φιλεῖ κρατῶ (έω) ζητεῖτε ἐλευθεροῦσιν
1. 9. μαθήσομαι 8.
IRREGULAR FUTURES 5C–D: 6
1. 4. ἔσεσθε 9. 8.
they will go they will be I shall go you (s. ἰουσῶν. 12. 2. 5. 5. λήψονται 7. 3. they will suffer they will persuade you (s. it will happen he/she will go
1. ἔσται 3. 6. 5.) are knocking we shall pray you (s. 3.68
Exercises for section 5C–D
CONTRACT VERBS 5C–D: 3
1. 2. 12. he will love 3. you (pl. we shall defeat 2. 10.) will cease they will obey. I shall hold power over 4. 6.
you (pl. πρὸς τὰς τριήρεις οὔσας. ἔσεσθε
1. 2. 10. 11. ἰούσας. τῶν μητέρων οὐσῶν. εἶσι(ν)
. γενήσῃ 5. 2.
he will stop.) will do they will destroy we prevent he will converse he will consider I shall show
1. 3. ἴμεν 10.) were ordering
7. 8. 11. γνωσόμεθα 4. ἴασι(ν) 2.
κελεύσουσι(ν) πείσει πείσεται
4.) will seek 5. 9.
instruction the contestant in a lawsuit the juror ignorant an idea the house belonging to the house or family a sophist
to do with teaching unjust I judge to do with learning I think I live in
unfortunate I learn
mind/sense I consider a household slave a little house the household or house wise wisdom
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. δέξονται We do not hear the words. 2. responsible/cause I blame I teach the teacher justice/ right just I do wrong I am unfortunate the pupil
teaching. ἔσομαι … νικήσει The son does not love his father. ἰόντες. this (man) does not defeat me.
. ἰούσαις REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5C–D
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
1. sir? λέξεις We do not teach the teachers. oἱ νεανίαι τήμερον μαθήσονται τὸν ἄδικον λόγον. ἰόντα. κόψω … βοήσομαι Who wins the lawsuits? νικήσει The pupils do not stop learning. ἀπὸ τοῦ Περικλέους ὄντος.Revision exercises for section 5C–D
3. ὁ ἀγαθὸς υἱὸς ἀεὶ ϕιλήσει τὸν πατέρα. i. 5. I shall never hate the gods. ϕιλήσει The idea saves us. e. κελεύσει What are you saying.
The sophists will teach you tomorrow.
a. f. j. d. παύσονται Who are the wise men? ἔσονται
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. ταῖς θυγατράσιν οὔσαις. τὸν Σωκράτη ὄντα. οἱ πατέρες ὄντες.
The father orders his son. b. ἰόντος. ἀκουσόμεθα I am wise. k. g. h. σώσει I knock at the door and shout. 6. 4. c. l. διδάξομεν The men receive much money.
(c) future (c) m. 4. Dikaiopolis calling you. but I will knock on the door and call Euripides again. nom. Why is it impossible? Call Euripides. ὁ μαθητὴς εἴσεισιν εἰς τὸν οἶκον/τὴν οἰκίαν.. if you get the idea. SLAVE DIK. I was speaking correctly/ the truth. slave. Don’t you hear? It’s me. come here. s. dear Euripides.
E – TEST EXERCISE 5
DIKAIOPOLIS SLAVE DIK. His mind is collecting words and is not in. by Zeus. The women will listen to the words. but the man is in.. 2.
1. s.. stop teasing me. How beautifully he speaks! But now. Who is this? Who won’t stop calling me? You there! Who was shouting? Who? I was shouting.. nom.. nom. writing a tragedy. Euripides.
(a) imperfect (a) m. acc. s. SLAVE DIK.. But it is impossible. boy.
(b) imperfect (b) m. οὖτος ὁ ἵππος οὐ παύσεται τρέχων.
(d) present (d) n. οἱ σοϕοὶ ἔσονται δίκαιοι. in having such a clever slave.
Slave. boy? How can a man be in and not in? It is clear that you are talking nonsense. No.
3. s.. and call him. 5.70
Revision exercises for section 5C–D
The sailors will not stop looking for the captain. SLAVE DIK. O thrice blessed Euripides. How do you mean. The master will punish the slave. But tell me: is Euripides in? He is not in and he is in. boy.
. from the deme of Cholleidae. I won’t go away.
just as in the future. ‘monarchy’.
. ‘monoplane’ etc. κόψω What tense? 12 τίς ὁ κόπτων. You will ﬁnd that in most cases the aorist adds a sigma before the ending. though in the experiment something slightly less monstrous is envisaged: ‘slippers’. Note ἐ. 115–118. 5 ἔκοψα. line 12). Note ἐ. ἐπαυόμην. ἐ(augment). 6 τίς ὢν σὺ τούτο ἐποίησας Literally ‘You being who did this?’ or ‘Who are you that you did this?’ (2nd singular aorist indicated by σύ).e. it will also have an augment. #128–138.Section Six
In this section the aorist tense is introduced (if you are uncertain of terminology. just like the future. (b) -σε in the ending. ὦ ᾽γαθέ = ὦ ἀγαθέ. but. and the lengthening of the stem vowel. perhaps. -σατο (person-ending).(augment). i. how many ‘ﬂea-feet’? 30–31 πρῶτον μὲν … εἶτα … τέλος δέ … Three stages of the experiment. and ὀϕρύς is ‘an eyebrow’. -σα (person-ending). Note (a) the augment ἐ. To explain the humour of the situation. 54. 10 ποιήσω. ‘Who is the one knocking?’ Note the use of the participle. please refer back to the note at the beginning of Section 5). ἐβόησα 1st person singular (as ἐγώ indicates). The contracted verb lengthens the stem vowel before adding the ending. 22 ψύλλα … ὀϕρύν There is no point in trying to guess here! ψύλλα is ‘a ﬂea’. ἐβόησεν The ﬁrst examples of the aorist. 35 ἐμβάδας Illustrated below. You may want to look at GE pp. the scholiast (ancient commentator) informs us that Chaerephon had shaggy eyebrows and that Socrates was bald. ‘monopoly’. 19 μόνοι ‘alone’. as it is a past tense.(augment). δάκνει has occurred at the beginning of the section 5A (p. ἐπαύσατο The ﬁrst example of the middle aorist.(as for imperfect). like the imperfect. Again. 25–26 ὁπόσους … πόδας ‘how many of its own feet’. -σας (person-ending). Cf. and is here used in its basic sense of ‘bite’.
17 ἐπαυσάμην Which person do you think this is? Cf.
3 ἔκοψε. note also that π + ς = ψ.
40 ἐποίησαν Resumption of aorist endings. ἐ- (augment) and -σαν (person-ending). 42 ὡς ἔλεγον ‘as I was saying’. Notice the difference between the imperfect tense and the aorists which follow, ‘they made the wax warm etc.’
46–47 If the apparent lack of connection here is confusing, it is designed to convey the ignorance of Strepsiades. ‘Knowing the ﬂea’s leap’ = ‘being educated’, and if he’s educated, then he’s sure to win his lawsuits.
Translation for 6A
Strepsiades knocks at the door and shouts Boy! Young boy! S T U D E N T Go to hell. Who knocked at the door? Who shouted? STR. I knocked at the door and I shouted. STU. Who are you that you did that? Some ignoramus, I know well. STR. Strepsiades, from the deme Kikynna. STU. Go to hell, again. STR. Alas! What shall I do? Well, I’ll knock again. (He knocks at the door again.) STU. Who’s that knocking? Why did this fellow not stop knocking, when I told him to? Why are you knocking again? What do you have in mind? You’ve knocked away my thought [by] doing that. STR. But I’ve just stopped, my dear fellow. For you told me to. Don’t throw me out, although I’m a rustic and ignorant. But what was your thought? Tell me. STU. It isn’t right. Only the students learn these thoughts of the sophists. STR. Tell me then. For I have come to the thinkery as a student of the sophists. STU. I will tell you. A ﬂea bites Chaerephon’s eyebrow. When it jumps onto Socrates’ head, the men converse as follows. SOCRATES Look, Chaerephon. The ﬂea does not escape my notice being worthy of an Olympic crown. But tell [me], how many of its own feet did the ﬂea leap? CHAEREPHON I do not know, Socrates. But why don’t we measure the distance? SOC. How shall we measure it, Chaerephon? CHA. Look. First I take some wax, then I make the wax warm. Finally I put the ﬂea’s feet into the wax. SOC. What then? CHA. Now the wax is becoming cold. Look, Socrates: for the ﬂea has slippers. SOC. But what are you doing now? CHA. Now I am loosing the slippers. Look! STR. Ο king Zeus! Oh the wisdom of the men! But tell me, whatever did the men do, student? STU. You don’t escape my notice being a rustic, Strepsiades, not knowing anything. But as I was saying, ﬁrst they made the wax warm. Then they put the ﬂea’s feet into the wax. Finally they loosed the slippers and measured – of course – the distance.
Ο king Zeus! The men appear to be wise. Why then do we marvel at that [famous] Thales? Indeed I shall easily escape justice. For I shall know the ﬂea’s leap. Open, open the door!
1 θηρία GE gives ‘beasts’ – perhaps ‘monsters’ conveys the sense better. 4 οἱ … βλέποντες As before: article + participles = relative clause. 5 τὰ κατὰ γῆς As before: a very common idiom, using neuter plural of article + adjective/adjectival phrase. Literally ‘the things beneath the earth’. Here something like ‘subterranean phenomena’ might convey the meaning. 6 Strepsiades, of course, takes the words at face value: ‘They must be looking for trufﬂes.’ 7 πρωκτός If the students are bent double, what is pointing towards the heavens? 12 ἀστρονομία Possibly in the original production represented by some elaborate instrument. Likewise γεωμετρία (14). 15 The explanation of the original meaning of ‘geometry’, from γῆ ‘land’ and μετρέω ‘measure’. 19 περίοδος Both elements are known, ὁδός ‘journey’, περί ‘round’, hence the meaning ‘map’. 23 A stock joke in comedy was that Athens was litigation mad. Hence, to Strepsiades’ over-literal mind, a map couldn’t represent Athens without depicting a lawcourt and jurors. 30–31 Another over-literal interpretation: on the map Sparta looks too close, so Strepsiades suggests moving it further away. 35 κρεμάθρας See stage directions (line 34). 36 αὐτός ‘Himself’, ‘The Master’.
Translation for 6B
STREPSIADES STUDENT STR. STU. STR.
STU. STR. STU. STR.
Heracles! What are these monsters? Hey you! Why are you amazed? Why did you yell again? Are you amazed at these students? Yes, by Zeus, I am amazed. But what are these ones doing, who are looking into the ground? These are investigating subterranean phenomena. Then they are looking for trufﬂes. Don’t worry about it any more, monsters: I know where there are some lovely big ones. But who’s this? Why is his bottom looking towards the sky? Because his bottom is studying astronomy. Look! What’s this? Tell me! This is astronomy. And what’s this?
STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU. STR. STU.
Exercises for section 6A–B
Geometry. And what use is this? Tell [me]! With this we measure the land. This is a map of the world. Do you see? This is Athens. What are you saying? I don’t believe [you]: I don’t see any one of the jurors sitting. Where is my deme? It’s here. Do you see Euboea? I see [it]. But where does Sparta happen to be? Where? Here. Alas! Go away, go away! How near us Sparta is. But why don’t you drag this away from us a very long way? Impossible. By Zeus, you’ll regret it. But tell me, who’s this who is in the basket? Himself. Who’s Himself? Socrates.
At this point your chart should look like this:
Present Vowel stems Consonant stems κ, γ, χ π, β, ϕ τ, δ, θ most ζ μ, ν, λ, ρ most -ιζω Contracted verbs παύω εὔχομαι κόπτω πείθω θαυμάζω διαϕθείρω νομίζω ποιέω δηλόω τιμάω Future παύσω εὔξομαι κόψω πείσω θαυμάσω διαϕθερῶ (έω) νομιῶ (έω) ποιήσω δηλώσω τιμήσω Aorist ἔπαυσα ηὐξάμην ἔκοψα ἔπεισα ἐθαύμασα διέϕθειρα ἐνόμισα ἐποίησα ἐδήλωσα ἐτίμησα
Note once again that the aorist of contracted verbs has ‘ordinary’ endings -α, -ας, -ε … You will meet the aorists of the irregular verbs in the next section. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6A–B
THE AORIST 6A–B: 1
he sacriﬁced he ordered
they sacriﬁced they ordered
Exercises for section 6A–B
3. ἐκώλυσε(ν) 4. ἔλυσε(ν)
he hindered he set free
they hindered they set free
1. you (pl.) pray 2. they hit 3. he keeps quiet 4. we turn 5. I persuade
ηὔξασθε ἔτυψαν ἡσύχασε(ν) ἐτρεψάμεθα ἔπεισα
1. we defeated 2. he loved 3. I held power over 4. you (pl.) sought 5. they set free
νικῶμεν φιλεῖ κρατῶ (έω) ζητεῖτε ἐλευθεροῦσι(ν)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
ἤκουσε(ν) ἤκουσαν ἀνεχώρησε(ν) ἀνεχώρησαν ἠτίμασε(ν) ἠτίμασαν ἔβλεψε(ν) ἔβλεψαν ἐβόησε(ν) ἐβόησαν ἐδέξατο ἐδέξαντο ἐλύσατο ἐλύσαντο
he heard they heard he retreated they retreated he dishonoured they dishonoured he looked they looked he shouted they shouted he received they received he ransomed they set free
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
ἐδίδαξε(ν) ἐδίδαξαν ἐθαύμασε(ν) ἐθαύμασαν ἔθυσε(ν) ἔθυσαν ἐνίκησε(ν) ἐνίκησαν ἐθεάσατο ἐθεάσαντο ἐτρέψατο ἐτρέψαντο ἔκοψε(ν) ἔκοψαν ἐχώρησε(ν) ἐχώρησαν
he taught they taught he marvelled they marvelled he sacriﬁced they sacriﬁced he defeated they won he watched they watched he turned they turned he knocked they knocked he went they went
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
ἠκούσαμεν ἐδέξαντο ἀνεχώρησας ἐδίωξε(ν) ἐκόλασαν
6. ἐβόησατε 7. ἐνόμισε(ν) 8. ἐδήλωσα 9. ἔμειναν 10. διέφθειραν
Revision exercises for section 6A–B
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6A–B
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
a. Who is knocking at the door? ἔκοψε(ν) b. Who is going into the thinkery? ἐχώρησε(ν) c. But I knock again and do not stop knocking. ἔκοψα, ἐπαυσάμην d. I will tell you. ἔλεξα, εἶπον e. Finally we shall release the slipper. ἐλύσαμεν f. Why do we admire that Thales? ἐθαυμάσαμεν 2. a. The ﬂea leaps onto Socrates’ head. ἐπήδησεν b. But how will you measure, Chaerephon? ἐμέτρησας c. Finally we measure the distance. ἐμετρήσαμεν d. These are seeking things below the ground and do not stop seeking. ἐζήτησαν, ἐπαύσαντο e. What does the matter reveal, Socrates? ἐδήλωσε(ν) 3. a. αὐδάω they spoke f. ὠθέω I pushed b. ἐλπίζω you (s.) hoped g. ἐρωτάω they asked c. ὁμολογέω you (pl.) agreed h. οἰκέω I lived, dwelt d. ἡγέομαι I considered, led i. ἀσπάζομαι they greeted e. ἄρχομαι they began j. ἐκπέμπω he sent out 4.
imperfect ἐκέλευον ἐκώλυον ἐπαυόμην ἔβλεπον ἔκοπτον ἔκρυπτον ἐδεχόμην ἐδίωκον ἔπραττον ἠτίμαζον ἐκόλαζον ἔσπευδον διέφθειρον ἔμενον ἠπόρουν ἐδήλουν ἐμίσουν ἐνίκων future κελεύσω κωλύσω παύσομαι βλέψω κόψω κρύψω δέξομαι διώξω πράξω ἀτιμάσω κολάσω σπεύσω διαφθερέω μενέω ἀπορήσω δηλώσω μισήσω νικήσω aorist ἐκέλευσα ἐκώλυσα ἐπαυσάμην ἔβλεψα ἔκοψα ἔκρυψα ἐδεξάμην ἐδίωξα ἔπραξα ἠτίμασα ἐκόλασα ἔσπευσα διέφθειρα ἔμεινα ἠπόρησα ἐδήλωσα ἐμίσησα ἐνίκησα
present κελεύω κωλύω παύομαι βλέπω κόπτω κρύπτω δέχομαι διώκω πράττω ἀτιμάζω κολάζω σπεύδω διαφθείρω μένω ἀπορέω δηλόω μισέω νικάω
three of the most irregular past stems have been introduced).g. She stopped looking at the stranger. ἐθαύμασε τὸν ἄδικον λόγον.
3. ὁ γεωργὸς ἐβόησε καὶ ἔκοψε τὴν θύραν.
New in this section is the second aorist. The aorist tense in Greek is formed in one of two ways: 1. The suppliant did not respect/honour the goddess. ‘short-lived’. which has an augment at the beginning of the word and sufﬁx at the end – compare English ‘regular’ past tenses adding ‘-d’ or ‘-ed’ to the present stem (e. ‘walked’). 6 ὦ ἐϕήμερε ἐϕήμερος has been met in section 4A (p. ‘walk’. the neighbours did not punish the young man. The endings are the same as those for the imperfect. ὁ σοϕιστὴς οὐκ ἔπεισε τοὺς σοϕοὺς νεανίας. 4. 2. line 33) with the meaning ‘ephemeral’. Note that. most verbs have either a ﬁrst or a second aorist: they are not alternative forms for the same verb.
The woman looked for her son. Second aorist. ἦλθες 2nd singular of the second aorist.is the second aorist stem of λέγω. Here Socrates uses it for comic effect. which still has the augment but it is added to a stem changed in some way – compare English ‘irregular’ past tenses (e. see GE pp. Literally. Don’t they know that you did this job easily? ἆρ’ οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅτι σὺ/ὑμεῖς ἡδέως ταύτην τὴν γνώμην ἐδέξω/ἐδέξασθε. while the aorist has its own stem which is always different from the present stem. 46.
2 ἐλθέ You have met this already (in fact. ἐλθ. ‘slept’). future. Even though they were wicked. and aorist). First aorist. Notice the word order in πῶς δ’ ἤκουσάς με ὡς σοϕός εἰμι.is the second aorist stem of ἔρχομαι. ἐπαύσαντο βλέποντες τοὺς ἵππους. ‘How did you hear me that I am wise?’ or ‘How did you hear that I was wise?’
. 8 εἰπέ εἰπ. As you meet them. This is the sort you have just learned.Section 6C
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. make a list of these verbs with their principal parts (present. καίπερ σοϕὸς ὤν. ‘sleep’. again as in English. #144–146. 124–126. but the imperfect uses the present stem.g. 2. ὁ δίκαιος.
11–16 The content is repeated from earlier in the chapter, but note the presence of second aorists – ἔδακε (second aorist of δάκνω), ἤρου (second aorist of ἐρωτάω), ἐλάβετε (second aorist of λαμβάνω), ἐγένετο (second aorist of γίγνομαι), and ἔθετε (aorist of τίθημι, a verb which you have not yet learned in detail). 18 εἶδον ἰδ- is the second aorist stem of ὁράω. 19–20 πόθεν ὢν τυγχάνεις ‘Where do you happen to come from?’ 27 ἐξευρίσκεις εὑρίσκω has perfect tense ηὕρηκα, familiar from Archimedes’ cry on discovering the principle of displacement. Second aorist stem εὑρ- is met in the next line. 29–30 ἔμαθον, ἔτυχε Second aorists respectively of μανθάνω, τυγχάνω.
Translation for 6C
The student goes away. Strepsiades calls Socrates.
STREPSIADES SOCRATES SRT. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR.
SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
Socrates! Dear little Socrates! Come here! Who called? Who forced his way into the thinkery of the sophists? I shouted, Strepsiades from the deme Kikynna. But I didn’t force my way into the thinkery. Why call’st thou me, Ο creature of the day? For what purpose have you come? I have come as a student into the thinkery. For I have already heard that you are wise. Tell me, who said that? How did you hear that I was wise? One of the students said this. What did the student say? Tell [me]. The student said that a ﬂea bit Chaerephon’s eyebrow. Then it jumped onto your head. You asked Chaerephon how many of its own feet the ﬂea leapt. You measured it thus: ﬁrst you took the ﬂea and put it into warm wax. When the wax became cold, the ﬂea had Persian slippers. Then you measured the distance. I have never seen anything so wise. You have never seen anything so wise? But where do you actually come from? Kikynna. You did not escape my notice being a rustic, and ignorant. Don’t blame me. But tell me, what are you doing in that basket, Socrates? I am walking on air and contemplating the sun. Why are you doing that from a basket and not from the ground? What are you discovering or learning, being in a basket? I never discovered meteoric phenomena nor learnt anything, looking from the ground. For the earth happened to prevent thought.
The second part of your verb chart should now look like this:
Irregular verbs present μανθάνω λαμβάνω γίγνομαι future μαθήσομαι λήψομαι γενήσομαι aorist ἔμαθον ἔλαβον ἐγενόμην
and you should also have added:
ἔρχομαι ὁράω εὑρίσκω εἶμι ὄψομαι εὑρήσω ἦλθον εἶδον ηὗρον
Remember to add other verbs with second aorists to the list as you meet them.
This section contains mainly further practice in second aorist stems: these have been given in vocabularies so (it is hoped) they should pose few problems.
3–5 4 6 7 10–12 12 πάσχεις … ἔπαθον The question–answer format may help to link these two. ἔλαθον Second aorist of λανθάνω, cf. λαμβάνω, ἔλαβον. λήψονται Irregular future of λαμβάνω. ἕτερον ‘one of two’. Cf. line 8 πότερον ‘which of two?’ τί δράσω ‘What shall I do?’ is answered by ὅ τι; ‘What?’ κατακλίνηθι An irregular imperative form. The -κλιν- (Latin clin-) stem may guide you towards the meaning ‘lie down’ (‘recline’), and the noun κλίνη is anticipated in the stage directions ‘couch’. λήσω Irregular future of λανθάνω. ἔχεις τι ‘Do you have something?’ meaning ‘Have you an idea/suggestion?’, but the literal translation is probably better to lead into the vulgarity which follows. γυναῖκα ϕαρμακίδα ‘a woman sorceress’, a ‘witch’ in the sense of a woman with supernatural powers. In ancient Greece the months were lunar, and interest was due at the start of the month when the moon rose. Thus no moon = no month = no interest due. In the original, Socrates is more impressed with Strepsiades’ reasoning than the abrupt termination to this chapter would suggest.
Translation for 6D
20 28 38 38–43
But, Socratikins, why don’t you come down? For I have come into the thinkery because, owing much money, I am in debt.
Exercises for section 6C–D
SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC. STR. SOC.
But how did you become a debtor? How do you suffer this? I escaped my own notice having a horse-mad son. So I became a debtor. And I suffered this through horse-fever and my son. For my creditors always exact justice, and unless I do something they will always exact [justice]. So teach me one of your arguments. One of my arguments? Which do you mean? The greater or the lesser? I mean the unjust one, the lesser, the one stopping debts. For this argument will win lawsuits, the greater won’t. What shall I do? What? First lie down on the couch. Then think out some way out of your affairs. Alas for me! The bedbugs will exact their penalty today. You there, what are you doing? Aren’t you thinking? I? [Yes] by Poseidon. And what did you think? Whether I shall escape the bedbugs, which are biting me terribly. You are talking rubbish. But the fellow’s silent. What’s he doing? (He addresses Strepsiades.) You there, are you asleep? By Apollo, I am not. Do you have something? By Zeus, I haven’t. Nothing at all? I have my penis in my right hand. To hell with you! Don’t joke, fellow. Socratikins! What, old man? I have an idea. Tell [me] your idea. I shall take a witch woman and I shall steal the moon by night. What are you saying? You will steal the moon? Tell [me] – how is this useful? How? Listen. The creditors lend money by the month. So I will steal the moon. The moon will no longer rise. How then will the creditors take their money? To hell with you! You are a peasant and ignorant. I will not teach you any longer, since you are ignorant. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6C–D
THE SECOND AORIST 6C–D: 1
1. εἶπε(ν), εἶπον 2. ἔλαβε(ν), ἔλαβον 3. ἔμαθε(ν), ἔμαθον 4. ἦλθε(ν), ἦλθον
he, they spoke he, they took he, they learned he, they went
Revision exercises for section 6C–D
5. ἐγένετο, ἐγένοντο 6. ἔδραμε(ν), ἔδραμον 7. ηὗρε(ν), ηὗρον 8. εἶδε(ν), εἶδον 9. ἔτυχε(ν), ἔτυχον 10. ἔσχε(ν), ἔσχον
he, they became he, they ran he, they found he, they saw he, they happened to… he, they had
1. 2. 3. 4.
ἐγένοντο εἴδομεν ηὗρες ἔλαβε(ν)
5. 6. 7. 8.
ἤλθετε εἶπες ἔμαθον ἔδραμον
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6C–D
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
βιασα- ἐβιασάμην κλεψα- ἔκλεψα θαυμασα- ἐθαύμασα διδαξα- ἐδίδαξα δεξα- ἐδεξάμην ϕιλησα- ἐϕίλησα δηλωσα- ἐδήλωσα 2. μαθ- ἔμαθον ἐλθ- ἦλθον ἐξευρ- ἐξηῦρον διελθ- διῆλθον 3. I saw (ὁράω) I said (λέγω) I escaped notice (λανθάνω) I found (εὑρίσκω) I learned (μανθάνω) I went (ἔρχομαι) I became (γίγνομαι) I suffered (πάσχω)
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
The sailors said that the captain had ﬁnally learned the truth. ὁ μαθητὴς εἶπεν ὅτι ἐξηῦρεν ὁπόσον ἐστὶ/ἦν τὸ χωρίον. 2. The young men happen to be suffering terribly. ὁ γεωργὸς ἔτυχεν ἀμαθὴς ὤν. 3. The suppliants ran into the temple/shrine. ὁ γέρων ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὴν πόλιν.
Summary exercises for section 6
The women saw the moon. ὁ πατὴρ ἄδικος ἐγένετο. You (pl.) took the money because of your debts. οὐκ ἔλαθές με ἄγροικος ὤν.
SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
impossible power I am able I force forceful force I do drama I am amazed amazing wonder horse-mad I am mad madness horse horsey horsemanship I steal thief theft All in the right-hand column are diminutives. old man little old man child baby door little door house little house father daddy Socrates Socratikins Pheidippides Pheidippidikins
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
When the Persian army and ﬂeet approach (προσῆλθον), the Athenians quickly embark (εἰσέβαινον) on their ships and sail (ἔπλευσαν) towards Salamis. Then the Athenians and the other Greeks keep quiet (ἡσύχαζον). Finally the Persian ﬂeet arrives (ἀϕίκετο) and when night comes (ἐγένετο), the ships sail (ἔπλευσαν) slowly this way and that. And when day comes (ἐγένετο), the Persians approach (προσῆλθον) quickly for a sea-battle, the Greeks are at a loss (ἠπόρησαν) and afraid (ἐϕοβοῦντο). Finally they are no longer afraid (ἐϕοβοῦντο) but are daring (ἐτόλμων) and advance (ἐπῆλθον) against the barbarians. So they ﬁght (ἐμάχοντο) in good order and defeat (ἐνίκησαν) the barbarians. And Xerxes also ﬂees (ἔϕυγε). In this way the Greeks become (ἐγένοντο) free through their courage.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
γέρων δέ τις καὶ ὁ υἱός, νεανίας ὤν, διελέγοντο περὶ χρημάτων. ὁ δὲ νεανίας ἔτυχεν ὀϕείλων πολλὰ χρήματα. καὶ διὰ ταῦτα, οἱ χρῆσται οὐκ ἐπαύοντο διώκοντες τὸν πατέρα. ὁ δὲ πατὴρ οὐκ ἐκόλαζε τὸν υἱόν (ἡ γὰρ μήτηρ ἔπαυεν αὐτὸν κολάζοντα) ἀλλὰ διενοεῖτο μηχανήν/γνώμην δεινήν τινα. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ πατὴρ ἔπεισε τὸν υἱόν, ὁ νεανίας πειθόμενος ἦλθε πρὸς τοὺς σοϕιστὰς καὶ πολλὰ ἔμαθεν. οἱ γὰρ σοϕισταὶ ἀεὶ ἔπειθον αὐτόν, καὶ πολλὰ καὶ σοϕὰ
But [despite] teaching and persuading. For my son will win the lawsuits through the unjust argument. except you? Who made our son horse-mad. ἄγροικον ὄντα.
Hurrah hurrah! For now the creditors will not get their money any longer.
You. and we shall escape our creditors. ἀλλὰ ἐμίσει. except you? Now what shall I do? How shall I stop our debts? You are responsible. acc. wife. ἀεὶ τὰς δίκας ἐνίκα. the young man does not love you or obey you. οὗτος οὖν ὁ υἱὸς μανθάνων ταχέως τὸν δίκαιον καὶ τὸν ἄδικον λόγον.Summary exercises for section 6
ἐδίδασκον καὶ πολλὰ χρήματα ἐδέχοντο. (a) vocative
(b) imperfect (e) aorist (b) f. s. the creditors pursued him and did not stop exacting their dues. the mother did not stop the young man. but since I am from the city he loves me particularly. nor did their son stop being horse-mad. husband. 3.
. So the father and mother converse. and by persuading [him] I will stop [him] from his horse-madness. Finally the young man went into the thinkery of the sophists and became a student. But don’t worry about it. So.
E – TEST EXERCISE 6
A young man happened to owe much money because of his horse-fever. the father said:
FA. pl. He saw and heard many wise things. I will persuade and teach our son. while the father was always defending the lawsuits of his creditors. καὶ οὐκ ἐπαύετο παίζων πρὸς τὸν πατέρα.
1. As you are ignorant and a yokel. αὕτη ἡ γνώμη οὐκ ἔπαυε τὰ χρέα τὰ τοῦ πατρός. ἀλλὰ ἐπεὶ ὁ υἱὸς ἐπανῆλθεν οἴκαδε. When the son learnt the just and the unjust argument. For I have an idea. acc. For who took our son and talked to him about horses. which is stronger. appear to be responsible for my troubles. τέλος δὲ ὁ γέρων ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν. and the sophists taught him much.
(a) aorist (d) present (g) aorist (a) m. s. nom. ὁ γὰρ νεανίας οὐκ ἐϕίλει τὸν πατέρα. (b) genitive
(c) imperfect (f) future (c) m.
ἐγένοντο Tense? 6 ϕανοῦμαι Tense? ὅτι οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἢ τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγειν βούλομαι ‘that I want to speak nothing other than the truth’. ἰέναι. 134–135. #152. 8 εἰδέναι Learn carefully to distinguish the three inﬁnitives εἶναι. In the ﬁrst (7A–C). which are only slightly adapted from the original. reﬂecting a technical philosophical argument.
7A–C Plato: Apology 20c–23b 7A
1 ἐρωτῶσιν οὖν τινες ‘some people ask. and in the third (7G–H) you will meet the narrative style that Herodotus uses in his History. 10 ἀνάγκη ἐστί … See GE p. and then in 7D the aorist participle is introduced (GE pp. therefore …’: a typical rhetorical device which allows the speaker to pose the question which he wants to answer. Make sure that you read the ‘Introduction’ to each passage so that you understand the context. But once you adapt. 4 διέβαλον. 11 που The particle means something like ‘I suppose’. rather different from the style you have met before. You will ﬁnd the style of these passages. You may ﬁnd that it takes you a little while to get used to these changes of style and at ﬁrst the Greek may seem more difﬁcult. 135. taken from Plato’s version of Socrates’ defence at his trial (see Introduction). #162–166). you will enjoy the variation and will have acquired a new skill. #150–152). εἰδέναι. although it is literally the indeﬁnite form of ποῦ ‘where?’
. In the second (7D–F) you will meet the typical style of the Platonic dialogue. #153. GE p. you will ﬁnd some rhetorical features mixed with a discursive. 3 οὐ βουλόμεθα διαβάλλειν σε ‘we don’t want to slander you’: βούλομαι + the inﬁnitive – a very common pattern. 142–145. almost colloquial style.Section Seven: Socrates and intellectual inquiry
This is another very important section which introduces some more extremely valuable grammar: inﬁnitives in 7A (GE pp. 135.
14 σοϕώτερος ἤ … ‘wiser than …’ See GE p. ‘He thought he was wise.: ‘I turned myself towards’. 9 πολιτικόν τινα ὄντα Agrees with τοῦτον τὸν σοϕόν and refers to him. And indeed it is necessary for the god to speak the truth.’ Therefore I want to explain to you and tell you why these men slandered me and from where the slanders and this reputation arose.138–139. He was my companion from childhood.’ ἐπειρώμην ‘I tried’: the imperfect of πειράομαι. I happen to have this reputation on account of some kind of wisdom. For. 18 μὴ θορυβεῖτε The jurors are reacting unfavourably. ὦvδρες = ὦ ἄvδρες. We might say ‘who was a politician’.’ Note the use of the participle. 14–15 τί οὖv ποιεῖv με δεῖ ‘What is it necessary for me to do? ‘What must I do?’ 17 ᾔει What verb does this come from? See vocabulary and GE pp.
1–2 λέγει … λέγων You may want to translate this as ‘What does the god mean when he says?’ 5 πολὺν μὲν χρόνον ‘for a long time’. gentlemen of Athens. What then must I do? It is clear that I must go to Delphi and consult the oracle. And Chaerephon once reasoned thus to himself. but you must be assured (know well) that I wish to speak nothing but the truth. Socrates. not being. ‘That Socrates is wise. #161. For the god at Delphi will bear witness to my wisdom. For there is great necessity for the god to speak the truth.
Translation for 7A
Some people therefore are asking ‘But. ἔδοξέ γε σοϕὸς εἶναι. Do you want to know what this wisdom is? As witness. Lit. and you know how impetuous Chaerephon was about everything. I know well. For we do not want to slander you. And know well that I do not want to joke with you.’ So Chaerephon went to Delphi and he obtained this oracle in the presence of the god. and the Pythia answered that no one is wiser. Listen then. and explain to us. he was not. then. indeed. 10 ᾤμην Tense? Verb? The vocabulary will tell you. You know Chaerephon. I want to bring the god at Delphi. why are these men slandering you? What do they have in mind? From where do these slanders arise and this reputation of yours? Speak. he asked whether there is anyone wiser than Socrates.136–138. Accusative of duration of time. for perhaps I shall appear to be joking. But I want to know if anyone is wiser than Socrates. in reality. gentlemen! For. This is a frequent plea by orators who are battling to be heard. For perhaps Socrates is the wisest of men. ἠπόρουν What verb? What tense? ἐτραπόμην Second aorist middle of τρέπω. though. Do not make a din. #155–160 for comparison of adjectives. I suppose. σοϕώτατος ‘wisest’. οὐκ ὤν ‘He thought he was wise.
Cf. though he was not. And. do not think that I know anything. For this man thinks that he knows something. those who thought that they knew something were more foolish. at the same time. As a result of this (from this) that man and others of those present hated me. as I thought. but by instinct and inspiration. but I. I reasoned in this way to myself: ‘What does the god wish to say? For I know that I am not wise. he and many of those present began to hate me. For I wanted to test the oracle and to show that ‘You. So. And. though when he wasn’t’. And I am ashamed to tell the truth. Therefore I went to a wise man (at least he thought he was wise). though he knows nothing’. lines 10 and 11. 21–22 τοὺς δὲ λόγους τούτους οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅ τι νοοῦσιν ‘they do not know these words what they mean’ – ‘they do not know what these words mean. though he was not. gentlemen. 16 ᾖα Cf. I went to the others who thought that they knew something. It is necessary for the god to speak nothing but the truth. though I know nothing. 77. if you are stuck. What then does the god mean when he says that I am the wisest and that no one is wiser? It cannot be that he is lying. So I went away from there thinking that I was wiser than the poets. For indeed they say many beautiful things. For after the politicians. 12–13 οὗτος δοκεῖ τι εἰδέναι. who was a politician. See p. line 13. note on 7A line 17.86
10–11 ἀποϕαίνειν αὐτὸν δοκοῦντα σοϕὸν εἶναι. considered himself to be wise.
. by the dog. 11 πολλοὶ τῶν παρόντων ‘many of those present’. to myself. Cf. 23 ἀπῇα What verb? What tense?
Translation for 7B
When I heard this. the poets thought that they had knowledge.’ This is a very common pattern of word order in Greek. And the man. For the poets do not make up their poems by wisdom. though they were not. and they thought they were the wisest of men.’ From there. line 11. εἰδώς -οτος This is the participle of οἶδα. I went to the poets. After this. though he knows nothing. Apollo. but this man is wiser. note on 6C line 8. though they had none.’ And for a long time I was at a loss to know what he meant. which can be difﬁcult for speakers of English. like the prophets and soothsayers. And when I tried to show him that he considered himself to be wise. but nevertheless I must tell it. through their poetry. said that I was the wisest.’ Therefore I spoke with this wise man. though he knew nothing. and then I turned to a search [to ﬁnd out] whether the god was speaking the truth or not. while those who thought they knew nothing were wiser. I reasoned that ‘I am wiser than this man. οὐδὲν εἰδώς ‘this man thinks he knows something. as I thought. οὐκ ὄντα ‘to show him that he thought he was wise. for it is not lawful for him. ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄλλους τοὺς δοκοῦντάς τι εἰδέναι Cf. I went to another wise man and he too thought that he knew something. For I did not want to be in doubt about the oracle. but they do not know what these words mean.
Therefore. as I think.
Do not forget to learn εἶναι. that they have been revealed as thinking that they know something. 9–10 εὑρίσκουσι πολὺ πλήθος τῶν δοκούντων μέν τι εἰδέναι. ἰέναι. εἰδέναι.sometimes simply adds emphasis. GE p. they considered that because of their skill/art they were the wisest in many other respects. but know little or nothing. 13–14 ἔχουσι μὲν οὐδὲν λέγειν ἐκεῖνοι ‘they have nothing to say’. #152 and the past tense of εἶμι ‘I shall go’. Socrates teaches ‘the things in the air and the things beneath the earth’ and ‘not to believe in the gods’ and ‘to make the weaker argument the stronger’. enjoy listening to my words and often try to examine others in the way that I do.
Translation for 7C
Finally I went to the craftsmen (artists). #161. who are wealthy and have most leisure.’ But I want to ask ‘How does Socrates corrupt the young men? What does he do or what does he teach to corrupt them?’ And they have nothing to say. 137. And. From this search.139. the young men. GE p. like the other sophists. But. as I think. in the course of examining them. they discover a great number of those who consider that they know something. εἰδότων δ’ ὀλίγα ἢ οὐδέν ‘They ﬁnd a large number of those who …’ Note μέν … δέ making the contrast between what people think they know. Such was the experience which both the poets and the craftsmen were clearly experiencing. For young men are arrogant and very much enjoy examining their elders. 17 κατάδηλοι ‘obvious’ – the preﬁx κατα. though they were not. and what they actually know. For they do not wish. as I thought. those who think that they know something become angry and say that ‘Socrates is a most disgraceful person and corrupts the young men. 135.Section 7C
4 τοιοῦτον πάθος ἐϕαίνοντο οἱ ποιηταί πάσχοντες ‘such an experience the poets seemed to be suffering’. τοιοῦτον πάθος is the object of πάσχοντες: ‘such was the experience they seemed to be experiencing’. GE p. they know nothing. ‘they can say nothing’.
. Note also the irregular comparative forms. which are serious. they say that. knowing many things the craftsmen were wiser than I. gentlemen of Athens. as a result of this. For I knew that I knew nothing and that the craftsmen knew many beautiful things. to tell the truth. moreover. in fact. when. but not wishing to seem to be at a loss. arose the slanders against me. #159. Therefore. And. and my reputation.
15. safest harbours τὴν ἀμείνονα. ἀρίστης θεᾶς of the better. greatest kings τὰς κακίονας. 6. μέγιστοι βασιλῆς the greater. κάκιστας γυναῖκας the more wicked. for the more hostile. 16. δηλοτάτη ἀνομία the clearer. 2.
5. βούλομαι ἰέναι 2. 18. the worst women τὸ κάλλιον. 2. τὸν Σωκράτη δεῖ διδάσκειν 7. 3. 10. 12.
θαυμάζειν πείθεσθαι δέχεσθαι ποιεῖν μανθάνειν λαμβάνειν
1. safest harbours 3. ‘the huge majority of’) οἱ μείζονες. 3. βεβαιοτάτους λιμένας the safer. τῆς ἀμείνονος. ὑμᾶς παρεῖναι 6. 6.
τόν πολεμιώτερον. 8. 8. best goddess
παρεῖναι νομίζειν ἰέναι κλέπτειν ἀπιέναι βιάζεσθαι
13. 9. 14. δεῖ με.
διαβάλλειν εὑρίσκειν πειρᾶσθαι εἰδέναι δηλοῦν λογίζεσθαι
. best goddess αἱ πλείονες. most obvious lawlessness
τῷ πολεμιωτέρῳ. most hostile sailor 2. πολεμιώτατον ναύτην the more hostile.88
Exercises for section 7A–C
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7A–C
PRESENT INFINITIVE 7A–C: 1
1. 17. 5. πλεῖσται νῆες more ships. κάλλιστον ἄστυ the more beautiful. most beautiful city ἡ δηλoτέρα. ἀρίστην θεάν the better. 7. πολεμιωτάτῳ ναύτῃ to. 4. φαίνεται νομίζειν 4. τῶν βεβαιοτέρων. ὑμῖν ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ μανθάνειν
COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE OF ADJECTIVES 7A–C: 3
1. most hostile sailor τοὺς βεβαιοτέρους. ἀνάγκη ἐστὶν ἀπιέναι 8. βεβαιοτάτων λιμένων of the safer. most ships (αἱ technically makes this ‘the great majority of’. φαίνονται διαβάλλειν
5. 11. ἡμᾶς. 4. βούλονται πιστεύειν 3.
Socrates wanted to discover whether the god in Delphi was telling the truth or not. You must tell the truth. It was necessary for Socrates to go to the wise men and talk about wisdom [with them]. δοκεῖν 8. κακίστῃ γυναικί to. διαλέγεσθαι 10.
. for the worse. διαβάλλειν 7. is not trying to corrupt the young men. καὶ πολλάκις ἐπειρᾶτο Σωκράτης δηλοῦν τὸν θεὸν οὐ τἀληθῆ λέγοντα. ἀνάγκη ἦν Σωκράτη ἰέναι πρὸς τοὺς σοϕοὺς καὶ διαλέγεσθαι περὶ σοϕίας. εἰσί(ν) 8.
1. e. greatest kings 5.
ᾖμεν ἦμεν ἴασι(ν) ἐστί(ν) ᾔει εἶσι(ν)
7. 6. Σωκράτης. 2. 4. The wise men seem to know something. oἱ σοϕοὶ δοκοῦσί τι εἰδέναι. but to be the best. as I see it. d. Socrates. 1. δεῖ ὑμᾶς τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγειν. b. τῇ κακίονι. μεγίστοις βασιλεῦσι to. ᾔεισθα 11. καὶ μὴ διαβάλλειν Σωκράτη. διαϕθείρειν 2. τοῦ καλλίονος. ᾖτε 10.
PAST OF εἶμι I SHALL GO 7A–C: 5
4. f. 5. Σωκράτης ἐβούλετο εὑρίσκειν πότερον τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγει ὁ ἐν Δελϕοῖς θεὸς ἢ οὔ. c. καλλίστου ἄστεως of the more beautiful. And Socrates often tried to show that the god was not telling the truth.Revision exercises for section 7A–C
τοῖς μείζοσι. ὡς ἐγὼ οἶμαι. ἀποϕαίνειν 9. λέγειv 6. ἀλλ᾽ εἶναι. ἦμεν 9. oὐ βουλόμεθα δοκεῖν ἄριστοι. εὑρίσκειν 3. οὐ πειρᾶται διαϕθείρειν τοὺς νέους. We do not want to seem the best. οὐκ εἰδότες. εἶναι 5. most beautiful city. 3. although they do not. worst woman 6. a. ἐσμέν 12. ἰέναι 4. εἰδέναι 1b. and not slander Socrates. for the greater. ἦσαν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7A–C
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
4. GE p. We must make sacriﬁces and pray to the gods. The women are trying to watch the play. 142–145. GE pp. s. ἔδει με πρὸς τοὺς ποιητὰς ἰέναι. 3. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν ἐδόκουν τοὺς νέους διαϕθείρειν. καίπερ οὐδὲν εἰδώς.
ἀγαθός ἀμείνων ἄριστος βέβαιος βεβαιότερος βεβαιότατος δεινός δεινότερος δεινότατος κακός κακίων κάκιστος καλός καλλίων κάλλιστος μέγας μείζων μέγιστος μῶρος μωρότερος μωρότατος πολέμιος πολεμιώτερος πολεμιώτατος πολύς πλείων πλεῖστος ϕίλος ϕίλτερος ϕίλτατος χρήσιμος χρησιμώτερος χρησιμώτατος
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. aor. and having listened …’
. Note the ‘echo’ effect: ἄκουε οὖν..
5 ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ ‘I said’ these phrases only occur in direct speech and are very common in Platonic dialogue 6 ἢ οὔ.
7D–F Plato: Euthydemos 275–277c
Here you meet the dialogue style of Plato. We know that the king wanted to punish the herald. ὦ Kλεινία. Kleinias. ἀκούσας δέ … ‘Listen then. You seem to be stupid. part.142. Note that the aorist participle is formed from the aorist stem.90
2. ‘or not?’ In Platonic dialogue most questions are asked in the form ‘Is X true. πειρῶμαι εὑρίσκειν ὅπως οἱ ποιηταὶ τὴν σοϕίαν ἀποϕαίνουσιν. although you are a teacher. 5. οἶσθα/ἴστε ὅτι ἐβούλου/ἐβουλόμεθα διαβάλλειν ἐμέ.
The farmers must go to the city. and the aorist participle. act. #162. Another very common feature of dialogue style. 2. or not?’ 7 ἦ δ᾽ ὅς ‘he said’
8 εἶεv ‘so be it’. #162–166. ‘well all right then’. 17 ἀκούσας Nom. δεῖ σε ἐξετάζειν ἐμὲ καὶ ἀκριβῶς σκοπεῖν. masc.
seeing him blush. Speak then. and answer when you have listened.’ I did not answer. #167. Kriton. For while Dionysodoros was saying this. line 17. Kleinias happened to answer that the people who learn are the clever people.
. he said. ‘are they … or …?’ … ἠπόρησεν. But the young man must answer. asking questions and discussing. enjoys answering. ᾖσμεν Cf. ἀμαθεῖς You can work out the meaning from μανθάνω and then make it negative with ἀ-. ἀπορήσας δ᾽ … Cf. I. ‘So be it’. which people learn. Therefore. 11 πάνυ γε ‘certainly’.’ And at this moment Dionysodoros laughed and with a laugh said: ‘Indeed I know very well that Euthydemos will defeat him in discussion. Socrates’. They call him Kleinias. ὁμολογέω is another common word in Plato. and don’t be afraid.’ ‘But’. wanting to hear their arguments. He is young. ‘the fact is that. Kleinias. ‘Then you must turn this young man to philosophy and virtue. ᾖστε What verb does this come from? See vocab. have a reputation for turning people to philosophy and virtue or not?’ ‘We certainly seem to. For it is by speaking and questioning that a sophist turns his students to virtue.
3 6 7 10 ὡμολόγει ‘he agreed’. … ἐγέλασεν.’ And Euthydemos said: ‘Tell me then. I said. Dionysodoros. and I found Euthydemos and Dionysodoros conversing with many others.’ Kleinias said: ‘I will do this and answer. said: ‘Don’t worry. Kleinias. For I enjoy answering. but answer boldly. and GE p. For his friends often go to him. And being at a loss he looked at me and blushed. πότεροι … ἤ … A double question. talking here in front of us?’ Euthydemos immediately answered boldly: ‘We are certainly willing to talk here. And you know that both these men have a good reputation. But why don’t you question the young man closely. ἀποκρίνομαι. and they always question him closely while he is speaking and answering. I said. turning men to philosophy.146. and question me. Socrates. the clever or the ignorant?’ And the young man – for it really was a big question – was at a loss.. line 6. thus ἀ-μαθεῖς.
Translation for 7D
Yesterday I went to the Lyceum. γελάσας δέ … Cf. I said: ‘Do you.Section 7E
18 21 23 27
ἀποκρινοῦμαι Tense? Cf. lines 17 and 23. Euthydemos.’ And Euthydemos said: ‘Listen then.
ὥσπερ σϕαῖραν ‘just like a ball’. falling into perplexity. but not the clever. mid. ‘Then it is the ignorant who learn. were silent. And Dionysodoros at once caught up the argument. and. ‘Therefore. But we. immediately praised this cleverness. and ϕημί. #167). you knew nothing yet?’ ‘No.’ ‘Were you then clever. indic… . the teacher. making a din and laughing at the same time.
Translation for 7F
So said Euthydemos.
. ‘Then it is the clever who learn. the clever or the ignorant?’ ‘The clever. #168). when you knew nothing?’ ‘No. 2–3 ἐξεδέξατo … ἐκδεξάμενος δὲ … Aor. 146–147. as you believe. were you pupils?’ He agreed they were. but being ignorant you were learning?’ The young man agreed. Kleinias. 146. were you ignorant?’ ‘Certainly. like a ball.’ At this point the students. praised this cleverness.’
2 ἐπῄνεσαν From ἐπ-αινέω. ‘And when you were pupils. but not the ignorant. 7 ἄρα Climax again. ‘And when the teacher was teaching you as children. the past tense of οἶδα (see GE p. we were certainly not clever since we knew nothing’. aor. mid.’ said Kleinias. he said: ‘What then. having received it. laughing vigorously and making a din. or someone else?’ He agreed that the teacher teaches those who learn. ‘I said’ (GE pp.
Do not forget to learn ᾔδη.92
12 ἄρα This particle shows that you are reaching the climax of the argument – see also in line 14. The students. by Zeus! For since we were pupils we knew nothing. indeed.
Translation for 7E
And Euthydemos said: ‘But who teaches those who learn. when you were pupils you knew nothing. said Kleinias. and you did not answer well just now. if you were not clever. part… . σϕαῖρα = ‘sphere’. ἔϕην ‘I say’. 4–5 πότεροι … ἤ … ‘are they … or …?’: a double question.’ ‘So then. Kleinias? Let’s suppose the teacher speaks some words. Who learns these words.
1. 10. ἐλευθερώσας τολμήσας θεασάμενος βλέψας φροντίσας ῥίψας σώσας παυσάμενος 6. ἔφασαν 3. and φημί I say 7D–F: 4
1. 3. s. 2. 4. φησίν 9.
m. pl. ἴσμεν 2. δεξάμενος βιασάμενος λογισάμενος μαχεσάμενος ἀποκρινάμενος
βλέψασαν θαυμάσας τρεψάμενον διωξάσας ποιήσαντες
6. 10. 7. 4. 7. 9. 4. nom. 2. f. ποιήσας βοηθήσας ἀπορήσας 4. acc. 8. pl. m. 6.
m. ἔφατε 10. (b) While he gazed at Penthesilea.
ᾖδη I knew. 3. ἔφη 7. 4. ᾔδει 4.
βιασάμενοι κολάσαντας μισήσασα δουλωσαμένους δεξαμένη
(a) With one look at Penthesilea. pl. 5. ᾔδεσαν. 8. οἶσθα
6. φαμέν 5. s. acc. m.
βλέπω δηλόω πείθω βοάω τρέπομαι
1. pl. nom. 9. 8. 3. nom. acc. nom. 2. 10. f. ᾖσαν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7D–F
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. s. m. s. 9. 5. 2. nom. s. m. Achilles burned with passion. acc. nom. f.Revision exercises for section 7D–F
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7D–F
AORIST PARTICIPLES 7D–F: 1
1. 5. 1. Achilles burned with passion. 7. pl. ᾔδη 8. 5.
παύω λύω ζητέω ζητέω δέχομαι
c. make your objection. ‘Come then. ὁ σοϕιστής. ‘So we shouldn’t praise and respect the opinions of the many about the plague.’ I said. ὁ Διονυσόδωρος γελῶν/γελάσας τὸν λόγον ἐξεδέξατο. or not? Answer. and I shall reply.’ ‘The doctor seemed to be most skilled. 5.
2. ἐπαινέσας αὐτοὺς ‘προτρέπετε’. but that of any skilled doctor who happens to be [available].’ ‘The truth.94
Revision exercises for section 7D–F
3. ‘So should we praise and honour good opinions. The suppliants hurried to the shrine and prayed to the gods. Socrates. 4. hearing the argument.’ said Socrates. laughed. ‘and my friends went there too. does he seem to you to speak the truth) in saying this. ‘So did you have to go to the doctor. For the doctor knew about the plague. being more skilled than the others. the woman was silent. and I.
E – TEST EXERCISE 7D–F
‘You. for my part. 3. f. e.’ ‘Consider then. Socrates.
.’ (lit. ὡμολόγησεν. πρὸς ἐμὲ βλέψας. ἀπορήσας ὁ μαθητὴς ἐπειρᾶτο ϕεύγειν. but not bad ones?’ I agreed. where did you go. ‘question [me] carefully.’ said Socrates. ‘εὐθύς αὐτούς.
The students said in answer that lawlessness is not just. ‘does a philosopher who says that we must not praise all the opinions of men speak the truth? What do you say? Do you think he is speaking the truth (lit. and to no one else?’ ‘I did.’ said Socrates.’ ‘You seem to speak well.’ I said. d. b. ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ. ὁ διδάσκαλος ἀποκρινόμενος εἶπεν ὅτι ἀρετή τις ἐστὶv ἡ ϕιλοσοϕία.’ I said.᾽ Having stolen the money the young man shouted loudly.’ I said. With a glance at me. ‘and if you have anything to object. shall obey. a. ‘as I think.’ he said. to your friends or to the doctor?’ ‘I went to the doctor. Do we agree so or not?’ ‘We do by Zeus. then. ‘when the plague fell upon the city and destroyed it. ἀποροῦντες βλέψας ἀκούσαντες γελῶν ἐκδεξαμένη ἀποκρινόμενος
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1.’ I said.’ ‘Well then. it was necessary) I said.
but has the aorist stem. the Greeks preferred to have only one main verb and to say ‘having attacked them. Aorist participles are frequent. pl. they fought them’.
7G–H Herodotus: Histories 4. ἰδοῦσα. #172–173.
(b) future indicative (d) imperfect indicative (b) acc.
. with a series of participles leading on to the ﬁnal event in the main verb. #174–176) which will be gradually introduced.110–116. 6 ἀποκτείνασαι Cf.. ἔλαβον. for where in English we would write ‘they attacked them and fought them’. λαβόντες δ’ αὐτάς Note the ‘echo’ effect.
1 εἰσπεσόντες Nom. 12 ἀνελόντες What verb is this from? ἀν-αιρέω. λαβών aorist participle. 2 αὐτάς ‘them’. You will often ﬁnd that the sentences are longer. Note: participle … participle … main verb. 153–155.
5 ἰδοῦσαι εἶδov (second aorist of ὁράω) drops the augment to give the stem ἰδ-. aor. the Amazons
Now we change to Herodotus and the narrative style. pl. There are other uses and meanings (GE pp. but the syntax will usually follow the sequence of events. 2. part. part.Section 7G
1. 8–9 ἀϕικόμεναι … ἀποβᾶσαι Remember that the Amazons are feminine. The second aorist participle has the same endings as the present participle. 7D lines 17 and 23 and 7F lines 2–3. / pres. (f) s. 151–152. / main verb). of εἰσπίπτω (second aor. ἐξ αὐτῶν ‘from them’. λαμβάνων present participle. / aor. fem. and aor. masc. the aorist participle is γνοῦς γνόντος. ἔπεσον). #169–171: e. part. ἰδόν. ἀπέκτειναν line 5. see GE p. 10–12 Note the structure: οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι / οὐ γιγνώσκοντες τὴν ϕωνὴν / καὶ ἄνδρας νομίζοντες τὰς Ἀμαζόνας / ἐμπεσόντες καὶ μαχεσάμενοι / τοὺς νεκροὺς ἀνεῖλον (subject / pres. acc. therefore the participle is ἰδών. 13 γνόντες From γιγνώσκω.
(a) present indicative (c) imperfect indicative (a) acc.g. stem ἑλ-. participle of περίειμι ‘I survive’. second aorist εἷλον. (d) nom. (c) acc. part. 2–3 τὰς ἐκ τῆς μάχης περιούσας περιούσας agrees with τὰς Ἀμαζόνας and is the acc. GE pp. part. second aorist ἔγνων. Cf. 153. (e) m.
they sailed where the wind carried [them]. but to follow and to make camp near the Amazons. and so. having killed the men. 15 εἵποντο What verb? What had they been told to do? 16 ἀπῆλθον … ἀπελθοῦσαι The pattern as before. And having defeated them. and thinking the Amazons were men. Be careful to distinguish between αὐτόν ‘him’ and ἑαυτόν (or αὑτόν) reﬂexive ‘himself’. For while they were on the sea they did not guard the Amazons. the young men of themselves). they did not worry about them any longer. attacked and having fought a battle (lit. Thus. and the men ﬂed. they defeated them in the battle. 153–155. the Amazons became quiet. ἕπεσθαι Note the rough breathing. So the Amazons gave chase. not knowing the language. on taking up the corpses. then. however. #172–176 for the different uses of αὐτός.
3 εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ χωρίον ‘to the same place’. killed [them]. They did not. αὐτός ‘himself’. the young men followed [them] and made camp. 4 τὸ αὐτό ‘the same thing’. arrive at their native land. agrees with the subject: ‘coming himself …’ 6 τὴν Ἀμαζόνα αὐτήν ‘the Amazon herself’ (emphatic).96
14 τοὺς ἑαυτῶν νεανίσκους ‘their own young men’ (lit. But the Scythians. and taking the horses they laid waste the land of the Scythians. So. Having discovered this. Dative of time when. coming near. having attacked and fought) took up the corpses. αὐτός preceded by the article always means ‘the same’. See GE pp. but on going away they saw the men following. seeing that the men were not guarding [them]. they went away in three ships. they discovered that they were women.
. And ﬁrst the Amazons went away. And having captured them. In this way. ordering them not to ﬁght. Seeing the men ﬂeeing. and not wanting to kill [them] any more.
Translation for 7G
When the Greeks came upon the Amazons and were ﬁghting them. 8 ἐποίουν τὸ αὐτὸ καὶ αὐτοί Cf. But the Amazons were not experienced in seafaring. they captured the Amazons who survived the battle. having learned that the men were not hostile. Finally having arrived at the land of the Scythians and having disembarked from the ships. It is from ἕπομαι ‘I follow’. but to have children by them. then. emphatic. they found a herd of horses. they sent their own young men to them. And the Amazons. lines 4 and 5 ‘they did the same thing themselves also’. ἄξει What tense? What verb? 5 τῇ δ’ ὑστεραίᾳ ‘on the next day’.
153–155. but the women learned that of the Scythians. And the young man went away and told this to the others. then. 14–15 οὐ γὰρ oἱ αὐτοὶ οἵ τε ἡμέτεροι νόμοι καὶ oἱ τῶν Σκυθῶν ‘For our customs and the Scythians’ customs are not the same (oἱ αὐτοί). For we cannot live in this region. So the Amazons said to them: ‘But a great fear holds us. immediately had intercourse with her. and then come back and live with us. But the rest of the young men.’ 18–19 δεῖ ὑμᾶς There are two sets of actions which they must perform: (i) ἐλθόντας … μέρος and (ii) καὶ ἔπειτα … ἡμῶν.e. But if you want to have us as your wives. 156. went away.
. but do women’s tasks.from οἰκέω. and we have not learned women’s tasks. #177. The men could not learn the language of the Amazons. augmented or).Section 7H
9 συνῴκουν If you cannot identify it. don’t we go away to our people? We shall have you as our wives and no others. The two young men. on coming across an Amazon who was alone. came back again to the Amazons. having laid waste the land. on learning what had happened.’ But they said to this: ‘We cannot live with your women. therefore the stem is οἰκ. And the Amazon did not prevent [him]. staying in the wagons and not using bows and arrows or riding horses.preposition.’ Having said these things. And she was not able to speak [his language]. he found the Amazon herself who had brought another Amazon. did the same thing themselves also. live there?’ And the young men obeyed these things too. But your women do none of these things. αὐτός / ἑαυτόν / ὁ αὐτός. but by means of a sign she ordered the young man to come to the same place on the next day and to bring another young man. and make sure that you understand GE pp. crossing the river Tanais. But if you want to have us as your wives. So the young men. try taking it apart: συν. they inhabited it. bringing another young man. At last the young men said to them: ‘We have parents and possessions. After this the Scythians and the Amazons began to live together. Why.= ε + οι (i. on obtaining their portion of the possessions. why don’t we get up and go off from this land and. For our customs and the Scythians’ customs are not the same.
Don’t forget to learn δύναμαι. you must go to your parents and obtain [your] portion of the possessions.
Translation for 7H
So then a young man. on ﬁnding the Amazons and having had intercourse with them. #172–176. For we use bows and arrows and ride horses. on coming himself to the same place. -ῳ. GE p. and having arrived at the place. and on the next day. they convinced the young men. giving a sign that she herself would do the same thing and would bring another Amazon. So having got up and left.
αὐτοὶ ἀφίκοντο 6. εἶδεν αὐτό
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7G–H
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. 3. τῇ εἰπούσῃ/λεξάσῃ 6. τὸν λαβόντα 2. τὴν μαθοῦσαν 4. ἔλαβεν αὐτόν
ἐγένομην γενόμενος 6. I myself saw the man himself
5. 4. καταλαβοῦσαι c. I saw him 3. ἀπελθόντες b. αὐτὴ ἦλθεν 4. τοὺς ἐλθόντας 3. τοῦ λαβόντος
ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS: αὐτός-ή-όν 7G–H: 3
1. The Amazons came across the young men and conversed with them. The young man saw the Amazon and went towards her. 3.
1. οἱ γενόμενοι 6. I saw the man himself 4. ἔλαβον λαβών ἔμαθον μαθών 7. εἷλov ἑλών ἀϕικόμην ἀϕικόμενος 9. τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτήν 7. οἱ αὐτοὶ νόμοι 8. τοῖς γενομένοις 7. αἱ ἰδοῦσαι
5. 4. ηὗρον εὑρών εἶδov ἰδών 8. He himself did the same thing
1. I myself saw the same man 7.
τῷ μαθόντι τῆς τυχούσης ταῖς δραμούσαις τοῦ ἀφικομένου
5. τὸν αὐτὸν ἄνδρα 2. ἰδών
. I myself saw the same man 6.
2. ἡ ἑλοῦσα
1. He himself saw him (someone else) 8. ἆρ’ εἶδες αὐτάς; 3. a. τὰς ἀφικομένας 7. ἔπεσον πεσών ἦλθον ἐλθών The young men went away and said these things to the rest.98
Revision exercises for section 7G–H
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7G–H
SECOND AORIST PARTICIPLES 7G–H: 1
1. 2. 5. τὸ πεσόν 8. τῷ εὑρόντι 8. I saw the man 2. 2.
laughter. The Scythians ﬁnd the Amazons and come closer. having picked up the corpses and found them to be women. οἱ ἄνδρες ἀνελόντες τοὺς τῶν γυναικῶν νεκροὺς ἀπῆλθον. seeing the old man. force/power I praise. περὶ τὰ αὐτά g. the young men wanted to learn. were amazed. After this the boy ran into the house and looked for his father. ὁ αὐτός c. The Scythians. necessary. ϕίλοι γενόμενοι. 4. unguarded
. SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
1. 2. ἀϕικόμενοι f. 3. the attempt I guard. the women stopped worrying. ταῦτα εἰποῦσαι αἱ γυναῖκες ἔπεισαν τοὺς νεανίας. I compel I laugh. oἱ νεανίαι ἐθαύμασαν. powerful. On discovering the men. the (act of) possessing I reason. ἀvελόντες.
1. αὐτός h. I possess. τὴν αὐτήν e. αὐτός f. the sailor laughed εὑρόντες ταύτας τὰς γυναῖκας. Saying this/with these words. the crossing I destroy. necessity.
d. αὐτάς. the agreement I try. 5. went away. αὐτούς
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
The women.Summary exercises for section 7
3. αὐτούς b. the reasoning I agree. εὑρόντες e. μαθόντες a. αὐτούς τοὺς νεανίας i. laughable I cross. διὰ δὲ ταῦτα oἱ νεανίαι πρὸς τὰς οἰκίας ἐπανελθόντες τὰ κτήματα ἔλαβον. the guard (person). the destruction I am able. the guard (act of guarding). the praise a possession. oἱ νεανίαι δύνανται διαλέγεσθαι πρὸς ἐκείνας τὰς γυναῖκας. αὐτή d. The young men came closer and pitched camp. Having become pupils.
ἀποϕαίνω I reveal. ϕαίνομαι I appear. to become friends. λογίζομαι I reason. but to go closer and become friends. So the others obeyed. διαβάλλω I slander. οἱ οὖν νεάνιαι πλησίον ἑπόμενοι οὐκ ἐμαχέσαντο. For our customs and those of the Scythians are not the same. ἀληθής true. argument. The Amazons. οἰκέω I live.100
Summary exercises for section 7
2. and taking up their corpses and ﬁnding them to be women. no longer worried about them. they said. and becoming friendly [with her]. Then a Scythian. taking their possessions and crossing the river. αἱ δ᾽ Ἀμαζόνες ταῦτα ἰδοῦσαι αὐταὶ ἡσύχαζον. ἔϕασαν αἱ Ἀμαζόνες. coming across an Amazon who was on her own. on seeing them following close by but not ﬁghting. So they ordered their young men never to ﬁght. and they sent them towards the Amazons. τέλος δὲ ϕίλοι γενόμενοι συνῴκησαν ἀλλήλοις. νέος young. and eventually the Scythians and the Amazons began to live together. λόγος word.’ So. δόξα reputation
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
αἱ δ’ Ἀμαζόνες τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἀποκτείνασαι πρὸς τὴν τῶν Σκυθῶν γῆν ἀϕίκοντο. οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι αὐτὰς νικήσαντές τε καὶ περὶ αὐτῶν γνόντες ϕίλοι γίγνεσθαι ἐβούλοντο. ἥδομαι I have pleasure. they found a land near by and lived in it. ἀλήθεια truth.
(a) aorist (e) present (a) imperfect
(b) aorist (f) aorist (b) aorist
(c) present (c) imperfect
(d) aorist (d) aorist
. advised the others to do the same. διαβολή slander. ἀϕικόμεναι δὲ καὶ ἵππους εὑροῦσαι πρὸς τοὺς Σκύθας ἐμαχέσαντο. δοκέω I seem.’
E – TEST EXERCISE 7
Some Amazons arrived in the land of the Scythians and disembarked from their boats. The Scythians defeated them in battle. ‘οὐ βουλόμεθα οἰκεῖν. οἰκία house. 2. μάχη battle. νεανίας young man. ‘we cannot live with your women. wanted to have children by them. and falling on the land they laid it waste. But the Amazons did not wish to go back to the mass of the Scythians. ἐπειδὴ ἀϕικόμεναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐμαχεσάμεθα. ‘τὴν γὰρ ὑμετέραν γῆν’. ‘For’.
1. and. if they came on any Amazons. σοϕός wise. ἡδέως with pleasure. μάχομαι I ﬁght. σοϕία wisdom. ἀλλὰ ἔδει τούς τε νεανίας καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας διὰ τὸν ποταμὸν διαβαίνειν καὶ ἄλλην τινὰ χώραν οἰκεῖν. ϕάσμα apparition.
κατιδών If you remove the preﬁx. The social comment. You have already met it frequently. #178–179) and the main uses are listed (GE pp. περιμένομεν: which is future and which is present and how can you tell? See GE p. 4 ἀπιόντα Remember the difference between ὤν (‘being’) and ἰών (‘going’).
. 21 φθάνω + participle ‘to do something before someone else’. is deeply serious. 3–4 καθορᾷ …. but now all forms of it are laid out (GE pp. You will need to supply verbs in English. 20 περιμενοῦμεν Tense? Cf. κατ-.
11 τίς ὢν σύ … Note the idiomatic use of the participle. #183–186). #180). the ‘being’ verb does not. This section introduces the genitive case formally. καθ-.
1 Look for the subject and the two aorist participles before you go on to the main verb. 8 λαμβάνεται τοῦ ἱματίου He takes hold of his tunic.Section Eight: Aristophanes’ Birds
Now we return to Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode. 104. you should be able to recognise the verb. The ‘going’ verb has an iota. however amusingly expressed. 86. 160–161. and to an episode based on another play of Aristophanes. You will also meet other forms of the comparative (GE pp. where he escapes into fantasy from the bitter realities of life in Athens during the Peloponnesian War. 23 ποῖ δὴ καὶ πόθεν. 167–169. This is called a partitive genitive. #117. #95. ἰδ is the stem of the second aorist εἶδoν. but the meaning should be clear. The genitive is used because he takes hold of part of his tunic (not the whole thing). 165–167. ‘Who are you to take hold of…?’ 13 τυγχάνω + participle ‘happen to be …’ 19 ὑμῶν ἕνεκα ἕνεκα follows the word it governs. See GE p. #181–182) as well as the optative mood (GE pp. 163–165.
SL.in the ending. πράττω and πρᾶγμα. Don’t try to learn it now. κύριος is a word with a wide range of meanings. I am the slave of Euelpides. DIK. It is the opposite of πολυπράγμων ‘meddling’. Joke! Cf. It is called the potential optative. he sends his slave to them. but you may want to start making a chart to ﬁll in. greets you. Thus Euelpides’ slave approaches Dikaiopolis and shouts. #183–186). I am a slave. the son of Polemarchus.
27–28 μῶν εἰς κόρακας. The head of the family is ὁ κύριος. But wait! DIK. 167–169. wait! DIKAIOPOLIS What shout is that? Who is responsible for that shout? The slave runs up and grabs his tunic. Wait. 170. The optative + ἄν means ‘could’ or ‘would’. and why are you holding my tunic. called the optative (GE pp. 30 λέγοιτ᾿ ἄν This is a new mood. DIK. But where is he? SL. Do you not see him. goes away through the crowd of citizens towards the agora with the rhapsode. It is clear that he is running after you.
Translation for 8A
Dikaiopolis. the son of Stilbonides. 32 λέγοιμι ἄν And another. 6A line 4 βάλλ᾿ εἰς κόρακας. Peisetairos. Dikaiopolis. my good fellow? SL. Who are you. or ‘trouble-free’. He gets there before Peisetairos and taking Dikaiopolis’ hand he greets him. holding a basket in his hand. he is coming up behind. #187. I was the cause of the shouting.102
25 κυρία ἐκκλησία There was a ‘sovereign’ assembly once a month unless additional emergency ones were needed. For Euelpides. Cf. Having seen them. having observed the lawlessness of the Eleven and having heard the words of the suppliant. 29 ἀνιστάμεθα See GE p. as he comes up. Euelpides runs up. all of which are concerned with authority or power. DIK. 31 ἂν ἀκούοιμι Another one. And Euelpides the son of Polemarchos sees him going away with the rhapsode towards the market-place. and he happened to send me. But whose slave are you? Who sent you? SL. ἀπράγμονα ἀ-πράγμων = ‘not busy’ or more often ‘not meddlesome’. and the word is also used in the New Testament for Jesus Christ. running through the crowd of people? And a friend of his is following with him. We will wait.
. Here he is. You can usually recognise it easily because of -οι.
and I am on my way to the assembly. But why do you want to carry that crow on your wrist? EU. For Athens is the wealthiest.
1 μείζονα Comparative. #182. my dear Dikaiopolis. There is no city wealthier than this one. with a crow on his wrist. There is no greater city than this one. 16 κατεψηϕίσαντο ψηϕίζομαι means ‘I vote’. Greetings to you too. τοιοῦτον = ‘such’. For. 137. From the Piraeus. I will tell you. 13–14 εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον Note the -ηριον ending which denotes a place where an activity takes place. DIK. See GE pp. we shall settle in a peaceful city. It is easily recognisable. and wanting what. DIK. 164. 166. my friends? Please tell me. but where on earth are you going with that crow? Could it be that you are going to the crows? PEISETAIROS Of course! We are leaving the country. by Zeus. EU. 20 οἱ μὲν γὰρ τέττιγες … For the Athenian love of litigation see also Section 6B lines 23–24. second aor. Cf. ἀποψηϕίζομαι means ‘I acquit’. ἔπαθον. and we are following it. For who can lead us to the crows better than a crow? DIK. But why do you want to leave like this. 9 τί παθόντες Aorist participle of πάσχω.
Translation for 8B
Are you looking for a greater city than Athens? No. as is the superlative which follows in the next line. Literally ‘having experienced what. my friend. Meanwhile Peisetairos comes up. We shall go there. ἀποκρίνομαι. ϕροντιστήριον. #180(e). It will be a sovereign assembly today. in the name of Zeus. This crow is guiding us. and when we get there. DIK. He is certainly the best guide. RHAPSODE Are you looking for a wealthier city than this one? EU. Athens is clearly the greatest. where are you going and where have you come from? DIK. Note that there are two ways of saying more … than …: GE pp. our fatherland. I do not mean that. are you leaving?’ 13 τοιοῦτον τὸ πάθος πάθος is a neuter noun 3c. where Strepsiades cannot believe that it is Athens on the map because there are no jurors sitting. #154–160 for more forms. Peisetairos. #158 and GE p. for I would be very glad to know the reason. 4 εὐδαιμονεστέραν This is another form of the comparative. 136–138. 30 ἀποκρινοῦμαι What is the tense? Cf. We are looking for a peaceful place. see GE p.
Greetings. καταψηϕίζομαι means ‘I condemn’.
The land is full of their audacity. So great was the misfortune we suffered when we entered the lawcourts. but the jurors condemned us. we do not hate the city itself. what happened to you. But how do the orators show their love for the people? Consider. but the people are full of distress. The war drags on. the assembly is full of it and the lawcourts are full of it. Why not? PEI. but they will destroy the city. PEI. They were found to be ﬁve talents adrift and he was convicted. because of the false testimony of the witnesses.
. or what is it that you want that makes you leave the city? EU. everywhere there is lamentation and funeral pyres because of the plague: everywhere there are corpses. since you give a just account of the lawcourt and the jurors.104
DIK. His conviction was largely a political move. Dikaiopolis. Do the orators show pity for the people? Do they pity them or not? Tell me. love the city and I shall never cease to love the city. I will answer for you. by Zeus. RΗAP. especially the lawcourts. Tell me then. my friends. 21 τὸ ἀγαθόν Plato’s lectures on ‘The Good’ were said to be the ultimate in obscurity. Peisetairos here and I have had a terrible experience.
What then? What do you have in mind? Do you perhaps hate the city? PEISETAIROS No. and should not perhaps be taken too seriously. you know it well. You are doing this with reason. For the crickets sing for a little while in the branches. I do. like the orators. from the second aorist ἔγνων. and so we want to go away. Dikaiopolis. Why are you silent? You will not say? They do not pity them. βελτίους Not what it seems at ﬁrst glance – see GE p.
3–4 13 15 16 οἴκοι μέν … ἐν δὲ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ … Note the contrast. #181. And it is with reason that I shall not do this. and he was re-elected the following year. χείρους What case is it? βελτίους What case is it? κλοπήν Pericles was suspended from his ofﬁce of strategos and ordered to submit his accounts for inspection. We did nothing and we did no wrong. But the remark was made by a slave in comedy. For I. What sort of misfortune? What had you done. what are you saying? Do you really think that the orators love the city? DIK. 23 γνούς Aorist participle of γιγνώσκω. 166. but the Athenians sing all the time in their lawsuits. For we ﬁnd the affairs of the city hard to bear. DIK. even though we were innocent. there is much lawlessness. DIK. I am not surprised that you are setting off to ﬁnd another city. or what wrong did you do so that you suffered this misfortune? EU.
because of him. But we know clearly. worse. R H A P S O D E But if Pericles – DIK. rhapsode! For the philosophers search. DIK. Don’t mock me. PEISETAIROS But the good citizen makes the citizens better instead of worse. DIK. and a glimpse of the pre-war Athens. 25–26 οἱ μέν … οἱ δέ … ‘some … others …’ 27–30 A rather touching personal view.
46 A quotation from Homer. 156. as I hear. Odyssey 1. ‘would’. RHAP.Section 8C
25 δύναται GE p. 34 ἄλλο τι πλήν … ‘anything else but …’ 42–44 Note ἄν + optative repeatedly.267. so they say. You don’t know what ‘the good’ is? But on the ship you seemed to be some sort of a philosopher. and others think
. What do you mean. since the orators seem to be worth nothing? Perhaps the people themselves? E U E L P I D E S Ο Herakles. 33 εἶμι (not εἰμί) ‘I shall go’. and it is clear that he was a villain. for ‘the good’. that at ﬁrst Pericles was well thought of when the Athenians were. you must seek the good of the city. but when they became better. therefore. #177. they condemned him for theft. Who will save the city? A man who loves the city will save it and not destroy it. but no one can discover it. rhapsode? For I don’t know what it is that is the good [of the city]. But what is the good. You speak the truth.
Translation for 8C
You seem to speak the truth. knowing their jargon. ἀναπείσω What verb does this come from? Try πείθω. It is probable that they were. It shows Aristophanes’ sympathy with ‘honest country folk’. I know it well. my friend? Pericles seemed to be the best of them all. don’t say that! For the people are most skilled at home. When Pericles began to speak in the assembly. For the good citizen makes the others better. DIK. What must we do? RHAP. PEI. But who will save the city. 48–49 Two lines from the Homeric Hymn to Demeter 216–217. by Zeus! PEI. The vocabulary should give you all the help you need. Dikaiopolis. Don’t speak of Pericles! RΗAP. Some think that it is virtue. Peisetairos. were the Athenians worse. you and I. and when he died were they better? RHAP. as you say. He did it. but absolute idiots in the assembly. Did Pericles do this or not? RΗAP. 32 ἂν βουλοίμην ἄν + optative again – ‘could’.
But how shall I alone persuade the people? What shall I say or shout or order. I do not know if anyone else wants to make a treaty and to live at peace. wealth. For war is full of events. if I am going to make a treaty? But I shall go. relations. I wouldn’t do that. τῶν ποιητῶν τοῦ σοφιστοῦ. Don’t they know that the poet spoke truly who said ‘These matters lie in the lap of the gods’ For we must accept the gifts of the gods with resignation. τῶν συγγενῶν τοῦ Περικλέους
. 5. τῶν φωνῶν τῆς ἀρετῆς. but peace is full of weddings. τῶν μαχῶν τῆς φωνῆς. but I would like to. juror 3. τῶν πολιτῶν τοῦ δικαστοῦ. trireme 2. 2. off to the assembly! EU. I think these men are stupid. τῶν τριηρῶν τοῦ Σωκράτους τοῦ συγγενοῦς. τῶν ἀρετῶν
1. children. ready to shout and abuse anyone who speaks about anything else except peace. They have found it in the ﬁelds. For the yoke lies upon our necks. Yet we are setting off for a place that is peaceful. both the bad and the better.106
Exercises for section 8
that it is justice. It is peace. though grieving. τῶν ἀνομιῶν τῆς εἰρήνης. τῶν σοφιστῶν
1. friends. 3. wine and pleasure.
lawlessness peace market-place assembly battle voice virtue. perplexity and plague and ﬁtting out ships. kinsman 4. but they do not know. poet 4. nor would I want to ﬂee from my own country. feasts. I wouldn’t hurry off to the assembly.’ EXERCISES FOR SECTION 8
THE GENITIVE CASE 8A–C: 1
1. myself. τῶν ἀγορῶν τῆς ἐκκλησίας. Come on now. Socrates 3. Farewell! RHAP. health. 4. 7. τῶν εἰρηνῶν τῆς ἀγορᾶς. But the farmers know what is good. ‘We men must endure the gifts of the gods. τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν τῆς μάχης. τῶν δικαστῶν τοῦ ποιητοῦ. Pericles
τῆς τριήρους. Dikaiopolis. food. citizen 2. + PEI. 6. a sophist
τοῦ πολίτου. courage
τῆς ἀνομίας. relation.
τῶν κηρύκων τοῦ κτήματος. 8. 6. τοῦ ὑμετέρου. τῆς αὐτῆς. 3. 4. τῶν ὑμετέρων τοῦ μεγίστου. 4. τῶν σῶν τοῦ πολλοῦ.
food a philosopher the people lawcourt time river young man heaven. τῆς χαλεπῆς. affair herald possession speaker old man foot thought thing. best 10. sky
τοῦ σίτου. ἐκείνου τοῦ. 8. τῶν νεανίσκων τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.
thing. τῆς μεγίστης. τῆς πολλῆς. τῶν ἑτοίμων τοῦ αὐτοῦ. 5. much 12. 2. 4. wall
τοῦ πάθους. τοῦ αὐτοῦ. 7. τῶν πραγμάτων τοῦ κήρυκος. 2. crowd 3. 3. τῆς βελτίστης. τῶν τειχῶν
1. 10. 6. τούτου τοῦ. τῆς ὑμετέρας. τῶν δαιμόνων τῆς γυναικός. τῶν σίτων τοῦ φιλοσόφου. number. τῆς δεξιᾶς. suffering 2. τῶν ποδῶν τῆς φροντίδος. 7. ταύτης τῆς. ἐκείνης τῆς.) greatest
9. τῶν δήμων τοῦ δικαστηρίου. τῶν κτημάτων τοῦ ῥήτορος. 5. τῶν φροντίδων τοῦ χρήματος. τῶν ῥητόρων τοῦ γέροντος. τῶν παθῶν τοῦ πλήθους. τοῦ βελτίστου. 5. τῶν γερόντων τοῦ ποδός. 9. τῆς ἑτοίμης. τῶν φιλοσόφων τοῦ δήμου. τῆς σῆς. τῶν πληθῶν τοῦ τείχους. ἐκείνων τῶν τοῦ δεξιοῦ. this
τοῦ ἀξίου. τοῦ χαλεποῦ. 3. τῶν δεξιῶν τοῦ ἑτοίμου. τῶν βελτίστων τοῦ σοῦ. τῶν χρόνων τοῦ ποταμοῦ. τοῦ σοῦ.
worthy that right ready himself difﬁcult your (pl. τῶν χρημάτων τοῦ δαίμονος. τοῦ πολλοῦ.Exercises for section 8
1. τοῦ μεγίστου. τῶν οὐρανῶν
1. 6. τούτων τῶν
1. 8. τῶν ποταμῶν τοῦ νεανίσκου. τῶν ἀξίων ἐκείνου τοῦ. τοῦ δεξιοῦ. τῶν δικαστηρίων τοῦ χρόνου. 7. τοῦ ἑτοίμου. τῶν γυναικῶν
. τῶν πολλῶν τούτου τοῦ.) 11. 2. τῆς ἀξίας. τοῦ ἀξίου. your (s. object god woman
τοῦ πράγματος. τῶν χαλεπῶν τοῦ ὑμετέρου. τῶν μεγίστων τοῦ βελτίστου. τῶν αὐτῶν τοῦ χαλεποῦ.
Exercises for section 8
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
ill-fated going being better having set free worse someone
κακοδαίμονος, κακοδαίμονος, κακοδαιμόνων ἰόντος, ἰούσης, ἰόντος, ἰόντων ὄντος, οὔσης, ὄντος, ὄντων βελτίονος, βελτίονος, βελτιόνων λύσαντος, λυσάσης, λύσαντος, λυσάντων χείρονος, χείρονος, χειρόνων τινός, τινός, τινῶν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Zeus I ship king you eyebrow old woman
τοῦ Διός ἐμοῦ, μου, ἡμῶν τῆς νεώς, τῶν νεῶν τοῦ βασιλέως, τῶν βασιλέων σοῦ, σου, ὑμῶν τῆς ὀφρύος, τῶν ὀφρύων τῆς γραός, τῶν γραῶν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
juror child, slave sun dwelling possession plan temple, shrine city
τοῦ δικαστοῦ, τῶν δικαστῶν τοῦ παιδός, τῶν παίδων τοῦ ἡλίου, τῶν ἡλίων τῆς οἰκήσεως, τῶν οἰκήσεων τοῦ κτήματος, τῶν κτημάτων τῆς διανοίας, τῶν διανοιῶν τοῦ ἱεροῦ, τῶν ἱερῶν τοῦ ἄστεως, τῶν ἄστεων
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
μετὰ τοῦ Σωκράτους ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας διὰ τοῦ πλήθους ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου καταδικάζω τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀκούω τῆς γυναικός λαμβάνομαι τοῦ πολίτου
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
ἄξιος τῆς ἀρετῆς αἴτιος τῆς ἀνομίας μετὰ τοῦ κήρυκος διὰ τοῦ ποταμοῦ περὶ τοῦ νόμου ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀθηνῶν ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας
ALTERNATIVE COMPARATIVE FORMS 8A–C: 12
1. τὸν βελτίονα, βελτίω ναύτην 2. τοὺς βελτίονας, βελτίους λιμένας
the better sailor the better harbours
Exercises for section 8
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
τὴν βελτίονα, βελτίω θεάν αἱ βελτίονες, βελτίους νῆες οἱ βελτίονες, βελτίους γεωργοί τὰς βελτίονας, βελτίους γυναῖκας τὸ βέλτιον ἄστυ τὰ βελτίονα, βελτίω πλοῖα
the better goddess the better ships. the better farmers the better women the better city the better ships
COMPARING ADJECTIVES LIKE εὔφρων 8A–C: 13
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
ὁ εὐδαιμονέστερος, εὐδαιμονέστατος ναύτης the more fortunate, most fortunate sailor τὸ κακοδαιμονέστερον, κακοδαιμονέστατον ἄστυ the more unfortunate, most unfortunate city τὴν εὐφρονεστέραν, εὐφρονεστάτην θεάν the more gracious, most gracious goddess τὰς κακοδαιμονεστέρας, κακοδαιμονεστάτας γυναῖκας the more unlucky, most unlucky women ἡ εὐδαιμονεστέρα, εὐδαιμονεστάτη νῆσος the more fortunate, most fortunate island τοὺς κακοδαιμονεστέρους, κακοδαιμονεστάτους διδασκάλους the more unfortunate, most unfortunate teachers
THE OPTATIVES 8A–C: 14
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
they ﬁnd he/she examines we reckon he/she becomes you (s.) marvel
εὑρίσκουσιν ἐξετάζει λογιζόμεθα γίγνεται θαυμάζεις
εὑρίσκοιεν ἐξετάζοι λογιζοίμεθα γίγνοιτο θαυμάζοις
1. you (s.) love 2. they intend 3. he conquers 4. he/she tries 5. they dare
ἄν + OPTATIVE 8A–C: 16
φιλεῖς διανοοῦνται νικᾷ πειρᾶται τολμῶσιν
φιλοίης διανοοῖντο νικῴη πειρῷτο τολμῷεν
1. φέροιεν ἄν 2. διαλεγοίμεθα ἄν 3. σκοποίη ἄν
4. 5. 6.
πέμποιμι ἄν δέχοιο ἄν ἀδικοῖεν ἄν
Summary exercises for section 8
7. ὁρῷη ἄν 8. πείθοιτε ἄν
ἀνίσταμαι, I LEAVE, EMIGRATE 8A–C: 17
9. φυλάττοιμεν ἄν 10. πείθοιντο ἄν
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
you (s.) leave he/she is able leaving (n.m.s.) to be able you (pl.) leave, leave!
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
they are able being able he/she leaves we are able to leave
SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 8
A – VOCABULARY-BUILDING
I wrong I stand up worthy people/I am powerful leader I am powerful I send citizen difﬁcult hand
the wrongdoing the awakening, resurrection important the power of the people the leadership most powerful the procession constitution I am difﬁcult/angry I set my hand to something, I try
I engage in government
political/to do with the city
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. A Β
But who is responsible for this war and this perplexity? (τούτου τοῦ πολέμου, ταύτης τῆς ἀπορίας) The orators are responsible for this matter, I know it well. For the city is full of noise and shouting because of the war and the boldness of the orators. For who does not know about their boldness? (τούτου τοῦ πράγματος, θορύβου, βοῆς, τῶν ῥητόρων, τῆς τόλμης, αὐτῶν) But I don’t think the orators are responsible for these matters, but [I consider them] the best of men. For they always ﬁght for the people and the city, as they themselves say. (τούτων τῶν πραγμάτων, ἀνθρώπων, τοῦ πλήθους, τῆς πόλεως) Yes. But they tell lies. For the mass of these men is bad and no one is worse than an orator. For the orators seize the assembly and the
Summary exercises for section 8
lawcourt, (τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν, ῥήτορος, τῆς ἐκκλησίας, τοῦ δικαστηρίου) 2. 1. μένοις ἄν You could wait 5. ἀποκρίνοιο ἄν You could answer 2. λέγοιμι ἄν I might speak 6. κελεύοις ἄν You would order 3. βουλοίμεθα ἄν We would like to 7. παυοίμην ἄν I could stop 4. πείθοισθε ἄν You would obey 8. ϕέροιμεν ἄν We would carry 3. a. i(i) The foreigner sits on the altar. (ἐπί + gen.) (ii) The ship goes towards the enemy. (ἐπί + acc.) b. (i) I shall go tomorrow into the agora with my friends. (μετά + gen.) (ii) After this I shall go back home. (μετά + acc.) c. (i) The ship sails past the island. (παρά + acc.) (ii) The sophist receives much money from the pupils. (παρά + gen.) d. (i) The slave ran towards us, forcing his way through the crowd. (διά + gen.) (ii) My wife is afraid of the city because of the plague. (διά + acc.) 4. 1. Διονυσόδωρος καλλίων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 2. Διονυσόδωρος μείζων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 3. Διονυσόδωρος κακοδαιμονέστερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 4. Διονυσόδωρος εὐϕρονέστερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 5. Διονυσόδωρος ἀμείνων ἐστὶν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 6. Διονυσόδωρος μωρότερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος 7. Διονυσόδωρος σοϕώτερός ἐστιν Eὐθυδήμου ἢ Eὐθύδημος
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. 1. The herald’s son listens to the speaker. ὁ παῖς ὁ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς τῆς τοῦ ῥαψῳδοῦ χειρὸς λαμβάνεται. 2. Who is responsible for this lawlessness, which is so dreadful? τίς ἐστιν αἴτιος ἐκείνων τῶν βοῶν, μεγίστων οὐσῶν; 3. Since we are Athenians we are worth much. σοϕιστὴς ὤν, οὐδενὸς ἄξιος εἶ. 4. Why do you say that no one is wiser than Socrates? διὰ τί οἱ ῥήτορες πλουσιώτεροί εἰσιν ἢ τὸ τῆς πόλεως πλῆθος/[no ἢ] τοῦ τῆς πόλεως πλῆθος; εἰπέ μοι. 5. We made our way through the city of the Lacedemonians. πολλὰ κακὰ παθόντες πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας ἐμαχεσάμεθα ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας.
Summary exercises for section 8
2. ἰδού, ὁρῶ γὰρ παῖδά τινα πρὸς ἡμᾶς προστρέχοντα. τίνος εἶ σὺ παῖς; παῖς ὢν τυγχάνω τοῦ Eὐελπίδου, τοῦ σοῦ ϕίλου. εἴποις ἂν ὅτι βούλῃ, καὶ τί βουλόμενος πρὸς ἐμὲ προσέδραμες; ΔΟΥ. ὅ τι; εἴποιμι ἄν. δεῖ γὰρ ἐμέ, ὡς ἐκέλευσεν ὁ Eὐελπίδης, κελεύειν ὑμᾶς μένειν. ΔΙΚ. μενῶ οὖν. χαίρετε, ὦ Eὐελπίδη καὶ Πεισέταιρε. τί βουλόμενοι ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἀπέρχεσθε; ποῖ διανοεῖσθε ἀπιέναι; ΠΕΙΣΕΤΑΙΡΟΣ πρὸς πόλιν τινὰ νέαν καὶ χρησιμωτέραν δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἀπελθεῖν.
E – TEST EXERCISE 8
A slave, going through the crowd of citizens, ran towards Dikaiopolis and, taking hold of his hand, asked him to wait. Then those who had sent the slave, Euelpides and Peisetairos, who were friends of Dikaiopolis, came towards Dikaiopolis and greeted him. He, however, since he did not know what their object was in leaving the city, asked them where they intended to go and for what reason. They answered that they had to look for Cloud-Cuckooland, and, when they had found it, to live there. Dikaiopolis thought that Athens was the most prosperous, and that no city was better than Athens. So at ﬁrst he could not understand why they were leaving, then having heard about the dikasts and the lawcourt and the politicians, he agreed. For the dikasts seemed to be wronging the good men, and the politicians (as it seemed) were actually destroying the people and not pitying them. So Dikaiopolis’ friends went away. But he, ﬁnding the affairs of the city and the people hard to bear and thinking that peace was best, decided to make a treaty in the assembly. But the rhapsode, who thought that the men were ignorant and stupid, did not himself want to accompany him, but went away alone.
(a) aorist (e) aorist (a) genitive (e) genitive
(b) aorist (f) present (b) genitive (f) accusative
(c) present (g) present (c) accusative
(d) aorist (h) present (d) nominative
187–189. They ﬁrst converse with each other. #103) where the forms of the dative are set out. 189–191. Xanthias. being many indeed’. 176–180. 201.Section Nine: Aristophanes’ Wasps
This is a long section with a lively story which introduces several important items of grammar. #190 (e)). #190. what is the matter with you? (what are you suffering?) Hey you. #195–197). the aorist imperative (GE pp. ‘you will be the death of me’. None of this is difﬁcult. the dative case (GE pp.
Hey you. Before you start you may like to look at the table (GE pp. The meaning is the same as if βοῶ had been written. γιγνώσκω (GE p. what is the matter with you? I’m talking to you. but it pays to learn the new grammar carefully after each section in which it is introduced. #189–190). 202. Notice the predominance of ι: in -ᾳ -ῃ -ῳ -ι -ει in the singular in -αις -οις -σι in the plural The various uses of the dative are well described in GE pp. do you … ?’ ἀπολεῖς με … ‘you will destroy me’.
.180. and the principal parts of common and very irregular verbs (GE p. the inﬁnitive is εἰδέναι. (Note that the neuter is τουτί ταυτί. τοῖς θεαταῖς. 18 τυγχάνεις εἰδώς εἰδώς -ότος is the participle of οἶδα. 179–180. ‘These spectators here’. What part of the verb is οὖσιν? Can you recognise it? It is the dative plural of the participle ὢν οὖσα ὄν. 20 οὑτοιί οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο + ι is even more demonstrative.
10 τί βουλόμενος As before. 22 καταλέξω From καταλέγω. The future of ἀπόλλυμι.) 20–21 κάτειπε…. 176–177. #211). πολλοῖς δὴ οὖσιν ‘Tell the spectators. 11 βοῇ χρῶμαι χράομαι (‘I use’) takes the dative (GE p. ‘wanting what. then with the spectators. 17 ἐμπεσεῖται Future of ἐμπίπτω – πίπτω πεσοῦμαι ἔπεσον. #209). What tense?
Translation for 9A
In front of the house are two slaves. #198–200). the aorist inﬁnitive (GE pp.
#209. ‘You answer us asking. who is sleeping above peacefully. 201. But I say to the man that it is clear that he is speaking nonsense. 180. unlucky Xanthias. ΧAN.
XΑΝ. None the less ‘love-’ is the beginning of this evil.
. 5 κελεύοντι ἐπιθόμεθα πείθομαι takes the dative. So tell the story of the play to the spectators. a pun on the name of Philoxenos.
Translation for 9B
That is our master there. what does this man say? He in answering us thinks that the old man is ‘a lover of dice’. So I ask you. what happens to be the name of this illness? You answer us asking. I’m talking to you. XAN. with all the words beginning ϕιλ-. 9 ὑμεῖς δ’ ἀποκρίνεσθε ἡμῖν ἐρωτῶσιν Note the dative plural of the participle agreeing with ἡμῖν. and responsible for many evils.’ 6 ἐνέπεσεν For the principal parts of πίπτω see 9A line 17. spectators. SOS. and we obeyed his orders. #190 (b). Come now. SOS. who are many.’ Note the aorist participle ἐρόμενος from ἐρωτάω ἐρωτήσω ἠρόμην. Don’t you happen to know what sort of beast we are guarding? I certainly think I know. and unlucky. XAN. answering such things. ‘We obeyed him ordering. ‘That is our master there. 18 ϕιλόξενος … Φιλόξενος This is the joke we have been working up to. For the master’s father has a certain illness.’ 16 οὗτος δέ μοι ἐρομένῳ ἀποκρίνεται ‘This man answers me. Can’t you see him sleeping? So this is our master here. and it’s for your sake that I’m shouting. For the master will kill you. But these spectators here don’t know.114
What’s the shouting? To whom are you speaking. But what are you suffering? I’m sleeping with pleasure. having asked. I’ll tell the large number of spectators the story of our play.’ 4 τῷ δὲ δεσπότῃ Possessive dative. SOS. The master ordered us to guard his father. Sosias? Wanting what do you shout thus? You will destroy me by shouting. see GE p. All right. So don’t sleep. ill-favoured man that you are. But the master has a very old father. You’re sleeping? But I would like to say something to you. What would you like to say to me? I’d like to say to you that a great evil will befall you. ἐπιθόμην is the second aorist.
1 ἐκεινοσί Compare οὑτοιί (line 20). ἔγνω What is it? Aorist of γιγνώσκω γνώσομαι ἔγνων: see GE p. since he knew that he was more wicked than the others in the city. For the master fell into perplexity about his father.
old fellow.’ 14 ἐκορυβάντιζεν We do not know why he enrolled his father as a Korybant. 8–9 ἐπεὶ τὸν πατέρα ἔμαθεν ϕιληλιαστὴν ὄντα ‘When he learned that his father was ϕιληλιαστής’. that he thinks the father is ‘a lover of sacriﬁces’ or ‘a lover of strangers’. By the dog. having shut him in with these bars which are
. For he is always being a juror and loves the lawcourt. sitting in the lawcourt during the day and dreaming of cases during the night. the old man loves something. 436–442. 12 παύσῃ Can you recognise this? (2nd person singular future indicative middle. XAN. Indeed. lovers write on a door ‘Demos is beautiful’. if you want to know what the illness is that has befallen the father. on seeing and approaching. But what does this man say? This man answers me. ‘during the day and during the night’. Indeed.
1 ἐξευρήσετε What tense? What verb? If you do not know. He is a lover of being a juror in the court of the Eliaia. 181.) πείσῃ Can you recognise this? It comes from πείθω. You will ﬁnd this very helpful when you need to hunt for an unfamiliar form or if you are not quite sure which verb it comes from. For I shall tell you. 4–5 τῆς μὲν ἡμέρας … τῆς δέ νυκτός Genitive of the time within which. 2 ἐμπεσοῦσα What verb does this come from? What is it? Try the aorist participle of πίπτω. writes alongside near by ‘Kemos (a voting funnel) is beautiful. and learn the principal parts of πίπτω. the illness of the old man. SOS. spectators. look up εὑρίσκω in the list of irregular verbs (GE pp. like no man.
Translation for 9C
You will never ﬁnd [it] out. he is not a lover of strangers (philoxenos). being in perplexity. at any rate. ‘learned his father being …’ The rest of the story will explain why his father’s mania was such a bad thing. is a homosexual. #191 for time phrases. since Philoxenos. Verbs of knowing and perceiving are often followed by a participle. Was it just to take his mind off being a juror.
XAN. or does Aristophanes say this simply for the ridiculous picture of him sitting in court banging his tambourine? 15 ἐμπεσών What is it? It should be familiar by now! If not see 9A line 17. See GE p. 13 ὁ δὲ πατήρ ‘But his father did not obey him (αὐτῷ) persuading (ἀναπείθοντι) him not to go out. be silent now. but this man.’ So we are guarding this man. ὑμῖν ἐν ἀπορίᾳ οὖσι Note that οὖσι agrees with ὑμῖν ‘you being in perplexity’. #389). having asked.
SOS. From that time. master? ΒDΕL.
. but more like …’ 22 oὐδενὶ … ἤ … ‘He seems to me to be more like to no one than Philokleon. ‘do you always judge cases. but is already standing and shouting. I’m smoke coming out. Then the son introduced the father into the Korybantic rites. ﬁrst he tried to persuade him not to go out of the house. poor me! SOSIAS What is it? XAN. But wanting what are you standing up/what need makes you stand up. Lord Poseidon. He seems to me too to be saying something. And my father always uses audacity when he wants to go out.116
many and big. saying such things: ‘Why’.
6 τίσι Dative plural of τίς. 8 ἐντυχών τυγχάνω takes the dative in the sense of ‘ﬁnding’. Bdelykleon is saying something to us. SOS. having gone into the oven. ‘happening upon’. who are you? PHILOKLEON Me. The name of the old man is Philokleon. And our master. we have been guarding him with these nets. ‘in theory … in practice …’ a very frequent contrast. having shut him inside. having fallen [headlong] into the lawcourt. Sosias. The master is no longer sleeping. he said. 11 λόγῳ μέν … ἔργῳ δέ … ‘in word … in deed …’. but in practice he wants to go out. on happening upon us sleeping. while the name of this son is Bdelykleon. But to whom is the man speaking? XAN. are you asleep? XANTHIAS Oh dear. Xanthias. as it seems to me at any rate.) Xanthias and Sosias. You.’
Translation for 9D
(Shouts to the slaves from the roof. Father. 20 καπνῷ ἐξιόντι οὐχ ὅμοιος εἶ ὅμοιος takes the dative (‘like to’): ‘You are not like smoke coming out. What need? In theory my father is quiet. as it seems to me. drum and all. is seeking a hole with great zeal. was a juror. whatever noise is the chimney making? Out of the chimney comes Philokleon. But the father. ﬁnding the illness hard to bear. my father. ‘meeting with’. ‘as it seems to me’. in the lawcourt? Won’t you stop being a juror in the Eliaia court? Won’t you obey your son?’ But the father didn’t obey him persuading [him] not to go out. ‘To whom is the man speaking?’ 7 ὡς ἐμοί δοκεῖ This is the impersonal use of δοκεῖ. For when his son learned that his father was a lover of being a juror in the lawcourt of the Eliaia. will destroy [us]. But now.
as it seems to me at any rate. XAN. ΒDEL.
25 Οὖτις Odysseus also tricked the Cyclops by telling him that his name was Οὖτις ‘Nobody’. look for some other scheme. This man is preparing a great mischief. Father.
Smoke? But you are not like smoke coming out. 11 τὸν ἡμίονον The ‘half-donkey’ is a mule. by Zeus. By Zeus.
Translation for 9E
But open the door.
6 νουµηνία The ﬁrst day of the month was market day. (See Homer. Odyssey 9 for the story. ΒDEL. Xanthias? He seems to me to be more like to no one than Philokleon.
. 37 ἐνέπεσε What tense? What verb? Try πίπτω. 180. 86. ΒDΕL. etc. PHIL. What do you think. The picture of Odysseus escaping from the Cyclops under a ram should make the reference clear. #190 (h). but more like Philokleon. No. 17 εἰσιών. You want to sell the mule. 41 ϕθήσεται The future of ϕθάνω. but he was not ‘the son of runaway horse’! 31 γιγνώσκω γάρ σε πάντων πονηρότατον ὄντα ‘I know you are (participle) the most wicked of all men. as it seems to me. 15 ἄμεινον ἢ σύ Both this phrase and σοῦ ἄμεινον in the next line have the same meaning.) 27 Ἰθακήσιος Odysseus came from Ithaka. but I [could do it] better than you. Well. PHIL. pack-saddle and all? But I could do this. master. PHIL. since I want to sell the mule in the market-place. I could do this better than you. ἔξαγε Note the preﬁxes.’ 35 λίθων From λίθος we get ‘monolith’. BDELYKLEON By Poseidon. but I am coming out. go in and lead out the mule. ‘going in. See GE p. ‘lithograph’. never at all. ΒDΕL. ‘megalith’. pack-saddle and all. What do you think. offspring of a horse and a donkey. Here now. Xanthias? XANTHIAS It seems so to me too. But it is the ﬁrst of the month today. #95. For the meaning of ϕθάνω and of λανθάνω + participle see GE p. 12 αὐτοῖς τοῖς κανθηλίοις ‘pack-saddle and all’. PHIL. not at all.Section 9E
ΒDΕL. bring out …’ 20–21 εἰ μὴ φέρεις Ὀδυσσέα τινά ‘If you are not carrying an Odysseus’.
ΧΑΝ. perplexity τῇ ἀπορίᾳ. Since we have shut him in. ταῖς θαλάτταις 2. mule.
SOS. But he will anticipate us by escaping. But. sea τῇ θαλάττῃ. Alas poor me! What is this? From wherever did the clod of earth fall on me? Look. harmony τῇ ὁμονοίᾳ. safety τῇ σωτηρίᾳ. τοῖς ποιήταῖς τῷ κυβερνήτῃ. Where. why don’t we sleep for a little while? EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9A–E
DATIVE CASE 9A–E: 1
1. Alas wretched me! For it does not escape my notice that my father is becoming a sparrow. The man is becoming a sparrow. What is this affair? Why are you groaning. at any rate. goddess τῇ θεᾷ. captain 4. ΒDΕL. ταῖς νίκαις 7. τοῖς θεαταῖς τῷ ποιητῇ. mule? Is it because today we are going to sell you? But don’t groan any longer. the son of runaway horse.
Exercises for section 9A–E
SOSIAS ΒDΕL. Drag him from beneath.) Come now. Ο most foul man. Sosias. freedom τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ. ΒDEL.
SOS. Who is the mule carrying? Who are you. daring τῇ τόλμῃ. as it seems to me at any rate. I know you are the most wicked of all men. PHIL. ΒDΕL. victory τῇ νίκῃ. τοῖς σοφισταῖς
1. poet 3. and the old man will not again give trouble to us who have shut him in and are guarding him. PHIL. push many of the stones towards the door with your hands. sophist
τῷ θεατῇ. trireme 2. Nobody? From which country are you? An Ithakan.118
ΒDEL. shoo back! (He pursues the father with the net. spectator 2. ταῖς τόλμαις
1. You then. push the mule and yourself into the house with. if you are not carrying an Odysseus? But by Zeus it is carrying this certain someone underneath. Father. ταῖς ἀπορίαις 3. For my father is most like Odysseus. where is my net? Shoo. shoo.
But suffering what are you groaning. ταῖς σωτηρίαις
τῇ τριήρει. master. fellow? Nobody by Zeus. ταῖς ὁμονοίαις 8. τοῖς συγγενέσιν
. nor will he escape our notice by running away. ταῖς θεαῖς 6. τοῖς κυβερνήταις τῷ σοφιστῇ. ταῖς ἐλευθερίαις 4. You. Socrates 3. ταῖς τριήρεσιν τῷ Σωκράτει τῷ συγγενεῖ. all urgency.
τοιούτῳ τοιούτοις. τοῖς πονηροῖς. τῇ μεγίστῃ. ταῖς σώαις. suffering 2. τοῖς δικαστηρίοις τῷ χρόνῳ. 6. τοιαύταις. τῇ σῇ. τῇ σώᾳ. τοῖς ἄναξιν
. τῷ πονηρῷ. τοῖς κακοῖς τῷ σώῳ. this such
τῷ πονηρῷ. τοῖς μεγίστοις τῷ δήλῳ. τοις μιαροῖς τῷ ὁμοίῳ. τούτῳ τῷ τούτοις τοῖς. τοῖς χρόνοις τῷ φίλῳ. 7. τῷ σῷ. τῷ ὁμοίῳ τοῖς ὁμοίοις. 2. drama. τῷ μιαρῷ. lord. τῇ πονηρᾷ. τῷ πολλῷ τοῖς πολλοῖς. τοῖς ἡμιόνοις τῷ πλοίῳ. τοιαύτῃ. much 11. your (s. τοιούτοις
1. τοῖς πάθεσιν τῷ πλήθει. 3. τοῖς πονηροῖς ἐκείνῳ τῷ. ταῖς δήλαις. 4. 8. τῷ μεγίστῳ τοῖς μεγίστοις. τοῖς πολλοῖς τούτῳ τῷ. ταῖς μιαραῖς. τῇ κακῇ. τοῖς δήλοις τῷ σῷ. ταύταις ταῖς. 3. 8. τοῖς σοῖς τῷ πολλῷ. τοῖς πλήθεσιν τῷ τείχει. ταῖς ὁμοίαις. king
τῷ δράματι. wall
τῷ πάθει. 2. τῇ ὁμοίᾳ. mass 3. τοῖς φίλοις τῷ λόγῳ. τούτοις τοῖς τοιούτῳ. τοῖς λόγοις τῷ θεῷ. 5. τῷ σώῳ τοῖς σώοις. τῷ δήλῳ τοῖς δήλοις. τοῖς θεοῖς
1. τοῖς σώοις τῷ μεγίστῳ.) 10. ταῖς πολλαῖς. ταῖς μεγίσταις. τοῖς ὁμοίοις τῷ κακῷ. 12. τῇ μιαρᾷ. ταύτῃ τῇ. ταῖς κακαῖς. τῇ πολλῇ. τοῖς τείχεσιν
1. τῇ δήλῃ.
wicked that disgraceful like bad safe greatest clear
9. τοῖς πλοίοις τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ. 7. 5. ἐκείνοις τοῖς τῷ μιαρῷ. τοῖς σοῖς. ταῖς σαῖς. ἐκείνῃ τῇ. τοῖς μιαροῖς. ἐκείναις ταῖς. play 2. τῷ κακῷ τοῖς κακοῖς. 4. ἐκείνῳ τῷ. 6. ἐκείνοις τοῖς.Exercises for section 9A–E
1. τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τῷ δικαστηρίῳ.
mule ship man lawcourt time friend word god
τῷ ἡμιόνῳ. crowd. ταῖς πονηραῖς. τοῖς δράμασιν τῷ ἄνακτι.
ταῖς πατρίσιν τῷ ἡγεμόνι. 5.
δοκεῖ τῷ Σωκράτει ἕπομαι ὑμῖν ἐντυχάνω τῷ βασιλεῖ ἐν ταῖς ναυσί(ν) δοκεῖ ἡμῖν πρὸς τοῖς θεαταῖς
7. τοῖς ποταμοῖς τῇ οἰκήσει. θυσᾶσι. ταῖς μάχαις τῷ ἱερῷ. θυσᾶσιν εὐδαίμονι. 3.) money neighbour lamp. ταῖς γραυσίν
name thing. οὖσιν. ἰόντι. οὔσῃ. better 2. 9.
Zeus I ship king you (s. οὔσαις. 9. 5. ἰοῦσιν᾽ ἰούσαις. τοῖς παισίν τῷ ποταμῷ. (pl. σοι. τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν τῇ γυναικί. τοῖς χρήμασιν τῷ γείτονι. τοῖς ὀνόμασιν τῷ χρήματι. 7. τισίν
1. 6. slave river dwelling possession battle temple. someone
Exercises for section 9A–E
juror boy. 8. torch night fatherland leader. ταῖς νυξίν τῇ πατρίδι. ἀμείνοσιν ἰόντι. τοῖς ἄστεσιν
1. 2. ἡμῖν τῃ νηί. ταῖς λαμπάσιν τῇ νυκτί. τοῖς γείτοσιν τῇ λαμπάδι. ὄντι. 4. fortunate 6. 3. θυσάσῃ. θύσαντι. 6. ταῖς ὀφρύσιν τῇ γραί. 4. 5. going 3. θυσάσαις. 10. being 4. ταῖς γυναιξίν
σὺν ἡμῖν χρῶμαι σοί ἕπομαι αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ πλήθει ἐπὶ τῇ νίκῃ λόγῳ μὲν … ἔργῳ δέ
. 7. guide woman
τῷ ὀνόματι. 5. εὐδαίμοσιν τινί. οὖσιν θύσαντι. 8. ἰοῦσιν ὄντι. ὑμῖν τῇ ὀφρρύι. τοῖς ἱεροῖς τῷ ἄστει. τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν σοί. 3. 7. ἰούσῃ. shrine city
τῷ δικαστῇ. 2.) eyebrow old woman
τῷ Διί ἐμοί. ταῖς οἰκήσεσιν τῇ κτήματι. having sacriﬁced 5. 11. 6. ταῖς ναυσίν τῷ βασιλεῖ. 2. μοι. 4. 8. 4. 10. τοῖς δικασταῖς τῷ παιδί. 6. τοῖς κτήμασιν τῇ μάχη.
The suppliant stayed in the shrine for two days. 2. They are speaking to us and our children/slaves. Α great evil will befall you. Tell the spectator the plot of the play with full (all) enthusiasm. I shall go within two days. τῷ μεγάλῳ δικτύῳ
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. The sailors happened to be on the ships. 10. 2. τὸ ὄνομα τούτῳ τῷ θεατῇ ἐστι Φιλόξενος. 9. He was shouting all night. μεγάλῃ βοῇ 6. a very wicked man.Revision exercises for section 9A–E
TIME PHRASES 9A–E: 12
.) try to persuade me with this argument? τούτοις τοῖς λόγοις 10. τῷ κελεύοντι 8. What is the name of the king? τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν 9. 3. 2. 5. On the next day the son chased his father back into the house with the big nets. We shout loudly (use great shouts). τοῖς θεαταῖς 5. ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν. since you are accursed. ἠρωτήσαμεν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR 9A–E
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
1. 3. He is my father. 8. ἠρώτησεν ἐροῦσι(ν) δύναιντο ἄν ἠρόμεθα. 5. In theory no one in the city is better than your father. χαλεπῶς οἴσουσι καθίζοντες ἐν τῷ δικαστήριῳ. 4. 3. λέγει ὑμῖν καὶ τοῖς θεαταῖς. Why do you (pl. 4. ἡμῖν 2. He was bringing the man on to the ship with the help of the sailors.
ἀνισταῖτο ἄν ἤρετο. 4. We must obey those who give orders.
PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS 9A–E: 13
1. ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ 7. ὑμῖν. He met the man on the ﬁrst day. but in fact no one is worse. 7. κακοδαίμοσιν οὔσιν 3. ἠρώτησαν δύναιτο ἄν ἐροῦμεν ἔλαθεν
This woman’s plan is dangerous/terrible.
We went away in the night.
I stole the money with (using) my right hand. Most relevant here is ‘episcopal’. Father. Get up. not allowing me to go out. γενέσθαι What is this? What are the principal parts of γίγνομαι? 19 ἐξευρεῖν What is it? Try the principal parts of εὑρίσκω. Father.122
4. from ἐπίσκοπος an ‘overseer’ or a ‘bishop’ in Christian Greek. He is destroying Socrates with a wicked slander. ΒDΕL. and obey me. 28 ποιῆσαι ποιέω ποιήσω ἐποίησα. 17 κατάσκοπον κατά. 3 λήσεις The future of λανθάνω. Cf. Remember that the aorist indicative has an augment. ‘You must (χρή) stay here (present inﬁnitive = all the time. 187–189. #195–197. 7 πιθέσθαι Aorist inﬁnitive from ἐπιθόμην (second aorist of πείθομαι). Father. 47 ἐσθίειν Another very irregular verb: ἐσθίω ἔδομαι ἔφαγον ‘I eat’.’ 10 δικάσαι First aorist inﬁnitive active from δικάζω. 25 λήψῃ What tense? What person? What verb? Try the future of λαμβάνω. 40 ἐξήνεγκον For the principal parts of φέρω see GE p.
. The participle has not. 5. 5 οὐκ ἐάσας What is this? Compare it with εἴασας. σκοπέω. the various English ‘-scope’ words. Listen. But nevertheless I want to be a juror. Therefore aorist inﬁnitive active. δυνήσῃ The future of δύναμαι: ‘you will be able’. You must stay here. 11 μοι … ἐνθάδε μένοντι Note the agreement: ‘How will it be possible for me remaining here to be a juror?’ ‘How will it be possible … if I stay here?’
16 παύσασθαι First aorist inﬁnitive middle. nor will you escape my notice by trying to go out. λαβεῖν What is it? Try the principal parts of λαμβάνω.
2 ἐάσω The future of ἐάω ‘I allow’. ΒDΕL. #211. Remember that the inﬁnitive does not have an augment. ἐνέκλεισα τὸν πατέρα πολλοῖς δούλοις χρώμενος. a process) and obey me [now] (aorist inﬁnitive denotes a single event). I shall not allow you to go out to the courtroom any longer. 202. For aorist inﬁnitives see GE pp.
Translation for 9F
Bdelykleon speaks to the father. since today you will be able to be a juror. PHILOKLEON What’s this? But you will destroy me. καλοῖς λόγοις ἔπεισαν τὸν δῆμον οἱ ῥήτορες. Here the aorist is used to emphasise the aspect.
#198. but the son goes into the house. What do you say? But in what way and about what? About many things.
4 ἄκουσον What is it? 2nd person singular of the aorist imperative. Look. being clever at eating. although sitting in the lawcourt. After a short while Bdelykleon. Indeed. Wouldn’t you like to reveal the matter? You will get it from me. on coming out.
ΒDΕL. and check that you can recognise the aorist inﬁnitives active and middle. ΒDΕL.
PHIL. For I shall come quickly bringing the things of the lawcourt in my hands. You speak well. So you must become a spy of the affairs which happen in the house. For you convince me with your words. Hurrah. The old man waits around. from where I shall be able to get the pay. But you have not yet said this. For at last I have brought out the things of the lawcourt. as it seems to me. near the ﬁre there is some lentil soup for you. with all eagerness.
ΒDΕL. By Zeus. but you know well that the slaves do not want to stop doing wrong. And I have brought out this ﬁre. Note this form of the aorist imperative active in -σον. PHIL.
. carries the things of the lawcourt in his hands with difﬁculty. ΒDΕL.
ΒDEL. PHIL. PHIL. Come then. Hold on now.
But how will it be possible for me to be a juror if I stay here? There will be a courtroom for you in your own house and you will be able to judge the members of the household. For the speeches of the prosecutors are long. but are responsible for many bad things. have you brought out everything? [Yes] by Zeus. and you are clever at sleeping. I shall bring everything out. ΒDEL. 189. See GE p. hurrah! For it will be possible for me to eat the lentil-soup while I am judging. Look. and having discovered them to exact justice. And you would be willing to do this? I would do this. And it will be possible for you being a spy to discover these evils today. ΒDΕL.
Make sure that you have learned the principal parts of the irregular verbs you have met in this section before you go on further. And by Zeus I shall eat it. I think at any rate that I have brought everything. at least. and to force the household slaves to cease from their evils and become better? I certainly would like to. For you have many household slaves. ΒDEL.
PHIL. So wouldn’t you like to do this. But wanting what have you brought out the cockerel? What? The cock will be able to wake you up with its voice. PHIL.
but the context will almost always make the meaning clear. Fine! For everything of the lawcourt is here – except – Speak. BDEL.124
5 ἴθι See GE p. Father. what is it? Except the water clock.
Translation for 9G
BDELYKLEON PHILOKLEON ΒDEL. know that well. PHIL. ΒDEL. (Again begins to run out. Therefore sit down. 17 παῦσαι 2nd person singular of the aorist imperative middle of παύω. PHIL. PHIL. I must look for the voting-urns and place my vote. The spelling is exactly the same as the aorist inﬁnitive active παῦσαι from ἔπαυσα. Don’t call the case. Where are the voting-urns? For I cannot place the vote without voting-urns. #201 for the imperatives of εἰμί. So don’t go away.preﬁx suggests ‘I speak against’. What do you say? Go on. ΒDΕL. Father. I’m listening. But let [me]. ‘accuse’. since I happen to have these cups. child. father. 14 ἔασον The -σον ending again from the aorist imperative of ἐάω.)
. ἀλλ’ ἐμοὶ πιθοῦ καὶ ἄκουσον. Note all the other aorist imperatives that follow. Hey. know it well. PHIL. Everything does indeed please me. you. PHIL. The old man begins to run out.) Stop running out. εἶμι and οἶδα. where are you hurrying? I’m running out because of the urns. Where is the water clock? Bring it to me. Look. but obey me and listen. speak. Jurors placed their pebbles in one or the other. ὦ πάτερ More imperatives. 32 παῦσαι See the note on line 17 above. PHIL. child. Father. the 2nd person singular second aorist middle imperative from ἐπιθόμην. 11 κάδων ἕνεκα There were two voting-urns.
Does everything please you. I am calling the ﬁrst case. 191. The 2nd persons plural are much easier to recognise than the 2nd persons singular. Well. because they are like the 2nd person plural of the aorist indicative. ‘prosecute’. 12 μὴ ἄπιθι μηδαμῶς. ΒDΕL. one for guilty and one for innocent.
ΒDΕL. but listen.
24 ἡ κλεψύδρα The water clock was used to measure the time allowed for the prosecution speech and the defence speech. Father? Tell me. though without the augment. λέξον Another aorist imperative. Don’t go away in any way. But. Note πιθοῦ. 34 κατηγορεῖτε The κατά. all right. Look! (He shows his father’s chamber-pot.
and stop worrying. then.) 6. and bring out the ﬁre. prosecute. 4.)
7. 3. aor) 5.) let go. 2.)
become (s. aor. 9. 8. 10. 2. aor. stop (s.) 3. 8. 9. Sit down. 5. 3. what is this? Do you not think that this chamber-pot is an excellent water clock? Everything is now here.) receive (s. 10. aor.
to make. 10. seek (s. stay (pl. 6. aor. and obey me. 6.Exercises for section 9F–G
Speak.) ﬁnd (pl. and after praying. Father. 12. 11. aor. aor. 8. do to conquer to speak to set free to learn to run
aorist present present aorist present aorist
7.) obey (s. You pray to all the gods. while those present pray to the gods. aor. drive
aorist aorist present aorist aorist present
AORIST IMPERATIVES AND MORE PRESENT IMPERATIVES 9F–G: 3
1.) 4. aor. pres.
Make sure that you know these forms of the imperative before you go on to the next section. After bringing out the ﬁre all the slaves go away.) stop (pl. loose (s.
to judge to see to begin to become to go to lead. pres. speak (s. aor. 5. Listen. do to wrong (someone) to consider to guard to turn towards to sacriﬁce
μαθεῖν ἐκδραμεῖν ἄρξασθαι ἐξαγαγεῖν ποιήσασθαι ἀδικῆσαι νομίσαι φυλάξαι προτρέψαι θῦσαι
1. 11. 7.) 2. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9F–G
AORIST INFINITIVES 9F–G: 1
1. learn (pl. slaves. 12. 4. 9.
to learn to run out to begin to lead out to make. speak (s.
1. nom. nom. voc.) 6. aor.. bring (s.) and carry all the equipment
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9F–G
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
ἐπαυσάμην παύσασθαι ἤκουσα ἀκοῦσαι ἐποίησα ποιῆσαι ἠδίκησα ἀδικῆσαι εἶπoν εἰπεῖν ἤνεγκον ἐνεγκεῖν ἐγενόμην γενέσθαι ἔμαθον μαθεῖν ἔλαβον λαβεῖν ἀϕικόμην ἀϕικέσθαι εἶδoν ἰδεῖν ἐπιθόμην πιθέσθαι ἔπεσον πεσεῖν 2. voc. be (s. pres. nom. pres.. 9. 12. WHOLE. 8. EVERY 9F–G: 5
1. 4. 9. 7.ALL.
voc. 10. nom.
4. voc. know. pres. run away.. ﬂee (pl. voc.)
Revision exercises for section 9F–G
VOCATIVES 9F–G: 4
1. 5. voc. 10. show (s. 1.) 2. 6. look.
7. voc.. (Only the accent shows it is imperative) All of you leave and do not remain but go It will be possible for all to leave Everybody come and carry everything It is not possible for me to carry all these things Get up and go (s) Go (pl. 4. all you women are going It was possible for you all to bear everything Everyone be brilliant at selling. aor. nom. voc. 8. 11... go!. see (s. 2. voc voc. know All of you women. 3. aor) 5. nom.. 5.) 3. arrive (pl.
father. which we have to translate as ‘let him/her …’ or as ‘let them …’ See GE pp. κατηγορεῖν 5. ἐξέσται πᾶσιν ὑμῖν πωλεῖν τοὺς ἡμιόνους. ἐξιέναι 3. I want to be a juror in the house. How shall I persuade you. pres) 10. boys/slaves. Why aren’t you willing to bring out Philokleon. λαβεῖν. It is possible for me both to take the whole reward here and eat it. What must you do? ποιῆσαι 4. aor. They must learn the words of the play.
This section introduces the 3rd person of the imperative. ἀφικνεῖσθαι 12. ἐλθεῖν 6. The 3rd person endings of the imperative are easy to recognise:
Active Singular Plural -έτω -όντων -άτω -άντων Middle -έσθω -έσθων -άσθω -άσθων
. go (s. 2. aor) 1. τί βουλόμενος ἐξέδραμες;’ ‘ὅ τι; τὰ πάντα. We must all go out into the market-place. 5. what did you want when you knocked on the door?’ ‘What did I want? The master. The son did not allow his father to go out to the lawcourt. λαμβάνειν 11.) must become a juror in the house.
7. πάντα πάρεστιν ἐνθάδε πλὴν τοῦ πυρός. He himself wants to keep taking the whole fee from his son. δικάσαι δικάζειν 2. ὦ παῖδες.Section 9H
3. I learn many things. 197–199. mule? ἐξενεγκεῖν 8. ἐξενέγκετε τὰ πυρά/τάς λαμπάδας.. cease (s. look (s.) 8. 4. It is permissible for Philokleon to prosecute. ὦ πάτερ. we must stay here and ﬁght... to listen to all the speeches? ἀκοῦσαι 7. μαθεῖν 10. δεῖ σε μένειν ἐνθάδε και δικάζειν. ‘Tell me. φαγεῖν
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. but my son does not allow me to be a juror here.. #206–207 for the full paradigm. γενέσθαι 9.’ ‘εἰπέ μοι. 3. You (s. be afraid (pl. It is possible for me to listen to the orators. Look at the ships. I shall not allow him to reach the lawcourt. pres) 9. but I do not understand everything.
This usually means ‘to take’ (middle ‘to choose’). and sheep say βῆ βῆ. This is part of the evidence for the pronunciation of vowel sounds in the ﬁfth century BC. imperative of εἶμι ‘I go’.
. 11–12 ἐξαπατήσειν µ’ ἐλπίζεις ἐλπίζω is normally followed by a future indicative: ‘You hope to deceive me. Compare ἠκούσατε ‘you heard’. 23 οὗτος ὁ ἀδικήσας ‘the one having done wrong’. Note μονο. on that basis (οὕτω) cast your vote. 29–30 δεῖ σε … ‘You must hear them both. ὁ διώκων ‘the prosecutor’ in line 11. let him come in and make haste.and the superlative ending. 27 ἑλεῖν αἱρέω αἱρήσω εἶλoν.
18 ἀναβάς This is the aorist participle. Cf. and do not confuse it with ὅτι ‘that’. 24 ὅτε ‘When’. 25 οὐ παρεῖχέ μοι αἰτοῦντι ‘did not give it to me asking’.’ 14 Dogs say αὖ αὖ. 3 εἰσίτω and προσίτω Note the 3rd s. 5 ἀκούσατε ‘Listen to …’ This must be imperative because there is no augment.’ σε is accusative after δεῖ. The dog is called ‘Grabber’.’ λόγῳ μέν…. 8D line 11.128
But it is easy to confuse the active endings -όντων and -άντων with the genitive plural of the present and aorist active participles which are the same in spelling. 35 προσιόντων πάντες What is προσιόντων? What makes sense in the context? See introduction to 9H. may have been intending to bring against a man called Lakhes. Note that αἰτοῦντι agrees with μοι. 7 Λάβης From λαμβάνω. Who is the defendant? Let him come forward. ᾔτησα From αἰτέω αἰτήσω ᾔτησα ‘I ask’. thief). ‘because’.e.and ϕαγ. Grabber. There is probably a topical reference here to a case which Kleon. having heard them.e.
1. aorist imperative of βαίνω is βῆθι. and. the politician. 16 ‘This seems to me to be another Labes (i. and ἀκούσαντα is accusative agreeing with σε. 3 ὁ ϕεύγων ‘the defendant’. Note that the 2nd s. Cf. Cf. ‘the criminal’. ἀδικήσας is the aorist participle of ἀδικέω. 19 ἀναβῆναι Aorist inﬁnitive of ἀναβαίνω. Once again only the context will help you. Note the principal parts βαίνω βήσομαι ἔβην.
Translation for 9H
If any juror happens to be outside. i. 40 κατάβηθι ‘get down’. but in the context of a lawcourt it will usually mean ‘to convict’. 31 ὡς ὄντα … ‘as being …’ ‘on the grounds that he is …’ κυνῶν … ἄνδρα An intentional absurdity. τóτε ‘then’. like μονο-ϕαγίστατον. The two inﬁnitives are governed by δεῖ. ἔργῳ δέ … Note the contrast.
obey me and don’t prejudge. at the same time as judging.
PHIL. dog. come up and prosecute. Let all the witnesses of Labes come in. father. Punish him. Judge. I know that you are a thief. For it cries out. For at last the dog has come up. Come. ΧAN. DOG ΒDEL. For it is possible.
. I shall stop prosecuting. as it seems to me. Do not confuse τοσοῦτος ‘so great’ with τοιοῦτος ‘of such a kind’. But where is the prosecutor. by the gods. dog. And indeed the defendant Labes here is present. and indeed you must make the speech for the defence. This one seems to me to be another Labes. For you must hear both. But. τοσαύτης διαβολῆς ‘such a great slander’. as I know well about legal matters. So I must cast my vote. the dog from the deme of Kydathenaion? Come. ΒDEL. and having heard on that basis place your vote.
The defendant. Be quiet. he did not give [it] to me asking. You have heard the charge. and I shall listen to the prosecution while eating. will eat all the lentil soup.Section 9I
ΒDΕL. comes forward. Get down. since he is moreover much the most selﬁsh eater of all dogs. DOG
PHIL. ὦνδρες = ὦ ἄνδρες ‘gentlemen’. Woof woof! He is here. But the dog. the cup. Ο foul one here. make the speech for the defence. and good at eating all the cheese. I know it. but in deed himself also a thief. For this dog. But this one at least is not able. For I intend to make the speech for the defence. and convict him. and all the other equipment. not wanting to come up. sit down. Hurrah. ΒDΕL. But you hope to deceive me.
2 This is a typical beginning for a speech in a lawcourt. For the defendant has done wrong by eating up the cheese on his own. and convict him. PHIL. But you. ΒDΕL. the matter is clear. the one who has done wrong. Suffering what are you silent? You should speak. dog. the cooking-pot. the cheese-grater. And when I asked for a share. good fellow. For he doesn’t know how to speak. escaped my notice by going off alone and eating all the cheese. dog. runs away. Come. But I. men of the jury. Listen now to the charge. come up. who is in word innocent. Let him come forward. Dog of the deme Kydathenaion has indicted dog Labes of the deme Aixone for theft.
PHIL. 3 γιγνώσκω αὐτὸν … γιγνώσκω is followed by accusative and participle. who is a dog. Now I for my part shall call in the witnesses.
It was normal practice in an Athenian lawcourt to parade the children of the defendant. wretched ones. For you happened to be guarding the cheese. By Zeus. By Zeus. good fellow. this is not a completely irrelevant characteristic. and having convicted him. and speak loudly. For he does not know how to play the lyre. This is a character reference. pity him. See RGT 9H line 27. to reply on behalf of a dog who has met with such a great slander. 12 κιθαρίζειν γὰρ οὐκ ἐπίσταται Literally ‘he does not know how to play the lyre’. Father. Answer clearly. It was normal. but goes out of the house looking for food. having stolen it. But the other dog only guards the house. Arghh! Whatever evil is this? An evil surrounds me. The meaning is ‘he is not educated’. In this case. PHILOKLEON No. forgive him. and indeed expected. beginning the defence. and the speaker persuades me with his words. the children are. puppies. my good fellow. the more milk. or even. 10 ὑϕαιρεῖται The preﬁx ὑϕ. Come up. And when he steals nothing. The middle of αἱρέω means ‘to take for oneself’. For I know that he is good and chases the wolves. The cheese-grater comes up. to the witnesses. Where are the children? Come up. 30 ποῦ τὰ παιδία. ask and plead weeping. gentlemen. The better the sheep are guarded. but he is the best of all the dogs now [alive]. ‘he has not had a good education’. who has suffered evil things. ΒDEL. and acquit him.130
7 ἑλεῖν … ἑλόντα … From αἱρέω meaning ‘convict’. if he steals the cheese and. For this Labes never stays in the house.
. PHIL. since he is able to guard many sheep. ΒDΕL. BDEL. pity those who suffer evil things. PHIL. But if he stole the cheese. I beg you.
Translation for 9I
Bdelykleon speaks. cheese-grater. But. but I know she is lying. rather this one seems to me to be a thief and worthy of death. did you grate the cheese for both the dogs? She says that she grated it all for both. of course.suggests stealth. So what is the use. PHIL. in the Athenian courts to smear your opponent’s character and to build up your own. Listen. For by staying here he hopes to steal the food from the others. and the more cheese. but none the less I shall speak. So I must convict him as a thief. Come. It is difﬁcult. weeping to arouse the pity of the jurors. judge another case as well. 9 ‘Able to guard many sheep’. he bites. What use? For he also guards the door. eats it up? ΒDΕL. As most cheese was made of sheep’s milk.
For the jurors order the defendant to get down. PHIL. Come. (So taking him round a big walkabout.Section 9J
PHIL. 9 ὑστέρῳ Juries ﬁled past two urns: the one they came to ﬁrst (the earlier or nearer) was for condemnation and the next (the later or further) for acquittal. For I burst into tears as I ate this lentil soup. No indeed.
Translation for 9J
Go to hell.
Get down. 21 οὐχ ἑκών ‘not willingly’. put it into the further voting-urn. 27 ἔπαιρε σεαυτόν ‘Lift yourself up’ from αἴρω ἀρῶ ἦρα ‘I raise’. I shall get down. Place the voting-pebble. For Philokleon has acquitted the dog unwillingly. he walks to the further voting-urn ﬁrst. How bad (not good) I consider the lentil soup. This voting-pebble is in here. 22 ἠγωνισάμεθα. then? PHIL. and acquit (him). PHIL. ΒDΕL. so he has to blame the lentil soup. Did you recognise this form of the comparative? τά should have provided a useful clue. And yet. by putting the voting-pebble in the further voting-urn. get down. imperative of ἀνίσταμαι. See ἀγωνίζομαι. This has the same meaning as ἄκων ‘unwillingly’ (line 34). See GE p.) Hurrah! I have deceived him. get down. Come now. For I do not know how to play the lyre. ΒDΕL. Taking this voting-pebble in your hand. It is difﬁcult for me to know. let me take you round this way. But none the less I shall get down. 14 περίπατον Cf. then when he has got down. ΒDΕL. 33 πείσομαι Can be the future of either πάσχω or πείθομαι. This is it. they ﬁnd him guilty. ἀνίστασο 2nd persons. 202. Is this the nearer? ΒDEL. Here it is almost in the sense of ‘to settle a contest’. BDELYKLEON The dog is acquitted. get down. Daddy dear. PHIL. The context will give you the right meaning here.) PHIL. turn to better things. ΒDEL. #211. Father. this ‘get down’ deceives many very much. It must have disagreed with him. How then have we contested?
2 ἀπεδάκρυσα Philokleon cannot bear to admit that he could pity a defendant. 7 βελτίω = βελτίονα. (Speaks to himself.
PHIL. put all these things here. let them release 9. let him/her/it begin 10. 5. 2. What are you suffering? Alas. PHIL. stand up. 8. 5.
let him/her hear let them retreat let him/her converse let him/her learn let them be silent
6. let them turn
1. because I did that by placing my voting-pebble involuntarily and not convicting. Then I am nothing. Don’t worry. 4.
Exercises for section 9H–J
I intend to reveal [it]. 6. [Yes] by Zeus. 2. Labes. be victorious (pl. But did I acquit the man who was the defendant with the voting-pebble? What do I suffer? Whatever shall I suffer? But. let him/her/it go.) 7.132
ΒDEL. 10. 3. You have been acquitted.
FUTURE INFINITIVES 9H–J: 3
1. my good fellow. Ο much-honoured gods. ΒDΕL.
κελεύσειν κωλύσειν ζητήσειν πείσεσθαι δέξεσθαι ἐξαπατήσειν
to be about to order to be about to hinder to be about to seek to be about to obey to be about to receive to be about to deceive
. PHIL. Father. has he really been acquitted? You will destroy me with the word. let him/her learn everything. 6. 4. 9. 3. 4. but stand up. where is water? Lift yourself up. 3. 7.
let him/her/it be. let him/her know. let it be impossible to ﬁnd these things in the harbour. let everyone carry the man out. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9H–J
THIRD PERSON IMPERATIVES 9H–J: 1
1. let them leave and let them not remain/ let them leave without waiting. Father. let him/her carry 8. It is possible to see everything in the house. forgive me. 2. 5. let every one arrive. Now tell me that. BDΕL.
βιάσασθαι Future: ϕροντιεῖν. ἐλθεῖν. inf. ὀϕείλειν. pl. δεξάμενος -η -ον δρᾶσον.) ἐρωτάω μαθόντες learn (aor. κρατῆσαι.) ὁράω λαθών escape notice (aor. s. ἔπαθον 9. 4.) λαμβάνω ἑλεῖν take (aor. βοηθῆσαι. ἐπαινέσαι. part. δέξεσθαι. δράσας -ασα -αν ἐλθέ. διώξειν. indic.
. ἀπολογήσεσθαι 8. ἔσεσθαι. nom.) γίγνομαι δραμεῖν run (aor. 2. γενόμενος -η -ον κώλυσον. part.Revision exercises for section 9H–J
7. imperative pl. κατηγορήσειν 9. βαλεῖν. μαθήσεσθαι. βιάσεσθαι
IRREGULAR PRINCIPAL PARTS 9H–J: 4
to be about to defend oneself to be about to accuse to be about to write/ indict to be about to use force
1. masc. nom. m. κωλῦσαι.) γίγνομαι ἐρόμενος ask (aor. m. part.) λαμβάνω ἀπέθανε die (aor. s. λήσειν escape notice (fut. inf. s. ἀποχωρεῖν. ἔβης
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9H–J
B/C – WORD SHAPE AND SYNTAX
πλεῖν. παύσας -ασα -αν 3. ἐλθών -οῦσα -όν γενοῦ. inf. part. γράψεσθαι 10. παῦσαι. μαχέσασθαι. ἀϕικέσθαι. inf. παύσεσθαι. nom. 6. ἐπαινέσας -ασα -αν βάλε.) λανθάνω λάβετε take (aor. δρᾶσαι.) λανθάνω ἐλθέ go (aor. ὀλοϕυρεῖσθαι. imperative pl. βαλών -οῦσα -όν παῦσον. δέξαι. 3. εἷλετο 11. 3 s. nom. imperative s. inf. 2. ποιήσειν. ἔπεισαν 10.) τρέχω
1. εἷλεν 12. γενέσθαι. 5.
αἱρήσω ἐπίστανται πείθειν ἐλπίζει αἱρήσεσθαι εἷλον ἔβη πείσονται
7. κωλύσας -ασα -αν ἐπαίνεσον. σπεύδειν. λήψεσθαι.) μανθάνω γένεσθε become (aor. δέξασθαι.) ἔρχομαι λήψεσθαι take (fut.) αἱρέω ἰδών see (aor. ὑπισχνεῖται ἀπιέναι 8.) ἀποθνῄσκω γενήσεσθαι become (fut. m.
) know (past indic. s.) have (fut. imperative pl. part. part. ὁ δὲ γέρων ἐτύγχανεν ἔχων νόσον τινὰ δεινήν. part. 4.134
Summary exercises for section 9
οἴσει τυχούσῃ ἐνέγκατε εἶναι ἰόντος ᾔδεσαν ᾔεισθα βαλεῖν εἰδότες εὑρήσειν πεσόντι σχές πεσοῦμεν ἕξειν
will carry (3 s. s. masc. τὸ δ’ ὄνομα τῷ μὲν νεανίᾳ ἦν Bδελυκλέων. τῷ δὲ γέροντι Φιλοκλέων.
Let the children play. nom. part.) go (fut.indic. ὁ διώκων ἀρχέσθω κατηγορεῖν. 5.) have/hold (aor. inf. This woman intends to listen to the stranger.) throw (aor. 2 s. s. dat. 2 Let the herald enter the city.) carry (aor. ἐλπίζω τοὺς ϕεύγοντας καλῶς ἀπολογήσεσθαι.) fall (fut. understanding evidence. οὐδέποτε γὰρ ἐπαύσατο βουλόμενος δικάζειν ἐν τοῖς δικαστηρίοις. 3. SUMMARY EXERCISES FOR SECTION 9
A – WORDS
I take I write down I hope I know how to witness name wretched
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
I destroy letter hope knowledge. inf. inf.) know (pres. s. fem.) go (impf. masc.) happen (aor. γέρων ὤν. inf./neut. masc. He expects/hopes to pursue/prosecute the wicked citizen. dat. part. Let the suppliants pray to the gods. pl.)
ϕέρω τυγχάνω ϕέρω εἰμί εἶμι οἶδα εἶμι βάλλω οἶδα εὑρίσκω πίπτω ἔχω πίπτω ἔχω
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. imperative s. masc. gen. ὁ κλέπτης ὑϕελέσθω τὸ μέρος τὸ τούτου τοῦ κυνός. οὗτος ὁ δικαστὴς τὸν θάνατον μέλλει καταδικάσειν τοῦ κυνός. εἰσελθόντων οἱ κύνες. νεανίᾳ τινὶ ἦν πατήρ. fut./neut.) fall (aor./neut.) ﬁnd (fut. I bear witness I name wretchedness
1.) be (pres. ὁ δὲ
. 3 pl. dat.
Summary exercises for section 9
νεανίας ἐπειρᾶτο αὐτὸν πεῖσαι μὴ δικάζειν, ὁ δὲ γέρων αὐτῷ οὐκ ἐπείθετο καίπερ πολλὰ πείθοντι. τέλος δὲ ὁ μὲν νεανίας αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἐνέκλεισεν, ὁ δὲ ἀπορῶν ἐπειρᾶτο φεύγειν, πολλοῖς λόγοις χρώμενος. ἀλλὰ οὐκ ἐδύνατο λαθεῖν τοὺς δούλους τοὺς τὴν οἰκίαν φυλάττοντας. 2. ΒΔΕΛYΚΛΕΩΝ ἄκουσον γάρ, ὦ πάτερ, καὶ ἐμοὶ πιθοῦ. οὐ γάρ ἐάσω σε λιπόντα τὴν οἰκίαν ἐν τῷ δικαστηρίῳ δικάζειν. ΦΙΛΟΚΛΕΩΝ ἀλλὰ διὰ τί οὐκ ἐάσεις ἐμέ; ἐλπίζω γὰρ σέ μοι πάντα λέξειν. ΒΔΕΛ. διότι πονηρότατος εἶ τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. ΦΙΛ. τί οὖν ἐάσεις με ποιεῖν; τί μέλλεις ποιήσειν; ΒΔΕΛ. ἔξεσται σοι δικάζειν ἐνθάδε ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ. ταῦτα δὲ βούλοιο ἂν ποιῆσαι; ΦΙΛ. βουλοίμην ἂν ἔγωγε. εἰπέ μοι ταχέως, τί δεῖ με ποιεῖν; ΒΔΕΛ. μεῖνον ἐνθάδε. ἐξοίσω γὰρ τὰ τοῦ δικαστηρίου. (ἐκφέρει μὲν τὰ σκεύη. τὸ δὲ δικαστήριον ποιεῖται.) προσελθέτω ὁ ἀντίδικος. ἡ δὲ δίκη ἀρχέσθω. ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ κατήγορος; δεῦρο ἐλθέ, ὦ κύον, καὶ κατηγόρησον. ἀνάβηθι καὶ εἰπέ. λέγε ἡμῖν τίς καὶ τί βουλόμενος τὴν γραφὴν ἐγράψατο. ὦ πάτερ, ἐλπίζω σε προσέξειν τὸν νοῦν. ΦΙΛ. μὴ φρόντιζε. ἄγε δή, ὦ κύον, εἰπὲ δή.
E – TEST EXERCISE 9
JURORS PHIL. JUR. PHIL.
Come, all [my] friends, come. For I hear you singing, but am not able to sing myself. What shall I do? For these men are guarding me, although I want to come with you to the lawcourt and make some trouble. But, Ο Zeus, stop giving me troubles and become my friend and pity my suffering. Save me, Ο Zeus. Either make me suddenly into smoke, or indeed make me a stone, on which they count the votes. Lord, dare to save me. Who is it who is shutting you in? Speak, we beg you. My son, know it well. But don’t shout. For he’s actually to be asleep here in front. Why isn’t it possible for you to come along with us and listen to the prosecutors and those defending themselves? Men, my son doesn’t allow me to pass judgement or to do anything bad. But look for some device, I beg you. For I intend to hear both the prosecutors and the defendants today. We can’t save you, friend. For all the members of your family are guarding you, and it is not possible for you to escape. Therefore I must pray to the gods, in hope of escaping. May the gods hear, then, and help. Ο lord Lykos, neighbouring hero – for you love the lawcourt – pity me and save me in my perplexity. You too, slaves, run and shout and tell Kleon this and order him to come. For Bdelykleon says that it is necessary not to pass judgement on cases. So let Kleon come and become a saviour to the old man.
Summary exercises for section 9
(a) 2nd s., aor. (e) 2nd pl., pres. (a) voc. (e) voc.
(b) 2nd s., aor. (f) 3rd pl., pres. (b) acc. (f) dat.
(c) 2nd s., aor. (g) 2nd s., aor (c) voc.
(d) 2nd pl., pres. (h) 3rd s., aor (d) nom.
Section Ten: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata
We now embark on one of Aristophanes’ most famous and delightful plays. With its female lead (though played by a man, of course), it brings back women into the text, alive and very decidedly kicking. The grammatical input here is challenging, consisting of the aorist optative active and middle (GE pp. 210–211, #212), δίδωμι (GE pp. 212–214, #214), ἀμελής and γλυκύς (GE pp. 214–215, #215) and the relative pronoun (GE pp. 216–219, # 216–219). It is worth mastering this material very thoroughly. δίδωμι, of which GE says comfortingly that ‘there is little here that is difﬁcult to recognise’, is the valuable gateway to a family of verbs which end in -μι.
1 ἥ Your ﬁrst relative pronoun: feminine because it goes with Lysistrata, nominative because it is the subject of the verb in its clause. 3 καταλύσασαι What part of the verb is this? Women are the subject of the sentence. 5 ἴδοιμι From ὁράω. The second aorist is εἶδον, the aorist stem is ἰδ- and this is the aorist optative. 6–7 καὶ Κλεονίκη … κἀμοί = καὶ ἐμοί; what does καί mean in both these phrases? 8 οὔσαις What part of the verb? It’s a participle, and we are still talking about women. οἵ What gender, what case? Why? See GE p. 216, #216. Note that in the nominative case m.s., f.s., and pl. the relative pronoun has an accent, whereas the article has none. 11 ἀναγκάσειν What inﬁnitive? Cf. ἀναγκάζειν. 12 λέξον Aorist imperative from λέγω. ἔλεξα is an alternative form for the aorist. ἐκεῖνο ὅ Literally ‘that which’. 15 τῶν ἀϕροδισίων Cf. Aphrodite, the goddess of sex, and ‘aphrodisiac’. 16 οὕς You have now met seven forms of the relative pronoun. Learn it (GE p. 216, #216). 19 ποιήσαιμι We now meet the ﬁrst aorist optative. Note that -σαι- is a characteristic element of this. Contrast with -οι- in the present optative (and in
the second aorist optative – see GE pp. 210–211, #212 and cf. ἴδοιμι in line 5 on this page). Don’t overlook the ἄν. ἑρπέτω What part of the verb is this? See GE pp. 197–198, #206–207. 20 κέλευσον If you cannot recognise this, see GE p. 189, #198 . 21 ἐθελήσαιμι 1st person singular aorist optative. Note the ἄν. μᾶλλον … ἤ ‘rather than …’ 25 ποιήσειας Which part of the aorist optative is this? (GE p. 210, #212).
27 ποιήσειε Which part of the aorist optative is this? 29–30 συμψηϕίσαιο, σώσαιμεν Look at the aorist optatives active and middle of παύω (GE pp. 210–212, #212) and learn them. Note that the endings of the second aorist optative are identical with those of the present optative. 31 ναὶ τὼ σιώ This is a particularly Spartan oath. ‘The Two’ are Castor and Pollux, the divine brothers of Helen of Troy, who were born in Sparta to Leda in an egg, as the result of her liaison with Zeus in the guise of a swan.
Translation for 10A
Lysistrata, who is an Athenian woman, comes forward and speaks. Do you hope, women, to bring the war to an end with me? For you know well that once we have brought the war to an end we shall see peace again. MYRRHINE (Myrrhine, who is a friend of Lysistrata, agrees.) By the gods, I would gladly see peace after bringing the war to an end. KLEONIKE (Kleonike, who is another friend, also agrees.) To me also it seems a good idea to bring the war to an end. But how is this possible for us, women that we are? Do you have some plan? For it is necessary that the men, who ﬁght the battles, should bring the war to an end and make a treaty. LYS. Let me speak. For one mustn’t keep silent. But, women, if we are going to force the men to make peace, we must refrain from … ΜYR. From what? What is the plan? Say what you have in mind. LYS. So will you do what I order? ΜYR. We shall do everything you tell us to. LYS. Then we must refrain from sex. All the women, after hearing the words which Lysistrata says, begin to go away. LYS. Where are you going? Why are you weeping? Will you or won’t you do what I order? Or what do you intend? ΜYR. I couldn’t do what you say, Lysistrata; instead let the war take its course. KLE. By Zeus, I won’t either; instead let the war take its course. Order me to go through ﬁre. I would be willing to do that rather than to refrain from sex. For nothing is like sex, my dear Lysistrata. I won’t do it – no way. LYS. What about you then? Would you do what I tell you?
LAMPITO LYS. ΜYR.
I too would be willing to go through ﬁre. No, by Zeus, I would not do it. Oh how totally lascivious is all of our sex! Will no one do what I propose? But, my dear Spartan, would you vote with me? For if so, we might still save the whole business. By the two gods, it’s difﬁcult for us to sleep without sex. But we must bring the war to an end and have peace. I would vote with you. Ο you my dearest friend and the only true woman among them. Then if these things seem good to you, they seem a good idea to us too.
2 πεῖσαι What part of the verb? GE pp. 187–188, #195–196. Triremes and the silver to ﬁnance them were the basis of Athenian naval power. 5–6 αὐτῷ τῷ ἀργυρίῳ ‘with silver and all’. The Athenian reserves of silver were kept in the treasury on the Acropolis. 9 τῆς θεοῦ Don’t worry about the apparently masculine ending of θεοῦ. The word θεός can refer either to a god or to a goddess. 16 ὡς ‘to’, ‘towards’, normally only with persons. 21 ἔγνω The paradigm for this aorist (of γιγνώσκω) is in GE p. 201, #209. Learn it. 22 ᾤμωξε Take the augment out of this (so that ω becomes ο) and put the iota subscript back above the line (οἰ-). You should then be able to identify the word. 24 γνῶναι The aorist inﬁnitive of γιγνώσκω, GE p. 201, #209. 27 συνοικεῖς This is the normal word for a man and woman living together in marriage.
Translation for 10B
So we shall persuade our husbands and force them to make peace. In what way will you be able to persuade your men, who have the triremes and the silver? By money or gifts or by doing what? LYSISTRATA Oh, but we have prepared this well too, because today we shall take the Acropolis, by seeming to be sacriﬁcing. Having taken it we shall guard it, money and all. Suddenly Lampito hears a shout and, having heard it, she speaks to Lysistrata. LAM. Who shouted? Who was responsible for the shout? LYS. This is what I was talking about. For the old women, who had to take the Acropolis of the goddess, now hold it. But, Lampito, you go off home and put affairs among you [Spartans] in good order, while we go into the Acropolis, which the old women have just taken, and guard it. Lampito, going away, walks along the road which leads to Sparta, while the other women go into the Acropolis and guard it. Suddenly Lysistrata shouts having spotted a man who is approaching. LYS. Oh, oh, women! Come here to me quickly. KLEONIKE What is it? Tell me, what is the shout?
KIN. so Kinesias’ condition would be clear for all to see. #131. δίδωμι now makes many appearances. 13–14 oἱ θεοί. I do recognise him. aorist imperative from ἐκ-καλέω. It’s your job now to trick and love and not to love this man who you live with.
. Does Kleonike speak the truth? Have you recognised the man? For to me as well you seem to recognise the man. Lysistrata. LYS. 27 τοῦτ᾽ ἂν διδοίην You should be able to work out that this is an optative and to guess what verb it comes from. 7 ἀνὴρ δῆτα ‘Indeed I am a man. LYS. 30 νὴ τὴν Ἀϕροδίτην Who else would she swear by?
54 οἷον τὸ τεκεῖν ‘What it is to be a mother!’.
Oh. It’s clear. Comic actors wore a padded costume with a large phallus attached. Look. 134–136.
2 σπασμός GE gives ‘discomfort’. he laments.’ Kinesias conﬁrms the obvious. 12 πρὸς ἑαυτὸν λέγων ‘speaking to himself’. MYR.
I see a man approaching. that Myrrhine has recognised him. Look. literally ‘What a thing it is to bear a child!’
Translation for 10C
The old women go away while Kinesias arrives. 18 ἐκ-κάλεσον ‘call out’. I’ll join you in tricking him by waiting here after sending away the old women whose job it is to guard the Acropolis. Does any one of you recognise the man who is approaching? MYRRHINE My god! KLE. For he is Kinesias.) Who is this man who has forced his way through the guards without our noticing? It’s me. Learn GE pp. Speak. a man. Remember the reﬂexive ἑαυτόν or αὑτόν. MYR. For after seeing him and recognising him she cried ‘My god!’ LYS. 26 The gift of an apple could be an erotic token. Presumably Kinesias’ problem was a massive erection. poor me. 22 εὐξαμένῳ Agrees with μοι: ‘to me having prayed’. οἷς εὔχομαι … ‘the gods to whom I pray …’ δώσουσι ‘will grant’. By Zeus. I shall do these things. whose wife I am. and as he approaches.140
LYS. Myrrhine. what discomfort tortures me! (Speaking from the wall.
For we too know your name well. Then go and call her. Who are you. (Again he addresses Lysistrata. What it is to be a mother. I’ll go down and call her for you. ΜYR. [Yes] by Aphrodite. Her husband.’ KIN. call her. to whom I am praying. with whom she lives. (She goes down from the wall. You there. but listen to our baby at any rate. LYS.) KIN.) It’s clear that I must. to whom I give this. KIN. ΜYR. KIN. In that case I do pity it. Who are you? KIN.) By the gods. I’ll give you something. won’t you call mummy? BABY Mummy mummy mummy. My god! (Speaking to himself.’ KIN. Hello.) You there. for the sake of our baby. I have this. Myrrhine baby. By Zeus. Taking an apple. dearest Kinesias. A guard. Quickly. why are you doing this? Come down with all haste and come here.
. I’ll go away instead.
Are you a man? KIN. (Speaking to himself. the gods have granted that I can see Myrrhine. What then? Will you give me something? KIN. LYS. KIN. your wife said. am I the man to whom Myrrhine wants to give apples? LYS. LYS. Indeed.) Don’t you call me to him. when some discussion concerning men arose. she says. Oh by the gods. which a servant carries. will grant that I can see my wife. For I don’t want to go down. Well then. my dear lady. I must go down. a man. who are chucking me out? LYS. By Zeus. Yes. KIN. So you. LYS. Kinesias of the deme Paionis.Section 10C
LYS. Perhaps the gods. (He gives what he has in his hand to Lysistrata. Don’t go away. (The man prays. which is unwashed? ΜYR. KIN. grant that I may see my wife. For you are always on your wife’s lips. (He speaks to the baby.) Hurrah! Because I’ve prayed. ‘How gladly would I give this to Kinesias. MYRRHINE (Inside.) Ο all you gods. Lysistrata. Won’t you get the hell out of here then? KIN. pray to all the gods. Come down then. I won’t.) LYS. So what I have I give you. what’s up with you? Don’t you pity the baby. ‘I consider Kinesias the best of all. unlucky as I am. call Myrrhine out here now. even yesterday.
For γλυκύς cf. You love me? So why don’t you lie down? You silly fellow. and don’t stretch out your hand to me. in front of the baby? [You’re right] by Zeus. you vilest of men.142
3ff. The servant. ‘incline’. Child. I shan’t allow you to lie down on the ground despite the state you’re in. τοιαύταις ‘by such women’. #215).
MYR. βαδιοῦμαι. ‘recline’. ‘glucose’. Manes. By Apollo. Many -ιζω verbs have futures of this type. so won’t you lie down? But where should one do this? For ﬁrst I must bring a little couch. (She goes out. or ‘having been persuaded by’. MYR. coming down and reaching the gate. I ﬁnd fault with your father since he’s uncaring. since it is possible for us to lie down on the ground. you bad woman. Not at all. as in the next line. Look. KIN. but you do not have a sweet father. Come. he speaks.
Translation for 10D
Myrrhine. 15 βαδιῇ (What part of the verb is this?). This one is middle. MYR. Before I do. 13 παῦσαι The context will tell you whether this is aorist imperative middle or aorist inﬁnitive active. Will you do this? Why won’t you lie down with me for a short time? No. γλυκύς and ἀμελής are used frequently. But do you call your husband uncaring? For there’s no one more uncaring than you and no one more unlucky than me. the baby is out of the way. goes off home. KIN. Your mother is sweet too. take the baby home. MYR. Won’t you come back home? By Zeus. the men must cease from the war and make a treaty.
. Learn these adjectives either now or at the end of this section (GE p. KIN. ὡς here means ‘that’. For your mother’s kiss is sweet. who is carrying the baby. how sweet you are. KIN. but an uncaring one.
My child. 20 ἐρῶ ‘I shall say’. KIN.
KIN. speaks to the baby.) Oh what good luck! It’s clear that my wife loves me. (Stretching out his hand to his wife. how unlucky you appear to be because of your father. 19 κατακλίνῃ Notice also κλινίδιον ‘bed’. Cf. 215. I’ll kiss you. that you do these things. And yet I won’t say that I don’t love you. obeying such women? Stop. MYR. ‘having obeyed’.) What is it that you want. I won’t go home. 11 πιθομένη Second aorist participle middle from πείθω.
57–58 τί πάσχω. Perhaps translate ‘Forget it!’ κάκιστ᾽ ἀπόλοιτο There is no ἄν with this optative. 46 διατριβῆς ‘delay’. The verb διατρίβω means ‘I wear away something’. ταχύ The neuter (singular or plural) of the adjective is often used in place of the adverb. But I don’t need one.
KIN.) Look. What kind of mattress? Don’t bother just for me. 50 ἔα From ἐάω ‘I allow’ or ‘let pass’.’ 32 ἀμέλει This is. I’m undressing. as many as I need’ (δέομαι takes the genitive). a mattress. And yet I must bring a mattress. but I need one. (After kissing her husband she goes out again. And yet you don’t have a pillow. She returns bringing a pillow. 55 ψηϕιοῦμαι See above. You should now be able to recognise the tense.e. so ‘Never mind’. but it comes to be used as if it were an adverb: ‘of course’. Let me kiss you instead. 35 ἡ ἄνθρωπος This is a derogatory expression here. jump up. and ὦ ϕίλτατε should help you to recognise the person. Present followed by future. so it must express a wish.Section 10E
11 προσκεϕάλαιον How does this word come to mean ‘pillow’?
17 ἀνίστασο ‘stand up’. ‘waste time’ and thus ‘delay’. 53 ψηϕιεῖ From ψηϕίζομαι. Look. ‘May he perish most wretchedly. There.
40 μυριῶ Future of μυρίζω. (She goes out again. strictly speaking. ‘Now I’ve got everything I want. hence ‘I spend time’. 19 Literally ‘Now I have all things. i. Why don’t you lie down? And indeed I’m undressing. an imperative of ἀμελέω.) Stand up. who ﬁrst …’ 52 νὴ τὴν Ἄρτεμιν An ominous change of oath from the goddess of love to the virgin huntress. She comes back very quickly bringing a mattress.
. goddess of chastity. ‘quickly’.
Myrrhine returns bringing a little couch.
Translation for 10E
MYRRHINE KINESIAS ΜYR. τί πείσομαι. By Zeus. ΜΥR.
Everything? Come here then. By Zeus. σώσειεν ποιοῖεν. 2.
Now learn GE p. the wife will destroy me. The myrrh which you have given me is not pleasant. ἀπόσχοιντο
. Notice that both parts of ὅστις decline. KIN. You have met them a few times. my dearest husband. KIN. For I’m coming back quickly.
I’ve now got everything I need. Shall I anoint you with myrrh? By Apollo. I’ll do this. Stretch out your hand and take what I shall give you and anoint yourself. 3. KIN. For it smells of delay. KIN. #219 to master two further forms of the relative pronoun. Poor me. Myrrhine returns bringing a blanket. ποιήσειαν ἀπέχοιντο. What’s going on here? The wife’s gone off and left me. Look. (She goes out. may I die [if I cheat you].) You don’t have a blanket. my dear lady. will you vote to make a treaty? I’ll vote. Hang on. Myrrhine baby. KIN. By Aphrodite. KIN. Of course you’ll do this. I don’t need one. ὅσπερ and ὅστις. MYR. But. MYR. But take care not to cheat me over the treaty which we recently discussed. ΜYR. but I want to screw you. ΜYR.
Exercises for section 10
ΜYR.) The creature will kill me with her blankets. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 10
AORIST OPTATIVE 10: 1
1. Oh dear. I shall do this. May the man who ﬁrst made myrrh die very horribly. but it doesn’t smell of marriage. Myrrhine runs away.
he saved they make/do they refrained from
σῴζοι. By Zeus. not me. Good. Now I’m untying my sash. 219. Let it be. Who shall I screw now? Alas! I’m the unluckiest man alive. (Suddenly she stops undressing. ΜYR. KIN. what am I suffering? What shall I suffer? Oh dear. I’m undoing my shoes at any rate.144
KIN. I’ve brought the myrrh from Rhodes. But lie down and don’t bring me anything. by Artemis. ΜYR. KIN. MYR. Now I’ll love you.
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 10: 5
he ﬁnishes we lived together I voted we cease you compelled he blamed I ﬂee
καταλύοι. ἅ. to give (pres. γλυκεῖς μάρτυρες τῶν ἀμελῶν. αἷστισι(ν) ἅς. giving (f. 2. γλυκεῖς φύλακας τῆς ἀμελοῦς. παυσαίμεθα ἀναγκάζοις. 8. ἀναγκάσειας μέμφοιτο.
who whom whose to whom whom who (those) whom whose
ὅς. ἅττα ὧν. 6. δώσεσθαι
1. you (s. 7. 2. γλυκέων υἱέων
7. ἅς. βραχείας ἀληθῆ. 6. δούς 8. οὕστινας. pres. 4. give! 7. 5.) giving (m. pres. δοῖτο 10.
you were giving he/she gives he/she gave to give (aor. ἔδοτε
ἀμελής and γλυκύς 10: 4
6. βραχεῖς ἀληθῶν. γλυκέα παίδια τοῖς ἀμελέσι. καταλύσειεν συνοικοῖμεν. ἅστινας οἵ. 4.s.
ἀληθεῖς. 4. συνοικήσαιμεν ψηφιζοίμην. ψηφισαίμην παυοίμεθα. ἅστινας. 5. they were giving
δίδωμι 10: 2
1.) 10. participle) 8. γλυκείας μητρός τὰ ἀμελῆ. 3. ὅτων
. ὅστις οὕς. 5. ἧστινος αἷς. ὧντινων. δώσομαι 7. 2. βραχέα ἀληθέσι. δώσουσι 5. ἔδοτο 2. δότε. δώσεται 3.) will give 9. οἵτινες οὕς.
τοὺς ἀμελεῖς.Exercises for section 10
4. οὕστινας ἧς. βραχέσι ἀληθεῖς. μέμψαιτο φεύγοιμι. γλυκέσιν ἀμφοτέροις οἱ ἀμελεῖς. δώσετε 9. 3. s. 7. 10. δοίη 4. part. 8. 9. 6. βραχεῖς ἀληθοῦς. 5.
b. προσαγορεύσαις I would gladly give up the war. e. ὧντινων. ὅτι. c. repayment (antidote)
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
Revision exercises for section 10
9. ὅτι ἅ. d. c. Myrrhine? δίδως Suddenly giving (aorist participle) the woman the money which she demanded. αἵ εἰσιν ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλει. δούς a. ὧν. ἴδοιμι Will you give me what you have? δώσεις He was giving the money to the woman. c.
uncaring I give a gift a scheme zeal. busy a living together. contrive I am zealous. The women are shouting. ἅτινα. παυσαίμην We should like to make a truce with great eagerness. 2. haste I live with a wall
it concerns I give back the gift. marriage I fortify
the act of giving (dose) I give a present. ὧντινων. The men do not in any way want to end the war. b. ἐθελήσαιμεν I could not do this. ᾧ.
3. bribe I plan. βαδίζει πρὸς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν. d. The men are ﬁghting the battles. ὧν. what
a. ποιήσαιμι I could see the city. important
giving in return. ὃς ἀνήρ ἐστι Μυρρίνης. a. ᾗτινι 2. αἱ γυναῖκες. Mother. ᾧτινι. ᾗ. βοῶσιν. the man went away. ὅτων REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 10
1. ἐδίδoυ Why are you not willing to give me what I ask for? διδόναι Why are you giving me this apple. ὧν. ἅτινα.
You could speak to me. Κινησίας. ὧντινων. Kinesias is the husband of Myrrhine. ὅτων 4. ἅ. I bribe eager. ἅττα ὅ. ἅττα
1. Kinesias goes to the Acropolis. b.
. what 10. ὅτῳ 5. e. ὅτων 3. The women are on the Acropolis.
h. 1. ἆρα γιγνώσκεις τὸν ἄνδρα ὃς προσέρχεται. The women want to hear the words. ἆρ᾽ οὐδεὶς ἀναγκάσει τοὺς ἄνδρας παύεσθαι τοῦ πολέμου. 5. i. 4. ΛΑΜΠΙΤΩ ἀλλὰ δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰρήνην ἄγειν. ἆρα αἱ γυναῖκες ἀϕέξονται τῶν δώρων ἃ oἱ ἄνδρες δώσουσιν αὐταῖς. We must keep peace. σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι. ΛYΣ. ἀμελεῖς ὄντες. ποῦ αἱ γρᾶες ὧν τὸ ἔργον ἐστὶ ϕυλάττειν τὰ χρήματα. Where are the old women? It is their task to guard the money.
oἱ ἄνδρες. οὗτοι οἱ ϕύλακες. 2. καὶ πεῖσον τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους. ἰδού. Do you recognise the man? The man is approaching. δός μοι τὴν χεῖρα. ἀλλὰ πῶς (τίνι τρόπῳ) ἔξεστιν ἡμῖν. ἆρ᾽ ἐστὶν ἥτις ποιήσει ἃ κελεύω. e. τὸν πόλεμον καταλυσάσας. οὐκ ἐθέλoυσιν οὐδαμῶς τὸν πόλεμον καταλῦσαι. παυσάσας τοὺς ἄνδρας οἳ τὰς μάχας μάχονται. καὶ πίθεσθε. ἀλλ᾽. αἱ γρᾶες μηχανὴν μηχανῶνται ᾗπερ τὰ τείχη λήψονται. γυναιξὶν οὔσαις. καταλῦσαι τὸν πόλεμον. ποῦ ἐστι Κινησίας οὗ Μυρρίνη ἐστὶν ἡ γυνή. ἀκούετε οὖν τοὺς λόγους οὓς λέγω. νὴ Δία. δεῖ τοίνυν ἡμᾶς ἀπέχεσθαι πάσας τῶν ἀϕροδισίων. ΛYΣ. g. 3. αἱ γυναῖκες ἐθέλoυσιν ἀκούειν τοὺς λόγους οὓς λέγει Λυσιστράτη. ποιεῖν ἃ ἐθέλομεν.
. δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰρήνην ἄγειν ἣ αἰτία ἐστὶ πολλῶν καλῶν. The old women hold the Acropolis. τοῦτο ποιεῖν. ἐγὼ οὖν συμψηϕιοῦμαί σοι. αἱ γρᾶες ἔχουσι τὴν ἀκρόπολιν ἃς ἐγὼ ἰδεῖν δύναμαι. ΛΑΜ. ΚΛΕΟΝΙΚΗ οὐδ᾽ ἐγώ. ἣν ἐν νῷ ἔχω. Where is Kinesias? Myrrhine is his wife. ἄπιθι δῆτα πρὸς τὴν Λακεδαίμονα. αἳ γυναῖκές ἐσμεν (γυναιξὶν οὔσαις). χαλεπὴ οὖσα τυγχάνει ἡ μηχανὴ. οὐδεμίᾳ σπουδῇ ϕυλάττουσιν. δεῖ ἡμᾶς.Revision exercises for section 10
d. I can see the old women. Peace is the cause of many good things. ΛYΣ. ΛΑΜ. oἳ τὰς μάχας μάχονται. ΛYΣ. ὧν τὸ ἔργoν ἐστὶ μάχεσθαι. ΜYΡΡΙΝΗ οὐ ποιήσω τοῦτο οὐδαμῶς. καὶ πείσομεν τοὺς ἄνδρας. j. ἆρα ποιησαιτ᾽ ἂν ἃ κελεύω. f. ΓYΝΗ κἀγὼ δὴ ἐθελήσαιμ᾽ ἄν. εὐθὺς δ’ ἄπειμι. 2. εἰπέ μοι ἃ ἐν νῷ ἔχεις. ΓYΝΑΙΚΕΣ ποιήσαιμεν ἄν.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. ΛYΣ. What is this? What do you want to say? τί ἐστι τοῦτο ὃ ἐθέλεις λέγειν. Lysistrata speaks the words. ὦ ϕίλη Λαμπιτώ. δοκεῖ ἡμῖν.
LAC. and I have just come from Sparta about peace. and end the war. which they themselves will tell us to make. ATH. I would gladly tell you.148
Revision exercises for section 10
F – TEST EXERCISE 10
Where is the Athenian Council? I would like to report something new. Therefore. by the twin gods. you who have the same altars and the same sacriﬁces? Why do you destroy Greek men and cities. Listen to the words which I speak. from what you say. ATH. therefore. & ATH. by the twin gods. who alone could make a treaty for us? For we too have suffered this evil. ATHENIAN Who are you who come here to the wall. having heard what we were saying. who came back from Athens and persuaded the women to refrain from sex. I am really suffering severely. coming. make a treaty and end the war. by the twin gods! Who could tell us where Lysistrata is? ATH. for here she is herself. LYSISTRATA Come. For a great evil has befallen us. Why are you ﬁghting now in this way. men. ATH. we must obey the women and make the truce. Yes. ATH. and why do you not cease from your nastiness. But what is happening in Lacedaemonia? Could you say? LAC. LAC. And yet we ask for no other gift than to be able to make love. I know what you mean. Why then don’t we call Lysistrata. but I have sense. What is this thing of yours which you have got in your hands? LAC.
. And then let each one take his own wife and go off home. walking with such great eagerness? LAC. I am a woman. And how are you getting on? You are suffering severely. and Lampito is responsible. ‘to whom it is possible …’) to see peace and to be friends and allies? LAC. All of you. It is a Spartan code-staff. there is no need for us to call her. I am a herald. LYS. when instead of this it is possible for you (lit. Oh.
ἥγω or ἥχω. #221 will be useful. Aristophanes’ comedy Akharnians tells us much about Athenian politics and the feelings of the countrymen of Attica cooped up inside the city during the Peloponnesian War. each tribe having a spell of providing these presidents. ἥκω. #226. οὑτοιί See note on line 2 about the extra demonstrative. 92. the genitive absolute (GE p. GE p. ἀ-θάνατος. #227).Section Eleven: Aristophanes’ Akharnians
There is relatively little grammatical input in this section. ἐρῆμος Why no feminine ending? It’s a two-termination adjective. 5 σχοινίον A rope with vermilion dye was swept across the agora to push people towards the Pnyx (the hill on which the ecclesia was held). you will ﬁnd ἥκω ‘I come’. 91. 227. The ten tribes between them subdivided the year into ten parts. To ﬁnd out what the present stem is. 10 The Prytaneis: ‘presidents’ acting as chairmen for the meetings of the assembly. If you now check with the vocabulary or a dictionary. and therefore touched by the rope. εὐ-δόκιμος) mostly fall into this category. The concept of the passive will present no problem to Latinists. Section 8A line 25 and the map on RGT p.
1 κυρία ἐκκλησία See RGT p. 228. The Assembly itself was proclaimed by a trumpet call. 231. 13 ἐντὸς τοῦ καθάρματος A puriﬁcation ceremony was held before each meeting of the βουλή and the ἐκκλησία.
. it has no separate feminine ending. Cf. ἥξουσιν This is a future tense. 226–227. i. 2 ἡ Πνὺξ αὑτηί αὑτηί is the extra demonstrative form. any citizen arriving with vermilion dye. #220). Compound adjectives (e. could be ﬁned for arriving late.g. 230–231. See GE pp. It involved the sacriﬁce of a pig. 229–230. #225) and the optative of ϕημί (GE p.e. which are the same as the middle. #222). remove the ς from the ξ and you will be left with three possibilities. comparative adverbs (GE pp. οὑτοσί. as well as a number of other adjectives. It holds out a tantalising vision of peace. You learn the present and imperfect tenses passive (GE pp.
‘when all had come forward’.e. Who wishes to speak? AMP (Again he addresses the herald.150
14 παρελθόντων … πάντων The genitive absolute – see GE pp. So don’t listen to this man unless he speaks about war. HER. Amphitheos. The prytaneis will come in late. Who are you? AMP. As Amphitheos waits he continues his proclamation. but an immortal whom the gods have ordered to make a treaty with the Spartans. It occurs mainly in stage directions in this section and is thoroughly revised in Section 12. 26 Amphitheos claims to be a god. that I am well disposed to the people. hired by the state.
Translation for 11A
But what’s this? For I know that the sovereign assembly is going to be held today. The men in the agora are talking to each other as they run from the rope all over the place. When all have come forward. Come forward inside the puriﬁed place.
. But nobody thinks how peace will happen.) I do. But here are the prytaneis coming in late. I don’t have the travelling expenses which I need.) Come forward to the front. This is precisely what I was saying. But the Pnyx here is empty. Athenians. Don’t worry too much about this construction. So I hope to receive the travelling expenses … A SPEAKER Know well. and on my own I look out to the country. but the herald doesn’t answer. One of their duties was keeping order in the ἐκκλησία. i. I know it well. 31 oἱ τοξόται ‘the bowmen’: these were Scythian mercenaries. #222–223 – ‘all having come forward’. For the prytaneis don’t give them to me. i. i. HERALD (He makes a proclamation. ‘since Amphitheos stays there’.e. Not a man? AMP. But I always come into the assembly and sit down ﬁrst. loving peace but hating the city and longing for my own deme. but he complains that the prytaneis are not granting him his travel expenses. gentlemen. No. HER. 18 μένοντος … Ἀμϕιθέου Another genitive absolute – ‘Amphitheos remaining’. 228–229.e. who obeyed the orders of the state executives. AMPHITHEOS Has anyone spoken yet? Amphitheos waits. HER. suddenly someone called Amphitheos addresses the herald. All those present come forward to the front. ‘as they lead him away’. 32 ἀπαγόντων … αὐτῶν ‘them leading him away’. But since I’m an immortal. The Athenians praise this and raise a clamour.
’ The verbs are passives. ἀπολλύμενοι Present passive participle of ἀπόλλυμι: ‘being destroyed by …’ The datives here mean ‘by’ (dative of instrument). 12 ἔστω ‘so be it’. 22 ἐξισταμένοις What verb?: Hint: -στα-. 170. 4 ‘For we are always being deceived and wronged and ruined by them. 33 πρεσβεύεσθε. #187. meaning ‘by’ when it is a person. 23ff. the opposite of ἕκοντες. Dikaiopolis becomes angry.
Archers! The archers come in and lead off Amphitheos. but the structure is clear: γνούς (a participle. 25 μοι This is an ethic dative. Learn GE p. By Apollo. Shut up and sit down. you wrong the assembly by leading off the man who was going to make a treaty for us. 231. or with the dative when it is a thing. διαϕθειρόμενος These are passive participles: the ﬁrst one means ‘being persuaded’. ἀπόλοιντο in line 4). ‘realising’) followed by acc.
. but you do business about peace. This is quite a complicated looking sentence.Section 11B
HER. 6–7 πειθόμενος. then a genitive absolute τῶν ἄλλων πολεμούντων. and οὐκ ἀναγκαζόμενον … ποιεῖν ἃ μὴ ἐθέλω. 31 δούς. 14 ἄκοντες ‘unwilling’. ἀλλ᾽ εἰρήνην ἄξω (future of ἄγω). sometimes called the dative of the person concerned. Prytaneis. Write out this sentence in English with the verbs in the active beginning with ‘For they …’ At this stage all passives are used with ὑπό + gen. As they are leading him off. χρηματίζετε Indicative or imperative? 36 δεῖται + genitive = ‘needs’. I won’t. ἐκδικάζετε. and participle (twice) ἐμαυτὸν … ὄντα. θωπευόμενος. 5 ἀδικουμένοις Passive participle: ‘being wronged’. 28. #227. HER. GE p. then the main clause ἐγὼ … οὐ πολεμήσω. ἐξαπατώμενος. HER.(cf. What verb? Note that there is no ἄν with the optative and therefore this is a wish. 13ff. τοῦ Δικαιοπόλεως δόντος Note the aorist participles of δίδωμι. What do the others mean? 10 ϕαίη Optative of ϕημί.
1 ὄλοιντο Note the stem ὀλ. You could translate it ‘please tell me’. DIK. The ambassadors from the king.
DIK. A further statement of Pericles’ policy at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War.
‘And yet the sailors have power in the assembly while the farmers are forced against their will to live in the city. Realising that I am free and not being forced by anyone to do what I don’t want to. where is Amphitheos? AMPHITHEOS Here I am.’ Perhaps this man might answer ‘But aren’t you free? So don’t worry at all. DIK. then. For in this city nobody is ever forced by anyone to do what he doesn’t want. while the others are making war.’ All right. so be it. their lack of provisions and the plague. either about the people or the speakers or the war or the written or unwritten laws. You deal with ambassadors. Amphitheos goes away. Amphitheos. then make judgements. then do business about the war and about ways of raising money and about making laws and about allies and about triremes and about dockyards and about sacriﬁces. If they want to be deceived and persuaded and ﬂattered by the speakers. I myself shall not make war but shall live in peace.
. nor great numbers nor great size. But the city needs neither triremes nor dockyards if it is going to be happy. After Dikaiopolis has given him the travelling expenses. But perhaps someone may say. and the worst death of all to those speakers who ﬂatter the people and always deceive them. but the good man who gives good advice is never honoured by them.
Amphitheos is now back from Sparta. For what do we farmers not suffer at their hands? For we are always being deceived and wronged and ruined by them. (Giving to Amphitheos eight drachmas. ‘So what? The people are free and rule themselves and are not ruled by any other. without peace.152
Translation for 11B
Death to all the Athenians who praise and obey what the prytaneis say. But please. But what can we do when we are always being wronged by them in this way? For the people seem to enjoy being persuaded by the speakers and being ﬂattered and cheated and ruined by their words.) You take these eight drachmas and make a treaty with the Spartans for just me and my children. angry old men eager to go on with the war because their vineyards are being burnt by the Spartans. who as they go along the roads love to bump into the travellers who don’t get out of their way.’ But I answer. being destroyed by the way they live. come here. For the man who says ‘I am well disposed to the crowd’ is always honoured by the people. He is being hotly pursued by Akharnians. I consider utterly free the horses and the mules in the city.
What is it? DIK. ‘when Dikaiopolis had said this …’ 9 Genitive absolute. (Giving him another sample. But are you bringing the treaty? AMP. Amphitheos. In Akharnians Dikaiopolis emerges from his house leading his family in a mini-procession of the Rural Dionysia. Learn the comparative and superlative adverbs. ‘the Spartans having destroyed our land’. we often have to supply a word (e. The central feature was a procession bearing a phallus to promote the fertility of the autumn-sown crops. 23 ὀξύτατα Superlative adverb. DIK. AMP.
26 The Rural Dionysia was a festival held in winter. ‘although the Spartans have wrecked our land’. ‘although’) in English and create a clause. DIK. Amphitheos keeps running. 229–230. Note how.
Translation for 11C
But here’s Amphitheos back from Sparta. 9–10 λίθους δὲ λαβόντων αὐτῶν See note above. #225. in the genitive absolute construction. ‘since’. Let them shout. But I didn’t evade the Akharnians. I was hurrying here bringing a treaty for you. Take it and taste. ‘You foulest of creatures. all shouted.) Yuk! AMP. What’s up? AMP. Greetings. And when they took up stones.e. being ﬁghters at the battle of Marathon. I’ll say. i. It smells too – very pungently of ambassadors to the cities. For I must ﬂee and escape from the Akharnians. DIK. DIK. then.g. (He gives him one sample.) You take this ten-year treaty instead and taste it.
. are you bringing a treaty when the Spartans have destroyed our land?’ And they took up stones. AMPHITHEOS Not yet. ‘when’. Here are three samples. (After Amphitheos has given it him.) This is for ﬁve years. But here is a thirty-year peace by both land and sea. Those old men. But they were following me and shouting. the moment they spotted me bringing the treaty. Dikaiopolis. Dikaiopolis tastes it. GE pp. It doesn’t please me because it smells of equipping of ships.Section 11C
2 Δικαιοπόλεως δὲ ταῦτα εἰπόντος Genitive absolute. Though Dikaiopolis has said this. I ran away. AMP. ‘most sharply’. What English word should we supply here? 11 βοώντων GE #206–207.
ἐξεφέρετο ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. κατελύετο it is/was being ended διώκονται. ἐκωλυόμεθα ὑπὸ τοῦ διδασκάλου. τῷ τείχει. 4. 9. (Seeing the Akharnians approaching. by the wall. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. 2. ἐδίδοτο he is/was being given ἀναγκάζομαι. they were loved by the herald. ἐξηγόμεθα we are/were being driven out
1. with the words.
ἡμῶν φυγόντων εἰς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν τῶν ῥητόρων ἀκουσάντων τῶν λόγων
. ἤρχοντο they are/were being ruled ἐλευθερούμεθα. this smells of ambrosia and nectar. ἠναγκαζόμην I am/was being compelled καταλύεται. ἐδιώκοντο they are/were being pursued ἐξαγόμεθα. but the important thing is that agents (people) are in the genitive with ὑπό. it was carried out by the men. 3. ἐτιμᾶσθε you (pl. by the men. 5. without a preposition. 6.
Ο festival of Dionysos. 10. I’ll choose this with the greatest pleasure. we were prevented by the teacher. τῇ ἀληθείᾳ.
GENITIVE ABSOLUTE 11: 3
Exercises for section 11
AMP. 4. ἐφυλαττόμην ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων. it is announced by the herald. They are persuaded by the arguments. 8.
ἐφιλοῦντο ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος. ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνδρῶν. κηρύττεται ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 11
THE PASSIVE 11: 1
1. by the guards. by the men.B.) are/were being loved ἄρχονται. 2. ἐφιλοῦ you (s. 5.) are/were being honoured δίδοται. 6.
κηρύττεται. There are a number of possible answers in this exercise.154
DIK. while instruments are translated by the dative alone. 3. I was guarded by the guards.) And I’ll run away from the Akharnians. ἠλευθερούμεθα we are/were being freed τιμᾶσθε. Ceasing from war and its evils I intend to go in and celebrate the country Dionysia. bidding a long farewell to the Akharnians. ἐκηρύττετο it is/was being announced φιλῇ. ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων. 7. τοῖς λόγοις. πείθονται τοῖς λόγοις. by the truth N.
We ﬂatter the assembly with our words/speeches. e. b. ἡ πόλις ἐϕυλάττετο τοῖς τείχεσιν. The men went away. ἡ ἐκκλησία ἠδικεῖτο τοῖς λόγοις τοῖς τῶν ῥητόρων.
σοῦ δόντος ἡμῖν τὰ σῖτα τῶν δούλων ἐλευθερουμένων τῶν σοφιστῶν τοὺς νεανίσκους διδαξάντων λαβόντων τῶν Περσῶν τὰς ναῦς ἐλθόντος ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν τοῦ δώρου διδομένου τῇ γυναικί
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 11
A – WORDS
1. The gifts/bribery persuaded the people. f. 7. ἀπῆλθον. i. ἀναγκαζόμεθα σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῆς Λυσιστράτης. Lysistrata compels us to make peace. 4. b. and I went away. oἱ πολῖται πείθονται ὑϕ᾽ ὑμῶν εἰρήνην ἄγειν. The politician deceives the people. h.
. c. The orators/politicians wrong the city. 8. ἡ ἐκκλησία θωπεύεται τοῖς ἡμετέροις λόγοις. It was called the tholos. ταῖς μηχαναῖς ταῖς τῶν γυναικῶν ἠναγκάζοντο oἱ ἄνδρες σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι. a. 5.
I perceive unwilling the prytanis (see vocab. ἀπελθόντων τῶν ἀνδρῶν. but we went on towards the city. 2. j. δούσης μοι τὸ ἀργύριον τῆς γυναικός. You persuade the citizens to maintain peace.Revision exercises for section 11
3. ἐπείθετο τοῖς δώροις ὁ δῆμος. g. ἀδικεῖται ἡ πόλις ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. oἱ χρηστοὶ τιμῶνται ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου. ἡμεῖς πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐπορευόμεθα. The speeches of the politicians were unjust to / wronged the assembly. d. The people honour good men. The schemes of the women compelled the men to make a truce. 6. The walls used to guard the city. for 10A)
perception willing the prytaneion (the building in which the prytaneis lodged during their term of ofﬁce. The woman gave me the money.)
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. ἐξαπατᾶται ὑπὸ τοῦ ῥήτορος ὁ δῆμος.
Revision exercises for section 11
c. 4. γεωργοὶ ὄντες. τῶν ἄλλων πολεμούντων. ἄκοντες μὲν γὰρ ἀναγκαζόμεθα ἀκούειν τὰ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν λεγόμενα. τῆς πόλεως ἀδικουμένης ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. τοῦ θεοῦ μένοντος. 5. ἡσυχίαν ἄξομεν. i. οἱ δὲ τἀληθῆ οὐ λέξουσιν. g. οἱ πρυτανεῖς εἰσέβαινον εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν. τῆς ἐκκλησίας περὶ τοῦ πολέμου χρηματιζούσης. 3. d. ὁ Δικαιόπολις οὐδὲν ἐϕρόντιζεν. λέγειν βουλόμενοι. ὁ θεὸς ἐσίγησεν. but the god was silent. 1. f. τῶν Ἀχαρνέων λίθους λαβόντων. h. ἐγὼ οὐ πολεμήσω. oἱ δὲ οὐδενὶ ἀλλῷ ἢ ἑαυτοῖς εὐνοῖ ὄντες τυγχάνουσι. Amphitheos presented treaties.
E – TEST EXERCISE 11
This is a difﬁcult passage based on a later extract from the Akharnians when Dikaiopolis has persuaded the chorus to listen to his anti-war argument. τοῦ κήρυκος κηρύξαντος. and Dikaiopolis received them. but I shall not go to war. οὐκ ἀρέσκει μοι οὐδαμῶς τὸ πρᾶγμα. τῶν γεωργῶν πρὸς τοὺς ἀγροὺς βλεπόντων. οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι διαϕθείρουσι τὴν γῆν. The assembly is ruled by no one and the people do what they like. The Akharnians picked up (aorist) stones. I started to run away (imperfect). ἡμῶν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων ἐξαπατωμένων. ὁ Δικαιόπολις ἐδέξατο. τοῦ Ἀμϕιθέου δόντος τὰς σπονδάς. e. ὁ δῆμος ποιεῖ ἃ ἐθέλει. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι οὐ βούλονται ἀκούειν. λέγεται ὅτι οἱ ῥήτορες εὐνοῖ εἰσι τῇ πόλει. τῆς δὲ πόλεως ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν διαϕθειρομένης. ἀλλ᾽ οἱ πρυτάνεις οὑτοιὶ ἥκουσιν. 2.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. εὖ οἶσθ᾽ ὅτι οἱ ῥήτορες παρίασι. ἐγὼ ἔϕευγον. j. The city is wronged by the politicians. τῆς ἐκκλησίας ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἀρχομένης. ὁ δῆμος ἐπείθετο πολεμεῖν ὑπὸ τῶν ῥητόρων. The assembly was discussing/doing business about the war but Dikaiopolis did not care. οὐδεὶς ἑκὼν χρηματιεῖ οὔτε περὶ τούτων οὔτε περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης. ἀεὶ γὰρ λέγουσιν ὅτι ἡ πόλις ἄρχεται αὐτὴ ὑϕ᾽ αὑτῆς ϕιλουμένη ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ῥητόρων. τοῦ κήρυκος κηρύττοντος. The rest are at war. The herald made a proclamation. He also refers to an occasion when Kleon had indicted Aristophanes for abusing the
. ἡ ἐκκλησία ὑπ᾽ οὐδενὸς ἄρχεται. but the Athenians do not care. 2. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι οὐδὲν ϕροντίζουσιν. εἰς τοὺς ἀγροὺς βλέποντες. καὶ ἡκόντων αὐτῶν. ἡμεῖς δέ. but the Athenians do not want to listen. The god is waiting.
this is at the Lenaia. and we are shut up in the city against our will. if I come as a beggar and begin speaking among Athenians about the city. I hate the Lacedaemonians very much. But (for you who are here are friends) how are the Lacedaemonians responsible for these disasters? There are men among us (I do not mean the city. most particularly Pericles. a festival held in winter when few foreigners could sail to Athens. the Olympian. nor on the sea. For Kleon will not now abuse me for speaking ill of the city when strangers are present.
Don’t make a noise. May they perish. And I shall tell you terrible but just things. remember this. nor on the mainland. and no strangers are here yet. the big spring festival. For it was not pleasing to Pericles. And. we were not willing to do so.
. spectators. though the Megarians and the Lacedaemonians often asked and begged us to withdraw the decree. themselves. nor in the market. that I do not mean the city) who are responsible. even though I am taking part in a comedy. That was at the City Dionysia. who proposed the law that Megarians must not remain on land.Revision exercises for section 11
Athenian people in public when there were foreigners in the audience. For even comedy knows what justice is. being destroyed by the plague and always gazing out at our ﬁelds. For we are on our own. their wives and their children. My vineyard is being cut down by them. This was the start of the war.
15 ὄλοιο 2nd. 9 οὐκ ἤλπιζον ἐντεύξεσθαι ἐλπίζω + future inﬁnitive. A great deal of new grammar and syntax is introduced in these sections and so it is wise to do the exercises when they occur to consolidate your learning with practice. aorist optative of ὄλλυμι: ‘may you perish’. When Komias and Euergides come into the lawcourt – where they are going to judge a case about Neaira – they greet one another. And as they see one another coming in. The case is also fairly confusing. Cf. s. ‘I did not expect to meet. shaking hands.’ 9–10 Στρυμοδώρῳ … διατρίβοντι … νέῳ ὄντι καὶ ἀπείρῳ All agree. so it is well worth reading the introduction before you start. with imaginary conversations between three jurors at intervals. which ingeniously reinforce the new points of grammar and syntax that have been introduced. 11 ἐξέσται The future of the impersonal verb ἔξεστι: ‘it will be possible’. or. they immediately greet one another.
Translation for 12A
When the herald summons them the dikasts come into the courtroom. The speech throws some interesting light on the position of women in Athenian society. before you can translate them in detail. ﬁnish reading Section 12 and then go back to revise the grammar and do the exercises. if you ﬁnd that makes you lose track of the story. ‘I am about to do something’.
Section Twelve: Neaira as slave
1–2 ἄλλος ἄλλον ὡς ὁρῶσιν ἥκοντα ‘as they see one another coming’. Rhetorical Greek is often elaborately structured and you may ﬁnd that you have to analyse the sentences carefully as a whole. μέλλουσι δικάσειν μέλλω + future inﬁnitive. relative. ποῦ ‘where?’ interrogative.
.Sections Twelve–Fourteen: The prosecution of Neaira
The next three sections are taken from a lawcourt speech. 3 οὗ ‘where’.
an idiomatic use of δεινός + the inﬁnitive. Strymodoros! STRYMODOROS Greetings. Euergides. according to the oath which we swore. EU.) You. Euergides. ‘prosecutor’.
5 oὐδεν διαϕέρει ‘it makes no difference’. And indeed Apollodoros seems to himself and to many others to be beneﬁting the city and making the laws valid by bringing a charge against Neaira for being an alien. and he has a meddlesome nature. who is approaching the rostrum. Komias. will say the same things. For we must show common goodwill for the contestants and listen in the same way to the arguments which each of them uses. by Zeus. since he is a young man and without experience in judicial matters. #245). 20 καὶ προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν See above on line 16. ‘Won’t you be quiet and concentrate?’ 19 ὅπως σιωπήσεις ὅπως. Sit down. and ‘The defendant did me the greatest
. he will say. walking quickly? KOMIAS This happens to be the prosecutor in the trial. Strymodoros.
Translation for 12B
Apollodoros the prosecutor comes in. ὁ ϕεύγων = ‘the ﬂeer’. neighbours. ὁ διώκων = ‘the pursuer’. For such things are always said by the accusers. whose name is Apollodoros. A good suggestion (you speak well) and we will call him. Well done. KOM. Perhaps Apollodoros is naturally patriotic. 16 οὐκ ἂν σιγῴης καὶ προσέχοις τὸν νοῦν. as a prosecutor are very clever at speaking. And Apollodoros. EUERGIDES But it makes no difference if his nature is meddling or not. Why don’t you call him over here? It will be possible for him to sit with us. I know it well. what did you mean by holding my tunic? To hell with you! (May you perish!) EU. Oh the size of the crowd! (He is pushed by a juror who is holding his tunic. But who is that. KOMIAS And [greetings] to you too. Oh what luck! But I did not expect to meet Strymodoros spending his time in the lawcourt. ‘the defendant’. But I know that you. 260. it is indeed the man himself. ἄν + optative expresses a polite request. ‘I did not begin the enmity’. KOM.Section 12B
12 πάνυ δεινὸν λέγειν ‘very clever at speaking’. is it? Yes. What a big crowd! But who is this? It’s not really our neighbour Strymodoros. ὅπως μή + future indicative expresses a caution ‘see that you …’ (GE p.
as people do who are starting to speak.’ But I am not always persuaded by such statements. m. For I did not begin the enmity. and to come before you. ἀδικηθείς Nom.
14 ὅπως μὴ … πιστεύσεις ‘See that you don’t trust …’ (see note on 12B. 7 ἀδικηθέντες Nom. But now won’t you be quiet and concentrate? For Apollodoros is already clearing his throat.
KOM. If it has an object it will mean ‘place’. But see that you are silent too. [although] he had not been wronged in any way yet by us in word or deed.
. not only myself. s. potential ἄν + optative.
2 ἠδικήθην 1st s. καθίστημι εἰς + object means ‘I put someone into a state’. See GE p.
injustice’. Reasonably. I was placed in extreme danger. line 21. aorist passive of ἀδικέω: ‘I was wronged’ (GE pp. and ‘I want to be revenged on him. #228). genitive of ὅς. It is therefore for the sake of revenge that I am engaging in this contest. having been wronged by him. I want to give you a preliminary outline of everything we suffered and [to tell you] how. m. And having been wronged by him. #234. Some tenses are transitive and have an object. ‘set up’. Similarly. ‘I would gladly learn something. but καθίσταμαι εἰς (without an object) means ‘I get into a state’. I wanted to bring this charge against Neaira. ‘set myself up’. we were placed in extreme danger of poverty and loss of citizen rights. but my daughters and my wife. and concentrate.’
Translation for 12C
Apollodoros speaks. 3 κατέστην From the verb ἵστημι. I shall be silent. line 19). For I was greatly wronged by Stephanos whose wife this Neaira is. pl. gentlemen of Athens.160
EU. 17 ἡδέως ἄν τι μάθοιμι Cf. and he is standing up. 236–237. Euergides. aorist passive participle of ἀδικέω. 11–12 τίς γὰρ οὐκ ἂν βούλοιτο … ‘Who would not want?’ Potential expressed by ἄν + optative. having been placed in such danger. ‘be set up’.
For many reasons. which I am now pursuing. 2–3 οὗ γυνή ἐστιν … ‘Whose wife is …’ oὗ = ‘whose’. if it does not have an object it will mean ‘stand’. Strymodoros. aorist passive participle of ἀδικέω. some have not and are intransitive. but Stephanos did. 242.
247–249. 4 ὃ οὐχ οἷός τ᾽ ἦ ἐκτεῖσαι ‘Which I was not able (οἷός τ᾽ ἦ) to pay’. aorist indicative from αἰτέω. having secured a conviction against the decree. though he had never been wronged by me. Strymodoros. 9 oἳ οὐκ ἐπείσθησαν ‘who were not persuaded’. is a clever speaker. and having brought false witnesses.
3 ἑλών Nom. Therefore we were all going to be placed in poverty. but who inﬂicted a lesser penalty on me. aorist participle of αἱρέω from εἷλον. ᾔτησε 3rd s. to deprive me of my citizen rights.
Translation for 12D
When I was acting as a member of the Council I proposed a decree which I brought before the people.
19–21 ϕάσκω Στέϕανον τοῦτον συνοικεῖν … εἰσαγαγεῖν … ἐγγυᾶν … ἀσεβεῖν ‘I allege that Stephanos does …’ (a series of things in the inﬁnitive). m. Stephanos therefore became the cause of such great evils for us all. and thus began our enmity. But this Stephanos indicted my decree as illegal. The disaster and the disgrace was going to be great for me in regard to my wife and daughters if I had been bankrupted and could not provide a dowry and owed the amount of my ﬁne to the state. KOMIAS Take care that you do not easily trust the contestants. as it seems. I feel goodwill towards him because it was Stephanos who began the enmity. Aorist passive. #235–236. The grammar of this is explained later in GE pp.Section 12D
Apollodoros. s. And now with all my friends encouraging me
. I am deeply grateful to the jurors who were not persuaded by Stephanos. For he was seeking. For when they stand up in court the contestants use every art to win the goodwill of the jurors. For Apollodoros says that being wronged by Stephanos he was placed in danger of poverty. because I owed money to the state and was unable to pay. For. he asked for a large ﬁne which I could not pay. STR. What did Stephanos do to bring Apollodoros into this danger? EUERGIDES Listen. For who would not want to take vengeance on an enemy? Everyone wants to do good to their friends and harm to their enemies. But I would gladly learn something. 7–9 μοι … καταστάντι … οὐ δυναμένῳ … ὀϕείλοντι Note the agreement of all the participles with μοι. who was wronged by Stephanos. having placed me in extreme embarrassment. For Apollodoros is continuing to speak about the beginning of the conﬂict.
The verb ἵστημι ‘I set up’. I bring this case before you. act. 238–242. then go on and try the exercises to conﬁrm your understanding. See GE pp. Thus I have come to you and I declare that this Stephanos is living with a foreign woman contrary to the law. and that he has introduced alien children into the phratries and to the demesmen. Fut. Act. mid.162
and urging me to take vengeance on Stephanos. 1. Fut. That I was formerly wronged by Stephanos you know well. I set X up for myself so 1st aor. (intrans. mid. she who is irreverent to the gods.
. mid. mid. #230–233. Below is a simpliﬁed version in chart form. Imperf. 1st aor. For Stephanos was trying to deprive me of my family against the laws. mid. For my friends reproach me and call me the most cowardly of men if I do not exact vengeance on behalf of my daughters and my wife. Intransitive ἵσταμαι (ἱστάμενος) I am standing up στήσομαι (στησόμενος) I will stand up ἱστάμην I was standing up ἔστην (στάς στᾶσα στάν) I stood up
ἐστησάμην (στησάμενος) 2nd. aor. act.) has taken place of 1st aor. and that he gives in marriage the daughters of prostitutes as if they were his own daughters. this I want to prove to you clearly. Therefore I bring this Neaira before you and charge her.
You should now learn the grammar for 12A–D before you go on. 1st aor. 2nd. This is easy to recognise because of ‘θ’ but make sure you also read the notes! 2. insulting to the city and contemptuous of your laws. ἵστημι (ἱστάς) I am setting up στήσω (στήσων) I will set up ἵστην I was setting up ἔστησα (στήσας) I set up Pres. Act.. and that he is committing sacrilege against the gods. mid. It may be helpful if you look back over the passage you have just read in this section and see how it has been used. 236–237. Imperf.
The verb ἵστημι
Transitive Pres. This is difﬁcult and seems complicated at ﬁrst. by whom I was so wronged. aor. becomes transitive and ‘true’ middle. Act. The aorist passive (GE pp. act. That Neaira is an alien and that she is living with Stephanos against the laws. #228–229) indicative and participle.
ἐκωλυθήσαν ἐπέμφθημεν ἐλύθη ἐπείσθητε ἐδόθην ἐφυλάχθη ἐδιώχθης ἐγράφησαν ἐτιμήθη ἐποιήθητε
they were prevented we were sent he/she was set free you (pl. In its intransitive forms it means ‘I am put in a certain position’ or ‘I am elected’.) were persuaded I was given he was guarded you (s.g. 2.Exercises for section 12A–D
Note on καθίστημι In its transitive forms it means ‘I put someone in a certain position’.) were chased they were indicted/ written he/she was honoured you (pl. 4. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12A–D
THE AORIST PASSIVE 12A–D: 1
1. e. καταστὰς εἰς τοιοῦτον κίνδυνον … εἰς τοὺς ἐσχάτους κινδύνους κατέστημεν περί τε τῆς πενίας καὶ περὶ ἀτιμίας. ‘I become’. 2. εἰς κίνδυνον κατέστη περὶ τῆς πενίας.g. 5. 9. ‘I am made’. κατέστησα αὐτὸν εἰς πενίαν ‘I reduced him to poverty’ (‘I placed him in poverty’). 3. 8. 5.) were made
1. 146–147) εἰς κινδύνους τοὺς ἐσχάτους κατέστην.
τοὺς πολεμίους πεισθέντας τῷ δούλῳ λυθέντι τῶν χρημάτων δοθέντων αἱ γυναῖκες κελευθεῖσαι τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἀδικηθέντος
1. κατέστην εἰς πενίαν ‘I was reduced to poverty’ (‘I was placed in poverty’). τί ποιῶν ὁ Στέϕανος κατέστησε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον εἰς τοῦτον τὸν κίνδυνον. 10.
we are setting up to set up
. 4. 6. ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. 2.
3 5 8–9 17–18 18–19
12C (pp. ‘elect’. 3. 7. e.
) to a state of poverty. a. Then. 3. 8. imperative. having got up from) my fatherland. inﬁnitive active)
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12A–D
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
Apollodoros wronged me greatly and placed (κατέστησεν transitive) us all in great despair. For my daughter is getting into a state of poverty because of this case. are placing my daughters in great despair by condemning (having condemned) me.m.) in the position of loss of citizen’s rights.pl. 2. ἱστάμενοι
he/she/it stood up they were setting up for themselves. For. imperative). 2 aor.1st aor. emigrated (ἐξανέστην intrans. 9. I stood up to set up for oneself (1st aor. part.) he/it was set up he/she/it is being set up
1. part. he convicted me and asked for a large ﬁne.s. ἀνέστησαν c. I went to Megara. and being placed (καταστάς intrans.
ἵστης ἱστᾶσα ἱσταίη
you (s.) from the city. pass. 2. κατέστη b. pres. gentlemen of the jury. 5. pres. ἵσταται
to be being set up they were setting themselves up/being set up being set up (n. 7. they were being set up setting up for himself. we were setting up (if iota is long) stand up! (you pl. therefore. Therefore the Athenians move the Aeginetans from Aegina.) lying witnesses in the lawcourt. ἵστασθαι 2. reduced (καταστάς intrans. having left (ἀναστάς lit. set yourselves up they will set themselves up he set up for himself I set myself up. ἵσταντο 3.) were setting up setting up (n.164
Revision exercises for section 12A–D
3. having set up (ἀναστήσας trans.) we are setting up. being set up set up! (2. 6. 4. κατεστήσατε
1. I remained for two years. But you.s. I.f. 5.) may he set up
. 4. owing the ﬁne to the city. where. ἐστάθη 5. 10.
When I was forced to introduce the child to the clan. ἐξαπατηθεῖσι
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. ἐξαπατηθείσης d.Revision exercises for section 12A–D
d. We gave many drachmas to the old men who had been deceived by Kleon. I am well disposed towards the man who was wronged by Stephanos. 2. ὁ μὲν δικαστὴς οὐκ ἐπείσθη … ἡμεῖς δὲ κατεδικάσθημεν b. a. We. βιασθέντος e. You were greatly wronged by this man. ἐκλήθησαν they were called καλέω ἐλήϕθη he was taken λαμβάνω ἠπορήθην I was at a loss ἀπορέω κατεδικάσθητε you (pl. ἀδικηθέντα b.) were condemned καταδικάζω ἐξηλέγχθης you (s. her husband despised her. ἀπορηθέντι f. τίμημά τι μέγα ᾐτήθη ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου. a. my daughter became hostile. ἀνέστη κατέστησεν 3. My friends helped me when I lost my citizen’s rights and was in despair. This prosecutor stands up in court and terriﬁes (brings to fear) the defendant. released ἀπολύω ἀπεπέμϕθησαν they were sent away ἀποπέμπω ἐξηπατήθης you (s. The jurors were not persuaded by the defence. being persuaded by the opponent. σὺ δὲ ἠδικήθης 5. 3.) were convicted ἐξελέγχω ἐξεδόθημεν we were given in marriage ἐκδίδωμι ὑβρίσθη he was insulted ὑβρίζω διηλλάχθησαν they were reconciled διαλλάττομαι ἐγράϕην I was written γράϕω ὠργίσθητε you (pl. and I was condemned. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἔμελλε καταστήσεσθαι εἰς τὴν ἐσχάτην ἀπορίαν. ἀπελύθητε κατεδικάσθητε c. For this speech was made by the opponent. οὗτοι oἱ λόγoι ἐλέχθησαν d.) were deceived ἐξαπατάω ἐπείσθην I was persuaded πείθω 4. Since the woman had been deceived by the one who had lost his citizen’s rights.
. exacted the penalty. πεισθέντες c. But indeed it makes no difference to me if you were not acquitted but condemned.) were made angry ὀργίζομαι ἐλέχθη it was said λέγω ἐβιάσθημεν we were forced βιάζομαι κατηγορήθη he was accused κατηγορέω ἀπελύθης you were acquitted. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἠδικήθη μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου καὶ Nεαίρας.
3 ϕησὶ γὰρ ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος Followed by the accusative (τὸν Στέϕανον) and inﬁnitive (ἄρξαι) construction. STRYMODOROS Rightly. No one. of course. 247–249. All this is what you said. A series of potential optatives (‘could’ or ‘would’). but I think that perhaps Apollodoros is saying something important. But I am not persuaded by them. and that he (Apollodoros) is bringing the case for the sake of revenge …’ 6–7 ἀλλ᾽ ἡγοῦμαι … Introduces more accusative and inﬁnitive: ‘I think that Apollodoros …’ 7–9 πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ ἔϕη Ἀπολλόδωρος … καταστῆναι … οὐ δυνήσεσθαι … This time the construction is nominative and inﬁnitive with the nominative left out: ‘Apollodoros said that he (Apollodoros) had been in danger …’ 11ff. Who would not be concerned about this? STR. ὁ Στέϕανος κατέστησε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον εἰς κίνδυνον μέγαν. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἐπείσθη τιμωρεῖσθαι τὸν Στέϕανον.166
4. About poverty I would agree. ‘How could Apollodoros not be ashamed …?’
Translation for 12E
Don’t you see? This is just what I was saying. indeed. But about the laws and the gods I do not know clearly. When trustworthy evidence is brought by Apollodoros we shall ﬁnd out in detail. and then the nominative (αὐτός) and inﬁnitive (ἀγωνίζεσθαι) construction. #235–236). 5. ἄν + the optative.
This section introduces the accusative (or nominative) and inﬁnitive construction to express an indirect statement after verbs of saying and thinking (GE pp. ‘Apollodoros says that Stephanos began the enmity.
. by Zeus. The contestants always say such things. Komias. EUERGIDES These things were said by Apollodoros. Then he said that Stephanos and Neaira were contemptuous of the laws and irreverent to the gods. For ﬁrst of all Apollodoros said that he had been put in danger of poverty and loss of citizen rights. and that he would not be able to give his daughters in marriage. For how could Apollodoros not feel ashamed at having unmarried daughters? And who would marry a woman from such a father who did not have a dowry? EU. For Apollodoros says that Stephanos began the enmity and that he himself is bringing the action for revenge because he has been wronged by him. myself. But perhaps Komias would not agree? KOM.
’ They thought Stephanos not to have deceived the woman. ἡγοῦμαι ἀεὶ λέγειν τι δεινὸν τoὺς ἀντιδίκους.
2. I said that man would arrive.’ We think not to be able to see. I consider that the antagonists always say something clever. ἔϕην τὸν κατήγορον σπουδαιότατον εἶναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων. I say that the prosecutor is the most eager of men. 4.
6. I considered that the antagonists always said something clever. ἔϕη ἐμὲ εἰς μέγαν κίνδυνον καταστῆναι. ‘I will arrive. I said I would arrive. ‘That man will arrive.
. They did not think that Stephanus had deceived the woman. He says that I was placed in great danger.’
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12E
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. ϕημὶ τὸν κατήγορον σπουδαιότατον εἶναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων. 2. The antagonists always say something dreadful/clever. Stephanos introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. 3. I said that the prosecutor was the most eager of men.’ I said that man to be about to arrive. ‘Stephanos did not deceive the woman.Revision exercises for section 12E
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12E
INDIRECT SPEECH USING THE INFINITIVE 12E: 1
1. ‘He is wise. We think we cannot see. I was placed in great danger. ‘We cannot see.’ He thought him to be wise. ϕησὶν ἐμὲ εἰς μέγαν κίνδυνον καταστῆναι. ἡγούμην ἀεὶ λέγειν τι δεινὸν τoὺς ἀντιδίκους. ‘I am wise.
I said to be about to arrive.’ He thought himself to be wise. He thought he (someone else) was wise. He thought he (himself) was wise.
The prosecutor is the most eager of men.
5. ϕασὶ τὸν Στέϕανον εἰσαγαγεῖν εἰς τoὺς ϕράτερας τoὺς ἀλλοτρίους παῖδας.
4. He said that I had been placed in great danger.
And this is clear and reliable proof of this. paid many drachmas for her. But since all the money which he had paid for her had been taken by Nikarete.
2–4 ὅτι … τοῦθ’ ‘That Neaira is not only … this is what I want to prove. Who would not think that Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws? τίς οὐκ οἴεται τὴν Nέαιραν οὐκ αἰσχύνεσθαι καταϕρονοῦσαν τῶν νόμων.
Translation for 12F
Apollodoros continues. τούτων ὑμῖν αὐτὸν τὸν Φιλόστρατον μάρτυρα καλῶ ‘that (ὡς) I am speaking the truth [when I say] that (ὅτι) … I call Philostratos himself as witness to you of these things (τούτων)’. Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws. Who does not think that Neaira is not ashamed of despising the laws? 6. ‘he decided to’. She had been brought up by her from the time when she was a small child. this law which does not allow an alien woman to live with a male citizen nor a female citizen to live with an alien man. We wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. For Neaira was ﬁrst of all a slave of Nikarete in Corinth. ὅτι ….’ ὡς οὖν ἀληθῆ λέγω. whose lover. nor to have children. Now then. the sophist Lysias. you have heard the law. τίς οὐκ ἂν οἴοιτο τὴν Νέαιραν οὐκ αἰσχύνεσθαι καταϕρονοῦσαν τῶν νόμων. he decided to make her an initiate and to spend a lot of money on the feast and on the ceremonies. For Nikarete had another slave called Metaneira. That Neaira is not only an alien but also a slave and a prostitute. judges. And Nikarete was persuaded to go
. 5. Note that the main clause is delayed to the end of the sentence. They said that Stephanos had introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. ἔϕαμεν βούλεσθαι τότε τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐχθρούς. ϕαμὲν βούλεσθαι τότε τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐχθρούς. wanting to spend his money on Metaneira and not on Nikarete.’
9 10 13 16–18 ἔδoξεν αὐτῷ ‘It seemed good to him to’. I want to prove to you in detail from the beginning. βουλομένῳ Dative in apposition to αὐτῷ in line 9. We said that we wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. ᾐσχύνετο γὰρ τὴν γυναῖκα ‘He felt ashamed in respect of his wife.168
They say that Stephanos introduced the alien children to the brotherhood. We say that we wanted to be revenged on our enemies at that time. ἔϕασαν τὸν Στέϕανον εἰσαγαγεῖν εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας τoὺς ἀλλοτρίους παῖδας.
That I am telling the truth and that Neaira was the property of Nikarete and came with her. Neaira came with them to Athens.)
. 251–253.) were putting we gave he was placed to give (aor.
he gives you (pl. 6.
you (pl. 9. 2. 5. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12F
τίθημι 12F: 1
1.) will give
δείκνυμι 12F: 2
You now need to learn τίθημι (very important).m.pl. Lysias established them in the house of Philostratos.) were giving we placed he/it was given to put.pl. 4. 7.) will place
τίθησι(ν) ἐδίδοτε ἔθεμεν ἐδόθη θεῖναι ἔδωκε θέντες δός τιθέναι δώσετε
he puts you (pl.) to give (pres. 5.f.) to place you (pl. When they arrived.Exercises for section 12F
to the mysteries taking Metaneira. who was an old woman and lived in the house).pl. being herself also the slave of Nikarete and already working with her body. but being somewhat younger. who was still a bachelor and was a friend of his. 8. 2. to have put he gave having put give! (s. #237–238 and δείκνυμι (less important) GE pp. 4. Lysias did not take them to his own house (for he felt shame before the wife whom he had and his mother. 254–255. GE pp.) you (pl.) he placed having given (n. I call Philostratos himself as witness.) put (s. 10.) are placing we shall show they placed he was showing placing (n. 3.) are showing we shall put they showed he was placing showing
ἐδείχθημεν ἐτέθησαν ἐδεικνύμεθα δειχθέντες
we were shown they were placed we were being shown (could be middle) having been shown (n.)
δείκνυτε θήσομεν ἔδειξαν ἐτίθη δεικνῦσαι
you (pl. #239. 3.
εἴθε + optative expresses a wish (GE p. ‘acting thus. 259. the proper negative in a conditional clause. #244) by the imperfect indicative. the sophist decided to pay many drachmas for the mysteries. Note also μὴ. 257–258. #244). τιθείς κατέστησε
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρός ϕησι τὸν Στέϕανον δούλῃ συνoικεῖν ὡς γυναικί. #245: ὅπως.
This section introduces conditional (‘if’) sentences with ἄν + the optative (GE pp. however …’ 7 εἴθε μνημονεύοιμι ‘Would that I could remember’. ὅπως μή + future indicative expresses a caution.
a. #224). Note also GE p. but she was reducing the girl to despair. 6–7 βουλοίμην μεντἂν μεντἄν = μέντοι ἄν. ὁ Στέϕανος ϕήσει τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον ὑπάρξαι τῆς ἔχθρας. Lysias. The sophist pays many drachmas on behalf of Metaneira. #213).
. ‘see to it that …’ ‘take care that you don’t …’
1 ἀπολοίμην The optative is used to express a wish ‘may ‘I perish’ Cf. I shall put down this money on behalf of Metaneira herself. 5. 2. 212. ‘If he does not remember the arguments?’ Note that a participle is used instead of an ‘if’ clause: ‘not having remembered’. he said. 258–259. 8 πῶς γὰρ ἄν δικαίως τιθεῖτό τις ‘For how could anyone justly cast his vote?’ Potential ἄν + optative. #240–241) and ἄν + the imperfect indicative (GE pp. Therefore we have the optative + ἄν and therefore the meaning is potential: ‘I would like. But then. 259. having gone to Athens and paid many drachmas. 247. 4. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος οὐ* ϕήσει ἀδικῆσαι τὸν Στέϕανον. καθισταμένης θεῖναι d. ‘But’. Although the sophist was paying money on behalf of Metaneira. establishes Nikarete and Metaneira at Philostratos’ house. 9 μὴ μνημονεύσας τοὺς λόγους. θέντος δίδωσι κατέστησεν c. *The negative is always attached to φημί (GE p.’ ἔθηκα e. 3. πολλοὶ πολλὰ χρήματα ὑπὲρ τῆς Nεαίρας ἔθεσαν. ἔθηκε b. Wishes for the future are expressed by the optative without ἄν and wishes for the past (GE p. ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος ἔϕη βούλεσθαι τιμωρεῖσθαι τὸν Στέϕανον. when the girl had been reduced to despair. Nikarete did not give her anything. #243).170
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12F
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. ‘I am damned if I can remember’ (GE p. 260.
Komias. if he does not remember (lit. 20 εἰ πάντες οἱ σοϕισταί με διδάσκοιεν. μὴ μνημονεύοντι μνημονεύοντι agrees with τῷ δικαστῇ: ‘It is difﬁcult for a juror to judge the trial. #151.’ 26–27 εἰ δέ τις ἐπιλάθοιτο.’ A conditional sentence with optative and ἄν. 23–24 εἰ ταῦτα ᾔδη ἐγώ. not remembering). Don’t cover up your perplexity. Strymodoros. A remote future condition. See GE pp. And. 15 εἴθε Ἱππίας γενοίμην ἐγώ cf. 260. The imperfect indicative is used to express present time and the aorist indicative to express past time.
KOM. I will tell you. 258–259. but tell me what is perplexing you. ‘take care that you …’ 33 ἀπόλοιντο … ‘May they perish!’
Translation for 12G
STR. πλουσίος ἂν ἦ τὸ νῦν An unfulﬁlled condition in present time. πῶς ἂν ἐδίδασκέ με. ἄν + imperfect indicative. 154 line 7. what is perplexing me. καὶ τί ἂν ἔλεγεν. I would like to remember what the contestant says. εἴθε + optative (no ἄν) expresses a wish.’ 11–13 εἰ μέντοι σοφιστὴς γένoιo σύ. #245).Section 12G
10 χαλεπὸν δή ἐστι τῷ δικαστῇ διακρίνειν τὴν δίκην. how would he teach me. 16 εἰ νῦν Ἱππίας ἦσθα. καὶ πῶς ἂν ἐμάνθανον ἐγώ. 167. Would that I could remember everything he says. ῥᾳδίως ἂν μνημονεύσαις … καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἐπιλάθοιο ‘If you became a sophist you would easily remember … and would not forget. 19 εἴθε μνημονεύσαιμι A wish. This is called a remote future condition. Why did Apollodoros mention Lysias and Metaneira? For I don’t remember. you would easily remember
. feeling ashamed in front of Euergides. ἄν + the indicative expresses an unfulﬁlled condition (GE p. and what would he be saying. ‘If I knew this. ‘see that you …’. they would not be able’. ‘If Hippias were with us now. RGT 12G p. 21–22 ἀλλ᾿ εἰ Ἱππίας ἡμῖν νῦν συνεγίγνετο. if he cannot remember the arguments? It is difﬁcult for the juror to judge the case if he can’t remember everything which the prosecutor says. and how would I learn?’ 23 εἴθε ταῦτα εἰδείην A wish. οὐκ ἂν οἷοί τ᾿ εἶεν ‘If all the sophists taught me. If you were a sophist. I would be rich now. by Zeus. you would be able’.
I’m damned (May I perish!) if I can remember – You seem to me to be in some perplexity. A series of unfulﬁlled conditions in present time. and I am damned if I can remember. πῶς ἂν δικάσειε What sort of condition? 28–29 οὐ γὰρ ἂν γένοιτο … εἰ μὴ μνημονεύσειε What sort of condition?
30 ἀλλ᾿ ὅπως προθύμως προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν ὅπως + future indicative (GE p. οἷός τ᾽ ἂν ἦσθα ‘If you were Hippias. For how could anyone cast his vote justly. #242).
Strymodoros. 4. you would remember everything. εἰ μὴ ἐτρέχομεν. εἴθε ἐτίθεσαν 5. KOM. 3.) listen. But. εἰ μὴ ζητήσειας. εἰ γὰρ ἔστη. used to remember ﬁfty names. 2. 5. Like Hippias? Would that I were Hippias! If you were Hippias now. as it seems.172
Exercises for section 12G
STR. What skill! Would that I could (if only I could) remember so much! But I am not clever by nature. like an old man. οὐκ ἂν μένοιμι. like a Hippias. having heard them once. οὐκ ἂν εὕροις. For Hippias. they would not be able to make me a sophist. If all the sophists taught me. εἴθε ἀπεθνῄσκον
ὅπως + FUTURE INDICATIVE 12G: 3
1. εἰ μὴ φιλοίης.
KOM. how could he judge the case and cast his vote? I do not know.
KOM. you would be able to list all the archons from Solon. οὐκ ἂν ἐφεύγομεν. SΤR. See to it that you (pl. and not a poor man and a juror. May they perish.) do not go.
all the arguments. ὅπως ἀκούσεσθε. φιλοίην ἂν ἐγώ. STR. ὅπως μὴ εἶ. εἴθε ἔδωκε. For by doing this the jurors cast their votes easily. having heard it once. For he would never be a good juryman if he could not remember the things said by the prosecutor … But see to it that you concentrate on the arguments and the laws and the evidence. and what would he be saying? And how would I learn? I wish I knew this. See to it that you (s. I forget everything I hear.
εἰ μὴ ἀκούοις. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12G
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES 12G: 1
1. whoever are jurors and forget what the contestants say. But if Hippias were here. Strymodoros. εἰ γὰρ ἐξεφεύγομεν 2. ὤφελε δοῦναι 3. and you would not forget the things that have been said. If anyone forgets so much. εἰ ὑμεῖς ἐκελεύετε.
. 2. Strymodoros! For if I knew that I would be rich now. ἐπειθόμην ἂν ἐγώ. ὤφελε στῆναι 4. how would he be teaching me. Oh dear! For. of the laws and the arguments and the evidence.
b. See to it that you (s.) know/see to it that you (s. d. εἰ ἐπείθοντο oἱ δικασταὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου. εἴθε δικαστὴς καθισταίμην καὶ τιθείμην τὴν ψῆϕον. I want them to forget these arguments. ὅπως μὴ γενήσῃ. 5. εἰ ἐτίμων τίμημα μέγα. εἴθε πλούσιοι εἶτε (εἴητε). εἴθε σοϕιστὴς γένοιο. οἶδα ‘know’) or ὅπως ἔσῃ (= fut. b. ταῦτα μὴ εἰδεῖτε. g. You (pl. εἰδείης.
a.) punish. τοῦ ϕεύγοντος ἂν κατεδικάζον. I do not want to perish.) are. δίκην ἐλάμβανεν ἂν ὁ ἀντίδικος. δίκην λαμβάνοι ὁ ἀντίδικος. εἴην. 2. I want you to put down money for me. I receive a big ﬁne / the opponent exacts the penalty. εἴθε οἱ ἐμοὶ οἰκεῖοι μὴ πλούσιοι εἶεν. μὴ ἀπολοίμην. h. I don’t want you to know this. see to it that you (s. εἶμεν. ἴοις 2. εἰμί ‘be’). εἴθε μνημονεύσειε τὴν μαρτυρίαν. ἴοι 5. 4.Revision exercises for section 12G
3. εἰ oἱ δικασταὶ πείθοιντο ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου. a.) do not become. εἰ τίμημα μέγα τιμῴην. εἰδεῖμεν 4.) want to be rich. See to it that you (s. c. f. He wants to make the boy a sophist. i. εἶεν. σοϕιστὴν τὸν παῖδα ποιήσειεν.
. ἐπιλάθοιντο τούτων τῶν λόγων. I want him to remember the evidence. τοῦ ϕεύγοντος ἂν καταδικάζοιεν. I don’t want my family to be rich. εἰδείην REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12G
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. ὅπως εἴσῃ (fut. The jurors are persuaded by the prosecutor / they condemn the defendant. I want to be appointed as a juror and to cast my vote. εἰδείη. e. ἴοιεν 3. j.
1. ὅπως κολάσεις. εἴθε θείης χρήματα εἰς ἐμέ. You want to be a sophist.
τοὺς πένητας ἀσπάζοιντ᾿ ἂν ἐκεῖναι. οὐκ ἂν ἐπιλανθάνοιτο ὁ κατήγορος. e. ὅπως προσέξεις τὸν νοῦν καὶ ἀκούσῃ. εἰ παιδοποιοῖντο oἱ ἀστοὶ ἐξ ἑταιρῶν. τὰ τεκμήρια ἂν ἦν ϕανερά. 265–266. d. Concentrate your mind and listen. ὅπως μὴ παιδοποιήσεσθε ἐκ τῶν ἑταιρῶν. εἰ ἐποίεις μνείαν τῶν ἀστῶν. f. Recite the plot of the play. Don’t have children from prostitutes.
1 4 12 14 ᾤχετο Past tense of οἴχομαι.174
This section introduces accusative (or nominative) and participle construction after verbs of knowing or perceiving (GE pp. f. Don’t ﬂatter the jurors. εἰ oἱ ἀστοὶ ἐξ ἑταιρῶν ἐπαιδοποιοῦντο. Don’t forget the arguments. ὅπως μνημονεύσεις τοὺς λόγους. c. h. and the future passive (GE pp. 3. You mention the citizens / the accuser does not forget. εἰ ὑπήρχετε τῆς ἔχθρας. οὐκ ἂν ἐπελανθάνετο ὁ κατήγορος. 264–265.
. You begin the enmity / the evidence is clear. The citizens have children from the prostitutes / we know clearly. ᾔδει γὰρ ‘For she knew’: a verb of knowing followed by three participles. εἰ ὑπάρχοιτε τῆς ἔχθρας. ὅπως μὴ θωπεύσετε τοὺς δικαστάς. ὅπως κατερεῖς (καταλέξεις) τὸν τοῦ δράματος λόγον. δοῦσα … πάντα τὰ αὑτῆς ‘Giving all her own things (lit. εἰ μὴ oἱ πλούσιοι ταῖς ἑταίραις συγγίγνοιντο. σαϕῶς ἂν ᾖσμεν. The rich men do not have dealings with prostitutes / those women welcome the poor men. g. ὅπως μὴ ἐπιλήσῃ τῶν λόγων. e. b. ϕανερὰ ἂν εἰή τὰ τεκμήρια. ὅπως μὴ καταϕρονήσεις τοῦ ἑταίρου. Arrange the affair well. ὅπως εὖ θήσεις τὸ πρᾶγμα. the things of herself)’. σαϕῶς ἂν εἰδεῖμεν. d. εἰ μὴ oἱ πλούσιοι ταῖς ἑταίραις συγγίγνοντο. #248). #247). εἰ μνείαν ποιοίης τῶν ἀστῶν. τοὺς πένητας ἠσπάζοντ᾿ ἂν ἐκεῖναι. a. Don’t despise your friend. ᾤετο Past tense of οἴμαι. Remember the words.
followed by inﬁnitive (the nominative is omitted). She spent two years in Megara but she could not make an adequate income for the management of the household (to meet the household expenses). For she knew that Phrynion had been wronged by her and was angry with her. 10–11 εὖ γὰρ ᾔδει Στέϕανος … Followed by nominative and participle ‘For Stephanos knew very well that he had no other income. unless he …’ 12–14 Note the structure of the sentence: ὁ δὲ Φρυνίων. ‘in order to take her’). and he used to go to dinners everywhere. since she was being treated like dirt in a shameful way by Phrynion. πυθόμενος … (followed by accusative and participle). she was not loved. went to Athens. having described the whole affair and the insolence of Phrynion. and always went to riotous parties with her. ‘by his promise’. 7–8 παρὰ τὸν ψιθυριστήν ‘next door to the Whisperer’. and so appears in the accusative. taking her. 4 ὡς αὑτοῦ ὄντας ‘as being his own children’. being very eager to live here. taking her with him. he treated her disgracefully. as she was a hetaira. and that he had a pompous and contemptuous character. and the clothes and the gold jewellery which Phrynion had given her. Taking all these. as she thought. παραλαβὼν … ἦλθεν … ὡς ἄξων αὐτήν (ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose. having paid the money on behalf of Neaira for her freedom. Phrynion. Thratta and Kokkaline. There are several more examples of this usage in this passage. gave Stephanos all the things she had brought with her when she came from Athens. belonging to the subject of the sentence. Neaira therefore gave everything she had to Stephanos and made him her protector. Then this Stephanos travelled to Megara and lodged with her. This was the title of a statue of Hermes.Section 12I
Translation for 12H
Apollodoros resumes. but being afraid of Phrynion. 14–15 ἀϕαιρουμένου δὲ … εἰς ἐλευθερίαν A genitive absolute. then. 2 ἐκόμπαζε Followed by accusative and inﬁnitive: ‘He boasted that Phrynion would not touch her’. ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι τινα εἰς ἐλευθερίαν has the technical meaning ‘to claim as free’. and two slave girls. Neaira. So this awkward sentence will mean ‘Although Stephanos claimed her as free according to the
.e. Note that αὑτοῦ = ἑαυτοῦ ‘of himself’ i. and since. and then by nominative (αὐτός) and inﬁnitive (ἕξειν) ‘that he would have her as his wife’. collected all Phrynion’s belongings from the house. 3–4 ἔϕη δὲ ‘he said that he’.
1 τῷ λόγῳ ‘by his word’. but at ἀδικηθήσεσθαι αὐτήν the subject of the clause is someone else. But when he arrived in Athens. she ran away to Megara. Neaira.
c. took young men with him and went to the house of Stephanos to take her away. Although Stephanos claimed her as free in accordance with the law. and they would become citizens.
I know I am wise.
. Phrynion compelled her to give securities to the polemarch. Phrynion compelled her to give securities before the Polemarch. and that he himself would take her as his wife. Proxenos and Ariston and a girl child who is now called Phano. And he said that her children would be introduced into the phratries as if they were his own. nom. They hoped to arrive quickly/they hoped they would arrive quickly. unless he earned something by informing. bringing her with him and her three children with her. ὅτι + indicative clause. He said he would be present. acc. b. I know you are not foolish. Having said this he arrived here from Megara.’ καταθέντι (dative) agrees with αὑτῷ. nom.
1. inﬁn. + inﬁnitive construction. 4. They heard that we had gone. and she would not be harmed by anyone. since he had paid money for her.
We say that politicians do not speak the truth. For he boasted that Phrynion would never touch her. regarding her as his slave since he had put down money on her behalf.176
Exercises for section 12H–I
laws. But Phrynion. 2. For Stephanos knew very well that he had no other income or livelihood. This Stephanos ﬁlled Neaira with great hope in Megara by this promise. + participle construction. 3. d. after verb of hoping or expecting. We learned they were ﬂeeing. He found out the enemy had ﬂed. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12H–I
INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE IN REPORTED SPEECH 12H–I: 1
a. And he brought her and the children to a little house which he had in Athens next to the Whisperer Hermes. believing that she was his own (αὑτῷ) slave. He came with her for two reasons: so that he would have a beautiful hetaira for free and so that she would work and look after his household. having found out that Neaira was living in Athens and with Stephanos.
Translation for 12I
Apollodoros goes on speaking. + fut. between the house of Dorotheos the Eleusinian and the house of Kleinomachos.
b. οἴεται τοὺς τῆς ἑταίρας παῖδας πολίτας γενήσεσθαι.
. ϕησὶν ἐμὲ ἀναγκασθήσεσθαι παρὰ Φρυνίωνος τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι. Stephanos and Neaira will arrive in Athens from Megara. 5. 3. ἡγήσατο τὸν Στέϕανον καὶ τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕίξεσθαι ἐκ τῶν Μεγάρων Ἀθήναζε. d.
ἀκουσθήσομαι δουλωθήσεται δοθήσονται τεθήσεται σταθήσεται
I shall be heard he will be enslaved they will be given he/she/it will be placed it will be set up
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 12H–I
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. He says that I will be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion.
He knew that they (the women) had obeyed. We said that the woman would not be wronged by anyone.) will be compelled ἀναγκάζω he will be angry ὀργίζομαι to be going to be ﬁned ζημιόω they will be wronged ἀδικέω a. He thought that the prostitute’s children would become citizens.
2. οὐκ ἔϕαμεν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ᾿ oὐδενός.Revision exercises for section 12H–I
5. The woman will be wronged by no one. 4. 2. He thought that Stephanos and Neaira would arrive in Athens from Megara. We say that the woman will not be wronged by anyone. οὔ ϕαμεν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ᾿ oὐδενός. ᾤετο τοὺς τῆς ἑταίρας παῖδας πολίτας γενήσεσθαι. He thinks that the prostitute’s children will become citizens. acc.
I shall be brought into εἰσάγω we shall be convicted ἐξελέγχω you (s. + participle construction
THE FUTURE PASSIVE 12H–I: 3
1. c. He thinks that Stephanos and Neaira will arrive in Athens from Megara. ἡγεῖται τὸν Στέϕανον καὶ τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕίξεσθαι ἐκ τῶν Μεγάρων Ἀθήναζε. I shall be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion. The prostitute’s children will become citizens.
Neaira was living in town (imperfect) and went to Stephanos. αἰσθάνονται ἡμᾶς ἀδικηθέντας ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου καὶ καταδικασθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν. He sees that Neaira is resident in the town and has gone to Stephanos. You knew you were a prostitute and that you were having children by citizens. ᾔδεισθα ἑταίρα οὖσα καὶ παιδοποιουμένη ἐξ ἀστῶν.
b. Phrynion was wronged by me and was angry with me.
D – TRANSLATE INTO GREEK
a. δικαίως ἂν θείμην τὴν ψῆϕον. εἰ σοϕιστὴς ἦν. ἐμνημόνευον ἂν τούτους τοὺς λόγους. εἶδε τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ ἐλθοῦσαν ὡς Στέϕανον.
d. οἶσθα ἑταίρα οὖσα καὶ παιδοποιουμένη ἐξ ἀστῶν. εἴθε μνημονεύσαιμι τοὺς λόγους τοὺς τοῦ κατηγόρου. You are a prostitute and you are having children by citizens. You know you are a prostitute and that you are having children by citizens. You knew that you had wronged the city. He saw that Neaira was resident in the town and had gone to Stephanos. I knew that Phrynion had been wronged by me and had been angry with me. ἔγνωτε ἀδικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν νόμων καταϕρονοῦντες καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες εἰς τοὺς θεούς. εἰ δυναίμην μνημονεύειν τὰς μαρτυρίας. You wronged the city and despised the laws and were irreverent to the gods. were despising the laws and were being irreverent to the gods. ὁρᾷ τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ ἐλθοῦσαν ὡς Στέϕανον. You know that you have wronged the city and are despising the laws and are being irreverent to the gods.
ἔϕη ἐμὲ ἀναγκασθήσεσθαι παρὰ Φρυνίωνος τὴν Νέαιραν ἀϕαιρεῖσθαι. He said that I would be compelled to take Neaira away from Phrynion.
Sentences 1. We were wronged by the prosecutor and condemned by the jurors. ᾔδη τὸν Φρυνίωνα ἀδικηθέντα ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ ὀργισθέντα ἐμοί.178
Revision exercises for section 12H–I
3. ᾔσθοντο ἡμᾶς ἀδικηθέντας ὑπὸ τοῦ κατηγόρου καὶ καταδικασθέντας ὑπὸ τῶν δικαστῶν. 2. οἶδα τὸν Φρυνίωνα ἀδικηθέντα ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ καὶ ὀργισθέντα ἐμοί. γιγνώσκετε ἀδικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν νόμων καταϕρονοῦντες καὶ ἀσεβοῦντες εἰς τοὺς θεούς. They perceived that we had been wronged by the prosecutor and had been condemned by the jurors. I know that Phrynion was wronged by me and was angry with me. 3.
c. They perceive that we were wronged by the prosecutor and condemned by the jurors.
Revision exercises for section 12H–I
4. took him to his home and kept him with him. may I perish most miserably. And. wanted to take him to his own home.
. and they ﬁrst of all smashed up the furniture. And Timarkhos himself kept declaring that everything would be done by him. by Zeus the Olympian. Hegesandros. ἀγωνίζεται ταύτην τὴν δίκην. ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου καὶ εἰς κίνδυνον καταστάς. He went regularly to visit Pittalakos who was a fellow-gambler. ὁ Στέϕανός οὔ ϕησι τὴν Νέαιραν ἀδικηθήσεσθαι ὑπ’ οὐδενός. which I know clearly were inﬂicted on Timarkhos by this man. realising that he had spent so much money on Timarkhos in vain. they forced their way during the night into the house where Pittalakos lived. Pittalakos. he used to spend his days in the gambling-den. Prose ὁ δὲ Ἀπολλόδωρος. For. This man. and ﬁrst seeing Timarkhos there. a slave of the city. Pittalakos was angry. When Timarkhos had been detached from Pittalakos and taken up by Hegesandros. καὶ ὁ Ἀπολλόδωρος λέγει ὅτι σαϕῶς ἐπιδείξεται τὸν Στέϕανον αὐτὰ ταῦτα ποιεῖν. to be unjust and disdainful. if I mention such things. When a crowd ran up. οὐ γὰρ ἐῶσιν oἱ νόμοι ἑταίρᾳ ὡς γυναικὶ συνοικεῖν ἀστὼν οὐδένα. 2. seeing Timarkhos in the gambling-den.
E – TEST EXERCISE 12
But I shall tell you what came next (the things after this). 5. and he kept visiting the house of Hegesandros. I would not dare to speak of them before you. being angry about the affair. whose character you know even better than I do. χαλεπώτατον ὂν ἂν ἐϕαινετο. ἀγαθὸν ἂν εἴη τῇ πόλει. I would not be able to go on living. Finally they persuade him to get up from the altar. if only Pittalakos would get up (genitive absolute). One of the gamblers is a certain Pittalakos. But when Hegesandros and Timarkhos got angry with him for coming so often. εἰ γὰρ καὶ νικῴη οὗτος. For he thought that he was close to his own nature. gentlemen of the jury. For when this Timarkhos here was released from Antikles. ὁ Φρυνίων ᾔδει τὴν Νέαιραν ἐπιδημοῦσαν καὶ τὰ χρήματα ἔχουσαν. Meanwhile Hegesandros is sailing here from the Hellespont. On the next day. Hegesandros and Timarkhos hurried to the altar and standing beside it they kept begging Pittalakos to get up. See that you listen carefully. and ﬁnally beat up Pittalakos himself for a long time. claiming that the whole affair had been a drunken brawl. went naked into the market-place and sat on the altar of the mother of the gods. By Zeus. if I were to speak in your presence of the things that this man did. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν ἐλπίζω ἔγωγε τὸν Ἀπολλόδωρον νικήσειν τὴν δίκην. εἰ γὰρ ὁ Στέϕανος ταῦτ’ ἐτύγχανε ποιῶν. as for the outrages.
18–20 εἰ … μὴ ἐξηπατήθη ὁ Φράστωρ καὶ Φανὼ γνησία ἦν. + participle twice) …. 21 ἐκπεσούσης δὲ Φανοῦς ἐκπίπτω is used as the passive of ἐκβάλλω.
1–4 The main clause (δῆλά ἐστι τὰ τεκμήρια ‘There are clear proofs that …’) is delayed until the end of the sentence. or to continue reading to the end of Section 13 and then go back to revise the grammar and do the relevant exercises. Note that this is a genitive absolute construction. Once again you may decide to do the exercises when they occur. #252: ‘Before she came to Athens’.Section Thirteen: Neaira as married woman
This section continues the story of Neaira. either he would not have divorced her or he would have given back the dowry’. You will meet lots of examples of this in 13A and B. 10–11 καὶ δὴ ἴστε τὴν Φανώ … μαθοῦσαν Accusative and participle: ‘You know that Phano had learned’. ἢ οὐκ ἂν ἐξέβαλεν αὐτὴν … ἢ ἀπέδωκεν … An unfulﬁlled condition in past time: ἄν + the aorist indicative. 272–273. 8 πρὶν Ἀθήναζε ἐλθεῖν πρίν + inﬁnitive. Note the negative in the ‘if’ clause is μή and in the main clause οὐ: ‘if Phrastor had not been deceived and if Phano had been legitimate. 8–9 ὥσπερ αὑτοῦ θυγάτηρ οὖσα ‘as his own daughter’. The subordinate clauses (ὅτι μὲν … δούλη ἦν Nέαιρα … καὶ ἀπέδρα … καὶ ὁ Φρυνίων … κατηγγύησε …) come ﬁrst. realising that he would be convicted. Note the breathing: αὐτοῦ could have meant someone else’s daughter αὑτοῦ or ἑαυτοῦ ‘his own’ belongs to the subject of the main verb. GE pp. and having found out (ἅμα δὲ πυθόμενος) that (acc. These clauses are all subordinate to the main clause. + participle) … was very angry (ὠργίσθη μάλιστα) … considering (ἡγούμενος) that he … (nominative + inﬁnitives). 25–26 γνοὺς δὲ Στέϕανος ὅτι ἐξελεγχθήσεται … καὶ ὅτι ἐξελεγχθεὶς κινδυνεύσει … διαλλάττεται … ‘Stephanos. and
. 14–16 Note the structure: ‘Phrastor seeing (ὁρῶν) that (acc.’ 17 πρὶν εἰδέναι ‘Before he knew that …’ Followed by accusative and participle construction. As in Section 12 there are long exercises which practise the grammar which has been introduced.
before she came to Athens. having been convicted. For he had married Phano before he knew that she was the daughter of Neaira. before she lived with Phrastor. οὐκ ἂν διηλλάχθη Στέϕανος What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? ‘If Phano had been the daughter of a citizen. either Phrastor would not have divorced her or he would have given back the dowry. to an Athenian man. in accordance with the law which requires a man who divorces his wife to give back the dowry. This girl was given in marriage by Stephanos here.Section 13A
that. If Stephanos had not deceived Phrastor and if Phano had been legitimate. #254. whom she brought with her to the house of Stephanos. who was a working man and reckoned his income with precision. And. seeing that she was neither well behaved nor willing to obey him. Therefore when she went to Phrastor. and that she ran away from Phrynion to Megara and that when she returned to Athens Phrynion demanded securities from her before the polemarch on the grounds that she was an alien. she was pregnant. before the case came to court. realising that he would be convicted of doing wrong and that having been convicted he would risk meeting with the most severe penalties (for Phano was the daughter of an alien woman). Formerly she had been called Strybele. When Phano had been divorced. was reconciled with Phrastor and gave up his claim to the dowry and withdrew the charge. had learned her mother’s character and extravagance. thinking that he had been insulted and tricked by Stephanos. Phrastor brought a charge against Stephanos here in accordance with the law which does not allow anyone to betroth the daughter of an alien to an Athenian man. Stephanos brought a suit against Phrastor. Stephanos.’ See GE p. Phrastor of the deme of Aigileia. [of all this] there is clear evidence. Stephanos would not have been reconciled. Phrastor also
. as if she had been his own daughter from a citizen wife. And furthermore you know that Phano. 276. Therefore he divorced Phano. she did not know how to make herself pleasing to Phrastor’s ways. For Neaira had a daughter. And Stephanos gave her a dowry of thirty minas.
Translation for 13A
That Neaira was from the beginning a slave and a hetaira. But when Stephanos had brought this suit. and at the same time having found out clearly that Phano was not the daughter of Stephanos but of Neaira. was very angry. And when they came to Athens they called the girl Phano. having lived with her for a year. Phrastor. he would be in danger of … was reconciled with …’
28–29 ἀλλ’ εἰ ἀστῆς θυγάτηρ ἦν Φανώ. Now I want to demonstrate to you that Stephanos himself provides evidence against Neaira that she is living with him as his wife although she is a foreigner. and he did not give back the dowry.
to take back Phano’s child and to make him his son. his relations would have got his property. But in his state of need he was courted by Neaira and Phano. #250) and that you can recognise ὡς + the future participle used to express purpose (GE p. before he got better.
Now make sure that you know the aorist inﬁnitive passive (GE p.’ Note the future inﬁnitive.
Translation for 13B
I want to provide you with another piece of evidence from Phrastor and the members of his phratry and of his clan that this Neaira is an alien. 271. and anger and hatred.
3 ἐξεπέμϕθη What tense? It comes from ἐκπέμπω. This was the child which Phano had borne when she had been sent away in a pregnant state by Phrastor. And Phrastor was childless. Phrastor fell ill and was in a very bad way and was in total need.’ See GE p. 271–272. #252). For if Phrastor had died without a child.
. But if Phano had been the daughter of a citizen woman. For they went to him. to look after him and to care for him enthusiastically (for Phrastor had no one who would look after him). Phrastor promised that he would do this. Phrastor promised that he would do this. 17–18 εἰ γὰρ ἄπαις ἀπέθανε Φράστωρ. οἱ οἰκεῖοι ἔλαβον ἂν τὰ αὐτοῦ What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they? ‘For if Phrastor had died childless. jurors. nor did he want to die without a child. 271. how valuable is a woman in time of sickness when she is at the side of a man who is suffering. #249) and the future participle passive (GE pp. since he did not want his relations to inherit his property. 276. his relatives would have taken his property. Before he got better. but he wanted to take back Phano’s child before he died (although he knew that he was not legitimate). #254. For not long after Neaira’s daughter was divorced. 270. 7 ὡς θεραπεύσουσαι καὶ … ἐπιμελήσομεναι ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose (GE p. 4 διετέθη What tense? It comes from διατίθημι. 272–273.182
withdrew his charge. and they brought remedies (things useful) for the illness and visited him. Stephanos would not have been reconciled. I am sure you know yourselves. #251): ‘They went to him to look after him and …’ 13–14 καὶ πρὶν ὑγιαίνειν ὑπέσχετο δὴ τοῦτο ποιήσειν ὁ Φράστωρ ‘And before he got better. #251) and πρίν + the inﬁnitive = ‘before’ (GE pp. making the natural and reasonable calculation that he was in a poor condition and did not expect to survive. Phrastor was persuaded. Since they were doing this. Before he was ill there had been a long-standing difference with his relations.
φαγεῖν 4. πεισθῆναι 2. πρὶν ἐκβάλλειν. MIDDLE. πρὶν π(ε)ίθεσθαι. τεθῆναι
FUTURE PARTICIPLES ACTIVE. ὡς ληψομένη αὐτήν 2. ransomed about to persuade about to obey about to be persuaded
οἶσων -ουσα -ον about to carry οἰσόμενος -η -ον about to carry off for oneself. ἀπελθεῖν 3. λυθῆναι. πεισθῆναι. win οἰσθησόμενος/ἐνεχθησόμενος -η -ον about to be carried στήσων -ουσα -ον στησόμενος -η -ον σταθησόμενος -η -ον ληψόμενος -η -ον ληψόμενος -η -ον ληφθησόμενος -η -ον
ὡς + FUTURE PARTICIPLE 13A–B: 3
about to set up about to stand.Exercises for section 13A–B
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13A–B
THE AORIST INFINITIVE PASSIVE 13A–B: 1
δοθῆναι. πρὶν ἐσθίειν. PASSIVE 13A–B: 2
λύσων -ουσα -ον λυσόμενος -η -ον λυθήσομενος -η -ον πείσων -ουσα -ον πεισόμενος -η -ον πεισθησόμενος -η -ον
about to loose about to ransome about to be loosed. set up for oneself about to be set up about to take about to take for oneself. ὡς σώσοντας ἑαυτούς 3. ἐκβαλεῖν
. ὡς πείσων αὐτήν 4. πρὶν τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπιέναι. take hold of about to be taken
1. ἐνεχθῆναι. ὡς δώσοντες
πρίν + INFINITIVE 13A–B: 4
I am thrown out.184
Revision exercises for section 13A–B
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13A–B
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. prove I ﬁnd out I die I receive from I fall out.
πείθω ἐκπέμπω ἐξαπατάω ἐξελέγχω ὑβρίζω ἐκβάλλω διατίθημι εἰμί οἶδα ἀποδίδωμι τίθημι δείκνυμι ἀπόλλυμι ἀποδίδωμι ἀϕίστημι τίθημι
Exercise 3 is on the use of ὡς + future participle to express purpose. get divorced
2. while Exercise 4 gives you practice in πρίν + inﬁnitive = ‘before’. divorce I meet I introduce. tell I place I take away I know I escape notice I am I compel I show.
ἐκβαλοῦντι ἐντευξομένῃ εἰσαχθησόμενος καταστήσοντι παρέξοντες ἐκδώσοντα ἐρῶν θησόντων ἀϕαιρησόμενος γνωσομένην λήσουσαν ἐσόμενον ἀναγκασθησομένῳ ἐπιδειξουσῶν πευσομένων ἀποθανουμένῃ παραληψομένῃ ἐκπεσούμενοι Aorist passive inﬁnitives πεισθῆναι ἐκπεμϕθῆναι ἐξαπατηθῆναι ἐξελεγχθῆναι ὑβρισθῆναι ἐκβληθῆναι διατεθῆναι Other inﬁnitives εἶναι εἰδέναι ἀποδιδόναι θεῖναι δεικνύναι ἀπολλύναι ἀποδοῦναι ἀϕιστάναι τιθέναι
ἐκβάλλω ἐντυγχάνω εἰσάγω καθίστημι παρέχω ἐκδίδωμι λέγω τίθημι ἀϕαιρέω γιγνώσκω λανθάνω εἰμί ἀναγκάζω ἐπιδείκνυμι πυνθάνομαι ἀποθνῄσκω παραλαμβάνω ἐκπίπτω
I throw out. lead in I establish.
. set up I provide I give in marriage I speak.
10–13 The structure of the sentence is as follows: ἀλλὰ οἱ γεννῆται. Here the inﬁnitive is used as a noun with the article. 280. εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε ἄν + the aorist indicative expresses an unfulﬁlled condition in past time (GE p.
a. 5 ἀλλὰ βιασθεὶς διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν ‘but forced by his illness’. a. ὡς ἀπολογησόμενος καὶ ἀπολυθησόμενος 4. 4. ὡς ἐρῶν… καὶ ἀκουσόμενος d. ὡς διατρίψουσαι καὶ ἐργασόμεναι c. εἰδότες … καὶ ἀκούσαντες … ἀποψηϕίζονται τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ οὐκ ἐνέγραφον … There is an
. Phrastor withdrew the charge ii(i) πρὶν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸ δικαστήριον before he came to court i(ii) πρὶν ἐκπέμψαι τὴν Φανώ before he divorced Phano (iii) πρὶν ὑπισχνεῖσθαι ἀναλήψεσθαι τὸ παιδίον before he promised that he would take back the child (iv) πρὶν λεχθῆναι τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας before these words were spoken by Neaira. ὡς ἄξοντες b. The women went off to Athens to live (spend time) in Stephanos’ house and to work. #254): ‘Phrastor would not have done that if he had not been ill. Therefore I am going to him to speak the truth and listen to lies. 6–7 εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε … οὐκ ἂν ἀνέλαβε … What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? Are the verbs indicative or optative? What tense are they?
10 εἰδότες Can you recognise this participle? It comes from οἶδα. This example is followed by three more: διὰ τὸ ἄπαις εἶναι καὶ τὸ θεραπεύειν αὐτὰς αὑτὸν καὶ τὸ τοὺς οἰκείους μισεῖν. The man went into the lawcourt to defend himself and to be acquitted.
1–2 ὅτι οὐκ ἂν ἔπραξε τοῦτο ὁ Φράστωρ.’ 2 ὡς … τάχιστα ‘as soon as …’ 4–5 ὅτι οὐχ ἑκὼν ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον οὐχ ἑκών ‘not willingly’: ‘that he did not willingly take back the child’. See GE p. #257. Those men came to the house of Stephanos to take away Neaira. Stephanos brought Phrastor to the lawcourt ii(i) πρὶν τὸν Φράστορα γράψασθαι γραϕήν before Phrastor indicted him i(ii) πρὶν τὸ τῆς Φανοῦς παιδίον γενέσθαι before Phano’s child was born (iii) πρὶν τὸ παιδίον ἀναληϕθῆναι ὑπὸ Φράστορος before the child was taken back by Phrastor (iv) πρὶν γνῶναι ὅτι ἐξελεγχθήσεται ἀδικῶν before he knew that he would be convicted of wrong-doing.Section 13C
3. 276. Note that a whole accusative and inﬁnitive phrase can be used in this way (GE p. #258). 279. b.
he would not have taken back the child. when he was ill. Therefore when Phrastor brought a suit against them. Stephanos would not have been angry. λαχόντος οὖν τοῦ Φράστορος Genitive absolute. but would have registered him in the clan. For if Phrastor had not been ill. having divorced her. a. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13C 1. introduced Phano’s son into the phratries and into the Brytidae. Phrastor abandoned the oath and went away before he could swear that his son was legitimate. οὐκ ἂν ὠργίσθη Στέϕανος. voted against the child and did not register him in the clan. and having heard that Phrastor had divorced her and had then because of his illness taken back the child. he would have sworn. knowing that his wife was the daughter of Neaira. and having heard that Phrastor.186
Revision exercises for section 13C
13–14 14 16–17 18
accusative + participle clause depending on εἰδότες and an accusative + participle + inﬁnitive clause depending on ἀκούσαντες. knowing that the woman was the daughter of Neaira. ‘But the clansmen. because of his illness. had then taken back the child. When the members of the clan challenged him. I want to show you another proof that this Neaira is an alien. the legitimate daughter of Satyros of the deme of Melite. But if Phano had been the daughter of a citizen. But the members of the clan. If Phano had been the daughter of a female citizen. This is proof for you that he did not willingly take back the child. his relatives would have taken his possessions. of whom Phrastor is a member. but was forced to do it because of his sickness and the fact that he was childless and because the women were looking after him and because he hated his relations. the members of the clan would not have voted against the child. εἰ ἀστῆς θυγάτηρ ἦν Φανώ. ἀλλ’ εἰ ὁ παῖς … What sort of condition? Is there an ἄν? What mood and tense are the verbs?
Translation for 13C
Now I shall prove to you by a great and clear piece of evidence that Phrastor would not have done this if he had not been ill. For Phrastor. προκαλουμένων δ’ αὐτὸν τῶν γεννητῶν Another genitive absolute.
. b. But if his son had been legitimate and born from a citizen wife. If Phrastor had died childless. voted against the boy and …’ Note that this is another unfulﬁlled condition. he took a citizen wife according to the laws. the sister of Diphilos. the members of the clan challenged him to swear by the sacred mysteries that he truly believed the child to be his own son from a citizen wife legally married in accordance with the law. οἱ οἰκεῖοι ἂν ἔλαβον τὰ αὐτοῦ. And furthermore. εἰ ἄπαις ἀπέθανε Φράστωρ. For as soon as Phrastor recovered from that illness.
Φράστωρ οὐκ ἂν ἐξηπατήθη. and that he later married a citizen wife according to the law. to take back the child and make him his son. to take back the child and to make him his son. If Phrastor had known that Phano was the daughter of Neaira.’ 5–9 Φράστωρ δὲ μαρτυρεῖ ἐκβαλεῖν … καὶ οὐκ ἀποδοῦναι … ἔπειτα δὲ αὐτὸς … πεισθῆναι διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν καὶ τὸ … οἰκείους ἀναλαβεῖν τὸ παιδίον καὶ … ποιήσασθαι. Phano would not have been sent away. αὐτὸς δὲ εἰσαγαγεῖν … ἀλλ’ οὐκ ὀμόσαι … ὕστερον δὲ γῆμαι … A string of inﬁnitives depends on μαρτυρεῖ: ‘Phrastor bears witness that he divorced … and did not give back the dowry. Phrastor would not have been deceived.
3–4 ὁ μὲν γὰρ Στέφανος … ‘For Stephanos bears witness against Neaira through his unwillingness (διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι) to engage in litigation on behalf of her daughter about the dowry. Phrastor would not have brought this accusation against him.Section 13D
c. For Stephanos bears witness against Neaira because he was not willing to go to court on behalf of her daughter about her dowry. but he did not swear that … and that later he married a citizen woman …’ 11–13 Look to see if there is an ἄν and note the mood and tense of the verbs. οὐκ ἂν ἐγράψατο Φράστωρ αὐτὸν γραϕήν. both Stephanos here who has her now and is living with her and Phrastor who married her daughter.… and that he himself introduced him to the clan. N. εἰ ᾔδει Φανὼ Nεαίρας οὖσαν θυγατέρα ὁ Φράστωρ. For if Neaira had been a citizen. was persuaded by … on account of his illness and because he was childless and because of his hostility to his relations. For Phano would have been a citizen. but did not swear that he was the son of a citizen woman. he would have thrown her out (divorced her) as quickly as possible. e. d. if
. and then was himself persuaded by Neaira and Phano. on account of his sickness and childlessness and his hatred of his relations. εἰ Φανὼ ξένης θυγάτηρ ἐκλήθη. and Phrastor bears witness that he divorced the daughter of this Neaira and did not give back the dowry. ἐξέβαλεν ἂν ὡς τάχιστα. and he himself introduced the boy to the members of the clan. Neither εἰμί nor οἶδα have an aorist. These actions are perfectly clear and form great proofs that they knew that this Neaira was an alien.B. εἰ μὴ ἔλαχε Στέϕανος τὴν δίκην ταύτην. And furthermore. If Phano had been called the daughter of a foreigner. so the context will determine the translation. but then. If Stephanos had not brought this suit against him.
Translation for 13D
Therefore I clearly demonstrate to you that the very members of Neaira’s own family have furnished proof that she is an alien.
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13D
VERBS IN THE INFINITIVE USED AS NOUNS 13D: 1
1. ὁ Φράστωρ ἔγημε τὴν Φανὼ πρὶν εἰδέναι αὐτὴν Νεαίρας θυγατέρα οὖσαν. 3. Phrastor took back the child on account of his illness and his hatred of his relations and his childlessness. τῷ βιάζεσθαι
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. And he made mention of these facts.188
Revision exercises for section 13D
Phano had been a citizen. The clansmen were forced to vote against the child. because the clansmen voted against him and did not register him in the clan. 2. Impiety is a great evil. Stephanos was clearly doing wrong because he did not swear. 4. διὰ τὸ μὴ ὀμόσαι d. because they knew that he was not legitimate. ὁ Στέϕανος ἦλθε πρὸς τὸν Φράστορα ὡς ἐγγυήσων αὐτῷ τὴν Φανώ.
a. Care is a good thing. τὸ ἀσεβεῖν i. Stephanos is clearly committing an injustice towards the city and irreverence towards the gods. 7. The child clearly belongs to an alien woman. 9. the clan members would not have voted against her son. τὸ ἀσθενεῖν b. εἰ μὴ ἐθεράπευσε τὸν Φράστορα ἡ Φανώ. Illness is an evil. 3. that he was weak and that he was depressed and that he was being looked after by Neaira. τῷ ἀπορεῖν διὰ τὸ βοᾶν
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13D
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν καὶ τὸ μισεῖν τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ τὸ ἄπαις εἶναι c. τὸ θεραπεύειν g. Because of the fact that Phrastor was not willing to swear an oath. 10. 8. 2. I was compelled to go in by force (being forced).
ἄνευ τοῦ μισεῖν διὰ τὸ διανοεῖσθαι τοῦ θορυβῆσαι ἕνεκα. τοῦ ἀσθενεῖν τε ἕνεκα καὶ εἰς ἀπορίαν καταστῆναι καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας θεραπεύεσθαι h. 5.
. διὰ τὸ εἰδέναι f. οὐκ ἂν ἀνέλαβεν ἐκεῖνος τὸ παιδίον. and because the members of the clan voted against the boy. διὰ τὸ τοὺς γεννήτας ἀποψηϕίσασθαι αὐτοῦ καὶ μὴ ἐγγράψαι εἰς τὸ γένος e.
διὰ τὸ φυγεῖν μετὰ τὸ μέλλειν ἀντὶ τοῦ παύσασθαι τῷ μάχεσθαι τοῦ φυλάξαι ἕνεκα
It is very easy to recognise.’
Translation for 13E
Because of this.
Φράστωρ ἀνέλαβε τὸ τῆς Φανοῦς παιδίον διὰ τὸ νοσεῖν καὶ τὸ τὴν Φανὼ θεραπεύειν αὐτόν. αὗται αἱ πράξεις δηλώσουσιν Note the rhetorical inversion of the clauses again: ‘That I am speaking the truth. and saw what it was not ﬁtting for her to see. the perfect active (I have -ed). When Theogenes took up ofﬁce. εἰ γνήσιος ἦν ὁ παῖς. For Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor what sort of habits she had. Consider then what shamelessness Stephanos and Neaira showed and how they wronged the city. 9–10 οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει ὁ Θεογένης ὅτου θυγάτηρ ἐστὶ οὐδὲ ὁποῖά ἐστιν αὐτῆς τὰ ἔθη ‘for Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor what sort of character she had’ (‘what sort were the characteristics of her’). followed by two clauses. being an alien’. Stephanos gave him money so that he would become his assistant and share in his position. Cf. ξένῃ οὔσῃ ‘and she saw what it was not ﬁtting for her to see. Φράστωρ ἂν ὤμοσεν. being well born but poor and inexperienced in affairs. becoming his assistant by giving him money. And she went into the place where no other Athenian goes except the
. There was once a certain Theogenes who was elected as basileus (King Archon). For they openly dared to allege that the daughter of Neaira was a citizen. 4 ἦν γάρ ποτε Θεογένης τις … ‘There was a man called Theogenes.
In this section you will meet a new tense.Section 13E
4. So greatly did this man despise you and the laws. gave the daughter of Neaira to Theogenes as a wife and betrothed her as being his own daughter. this Stephanos. ὁποία … Nεαίρας and ὅπως … ἠδίκησαν: ‘what sort of shamelessness …’ and ‘how they wronged the state’. 282–283.
2 σκοπεῖτε τοίνυν ‘Consider then’. 20 ὅτι δ’ ἀληθῆ λέγω. see GE pp. ποῖ ‘where to?’ 15–16 οὐ μόνον … ἀλλὰ καί … ‘not only … but also …’ 15–20 A series of examples of the perfect tense! 18 ἐκδούς Can you recognise this? It comes from ἐκδίδωμι and agrees with the subject. everyone knew that Phano was clearly an alien and not a citizen. being a foreigner. If you want to ﬁnd out about it before you meet it in reading. 11–12 καὶ εἶδεν ἃ οὐ προσῆκεν αὐτῇ ὁρᾶν. 5. 11 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν οἷ ‘and that she went in to where’. And this woman made the secret sacriﬁces for you on behalf of the city.’ 6 ὡς πάρεδρος γενησόμενος ὡς + future participle expresses purpose. #260–262. Notice that ξένῃ οὔσῃ is dative agreeing with αὐτῇ. Before Theogenes entered on his ofﬁce. Stephanos. these actions will prove.
and she was presented to Dionysos as his bride. 3–4 ἤρετο ἡ βουλή ‘the council asked’.γεγ. I want to tell you in greater detail about these things. #266). 287. 2.πεπ.) have shouted βοάω βεβόηκας he has ordered κελεύω κεκελεύκασι(ν) we have done πράττω πέπραχα I have loved ϕιλέω πεϕιλήκαμεν you (s.ἐκπεπ. For you will be casting your vote not only on your own behalf and on behalf of the laws.πεπ.πεπ. 285–286.) have gone χωρέω κεχωρήκατε they have worried ϕροντίζω πεϕρόντικεν
Here you will meet: 1. 3. sacred and secret. Followed by two indirect questions: τίς αὐτὰ ποιήσειε and πῶς πράξειαν οἱ ἄρχοντες. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13E
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
. #264 (this is worth studying before you go on reading). The aorist optative passive. these events will prove.μεμ.γεγ2. by giving the daughter of Neaira as a wife to Theogenes when he was holding the ofﬁce of basileus.κεκτεθ.) have lived in ἐπιδημέω ἐπιδεδημήκατε I have written γράϕω γεγράϕαμεν you (pl.λελ.πεϕ. I have shown you then that Stephanos has acted most irreverently. ἀναβάντων … ἀρχόντων Two genitive absolutes.and -είην (GE p.τεθ. For he has made the laws invalid and has shown contempt for the gods. That I am speaking the truth. which is easily recognised by -θ. The future optatives (GE p. #263). And then this woman has performed the rites and sacriﬁces on behalf of the city.βεβ. and she performed on behalf of the city the ancestral rites to the gods which are numerous. The use of the optative in indirect speech (GE pp. These are formed just as you would expect by adding the optative endings to the future indicative stems. but for respect towards the gods.190
wife of the basileus.γεγ.
2–3 γενομένων … ἱερῶν. they have set free λύω λέλυκεν you have borne witness μαρτυρέω μεμαρτύρηκας he has conquered νικάω νενικήκασι(ν) we have honoured τιμάω τετίμηκα you (s.πεϕ.ἐκβεβ.
‘proposed to punish’. but he had been deceived by Stephanos. and this woman performed these holy rites. When these sacred rites had taken place. When arguments had taken place and the Council of the Areopagos was angry and punishing Theogenes on the grounds that he had taken such a wife and allowed her to perform the secret rites on behalf of the city. Theogenes began to beg them./acc. 23 ἐξαπατηθέντι ‘granted a pardon to him having been deceived’. And when it found out whose daughter Theogenes had as a wife. 7–10 The structure of this sentence is: genitive absolute. + inﬁnitive. ‘That I am not lying’ he said ‘I shall demonstrate to you by a great proof.
Translation for 13F
Stephanos.’ Since Theogenes promised that he would do this and was entreating. it showed concern about the rites and proposed to punish Theogenes. who had performed them and how the archons had acted. This shows that they are part of what he said. And immediately the Council started to ask who was this wife of Theogenes. ἐπέσχεν (main verb).Section 13F
5–7 The pattern continues. 10 ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὅτι ‘for he said that’. then. and the nine archons had gone up onto the Hill of Ares (Areopagos). When Theogenes came down from the Areopagos. ‘on the grounds that he had been deceived’. the Council of the Areopagos. and had himself accepted Phano as being his (Stephanos’) legitimate daughter in accordance with the law. ἐάσειε) + inﬁnitive. and what sort of things she had done. because of this he had allied himself to him by marriage before he found out clearly what sort of person he was. imploring and entreating. the
. held back. married his daughter to Theogenes while he was holding the ofﬁce of basileus. genitive absolute. ἡ βουλή (subject) ἅμα μὲν ἐλεήσασα … ἅμα δὲ ἡγουμένη + inﬁnitive. 13–14 Here the construction changes to nom. since she is not the daughter of Stephanos but of Neaira. But the sentence starts with an inﬁnitive which follows διὰ … τὸ: ‘because of his inexperience in affairs and his innocence he had made Stephanos …’ 17–19 The structure is: genitive absolute. I shall send the woman away from my house. main verb (ἐδεῖτο) subject + participle + participle./acc. Note that the verbs in the ὅτι clause are all in the optative. the Council on the Areopagos inquired about the sacred rites. ‘was inclined to punish’. But on account of his inexperience in affairs and his naivety he had made Stephanos his assistant so that he could administer the ofﬁce. + inﬁnitives that this is indirect speech. genitive absolute + ὅτι clause with two verbs in the optative (λάβοι. at once pitying him for his innocence and at the same time thinking that he had truly been deceived by Stephanos. 7 ἐζημίου This is a special use of the imperfect tense. but shows by the use of nom. He said that Stephanos appeared to be well disposed towards him. Greek does not repeat ‘he said’. he immediately banished the woman. For he said that he did not know she was the daughter of Neaira.
and pardoned him because he had been deceived. and removed Stephanos. εὑρεθείην. ὅτι οὐκ εἰδείη ὁποῖοι εἶεν. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13F
THE AORIST OPTATIVE PASSIVE 13F: 1
βληθείην. the Areopagites ceased judging Theogenes and being angry with him.192
Revision exercises for section 13F
daughter of Neaira. ὅ τι πράξειεν ὁποία εἴη ὅπως ἀδικήσειεν b.
ἀποθάνοι παρέσοιντο συνίοιεν κολάσοι
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13F
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. 6. δοθείην. ὡς τὰ ἱερὰ πραχθείη
. ληφθείην.) will blame μέμψοισθε Ι shall run δραμοίμην
he will be guarded φυλαχθήσοιτο they will be given δοθήσοιντο we shall invite προσκαλοῖμεν we shall carry οἰσοίμεθα
1. 4. ὅτι πεισθείη d. πεισθείην. ὅτι Φανὼ ἐκδοθείη. τιμηθείην. I know why he does not obey/ is not persuaded. κελευθείην. The jurors asked what Stephanos had done.
THE FUTURE OPTATIVE 13F: 2
I shall vote ψηφισοίμην you (pl. I knew why he would punish the slave. διαφθαρείην. τεθείην. who had deceived him.) will see why they are angry. ὅτι ἐργάζοιτο c. He said that the citizens would not be present. from the council board. δουλωθείην. For Theogenes did not know whose daughter she was nor that she had worked with her body. 2. The council was annoyed at the affair. You (pl. from his house. πεμφθείην. When Phano had been sent away. and what was the impiety of Neaira and how she had wronged the city.
a.) knew where the enemy were assembling. that Phano had been given in marriage to Phrastor and that the sacred rites on behalf of the city had been performed by a foreigner. ποιηθείην. 5. Theogenes said that he did not know what were Phano’s habits and that he had been persuaded by Stephanos to do this.
He answered that the king had died.) will be saved σωθήσοισθε you (pl. ὅτου θυγάτηρ εἴη. You (pl. 3.
Here you will meet the perfect middle and passive. d. 304–305. c. #270. Didn’t you hear that we went into the lawcourt and that those men were condemned and didn’t you hear what was said in the prosecution? ὡς εἰσέλθοιμεν. γεγένημαι These are perfect middle (GE pp. The rest of this section is full of various forms of the perfect active and middle. ἅττα λεχθείη 2. How did the archons behave? ἠρόμην ὅπως πράξειαν οἱ ἄρχοντες. ὡς καταδικασθεῖεν. e. 12–13 οἳ ἂν ἀποϕαίνωσι ‘whoever show’: ἄν + subjunctive makes the relative clause ‘indeﬁnite’.Section 13G
e. τὸν Στέϕανον is the subject of all the participles. on behalf of the state) and the gods. Who was Theogenes’ wife? ἠρόμην ἥτις εἴη ἡ γυνὴ ἡ Θεογένους. Stephanos and Neaira have done the most sacrilegious things.
Translation for 13G
Oh what lawlessness! For Stephanos committed many disgraceful acts. The inﬁnitive shows that this is an indirect statement. 291–295. The perfect middle and passive are the same. Who did this? ἠρόμην ὅστις ταῦτα ποιήσειεν.
. 291–292. the perfect inﬁnitives and participles and some important irregular perfects (GE pp. You will meet this construction later in GE pp.
2 πεποιήκασι What tense?
4 καταπεϕρονήκασιν What tense? 5 μεμαρτυρήκασιν What tense? καταπεϕρονηκέναι What is it? Perfect inﬁnitive active. a. EUERGIDES If indeed Apollodoros is speaking the truth.’ 8 πεπολίτευμαι. ‘For many people have borne witness that they have shown contempt for the city and for the gods. For they have shown contempt for the laws of the state (lit. 292–293. b. What sort of woman was Phano? ἠρόμην ὁποία γυνὴ εἴη ἡ Φανώ. 14 ἀλλ’ εὖ ἴσμεν ‘But we know very well that’ is followed by a series of accusative + participle phrases. #282. #267–268). See GE pp. From where (for what cause) did Theogenes divorce his wife? ἠρόμην ὁπόθεν ἐκβάλοι τὴν γυναῖκα ὁ Θεογένης.
e. But we know well that Stephanos is not rich. proving that Neaira was a hetaira and became the slave of Nikarete. So that it is clear that Stephanos will be convicted of lying. #272. This shows clearly how close the perfect is to the present in meaning. For the children.’ For you know well that all the defendants claim that they have performed their state duties patriotically and that they have won many glorious victories in the games (contests) and that they have accomplished much good for the city. that ‘I have been a good citizen’ and ‘I have been responsible for no disaster in the city. nor has he been appointed choregos. For many people have borne witness that they have shown contempt for both the city and the gods. ‘they exist’. I wonder what Stephanos will ever say in his defence. at least.
3 κέχρηται What tense? What verb? It comes from χράομαι. What then? That he did not take Neaira as his wife but as a concubine in his house? EUERGIDES But Stephanos has brought evidence against himself. See list at GE p. and was not born a citizen.
It is probable. nor has he been a good citizen.
Translation for 13H
What then? What will Stephanos say in his defence? Will he say that Neaira was a citizen and that he lives with her in accordance with the laws? KOMIAS But Apollodoros has employed the strongest evidence. #272. For the dikasts have often acquitted those who have done wrong who can point out the virtues of their ancestors and their own good services. 295. which takes the dative. ‘they are born to make mistakes’.194
SΤR. who were Neaira’s. 295. Reasonably. nor has he been a trierarch. nor has he done any good to the city.’ 12 εἴρηται Perfect passive from λέγω: see GE p. and the
8 Στέϕανος αὐτὸς ὑϕ’ αὑτοῦ ‘Stephanos himself has been condemned by himself. 5 ἐξελεγχθήσεται What tense? What verb? Try ἐξελέγχω. i.
EU. Stephanos will say the sort of things which all defendants say in their defence. if he says such things. 15 πεϕύκασι ‘They have been born’. STR. and who were introduced to the phratries by Stephanos. 7 εἴληϕε This is an irregular perfect from λαμβάνω.
but a much greater one for what he has done. these clearly prove that Neaira was living with Stephanos as his wife.
. You must therefore take vengeance upon those who have been impious to the gods and you must punish those who have wronged the city and are disposed to sacrilege rather than to piety. and it is clear that the truth has been spoken by Apollodoros. line 15 ‘those who have been born to …’: ‘those who by nature are more inclined to impiety rather than piety’. Before you pass judgment. and their participles and inﬁnitives (GE pp.
Now make sure that you know both active and passive forms of the perfect indicative.
daughter. Yes. which show awkward cases where you cannot use an ordinary reduplication. s.
Translation for 13I
You have heard the evidence. know that this Stephanos deserves to pay no lesser penalty than this Neaira.Section 13I
STR. all men indeed are born to make mistakes. of the perfect participle of ἀσεβέω. Note the form of the reduplication when the verb starts with a vowel. followed by two sets of nominative + participle phrases.
EU. Therefore Neaira has been put in the most terrible danger on account of the things that have been done by Stephanos. and that you yourselves have been greatly wronged and insulted. #267–271). #272–273. also ἠδικημένοι and ὑβρισμένοι. fem. 2 ἠσεβηκυῖαν Acc.’
8 πεϕυκότας Cf. by declaring himself to be an Athenian. And Stephanos also is done for. 173. and you have learned in detail that Neaira is an alien and has shown a lack of reverence towards the gods. as it seems to me. judges. For I have proved that he. and make sure also that you look at the lists in GE pp. who was given in marriage to an Athenian man. 291–294.
1–3 μεμαθήκατε This is followed by two sets of accusative + participle phrases. and some irregular perfects. You will need to learn these by heart. 3–4 ὁ Στέϕανος ἄξιός ἐστιν οὐκ ἐλάττω δοῦναι δίκην … ἀλλὰ καὶ πολλῷ μείζω ‘Stephanos is worthy to pay no less penalty than …. 294–295. p. has thus shown much contempt for the laws and you and has been irreverent to the gods. but a much bigger one.
.) have suffered. he has been wronged. he has gone. they are standing.) have been shown
Exercises for section 13G–I
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13G–I
PERFECT INDICATIVE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE 13G–I: 1
κεκώλυται τεθύμεθα γεγάμημαι τετιμημένοι εἰσίν δεδήλωσθε
he has been prevented we have been sacriﬁced I have been married they have been honoured you (pl. δεδηλῶσθαι
κεκωλυκότος κεκωλυκότες κεκωλυμένου κεκωλυμένοι τεθυκότος τεθυκότες τεθυμένου τεθυμένοι γεγαμηκότος γεγαμηκότες γεγαμημένου γεγαμημένοι τετιμηκότος τετιμηκότες τετιμημένου τετιμημένοι δεδηλωκότος δεδηλωκότες δεδηλωμένου δεδηλωμένοι
κεκωλυκυίας κεκωλυκυῖαι κεκωλυμένης κεκωλυμέναι τεθυκυίας τεθυκυῖαι τεθυμένης τεθυμέναι γεγαμηκυίας γεγαμηκυῖαι γεγαμημένης γεγαμημέναι τετιμηκυίας τετιμηκυῖαι τετιμημένης τετιμημέναι δεδηλωκυίας δεδηλωκυῖαι δεδηλωμένης δεδηλωμέναι
κεκωλυκότος κεκωλυκότα κεκωλυμένου κεκωλυμένα τεθυκότος τεθυκότα τεθυμένου τεθυμένα γεγαμηκότος γεγαμηκότα γεγαμημένου γεγαμημένα τετιμηκότος τετιμηκότα τετιμημένου τετιμημένα δεδηλωκότος δεδηλωκότα δεδηλωμένου δεδηλωμένα
it has been announced. τετιμῆσθαι. you (pl. γεγαμῆσθαι. τεθύσθαι.) have hurled you (s.
i. ἐζήτηκας. j. εἰσηγμένοι εἰσίν These men have been the cause of many evils in the city. οἶδα τοῦτο εὶργασμένον τὸν κατήγορον. c. πεπόνθαμεν.
a. g. a. e. καταμεμαρτυρήμεθα Those men have done these things. and you have been greatly wronged. οἶδα ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ταῦτα διαπεπραγμένους.
a. κέχρησαι I myself have been condemned by myself (lit. εἴρηται You have used clear proof. οἶδα ἡμᾶς ἠδικημένους μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου.
. οἶδα ὑμᾶς μεγάλα ὑβρισμένους καὶ ἠδικημένους. ὕβρισαι ἠδίκησαι The prosecutor has accomplished this. h. h. j. f. οἶδα τὸν Φανοῦς παῖδα εἰσηγμένον ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας. ϕάσκω τούτους αἰτίους γεγενῆσθαι πολλῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. ἕστηκα. i. ἀφῄρηται. Stephanos has never paid the penalty. ἠδίκημαι
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 13G–I
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. ϕάσκω τοῦτο εἰργάσθαι τὸν κατήγορον. g. b. ϕάσκω τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας εἰρῆσθαι. εὖ πεπολίτευσθε We have been greatly wronged by Stephanos.
You have governed well. ϕάσκω ὑμᾶς μεγάλα ὑβρίσθαι καὶ ἠδικῆσθαι. ἠδίκημαι These words have been spoken by Neaira. ϕάσκω τὸν Φανοῦς παῖδα εἰσῆχθαι ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου εἰς τοὺς ϕράτερας. διαπέπρακται Phano’s son has been introduced to the brotherhood by Stephanos. ϕάσκω ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ταῦτα διαπεπρᾶχθαι. ϕάσκω καταμεμαρτυρῆσθαι αὐτὸς ὑπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. d. εἰργασμένοι εἰσίν οἶδα σε εὖ πεπολιτευμένον. ϕάσκω ὑμᾶς τεκμηρίῳ ϕανερῷ κεχρῆσθαι. I have had witness borne against me by myself). gentlemen. f. οἶδα τούτους αἰτίους γεγενημένους πολλῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει. οὔ ϕαμεν τὸν Στέϕανον δίκην ποτε δεδωκέναι. e.
2. ἐστέρηται. οἶδα καταμεμαρτυρημένος αὐτὸς ὑπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. b. ϕάσκω σε εὖ πεπολιτεῦσθαι. οἶδα ὑμᾶς τεκμηρίῳ ϕανερῷ κεχρημένους. gentlemen. c.Revision exercises for section 13G–I
εἰρήκασι. d. ϕάσκω ἡμᾶς ἠδικῆσθαι μεγάλα ὑπὸ Στεϕάνου.
3. γεγένηται You have been treated most violently. ἴσμεν τὸν Στέϕανον οὐδέποτε δίκην δεδωκότα. οἶδα τούτους τοὺς λόγους ὑπὸ τῆς Νεαίρας εἰρημένους.
he found no other relation closer to him than us. ἔϕασκες τὴν Νέαιραν ἠσεβηκέναι εἰς τοὺς θεούς. ἐπιδέδειχα τὴν Φανὼ τεθυκυῖαν τὰ ἱερὰ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως. d. 5. ἡ δὲ ἐκβεβλημένη ὀλίγον χρόνον ἔμεινεν. Therefore I want to make one of you my son. e. then. But. ‘I am always abroad. meaning me. Στέϕανος εὖ πεπολίτευται καὶ πολλὰ καὶ καλὰ πεποίηκεν. Menekles began to take thought so that he might not be childless. ὁ γὰρ Φράστωρ οὐδέποτ’ ἂν ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον.
E – TEST EXERCISE 13
1. 3. if I had been able. ϕημὶ τὴν Φανὼ ξένην πεϕυκέναι. Make him your son. he started to enter into an agreement with us and he said ‘Fate did not allow me to have children with your sister. but that he might have a child who would look after him before he died. οὐ βουλόμενος ἄπαις τελευτᾶν. indeed I would have had children from this family. εὖ ἴσμεν πάντες ὅτι οὐδὲν καλὸν οὔτε εἴρηται οὔτε πεποίηται οὐδέποτε ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. ἀναστὰς γὰρ γυναῖκα γνησίαν κατὰ τοὺς νόμους ἔγημεν. 2. he praised his words and said that because Menekles was an old man and alone he needed me to look after him.
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
Sentences 1. 4. ἀνέλαβε τὸ παιδίον πρὶν ἀναστῆναι.’ And Menekles said that it was a good idea (that he was speaking well) and so adopted me. Neaira has been irreverent towards the gods. and who would bury him when he had died and would carry out the customary tasks on his behalf in the period after his death. ἴστε δικασταὶ καθεστηκότες. δῆλον ὅτι.
. ϕατὲ δικασταὶ καθεστηκέναι. ᾔδεισθα τὴν Νέαιραν ἠσεβηκυῖαν εἰς τοὺς θεούς. βουλομένη τὸν Φράστορα τὸ παιδίον ἀναλαβεῖν. Θεογένης ἔϕη ἐξαπατηθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ Στεϕάνου. ἡ βουλὴ ἤρετο ὁποίαν γυναῖκα ἔγημεν ὁ ἄρχων βασιλεύς. εἰ μὴ ἠσθένησε. You have been appointed jurors.198
Revision exercises for section 13G–I
b. ϕὴς τὸν Στέϕανον ὡς τὴν αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα τὴν Φανὼ ἐκδεδωκέναι. but my brother here’. as you know. ‘For’. will look after your affairs and mine.’ And when my brother heard this. c. οἶσθα τὸν Στέϕανον ὡς τὴν αὑτοῦ θυγατέρα τὴν Φανὼ ἐκδεδωκότα. καὶ οὐ διὰ πολλοῦ ἠσθένησεν ὁ Φράστωρ. Phano is an alien by birth (has been born). Prose τὴν οὖν Φανὼ τῆς Νεαίρας θυγατέρα οὖσαν ἐπιδεδειγμένην εὐθὺς ἐξέβαλεν ὁ Φράστωρ. Stephanos has given Phano in marriage as his own daughter. ‘who is always at home. καὶ διὰ τὴν ἔχθραν τὴν πρὸς τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐθελῆσαι αὐτοὺς λαβεῖν τὰ αὑτοῦ.
After this. Since. εὖ οἶδα τὴν Φανὼ ξένην πεϕυκυῖαν. 2. he said.
. vote for justice in accordance with the laws. and bearing in mind the law and the oath which you have sworn and the things that have been said about the matter. help us and that man who is now in the house of Hades. being persuaded by him. gentlemen of the jury. Instead.Revision exercises for section 13G–I
My opponent here wishes now to disinherit me and to render the dead man childless and nameless. Do not therefore. take away the name from me. since the matter has come to you and you have become responsible for it.
you yourselves will be acting impiously towards the gods if you do not punish this woman. ἥν This is accusative s. before this woman was charged by me and brought to trial and before all of you found out who she was and what sort of impiety she had committed. whose future is ψηϕιοῦμαι. Cf. #274–281) and one of its commonest uses with ἄν. she who has openly prostituted herself throughout the whole of Greece? For where has she not worked with her body? Or where has she not gone for her day-to-day earnings? Now that Neaira is clearly known by all as the kind of woman she is. #282).
. 8–9 πρίν is followed by two accusative and inﬁnitive clauses ‘before she did x and y. at this moment)’. 304–305. 10 ἐπειδὴ δὲ πέπυσθε καὶ ἴστε … Notice the present force of the perfect ‘since you have found out and you all know (now. 300–304. and since you are able to punish her.
Translation for 14A
1 2 3 4 5 6
Gentlemen of the jury. so it cannot be a relative pronoun. since you have found out and since you all know. fem. Do not translate πρότερον. νομίζω νομιέω. and before you did z’. and the city was indifferent (lit. This makes a clause indeﬁnite (GE pp. will you then allow this Neaira to insult the city so disgracefully and so contemptuously. of the relative pronoun: ‘she whom …’ ἥ What is this? ἤ This has a smooth breathing.
You now meet the subjunctive (GE pp. which prepares for πρίν. will you vote that she is a citizen? And if you vote in this way. what ﬁne thing will you say that you have accomplished to those who ask you? For [formerly] her crimes existed. to the crimes). [this woman] who was neither left a citizen by her parents nor was she made a citizen by the people? Will you allow her to act irreverently towards the gods with impunity. ἐλήλυθεν What tense? What verb? Learn it! ψηϕιεῖσθε This comes from ψηϕίζομαι.Section Fourteen: Guarding a woman’s purity
ἐάσετε Future of ἐάω. But. Try ‘or’.
9 ἐπειδὰν πύθωνται ‘When they ﬁnd out’. 176. Do not confuse this ἄν with ἄν + optative.e. ἀτιμώρητος p. This gives the predicted reaction of thoughtful women and foolish women. be angry with you because you thought it right that Neaira should equally with them have a share in the business of the city and in the sacred rites? And moreover. 11 ἄδειαν διδόναι ποιεῖν ‘To grant licence to do. 436–442. Note that ἀνόητος is a compound adjective and has only two terminations. 4 ὅτι should probably be translated as ‘because’. hearing this. l. 6 διηγήσεσθε What tense is this? 7 κατηγορήθη What tense is this? 8–11 οὔκουν ἤδη αἱ σωϕρονέσταται τῶν γυναικῶν and καὶ δὴ καὶ ταῖς ἀνοήτοις γυναιξί. she lived with a citizen against the law and because she married her daughter to Theogenes when he was basileus and she performed the sacred and secret rites on behalf of the city and was given as a bride to Dionysos. For you will seem to be contemptuous and yourselves to be in agreement with Neaira’s standards of behaviour.’ 3 ἐρήσεται What tense is this? You may ﬁnd it useful to look up the principal parts of ἐρωτάω in the irregular verb list on pp. will ask ‘What then did you do?’ and you will say ‘We acquitted her. This is the indeﬁnite construction expressed by ἄν + the subjunctive (GE pp. #282). 304–305. which is potential and means ‘could’ or ‘would’ (GE #283) or ἄν + indicative in unfulﬁlled conditions. you will seem to be granting licence to foolish women to do what(ever) they like. though an alien. Cf. m.Section 14B
‘when he says’. 3. #389 of GE.
Translation for 14B
And what would each one of you say when you go back to the house to your wife or your daughter or your mother if you have voted (having voted) to acquit Neaira? For when (whenever) someone asks you ‘Where were you?’ and you say ‘We were trying a case’. when they ﬁnd out.’ (And you will go through the other things about the charge saying how well and carefully and accurately on each point she was prosecuted. and f.
. that someone will immediately ask ‘Whom were you trying?’ and you will say ‘Neaira’ (of course) ‘because. 4–6 Look carefully at all the tenses here. i.’ ὅ τι ἂν βούλωνται Another indeﬁnite clause: ‘what(ever) they like’.) And they. endings are identical. ‘whenever he says’.’ Will not the most self-controlled of women.
1 τί δὲ ϕήσειεν ἄν ἄν + optative: ‘What would each of you say …’ 2 ἐπειδὰν γάρ τις ἔρηται ὑμᾶς ἄν + subjunctive ‘when someone asks (if they actually do ask).
and to declare that their children belong to whoever they happen to ﬁnd [to father them].202
6 ἐπειδὰν γάρ τις καλῶς λέγῃ An indeﬁnite clause: ‘when anyone speaks well’.
1 ἀπορηθῇ Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. Euergides. κύριαι. KOM. It is normal to express a future condition as an indeﬁnite. and why do you neither praise nor criticise the arguments? For I am very pleased. with the speech which Apollodoros made.
This section is full of future conditions (ἐάν + subjunctive) and indeﬁnite relative and adverbial clauses (‘whoever’.) expressed by ἄν + the subjunctive. and you would be concerned about female citizens. Euergides. now I have heard the speech which Apollodoros has made. Komias? Do you think the laws will become powerless? KOMIAS You are concerned with hetairas and the laws. STR. but I am concerned with none of these things. it will be possible’: see GE p. and hetairas will have the power to do whatever they like. 19–20 What sort of condition is expressed here by ἄν + imperfect indicative?
Translation for 14C
But why are you silent. Of course. Not only that. What do you say. #176. ‘however’. but there is also the fact that the established laws will become powerless. then.
. More indeﬁnite clauses. 198. of the aorist passive subjunctive of ἀπορέω. who does not enjoy listening? STR. etc. For whenever anyone speaks well and truthfully. ἐξέσται ‘For if we acquit Neaira. Strymodorus. too. pleased by his words? EUERGIDES I am certainly very pleased. Consider. Strymodoros. STR. you would understand. Your concern is with female citizens? How do you mean? Perhaps you are saying something important. 12–13 Note the opposites ἄκυροι. but I don’t understand. 9 ἐὰν γὰρ ἀποψηϕισώμεθα Nεαίρας. What do you say about what he has said? Are you. For if we acquit Neaira it will be permissible for prostitutes to live with whoever they like. ‘in whatever way’. What then? Must we condemn Neaira? EU. 10–11 ἄν + subjunctive. My concern is with female citizens. If you were a woman. Strymodoros.
ἐάν τις βούληται ‘If someone wants’: ἐάν + subjunctive. διελήλυθε 3rd s. But be quiet. even if that citizen is poor. but they will be able to marry whomsoever they like. This is why I am concerned about citizen women. 6 καὶ ὅταν μὲν τοῦ κατηγορεῖν γένησθε ‘and whenever you are concerned with prosecution’. EUERGIDES What then? KOM. of the perfect active subjunctive of καθίστημι. -ῃ indicates the subjunctive. πένητος ὄντος is genitive in apposition to ἀστοῦ in the previous line. of the aorist passive subjunctive of ἀπολύω. In this way the lawmakers take care that the daughters of citizens will not be unmarried – STR. If nature grants a girl moderate beauty. ἐὰν δὲ ἀπολυθῇ Nέαιρα ‘If Neaira is set free’. it will not be necessary for Athenians to marry citizen women. EU. friends. ‘acquitted’: ἀπολυθῇ is the 3rd s. the law provides a sufﬁcient dowry. The perfect is used because ‘he has been placed in a situation’ = ‘he is in a situation’. Apollodoros has delivered his speech well. who do not have a dowry? The function of prostitutes will come completely to the daughters of citizens because they have no dowry and the reputation of free women will come to hetairas. if Athenians marry whomsoever they like. ‘take care that …’ ἀποδῷ 3rd s. But if the Athenians have children however they please. as it does in ἀπορηθῇ. but this matter has been expressed by Komias even better and more sincerely. εἰ καὶ πένητος ὄντος ‘Even if he is a poor man’. aorist active subjunctive of ἀποδίδωμι. σκοποῦσιν ὅπως + future indicative: ‘see to it that …’. If Neaira is acquitted (freed). who will marry the daughters of poor men. Therefore. how will it be possible for us to distinguish between the citizen and the alien? And if we cannot distinguish between the citizen and the alien. he must marry the daughter of a citizen. ‘has gone through the argument’. For hetairas will be allowed to have children with whomever they like and to share in mysteries and sacred rites and honours in the city. perfect indicative of διέρχομαι.
Translation for 14D
For now.Section 14E
8 10 21
καθεστήκῃ Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. for Apollodoros is ending his speech. STRYMODOROS What do you mean? KOM. it will be permissible for the Athenians to live with hetairas and have children however they please.
. If someone wants to rear children that are citizens.
3 ὁμοίως Nεαίρᾳ τῇ πόρνῃ ‘in the same way as Neaira the prostitute’. even if a woman is in dire straits and her father has fallen into poverty and cannot give his daughter a dowry.
and puts me in great perplexity. and if she is acquitted. σιγῴης ἄν … προσέχοις ἄν ἄν + optative = a polite request. If Neaira is condemned. for the prosecutor leads me round in a circle. Strymodoros. the laws through which we live in the city. gentlemen of the jury. and give them in marriage in accordance with the laws. Look after them. ‘would you be quiet and concentrate?’ 11–12 ὅπως + the future indicative: ‘Take care that you…’
Translation for 14F
Good. But now we must hear the defence of Stephanos and when we have heard it we must cast our vote. But Neaira with her many disgraceful ways has had intercourse with many men many times each day. think only of this one thing. another of his mother. and by which you have sworn to give judgment. look after them with much good discipline and care. And when you are concerned with the defence. another on behalf of his daughter. KOMIAS And the defendant too will drag you round in a circle. STR. STR. another of his city and its laws and its religion. So great then is the prosecution which Apollodoros has delivered. remember the condemnation of the laws and the proof of the things which have been said which you have heard. STR. as it seems. you will say that you acquitted her. First listen and then decide (judge). Of course. Strymodoros. one of you on behalf of his wife.
There are many more examples of the use of ἄν + the subjunctive in this section. Good. And when you look upon the face of Neaira. listen to the laws themselves. But. whether. Do not show respect for these women in the same way as for Neaira the prostitute. she has done these things.204
8 ὅταν δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀπολογεῖσθαι ἦτε ‘and whenever you are concerned with the defence’. what next?
. like a sophist. But when we have cast our vote. being Neaira. STRYMODOROS But what shall I say when my children and my wife ask whether I condemned or acquitted her? EU. And when you are concerned with prosecution. although I am eager to do it. I cannot remember the prosecution. you will say that you condemned her.
10 ὡς ἀπολογησόμενος ὡς + the future participle expresses purpose. How then will it be possible for me to judge the trial? ΕU.
Translation for 14E
I want each one of you to know that you are casting your vote.
It is very pleasant when I go home with my three obols in my mouth. With reason! But stop chattering.
What next? When we have got up from our seats and cast our votes. Strymodoros. see that you remember the things said by Apollodoros and that you pay attention to everything which Stephanos may say. For Stephanos is now standing up to make his defence. And as for you. Whatever evidence the witnesses give and whatever they say.Revision exercises for section 14
KOM. subj. παύῃ no future subjunctive ἐκπέσῃ σχῶσι(ν)
I have married he will go they are we have become they placed we make/do (for ourselves) they see they knew they were giving he carried
γεγαμήκω ἴῃ ὦσι(ν) γεγενημένοι ὦμεν θῶσι ποιώμεθα ὁρῶσι(ν) γνῶσι(ν) imperfect (pres. we shall receive our three obols. Strymodoros.
a. and all the household welcome me because of the three obols. Would you please be quiet and pay attention. we always judge carefully. μαρτυρῶσι λέγωσιν
.) will obey he fell out/was thrown out they had
ἁμάρτῃ the imperfect subjunctive shares the expect of the present subj. ἐπειδὰν εἰδῶ.
EU. Komias. see above) ἐνέγκῃ
ἐὰν ὁρῶσιν/ἰδῶσιν ἐπειδὰν ἀκούω/ἀκούσω ὅστις ἂν ἴῃ/ἔλθῃ. ὅστις ἂν ὦσιν. ὅπου ἂν ᾖ ἐπειδὰν ἀπίωσιν/ἀπέλθωσιν ἐὰν δουλῶμεν/δουλώσωμεν. is διδῶσιν. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 14
THE SUBJUNCTIVE 14: 1
he made a mistake he was stopping he will persuade/you (s. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 14
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
If an evil man loses his citizen’s rights (is placed in loss of citizen’s rights). your enemies will always take vengeance on you. But if it does not. if someone wants to make a new law. βούλῃ δηλοῖς g. but they observe the ancient laws
. καταστῇ f. the proposer lives and gets away. πρόσσχητε προθυμῆσθε j. ὅταν οἱ δικασταὶ οἴκαδε ἔλθωσιν. see that you ﬂatter her. εἰσίῃς ἐντύχῃ
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
Sentences 1. he proposes it with his neck in a noose. χαλεπὴ γίγνεται. Whoever is not condemned but acquitted by the jurors. ﬁnd that you have constructed a different version and are still perfectly correct. ἀγωνίσηται ἀποψηϕίσωνται d. ἐὰν προσέχῃς τὸν νοῦν πρὸς τὴν ἀπολογίαν. δῆλον ὅτι. εὖ πεπολιτεῦσθαι καὶ πολλά τε καὶ ἀγαθὰ διαπεπρᾶχθαι. When(ever) the prosecutor speaks and persuades us. When(ever) a citizen goes to law or the clansmen reject (vote against) a child born from an alien. If you concentrate your mind carefully on the prosecution and are eager. ἢ τοιοῦτό τι πρᾶγμα ἀκηκόατέ ποτε. you will condemn (vote against) Neaira. Note that it is possible to translate this passage into Greek in a number of different ways. ἐὰν ϕιλῇ ὑπὸ τῶν θυγατέρων. we condemn. λέγῃ πείθῃ c.
E – TEST EXERCISE 14
1. 2. The law provides an adequate dowry to any woman whose father does not give a dowry. ἀπολύσεις τὸν ϕεύγοντα. Prose ἀπολογούμενος οὖν τί λέξει ὁ Στέϕανος.206
Revision exercises for section 14
b. ϕήσει. αἱ γυναῖκες ἀσπάζονται αὐτοὐς. 4. μὴ καταδικασθῇ ἀπολυθῇ e. 2. So that. we regard as innocent. οὔτε γὰρ οὑτοσὶ οὔτε οἱ πρόγονοι πρὸς τὸ εὐσεβεῖν πεϕύκασιν ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὸ ἀσεβεῖν. This is only one of them. δώσουσί σοι ὅ τι ἂν βούλῃ.
I want to tell you how they frame the laws in Lokris (among the Lokrians). οὐ δῆτα. You may. all the citizens are pleased. therefore. Whatever ﬁne you think just and inﬂict. For there they think the citizens ought to observe the long-established laws and preserve tradition. that is the penalty that the man who has been condemned owes to the city. When you enter the house and your wife meets you. 3. ἐπειδὰν οἱ κατήγοροι λέγωσιν. Whenever you want to say something terrible and you reveal the truth. ἀεὶ τὰ αὐτὰ λέγουσιν. the laws are preserved. ὅταν γυνή τις χρήματων λάβηται. μὴ δῷ i. he is killed when the noose is drawn tight. And if the law seems to be good and useful. καίτοι εὖ ἴσμεν πάντες ὅτι οὐδὲν οὔτε καλὸν οὔτε ἀγαθὸν διεπράχθη ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ οὐδέποτε. ἡγῆσθε τιμᾶτε h. 5. In fact they do not dare to propose new laws.
only one new law is said to have been passed.
. that he would knock out this one eye. When this threat had been made. An enemy is said to have threatened his enemy. For there is a law established in Lokris that. and thinking that his life would be unliveable if he suffered this. And the Lokrians are said to have passed this law alone in more than two hundred years. In the course of many years. For in this way they would both suffer the same injury. he is said to have dared to put forward the following law: if anyone knocks out the eye of a one-eyed man. if a man knocks out an eye. the one-eyed man was upset. he will have to give both his eyes to be knocked out in return. who happened to have one eye. the one who knocked out the eye must offer his own eye to be knocked out in return.Revision exercises for section 14
15 πίτνω This form of πίπτω is very common in poetry. 310. 11 ἐκ … ἑλοῦσα This splitting of a verb from its prepositional preﬁx is called ‘tmesis’ (‘cutting’).Section Fifteen: Alkestis in Euripides’ play
In this section you are introduced to the verse of Greek Tragedy in a touching scene from Euripides’ Alkestis (produced in 438 BC).
Translation for 15A
Let her know then [that she] is going to die gloriously and by far the best woman of those under the sun. 4–5 Difﬁcult. 310. Note (e) here contains the warning: ‘Word order in verse can be far more ﬂexible than in prose. (literally ‘for how not?’ = ‘of course’) has appeared from Section 1 onwards. see GE #247). This squashing together of two separate words (τὰ ἐμά) is called ‘crasis’. crucial for the continued existence of the home. It is easiest to translate it as an adverb. utterances can be far more oblique and tightly packed with meaning. It is quite common in verse authors. Consult GE p.’ While it is probably true that you will ﬁnd an increase of difﬁculty in this section. πῶς γὰρ οὔ. Consult the translation. the Greek should prove manageable. οἶδα is followed by a participle (‘know that …’. 3 πῶς δ’ οὐκ …. The vocabulary tells you that κατθανουμένη is the future participle of καταθνῄσκω. Who will disagree? What should this outstanding woman be called (how should she be described)? How could anyone declare more [clearly] that she holds her husband in honour than by
. again. #286. #286 for a list of tragic usages. but it is not always easy to recognise whether the preposition is there in its own right or if it is a case of ‘tmesis’. SERVANT Of course [she is] the best. εὐκλεής = ‘a glorious [woman]’. ‘gloriously’. 13 ‘Εστία Hestia is the goddess of the hearth. We have tried to keep the translation as literal as possible throughout. 16 τἀμά See GE p.
1 ἴστω The third person singular imperative of οἶδα (GE #207).
elision usually works the other way round. you have destroyed me alone.e. Have a look at this rare form at GE pp. i. adds a sense of grandeur. but you will wonder as you hear what she did in the house. Here means ‘from the action of …’ περί + gen.’
1 δόμους Poetic plural – the house is in fact singular. which is fairly common in poetry.’
. and the coming disaster did not change the graceful nature of her complexion. Here means ‘for the sake of …’ 11 κεκτήσεται Future perfect. farewell. she adorned herself becomingly. then indeed she wept and said these things: ‘O bed.(‘not weeping. having taken out from their cedar home (i. 8 ἐκ + gen. #284–285. And join a dear wife in marriage to the boy and a noble husband to the girl. unweeping. she prayed: ‘Mistress – [I am addressing you] for I am going beneath the earth – appealing to you for the last time. where I lost my virgin maidenhood to this man for whose sake I die. but perhaps [will be more] fortunate. and standing before the Household Hearth.Section 15B
being willing to die for him? And the whole city knows these things. and. she could not be more chaste. 5 κἄπειτα Crasis (GE p. For I do not hate you. 310. As you will remember. but may they happily complete a pleasant life in their father’s land. for shrinking from betraying you and my husband. 4 μεθίστη Imperfect (GE #230–234). but this use of the plural. chest) clothes and decoration. I die. she washed her white skin in waters from the river.e.
Translation for 15B
She approached all the altars which [are] throughout the house of Admetos and she garlanded them and addressed them in prayer. You will see that it is middle or passive. 309–310. #286). has reduplication and uses future endings. 3 Note the preﬁx ἀ. 6 ᾽δάκρυσε The ﬁrst syllable (ε) is elided (struck off) after the vowel at the end of the previous word (prodelision). without lamentation. not lamenting’). For when she realised that the appointed day had come. Then rushing into her bedroom and [falling onto] her bed. the vowel at the end of a word disappears. I shall beg you to look after my orphaned children. And may the children not die – as I their mother am being destroyed – before their time. Some other woman will have you for her own.
10 ἄλλοτ’ ἄλλον ‘at one time one. 311–313. betray) him.
Translation for 15C
CHORUS F. 22 χειρός Literally ‘of his hand’.S. at another time another’. but nevertheless still breathing (although [just] a little).
16 λελήσεται Future perfect of λανθάνομαι (GE pp.
And embracing [the bed]. But when she had had enough of many tears.210
5 πολλά Neuter plural used as an adverb. Here it gives the answer ‘I suppose he does’ to the question the Chorus ask. Her children. 19 χεροῖν This is a dual ending. having died). Then read it naturally. now the other. a pathetic weight in his arms. She stretched out her right hand to each of them. falling out of) the bed. 17 που The enclitic που can mean ‘I suppose’. You will have this explained to you in Section 17. trying to bring out the iambic rhythm first of all. Exhausted. have perished. and often going out of the bedroom she turned back and ﬂung herself back again on the bed. she wishes to look towards the rays of the sun – as [she] never [will] again – but now for the last time.
Tragic verse metre
Read GE pp. and begs her not to forsake (lit. if he must be deprived of a good woman? Yes. he weeps. #284–285). meaning ‘often’. For she is dying and wastes away through the disease. Does Admetos grieve over these evils. 12 κοὔτις Crasis of καὶ οὔτις. but escaping death he has so much grief – which he will never have forgotten. embraced now one. 309–310. Translate ‘in his hands’. if he had died (lit. And. clinging to their mother’s robes. Then read aloud to yourself as much of 14B as you can. She. Translate ‘in both hands’. pitying their mistress. were weeping. she went headlong. #287–290 and try to scan the ﬁrst four lines of section 14B. Such are the evils in the house of Admetos.
. taking them into her arms. she kissed it and bedewed all the bed with a ﬂood [of tears] welling from her eyes. All the servants were weeping throughout the house. throwing herself from (lit. seeking the impossible. holding his dear wife in his arms. to be sure. as she was on the point of dying. he would. and no one was so low-born that she did not speak to him – and was addressed by him in return.
Aristarchos? ARISTARCHOS From the agora. state and individuals
In this section you will meet a number of different features of grammar and syntax that are clearly described in GE pp. Tell me then. 315–318.
3 ἀθύμως ἔχοντι Agrees with Ἀριστάρχῳ. Also there are verbal nouns ending in -τέος which express obligation (‘must’). my friend. For you seem to be upset about something. beneath the wall itself. καλῶς ἔχω ‘I am well’. and I am going home. #291–294. Apollodoros’ next question shows two of the procedures which they might advise on. #291.g. ἔχω + adverb expresses the state that someone is in. 13 ἐπεποιήκει What tense? see GE p. But. Where are you going to and where have you come from. and ϕοβοῦμαι μή + subjunctive = ‘I am afraid that something may happen’ (GE #293). Apollodoros. for what purpose were you spending your time in the agora? AR. or about burial?
. as it seems. Apollodoros.Section Sixteen: Ofﬁcial justice – ships. there he meets Aristarchos the son of Ariston. who is very depressed. GE #294–295. Notice particularly μή + aorist subjunctive = ‘don’t …’ (GE #292). 315. seeing Aristarchos coming towards him. Apollodoros. you seem to me to be depressed. AP. e. I went to the ofﬁcials. ἠδικήκει What tense? 17 διεξελθόντι δέ μοι … οὐκ ἔϕασαν ἐξεῖναι … Literally ‘to me having related … they said that it was not possible to …’ ἐπεπόνθη What verb? What tense? Try πάσχω πείσομαι ἔπαθον πεπόνθα.’ 10 τοὺς ἐξηγητάς These were state ofﬁcials who advised what to do in cases of murder. walking along the road outside the wall. When he is at the gate.
Translation for 16A
Apollodoros is going straight towards Ilisos. κακῶς ἔχω ‘I am in a bad way. What do you say? Did you go to them about puriﬁcation. addresses him. AP.
AR. Speak now. 5 διέξει What tense? What person? This is the second person singular of διέξειμι. I went to the ofﬁcials. 317–318. my friend. μηδὲ ἀθυμήσῃς μή + aorist subjunctive = ‘Don’t …’ (GE pp. One must not despair but take heart. 6 ϕοβοῦμαι μὴ σ’ ἀπολέσω See GE p. 315–316. Fears for the future in primary sequence can be expressed by μή + subjunctive. Taking this tragedy to heart and wanting to take revenge on this man. 18 συμβουλεύσωμαι What mood and tense after ἵνα? 19 χάριν γὰρ εἴσομαι Have you remembered that εἴσομαι is the future of οἶδα?
Translation for 16B
Don’t despair. AP.
1 μὴ ἀπορήσῃς. #292). ἵνα + subjunctive expresses purpose. Then I must tell everything from the beginning. I went for this reason (thus) being angry with a violent man. how you will relate the affair to me as clearly as possible. the ﬁrst aorist indicative is ἀπώλεσα and its subjunctive is therefore ἀπολέσω. and do not conceal anything. it is ﬁtting for you to hear it (the hearing is ﬁtting for you). 2 ἀθυμητέον. #293.
AR. For this man had wronged me particularly. Verb forms in -τέoς mean ‘must’. going into the farm and offering violence to my family and what is more killing an old woman who was a freedwoman. Tell me therefore. but when I had told them what I had suffered and what Theophemos had done. #294–295. for what he had done. προθυμητέον See GE pp. 316. Apollodoros. they said that it was not possible to take revenge in the way I had in mind. And indeed. ARISTARCHOS But I am afraid that I may ﬁnish you off in telling you. Theophemos by name. Aristarchos. Don’t be afraid that this will happen. my friend. For you must not be upset by what has happened nor be despondent.
Yes. The future is ἀπολῶ. and don’t be despondent any longer. That is what we have here. 15 βοηθήσω What mood and tense is this? compare ἀπολέσω. it is in fact the aorist subjunctive. but take heart. as it seems. for you are a clever prosecutor and reasonably experienced in legal matters. What then? Do you want to listen while we go for a walk or while we sit down? The path along the Ilisos is in every way suitable for us to speak and to listen as we go. We must consider this matter from the beginning. concentrating in every way on this. Note that although this looks like a future indicative at ﬁrst sight. and don’t hold back. Therefore don’t regard me without respect (do not hold me in dishonour). For I have time to spare (leisure). For it is not a short story.
if in your walk you go all the way to Megara.) had honoured he had placed we had died they had thrown I had gone we had been loved they had been enslaved you (pl. don’t (pl. 3.) stay 4. I shall not stop accompanying you. And indeed I shall be grateful to you if you speak. You speak. AP. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16A–B
THE PLUPERFECT 16A–B: 1
ἐτετιμήκης ἐτεθήκει ἐτεθνήκεμεν ἐβεβλήκεσαν ἐβεβήκη ἐπεφιλήμεθα ἐδεδούλωντο ἐκεκρατήκετε
μή + SUBJUNCTIVE 16A–B: 2
you (s. arrived φοβοῦνται μὴ ἀφίκηται we are afraid they ﬂed φοβούμεθα μὴ φύγωσιν he is afraid we stayed φοβεῖται μὴ μείνωμεν you (pl. I shall be grateful to you.) say this
VERBS OF FEARING 16A–B: 3
μὴ τοῦτο ποίει μὴ δράμητε μὴ μένετε μὴ πέσῃς μὴ λέγετε ταῦτα
1. don’t (s.) do this 2. 5. held power
1.Exercises for section 16A–B
AP. AR. don’t (s.) had conquered. 2. die 5.
Why not? For it is not yet the stiﬂing midday heat.) run 3. so that I can learn what has happened. 4. so that when I have heard I can take counsel with you. don’t (pl. if you listen. So that. The gratitude would be twofold.) fall.
they are afraid he came. then.) are afraid he was enslaved φοβεῖσθε μὴ δουλωθῇ I am afraid they did not ﬁght φοβοῦμαι μὴ οὐ μάχωνται
AR. I am very eager to listen. Listen. don’t (pl. so that I can help you in your despair and despondency. Certainly.
Despise the gods. 2. σοὶ/σὲ ἰτέον οἴκαδε. You must make war. Be eager. #297. when …’ Note τότε and ὅτε. f. μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς. a. e. 10 ὡς τάχιστα See GE p. 13 ἐξῆν What verb does this come from? Imperfect of ἔξεστι. τῷ ἀνδρὶ/τὸν ἄνδρα οἰστέον τὴν συμϕοράν. 7 ἦν τότε. hearing this. f. ὅτε … ‘There was at that time. 6 καίπερ δέον καίπερ + participle = although … δέον is the neuter singular of the participle of δεῖ. They must help. #296). g. c. We must consider these things in detail. Take the young men. Remember all the arguments. 3.
Prevent the man. a. c.
1 ὅθεν ‘from where’. h.
a. Tell the argument of the defence. this is the relative form of the interrogative πόθεν ‘from where?’. 14–15 ἵνα … προστάττωμεν καὶ ἀναγκάζωμεν Purpose clause. Restrain yourself. k. Take revenge on your friends. μὴ ἐπίσχῃς. 321. i. μὴ κατείπῃς τὸν τῆς ἀπολογίας λόγον. οὐκ ἐξόν Accusative absolute ‘it not being possible …’ 14 γράϕει Χαιρέδημος Note the change to present tense for vividness. μὴ θῇ τὴν ψῆϕον. b. μὴ τιμωρήσησθε τοὺς ϕίλους. It is necessary to send you home. the man may be disheartened. μὴ μνημονεύσητε πάντας τοὺς λόγους. j. The man must endure the disaster.214
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16A–B
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. I am dreadfully despondent in case my friend may not do this. b. Take care (see that) you do not tell lies to the jurors about what happened.
. μὴ κωλύσητε τὸν ἄνδρα. ὑμᾶς/ὑμῖν πολεμητέον. used impersonally ‘although it being necessary …’ (GE p. ἵνα μάθῃς ‘so that you may learn’. μὴ ἐπιλάθησθε τούτου τοῦ πράγματος. 320. d. μὴ ἐπιθυμήσητε. You must go home. Forget this matter. ἡμᾶς/ἡμῖν ἀκριβῶς σκεπτέον περὶ ταῦτα. d. βοηθητέον αὐτοὺς/αὐτοῖς. Hold back. ὡς + superlative = ‘as … as possible’. b. 4–5 ἐξιούσης τῆς ἀρχῆς Genitive absolute. ἵνα + subjunctive expresses purpose. μὴ καταϕρονήσῃς τῶν θεῶν. ‘the ofﬁce ﬁnishing (going out)’. e. We are afraid that. d. Cast your vote. Be despondent. I am afraid that Demosthenes did not save the men. μὴ παραλάβῃς τοὺς νεανίσκους. c. οἴκαδε πεμπτέον σέ.
when his term of ofﬁce expires. among whom was Theophemos. Chairedemos proposes a resolution so that we who have been appointed as trierarchs may order and compel those who had been trierarchs (whoever had not given it back) to give back the equipment. 19 δέον Accusative absolute again. for you know very well that it is necessary for someone who has been a trierarch. For those who owed it had not given back the equipment. to hand over the trireme and its equipment to the person who is going to become trierarch. tow and rope. I received none of the equipment from him. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16C
THE ACCUSATIVE ABSOLUTE 16C: 1
1. And since it was not possible to buy them. For I happened to be holding the ofﬁce of trierarch. 18 ἦν Back to the past tense. I went to Theophemos in order to get the equipment. send it out as quickly as possible. And the resolution orders us to get the equipment in whatever way we can so that we may prepare the ships as quickly as possible and send out the rescue mission. #265. 286. so that it was not possible to buy them. in primary sequence. there was no supply of equipment for the ships in the dockyard. there was not in the Piraeus an unlimited supply of sailcloth. But although it was necessary for us to send out the ships as quickly as possible. and as trierarch I had to receive the equipment and the trireme from Theophemos.
ἐξὸν ἡμῖν ἀπιέναι it being possible for us to go away since we can go away
. Therefore there was great necessity for me to get the equipment so that I could prepare the ship and. and the people who owed them had not given them back. as they were before. In addition to this. having prepared it. great danger to the city because of the rebellion of the allies. there was at that time. not in the subjunctive. See GE p.Exercises for section 16C
15 ὃς ἂν μὴ ἀποδιδῷ Indeﬁnite clause: ‘whoever does not return them’. And moreover. so that it was necessary for the trierarchs to send out a rescue operation of triremes quickly. But although it was obligatory for Theophemos to hand over the equipment. Note that as the main verb is now in the past we are in historic (or secondary) sequence and so the verbs in the ἵνα clause which follows are in the optative mood. Since it was necessary for me to do this. ‘It being necessary …’
Translation for 16C
I want therefore to tell you the origin of the enmity towards Theophemos (from where it arose) so that you may learn what happened and know that he wronged not only me but also the people and the Boule (Council). when I was about to become a trierarch. so that he too can prepare the ship.
δέον τὸν ὀϕείλοντα τῇ πόλει τὰ σκεύη παραδιδόναι τῷ τριηραρχήσοντι. It is necessary for the one who owes it to the city to give back the equipment to the one who is about to become trierarch. δέον ἡμᾶς παρασκευάζειν ὡς τάχιστα τὰς ναῦς. I went to Theophemos. τοῖς παῖσιν ἐξὸν παίζειν it being possible for the children to play since the children are allowed to play 5. ἐγὼ ὡς τὸν Θεόϕημον προσῆλθον. Then it is not possible for me to prepare the trireme. The trierarchs were not able to prepare the ships. δόξαν/δοκοῦν μοι ποιῆσαι τοῦτο it seeming best to do this because I thought it best to do this 4. γράϕει Χαιρέδημος ψήϕισμα. βέλτιστος ὡς ἐλάχιστος ὡς σαφέστατος ὡς σωφρονέστατος ὡς φοβερώτατος ὡς ἀδικώτατος ὡς μέγιστος ὡς κάκιστος. προσῆλθον πρὸς τὴν βουλήν. εἶτα οὐκ ἐξόν μοι τὴν τριήρη παρασκευάζειν.216
Revision exercises for section 16C
. οἱ τριήραρχοι οὐκ ἐδύναντο παρασκευάζειν τὰς ναῦς. δέον τοὺς ἄνδρας ἐκδοῦναι τὰς θυγατέρας it being necessary for the men to give their daughters in marriage since the men/husbands must give their daughters in marriage
ὡς ἄριστος. Chairedemos proposes a resolution. b.
a. d. c. χείριστος
the best possible the least/smallest possible the clearest possible the most prudent possible the most frightening possible the most unjust possible the biggest/greatest possible the worst possible
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16C
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. I went to the Council.
δέον ὑμᾶς θεραπεύειν τὰς γυναῖκας it being necessary for you to look after the women since you must look after the women 3. It was not possible to buy any of the things needed in the Piraeus. It was necessary for us to prepare the ships as quickly as possible. οὐκ ἐξὸν ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ οὐδὲν πρίασθαι ὧν ἔδει.
1 Note genitive absolute followed by accusative absolute followed by aorist participle agreeing with the subject of the verb.
Translation for 16D
But since Theophemos was not there and it was not possible for me to see him. 6–7 ἠρόμην … πότερον … εἴη. I asked for the equipment and told him to tell Theophemos. 323. the brother of Theophemos. Euergos answered that the property was not shared and that his brother lived separately. having taken as many witnesses as possible. and when I asked. ἀπεκρίνατο … ὅτι … εἴη Two clauses in indirect speech in secondary sequence with the verb in the subordinate clause in the optative. In purpose clauses (and indeﬁnite clauses and fears for the future) the sequence of tenses is: primary – subjunctive. 286. #299. going to Euergos. ἵνα λάβοι αὐτήν 2. therefore.
The woman came to take her. from somewhere else where Theophemos lived. The situation was continuing until the action in the next sentence. #265. secondary – optative. I saw the men ﬂeeing with the intention of saving themselves. ὁπότε + ἄν denotes an indeﬁnite clause. 3 ὁπόταν ‘when(ever)’. ὅπως σώσειαν αὑτούς
. I asked him whether the property was shared or not. 5 Note the use of the imperfect. 10 ἦλθον … ἵνα ἴδοιμι Purpose clause in secondary sequence: ‘so that I might see him’. #300. Having found out. For there is a resolution of the Boule to get the equipment in whatever way we can. Therefore I made my request and delayed for some days so that Euergos might tell Theophemos. 325. whenever the people who owe it do not return it. where the verb in the subordinate clause is indicative in primary sequence and optative in secondary sequence. I went to the house of Theophemos to see him. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16D
PURPOSE CLAUSES 16D: 1
1. See GE p. but Euergos did not give back the equipment. See GE p. and taking an ofﬁcial from the board of ofﬁcials. So. but kept abusing me.Exercises for section 16D
You have already met the idea of sequence of tenses in clauses in indirect speech introduced by ὅτι. 2 ἐκέλευoν αὐτὸν ϕράσαι ‘ordered him to tell’ (aorist inﬁnitive).
1–2 Note the use of the imperfect. 2 ὅπου ἂν νῦν γε τυγχάνῃ ὤν Primary sequence. μὴ ἀθυμήσῃς. ἵνα πείσαι αὐτήν 4. 10 εἴ τινας ἴδοι Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. whenever someone did not give back the equipment. καίπερ τὸν Θεόϕημον δέoν ἀποδοῦναι τὰ σκεύη. wherever he now happened to be’. 2. 11–13 ἐκέλευον … ἢ … ἢ … ‘I ordered him … either to … or to …’ 13 ληψοίμην Notice the future optative. #300 about indeﬁnite clauses in primary and secondary sequence. And indeed I was not the only one who acted in this way. Note that in primary sequence the indeﬁnite clause has subjunctive + ἄν. οὐ δύναμαι ἀναγκάζειν αὐτὸν ταῦτα ποιῆσαι.218
3. 325. 5. ἦλθον πρὸς τὴν ϕίλου τινὸς οἰκίαν ἵνα πυθοίμην ὅπου οἰκοίη ὁ Θεόϕημος. πρόσειμι πρὸς τὴν βουλὴν ἵνα ψήϕισμα γράϕωσιν. 3. which ordered me to get the equipment in whatever way I could.
. Aristarchos was in the process of making his demands. 4. I asked where he was. 10–11 καλέσαντος δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ παρόντων μαρτύρων τῶν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ κληθέντων Genitive absolutes. the sequence being historic (secondary). and the woman answered that ‘he was not inside. and Theophemos kept refusing. And when Theophemos arrived. ἆρα ϕοβῇ μὴ αὖθις πάσχῃς τι ὑπὸ τούτων τῶν πονηρῶν. ἵνα μάρτυρές μοι εἶεν … Purpose clause in secondary sequence. in secondary sequence it has the optative without ἄν. I asked him for the register of the equipment and showed him the resolution of the Boule. I told the woman who answered to go after him.
The man gave money to the woman in order to persuade her.
Translation for 16E
Having knocked at the door.
Notice GE p. wherever he happened to be. ὦ βέλτιστε. Where shall we go to give the food to the poor? ὅπως διδῶμεν REVISION EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16D
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. 3 ὅπου ὢν τυγχάνοι Secondary sequence. here and later in this section. representing a future indicative in direct speech. but others of the trierarchs [did] too. Finding that he was not inside. after the woman had fetched him.
Theophemos did not hand it over. c. so that they might be witnesses for me of what had been said. βούλεται κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη. a. ἵνα μάρτυρές μοι ὦσι τῶν λεχθέντων. κελεύω τὸν παῖδα καλέσαι τοὺς πολίτας. if he said that he did not owe the equipment. (i) I asked the slave where his master was. and the register had been requested. I am afraid that Euergos may not explain the matter to Theophemos. (ii) I was asking the woman to fetch her master. or to return the equipment.
a. If you give me those things … εἴ μοι διδοίης ταῦτα… REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16E
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. If he does not do this … εἰ μὴ ποιοίη τοῦτο… 2. (i) The slave summoned all the citizens whom he could see from the road so that they could be witnesses.Revision exercises for section 16E
But when the resolution had been shown to him. I ordered my slave to summon the citizens from the road. (ii) When he came in. (i) I had already found out that he happened to be married. When(ever) I learn … ἐπειδὴ μάθοιμι… 5. Who(ever) they order … ὅντινα κελεύοιεν… 4. b. i(i) Whenever he came in. οὐκ ἐπαύοντο ἑπόμενοι. and when the witnesses summoned by him were present. If not. wherever he was. d. Therefore. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16E
INDEFINITES IN SECONDARY SEQUENCE 16E: 1
1. ἵνα τὰ γεγενημένα μάθοιεν. They do not cease following so that they may learn what has happened. And when the boy had summoned them.
. I began to request Theophemos again either himself to follow me to the Boule. c. ἐϕοβούμην μὴ Εὔεργος οὐ δείξειε τὸ πρᾶγμα τῷ Θεοϕήμῳ. he saw the woman sitting on the altar. if he could see any. 2. I said that I would take securities from him in accordance with the laws and the resolutions. ἵνα τὴν τριήρη παρασκευάζῃ. (ii) The master ordered him to give back to the city whatever he happened to have. I was telling the slave to summon the citizens. d. so that they might be witnesses for me of what had been said. b. He wanted to collect the equipment so that he could prepare the trireme. When(ever) I see him … ὁπότε ἴδοιμι αὐτόν… 3. he used to see the woman sitting down. before I did anything else.
And before going in.
Translation for 16F
Since he was willing to do none of these things. defended myself. As I went in. made up of the perfect participle + the optative of εἰμί. Since. #301. Then when the judgment was passed in the Boule. Theophemos struck me on the mouth with his ﬁst and I. For indeed the Boule knew very well that once Theophemos was impeached he would be convicted and ﬁned. 329. For the door happened to be open (to have been opened). having collected as many of them as he could. 328. 10 ἁλῶναι See GE p. made up of the perfect participle + the imperfect indicative of εἰμί: ‘all I had suffered’. (i) It seemed to us that each word we spoke about Love should be as beautiful as possible. the one who had gone to fetch him. See GE p. then. although he was ordered by me. Theophemos was convicted and ﬁned. having arrived in Aegina. I went to the Boule to show my bruises and to tell all that I had suffered while trying to fetch the equipment for the city. being annoyed at what I had suffered and seeing what state I had been reduced to by Theophemos. #302 for the principal parts of ἁλίσκομαι.
2 ἑστηκυῖαν Perfect participle of ἵστημι: ‘standing’. I had found out that he was not married. so that I might have a witness. And the Boule. and I had been struck by him. Therefore I was ordered by the Boule to impeach him on the grounds that he was committing a crime and hindering the expedition. and I let the woman go. 5 ἐπεπύσμην What tense is this? It would have been a gross breach of good manners and of social conventions for a man to enter another’s house without invitation if that house contained a wife. the securities were taken away by Theophemos. but went into the house to get some security for the equipment. 9 ἐπεπόνθη This is the usual form of the pluperfect indicative. And Theophemos took her away from me. γεγαμηκὼς εἴη This is the perfect optative. I started to lead away the woman who had been standing at the door. gave back the city to the Aeginetans. This convention is further illustrated in Section 17. ‘to be captured’ or ‘to be convicted’.220
(ii) The slave was ordered to summon any citizens he saw from the road to be witnesses e. and when the members of the Boule found out that the city had been offended and that I had been wronged. having called those present to witness. And although it was possible for him to
. For the Boule considered that it was not I who had been insulted but itself and the people and the law. wanted him to be convicted and ﬁned. (ii) Lysander. 8 πεπονθὼς ἦ This is the equivalent of the pluperfect indicative.
was moderate and reasonable and agreed to a ﬁne of twenty-ﬁve drachmas. Now that we have got here. let us remain until I recover from my weakness. 330–331.Section 16G
be ﬁned ﬁve hundred drachmas. so that we can sit and rest. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16F
ἁλίσκομαι 16F: 1
1. AR. it is a beautiful spot. There is shade there and a slight breeze and grass to sit on. ARISTARCHOS We must certainly do this if you want. if we like.
ἔγνω βάντες ἁλοίη βῆναι γνῷ
ἔβη γνόντες βαίη γνῶναι βῇ
ἑάλω ἁλόντες γνοίη ἁλῶναι ἁλῷ
4 παυώμεθα See GE p. although I had been wronged. But why don’t we stop walking? For the heat is now stiﬂing. #304.
. until the heat becomes gentler. AR. and if I walk more. ‘How was Theophemos disposed towards you? What was his attitude to you?’ κακῶς Answers πῶς in the previous sentence. #303. (This must be done if it seems good to you. καθιζώμεθα. AP. AP. ‘until (ever) …’ 4–6 παυώμεθα. I shall ﬁnd myself in a state of great distress. Would you lead on? By Hera. Let us stop then. 2. Do you see that very tall plane tree? AP. 330.
15 πῶς πρὸς σε διέκειτο ὁ Θεόϕημος. 3. I.) Let us stop therefore and sit in peace beside the Ilisos. and let us consider where we shall sit down. ἕως ἂν … γένηται Note the subjunctives. 5. διακεῖμαι + adverb describes someone’s attitude or state of mind. 15–16 τεκμαιρομένῳ Agrees with ἔμοιγε: ‘it seems to me inferring …’
Translation for 16G
You were indeed moderate and reasonable about the things which Theophemos had done. 4. ‘let us cease’. ἕως ἄν + subjunctive. Let us go there then. Lead on then. until I can recover myself from my weakness. Of course. Aristarchos. See GE pp.
2. won the impeachment case. as you were saying. 6–8 More participles: παρασχόμενος … ὑποσχόμενος … ἐξηπάτησε … 9–10 Again: ζημιωθείς … προσελθὼν … ἐκέλευον … 11 ἀντὶ τοῦ καταδίκην ἀπολαβεῖν Here ἀντί + genitive is followed by the inﬁnitive used as a noun: ‘instead of accepting the ﬁne’.
ἕως ἂν ὁρῶμεν τοὺς ἄνδρας until (such time as) we see the men ἕως ἂν ὑπισχνῆται ἀκούσεσθαι until (such time as) he promises to listen ἕως ἂν διδῶσι τὰ χρήματα until (such time as) they give the money ἕως ἂν παραλαμβάνητε τοὺς μάρτυρας until (such time as) you (pl. 2. 5. But naturally nothing prevents me from going through the story. 5. until everything has been told. Aristarchos.
. They match the order of events: ἐνθυμούμενος … βουλόμενος … ἔλαχε … ϕάσκων … (the main verb is underlined). 3.222
ἀκούσωμεν μὴ ἀπίωμεν λαβώμεθα στῶμεν μὴ δῶμεν
ἕως ἄν ‘UNTIL’ 16G: 2
1. 4. 4. Listen then. 3.) hand over the witnesses ἕως ἂν εὑρίσκω τὴν ναῦν until (such time as) I ﬁnd the ship
1 ἐνενικήκη Tense? 2–3 Notice the use of the participles in the narrative. EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16G
‘LET US…’ (SUBJUNCTIVE) 16G: 1
1. so that you may learn more clearly. Why then do you not ﬁnish telling me the story.
But you. as it seems to me judging from the evidence of your despondency. if nothing prevents you? Since it seems to me that I shall keep you here until you tell me everything. What [happened] after that? How was Theophemos disposed to you? (What was his attitude to you?) Badly.
Euergos his brother and Mnesiboulos his cousin. ἐνταῦθα μενοῦμεν ἕως ἂν ἐκ τῆς ἀσθενείας συλλέγωμεν ἡμᾶς αὐτούς. When I had incurred a ﬁne in this way. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 16H
SEQUENCE OF TENSES 16H: 1
φοβοῦνται μὴ αὐτοὑς ζημιώσῃ. I listen. παυώμεθα πορευόμενοι καὶ καθιζώμεθα. deceived the jurors. 3. I kept quiet. ἐκεῖ καθιζώμεθα ἕως ἂν ἠπιώτερον γένηται τὸ πνῖγος. as they say. going to Theophemos I asked him to accompany me to the bank to collect the ﬁne. If I were to persuade you. 4. wanting to be revenged. you would persuade me. since I was innocent.
. τὸ ψήϕισμα ἐκέλευσε τοὺς τριηράρχους κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη ᾧ τρόπῳ ῥᾷστα δύναιντο. was the start of the trouble. πρὶν οἰκάδε ἐπανιέναιι. not many days later. having produced lying witnesses. not fearing that the jurors would condemn me. ἐφοβεῖτο μή τις ἐκφύγοι. εἴ σοι πείθοιμι πείσοιο ἂν σύ. ἐὰν εἴπῃ. but this. 2. I went to summon the witness. Ι will listen. For Theophemos at once took the ﬁne very much to heart and. ἐπανῆλθον πρὸς τὴν βουλήν. For I least of all expected that I would be convicted. 5. He was afraid that anyone might escape. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 16F–H
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. he brought a suit for assault against me. But Theophemos. ᾖα ἵνα εἰσαγγείλαιμι τὸν μάρτυρα. 2.
1. ἀκούω ἀκούσομαι If you speak.Revision exercises for section 16F–H
Translation for 16H
I had in fact won the impeachment case. 5. But Theophemos instead of collecting the ﬁne went to my farm.
Sentences 1. 3. ὁπότε οἱ τριήραρχοι καταλάβοιέν τινα μὴ ἀποδιδόντα τὰ σκεύη. who were persuaded to cast their vote for Theophemos. declaring that I had begun the blows at the door. They are afraid that he may punish them. 4. and promising that he would hand over [for torture] the body of the woman who had been standing at the door (which he has not done).
and the marines. I asked him to take over my ship from me. I wanted to calculate this with him in detail while witnesses of what had been spent were with me. take the trireme yourself and provide sailors and marines for yourself who will sail with you without receiving any money.e. For I had written down all the expenses in detail. corrupting the sailors and the marines.’
E – TEST EXERCISE 16
When this man arrived in Thasos. if he objected to anything.’ When I said this. and to pay me the expenses for the extra time that I had served. if you say they have been corrupted by me. Polykles answered that he could not care less what I said (that there was no concern to him of what I said). ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν προσελθὼν πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Θεοϕήμου οἰκίαν. I told him to take over the ship from me as my successor.224
Revision exercises for section 16F–H
2. he answered that his joint-trierarch had not come to the ship: ‘I will not therefore take over the ship on my own. But when I made this challenge. οἱ δὲ τριήραρχοι τῷ μὴ ἀποδίδοντι. καὶ αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔνδον ὄντα καταλαβών. you who alone of the trierarchs have your own private equipment and pay a great deal of money to the sailors? You have become a teacher of bad habits in the army.’ When he said this. and to pay me the expenses for the period which I had served as trierarch beyond my time. when you ought to be doing the same as the other trierarchs. Having found Polykles there and the trierarchs and their successors and some others of the citizens. so that. Take the ship. I could refute his objection at once. καὶ τῆς πολέως ἐν μεγάλῳ κινδύνῳ οὔσης. Polykles]. and I went to him in the agora in Thasos. ἐδείκνυον τὸ ψήϕισμα. I collected as many of the citizens as I could as witnesses. ἐϕοβούμην μὴ τὰ σκεύη οὐκ ἀποδιδοίη. I answered him: ‘As for the sailors and the marines. When I challenged him in this way. Prose οὐκ ἐξὸν κομίζεσθαι τὰ σκεύη. I went in immediately in front of the general and began to speak with him [i. he said: ‘Who could endure your madness and extravagance. ὥστε ὁ μὲν Χαιρέδημος ψήϕισμα ἔγραψεν. for it is no longer my business to be trierarch. εἴ τινα εὕροιεν. τὴν βουλὴν ἔδει πράττειν τι ἵνα τριήρων βοήθειαν ὡς τάχιστα παρασκευάζοιμεν.
as much as was still left to me’. he took ﬁfty soft-ﬂeeced sheep of mine. 341. ‘having been released free’. Compare this with Hagnophilos’ punctilious attitude in 17B. #307. ἄν + subjunctive and. secondary – optative pattern. 436–442 #389. 336. See also GE p. look up (ἐκ) βάλλω in the list of irregular verbs on GE pp. Much of the syntax introduced continues to illustrate the primary – subjunctive. which were being pastured by the shepherd. ὅσα ἔτι ὑπόλοιπά μοι ἦν ‘all the furniture. #308). See vocabulary. See GE p. ἕως ἅλοιεν. For he did not wait until I produced the money. 336–339. i. An important item of grammar is the verb (ἀϕ)ἵημι (GE pp. Can you recognise the verb it comes from? If not. Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence.Section Seventeen: Private justice – trouble down at the farm
This continues the story begun in Section 16. 336. 12 ἃ βούλοιντο Indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence: ‘whatever they wanted’. optative without ἄν. but going off. 10–11 εἰσελθόντες ἐπὶ τὴν γυναῖκά μου Notice the disgraceful intrusion into the women’s quarters. 15–16 Note the parts of ἀϕίημι. An indeﬁnite clause in secondary sequence. 22 ἕως εἰσέλθοιεν ‘until they came in’. Theophemos had taken not only the sheep but also everything that was
. 11–12 πάντα τὰ σκεύη. in secondary. ἐλευθέρα ἀϕειμένη: perfect passive participle. #308). #307.
Translation for 17A
Theophemos then did not allow me to pay him the money.
1–2 ἕως τὰ χρήματα παρέχοιμι See GE p. There will be more about this after 17A.e ‘having been freed’ (GE p. This is the aorist passive participle. 338. Before I knew what had happened. 10 ἐκβληθείσης δὲ τῆς θύρας Genitive absolute. before the exercise on it. in primary sequence. #309–310
8 ᾖξαν This comes from the verb ᾄσσω ‘to dash’ or ‘to dart’. ἕως (‘until’) (ever) can introduce an indeﬁnite clause with.
accompanying the herd. my wife happened to be having breakfast with the children in the courtyard. these men charged in and found them and seized the furniture. Compare some of the tenses:
Present Active Middle Participles τίθημι ἵημι τίθεμαι ἵεμαι τιθείς ἱείς Imperfect ἐτίθην ἵην ἐτιθέμην ἱέμην Future θήσω ἥσω θήσομαι ἥσομαι θήσων ἥσων Aorist ἔθηκα ἧκα ἐθέμην εἵμην θείς εἵς Aorist pass. While the furniture was being seized by them. who was returning a bronze water jar that had been borrowed from a friend and was very valuable. and the shepherd along with them and then also a boy servant. It was obligatory for me to look after her. While they were having breakfast in the courtyard. and they went off. where they lodge) when they heard the tumult and the shouting. 17A: 2. and I have lived there since I was a youth). did not wait until they came in. εἰμί and εἶμι do not have rough breathings and ἵημι does.)
. try the following exercise. ἐτέθην εἵθην τεθείς ἑθείς
It is worth taking a great deal of trouble to learn ἀϕίημι. and carried out all the furniture that was left to me in the house. taking whatever they liked. the rest of the women servants (for they were in the tower. When all these things had been taken. In addition to this. since she had been my nurse). When you have learned it. whereas parts of εἰμί and εἶμι will appear as (e. she had lived with her husband. and ﬁrst of all they dashed at the household slaves.
ἵημι (stem ἑ) behaves exactly like τίθημι (stem θε) but it looks more complicated because its stem starts with a vowel instead of a consonant.) ἀπεῖναι or ἀπιέναι. NB. they went to the house and broke open the door that leads into the garden. she came back to me.g. And when the door had been broken down. thus in compounds the difference can be clearly seen. (You may prefer to leave this until you have ﬁnished reading the whole section. and to avoid confusing it with both εἰμί and εἶμι. When she was freed by my father. a kindly and loyal creature who was a freedwoman (for my father had freed her. since she was an old woman and there was no one to look after her. as for example in the inﬁnitive ἀϕιέναι. but closed the tower before they charged it. before they entered the house. elderly now. and with her was my old nurse. they rushed in on my wife and children. Theophemos and Euergos went into the farm (I farm near the racecourse. But when the household slaves did not wait to be caught but escaped ﬁrst (anticipated them escaping). But when her husband died.
μένομεν ἕως ἂν ἔλθῃ. 13.acc. We are staying until he comes. τεθήσεται 18. θεῖσαι
. 5. 16. They were ﬁghting until they were victorious. 3. 2. They are willing to run until they are unable to stand.) ἀφῇ to set up (for oneself) you (s. You (s. σταθῆναι 19.)
ἀφῆκε ἄφες ἀφήσουσιν ἀφιέναι ἀφίεται ἀφέντας
he let go let go! they will let go to let go he is being released having released
ἀφέσθαι ἀφήσεις ἀφεῖντο ἀφείθη ἀφείκασιν ἀφιέμενοι ἀφεῖναι ἀφεθήσεται ἀφεθῆναι ἀφοῦ ἀφεῖσαι
to release (for oneself) you (s. 6. θῇ 9.) will give they placed it was set up they have given ἀφείη setting up (for oneself) m. ἐμάχοντο ἕως νικῷεν. 4. δραμεῖν βούλονται ἕως ἂν στῆναι μὴ οἷοί τ’ ὦσιν. δώσεις ἔθεντο ἐστάθη δεδώκασιν θείη ἱστάμενοι δοῦναι
he gave put! they will set up ἀφιείη to place he is rising it is being set up having given (m.
ἔδωκε θές στήσουσιν διδοίη τιθέναι ἵσταται δόντας
(ἀφ)ἵημι ‘RELEASE. 11. βουλεύονται ἕως ἂν συγχωρήσωσιν.Exercises for section 17A
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17A
ἕως ‘until’ 17A: 1
1. They are debating until such time as they agree. 5. to give/have given it will be placed to have been set up give! having put (f.pl. 3. 14. LET GO. ἔδει σε εὔχεσθαι ἕως σωθείης.) ought to have prayed until you were saved. δοῦ 20. 2.) will let go they let go he/it was released they have released letting go to release/have released he/it will be released to have been released let go! having released
17. 7.pl. 15. στήσασθαι 10. 4. SHOOT’ 17A: 2
(is releasing / has released (perf. #313.)) (while being set free / while being released (present passive participles f. pass.228
EXERCISE FOR 17A
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1./m. with subjunctive + ἄν in primary. and she knew that the money was at the bank because she had heard it from Aristarchos. See GE
. Hence it can mean ‘breast’. 342–343. ‘the fold of a garment’. and optative without ἄν in secondary sequence. 10 ἀϕείλοντο What verb does this come from? Try ἀϕαιρέω. The slave girl has been set free by my father. 13–14 οὕτω πονηροὶ ἦσαν ὥστε … ‘They were so wicked that …’ οὕτως … ὥστε …. διατίθημι + adverb is a common idiom. Latin sinus. The slave girl. (was set free (aor. It follows the normal pattern for indeﬁnite clauses.) / will be set free / is being set free / was being set free) b. 342./m. f. cf. ‘so … that. My father released the slave girl. She knew the sheep had been taken because a neighbour had told her.
7 οὐ παύονται πρὶν ἂν λάβωσι For πρίν meaning ‘until’ see GE p. pass. which here means ‘valued’ or ‘reckoned’. 2–5 The words in parenthesis explain how Aristarchos’ wife knew the facts which she is speaking about. (having been set free / having been released (aor. act. (have released / are releasing / will release / were releasing)
2 τετιμημένα Perfect passive participle from τιμάω. 9 εἰς τὸν κόλπον The basic meaning of κόλπος is ‘a curve’.)) (being about to be set free / being about to be released (future passive participles f.
a. as a result …’ This expresses a result clause./m. The Athenians released the slaves who had fought in that seabattle. #311. ‘lap’. ‘a bay in the coastline’. having been set free by my father. 10–11 οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν γραῦν ὥστε … ‘They treated the old woman in such a way that …’. See GE pp. married a man who had also been released by his master (perfect passive participles). part.)) d.) / was releasing / will release) c.
My wife told them not to do this. Here ἕως is followed by the indicative because this is a deﬁnite time (not an indeﬁnite time).
Translation for 17B
So they did not get in there. in contrast with the unprincipled brothers. took the cup which was lying beside her from which she had been drinking. παρόντος δὲ τοῦ κυρίου. Some of them called to the passers-by from their own roof-tops. which are equal in value to the ﬁne. When the neighbours’ servants heard the noise and the shouting. And they were going away not only taking my furniture. summoned by Anthemion. snatched it away and treated the old woman so badly that her arms and wrists were blood-stained when she was pinioned and dragged along by them. and put it in the fold of her dress. who is my neighbour. 341.Section 17B
pp. until Hermogenes. they did not stop until they had taken very many things. seeing her. he saw the furniture being carried out and Euergos and Theophemos coming out of my house.) ‘Therefore do not take the rest of the furniture before my husband returns with the ﬁne. and was being throttled by them and her chest was bruised. they saw my house was being plundered by them.
.) ‘And the money is waiting for you at the bank. #314–317. 24–25 ἕως … εἶπεν ‘until he told them’. 345–346. but he did not enter my house (for the master of the house was not present. but instead of the ‘if’ clause. But the nurse. but. he would have gone in). told him to stand by. one of my neighbours. going into the other road. being in Anthemion’s farm. See GE p. and seeing Hagnophilos passing. and said that ‘You have the ﬁfty sheep and the boy and the shepherd. met them and said that he was my son. But Theophemos and Euergos.’ (For one of the neighbours had knocked on the door and reported this. #309. observes the conventions and will not enter Aristarchos’ house while he is absent. if the master had been present. there is a genitive absolute. And she had scratches on her throat. and then they took the cup from the fold of her dress.’ This represents an unfulﬁlled condition in past time (ἄν + aorist indicative). and others. when she saw them inside. so that they should not take it.’ (For she had heard this from me. but they carried out the furniture from the rest of the house. 19–21 Notice that Hagnophilos. εἰσῆλθεν ἄν ‘If the master had been present he would have gone in. as if he were a household slave. The use of indicative shows that the result actually happened. his brother. particularly as you also have the value of the ﬁne. but also leading my son. saying that the furniture was hers and was valued as part of her dowry. And Hagnophilos came. They were so shameless that they did not stop trying to strangle the old woman and beating her until she fell to the ground.’ Although my wife said this. εἴη The optative is used because this is indirect speech in secondary sequence.
διετίθετο he was treated διέκειτο 2. All the διατίθημι items have been treated as passive. should fall Used indeﬁnitely. BE TREATED’ 17B: 2
1. I was in the Piraeus while my house was being robbed. therefore in the past. 3. 5. διάκειμαι ‘TREAT. ἡ γραῦς κακῶς διέκειτο διὰ τὸ συγκοπῆναι. 2. but could equally well be middle. before falling πρίν + inﬁnitive. Before I left my house.pl.230
Revision exercises for section 17B
EXERCISES FOR 17B
ἕως ‘UNTIL. διατιθέμενοι being treated (m. 4.) διακείμενοι 3.) are being treated /be treated! διακεῖσθε 5 διατίθενται they are being treated διακεῖνται NB. c. until such time as we fall Indeﬁnite in primary sequence.
διατίθημι. until such time as he falls Indeﬁnite in primary sequence. WHILE’ and πρίν ‘UNTIL’ 17B: 1
until he fell. indicative shows it happened. Nos. e. The old woman was in a bad way because she had been beaten up. ‘But do not ask this either’.n. and I did not go home until the things that had happened were reported to me there. REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17B
B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
1. ‘For these men are violent and will not cease plundering the house until they have taken everything away. I had told my wife that the money was lying at the bank. optative shows this must be in secondary sequence. διατίθεσθe you (pl. until he fell Used deﬁnitely.
. διατιθεῖτο optative διακέοιτο 4. b. a. said the neighbour. 3 and 5 might change in poetry by dropping the ἄν. The woman asked Theophemos not to take the furniture until her husband returned.
a. The slave girls stayed in the tower until the men went away.
in the fold of her dress. #318. ordinal and adverb forms. ‘ordered him to …’ 8 ὃν βούλοιντο Why is the optative mood used here? See GE p. Θεόϕημος καὶ Eὔεργος οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν γραῦν ὥστε ὕϕαιμοι ἐγένοντο oἱ βραχίονες.
11 μεθ᾿ ἑτέρων ὁμοίων αὑτῷ ‘with others like himself’. and the thing heard (the happenings) are in the accusative. #300 for indeﬁnite clauses in secondary sequence. 9 κακά με πολλὰ εἶπεν Note that κακὰ λέγειν. c. #314–317 for the use of ὥστε + inﬁnitive to express a result clause: ‘in such a state that (as a result) she was in danger of her life’. takes a double accusative: ‘to speak bad words [to] someone’. The woman told Theophemos that the money was lying in the bank.Section 17C
b. ἡ γυνὴ εἶπε τῷ Θεοϕήμῳ ὅτι τὸ ἀργύριον κεῖται ἐπὶ τῇ τραπέζῃ. octagon. 17 τὰ ἡρπασμένα What participle? What verb? Try ἁρπάζω.’ 6–8 ἐκέλευον δ᾿ αὐτὸν … ἀπολαμβάνειν … ἀκολουθεῖν … θεραπεύειν … εἰσάγειν … ἐκέλευον is followed by a series of inﬁnitives. Cf. 15–16 This might be the moment to learn the numerals at GE pp. 3 τὰ ἐκπεϕορημένα Perfect passive participle. d. 346–347. NB. Theophemos and Euergides treated the old woman in such a way that her wrists were blood-stained. like κακὰ ποιειν (53).
1 τὰ γεγενημένα This is the neuter plural of the perfect participle of γίγνομαι. Note that ὥστε + the indicative stresses that the result actually happened. 4–5 καὶ ἀκούων τῆς γυναικὸς τὰ γενόμενα Remember that after ἀκούω the source of the sound (his wife) is in the genitive. Note that αὑτῷ = ἑαυτῷ (the reﬂexive form) and so has a rough breathing. which was lying beside her. kilometre) as well as correspondence between the cardinal. 3–4 τὴν γραῦν οὕτω διακειμένην ὥστε … See GE pp.
. You will ﬁnd useful resemblances to Latin and to mathematical terms (pentagon. also μύριοι and myriads. ‘to abuse someone’. ἡ γραῦς ἐνέθηκεν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τὸ κυμβίον ὅ παρέκειτο αὐτῇ. 325. ‘He heard the words of the woman. See GE pp. 345–346. decimal. #313 for the relationship between διατίθημι and διακεῖμαι. 342–343. ‘the having happened things’. The old woman put the cup. hexagon.
Meanwhile I was paying the money to Theophemos. but Theophemos refused to give them back to me (said he would not give them back to me) . But then Theophemos came along with reluctance.
Don’t forget to learn the numerals. meaning ‘He refused …’ or ‘He denied …’ 20 εἰσεληλυθότα Can you recognise this? If not. and the old woman in such a state that she was in danger of her life. causing delays and saying that he wanted to get witnesses himself. the moment the ﬁne had been paid. It is always placed before ϕημί (rather than before the inﬁnitive). Theophemos got angry and abused me vigorously (lit. said many bad things to me). But Theophemos was so grasping that he took the ﬁne and kept the sheep and the slaves and the furniture. If not. a messenger came to me.436–442. look up the principal parts of ἔρχομαι. after carrying off the rest of the furniture from the house. but seeing all the things that had been carried off from the house. three hundred and thirteen drachmas and two obols. but I was not now able to catch these men (for I did not arrive until they had gone). #389. then to look after the old woman whom they had beaten and to bring in whatever doctor they liked. check ἐκτίνω in the vocabulary. I made those present witnesses of this reply. I went to the country.When he gave this answer. and. in the presence of many witnesses. breaking open the door (which they had broken open on the previous day as well). Euergos. For I did not know that Euergos had gone to my house on that day. 23 οἴχοιτο Why is the optative used here? Because it is indirect speech in secondary sequence. and I paid the ﬁne. had been carried down by me because of our need. whatever had been in the tower on the day before and did not happen to be outside. but I paid the ﬁne at once. and hearing from my wife what had happened.
. when these events were reported to me in the Piraeus by neighbours. I was very angry and went to Theophemos on the next day at dawn in the city. While I was saying this and earnestly entreating him. But this Euergos immediately set out from the city with others like himself to go to my farm. The remaining furniture. a stonemason who was working on the monument near by. 21 οὕτως ἐπλεονέκτει … ὥστε … A result clause is introduced: ‘was so grasping that…’ 22 ἐκτετεισμένης τῆς δίκης Genitive absolute. and I asked him to give back the sheep and the slaves and the furniture which had been seized by him. I told him ﬁrst to accept the ﬁne and to follow (me) to the bank. saying that Euergos had gone away again.
Translation for 17C
Well then. GE pp. went off taking my furniture.232
17–18 οὐκ ἔϕη ἀποδώσειν … ‘He said that he would not give back …’ Note the position of οὐ. one thousand. You should be able to recognise the participle from the context. taking witnesses.
. #314–317 suggest that ὥστε + inﬁnitive should be translated by ‘so as to’ and ὥστε + indicative by ‘so that’. d. 4–5 ἐβουλήθη. Those men were so abominable that they were (actually) not ashamed to rush in to my wife. just as ὥστε + inﬁnitive is the commonest way to express result in Greek. which is the commonest way to express result in English. This may be useful for the exercise.
1 Note that ἔδει is past: ‘What then was I to do?’ or ‘What ought I to have done?’ 3–4 συνεκόπη Can you recognise this? It is 3rd s. coming into the shrine. Those men were so abominable as not to be ashamed at going in to my wife.Section 17D
EXERCISE FOR SECTION 17C
RESULT CLAUSES B/C – MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
Note that ὥστε + inﬁnitive has negative μή. while ὥστε + indicative states a matter of fact and therefore has negative οὐ. #324 for a list of deponent verbs which have their aorists in passive form. a. second aorist passive (i. ἐδυνήθην See GE p. ὥστε τύπτειν τὴν γυναῖκα και ἀϕελέσθαι ἀπ᾿ αὐτῆς τὸ κυμβίον. Those men were so wicked that they (actually) beat the woman and took away the cup from her. 345–346. he (actually) dragged a suppliant away from the altar. 1. They do everything so as not to pay the penalty. The fellow reached such a pitch of impiety that. ὥστε μὴ αἰσχυνέσθαι εἰς τὴν γυναῖκα εἰσιόντες. c. no θ). b. The fellow reached such a pitch of impiety as to come into the shrine and drag a suppliant away from the altar. and the distinction between the ‘potential’ and the ‘actual’ result is a valid one. but in practice it will often sound more natural to translate ὥστε + inﬁnitive by ‘so that’. ὥστε εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἱκέτην ἀϕελκύσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ βωμοῦ. The men were wicked enough to beat the woman and take away the cup from her. Note that GE pp. ὥστε μὴ δίκην διδόναι. 6 ἕκτῃ oὔσῃ ἡμέρᾳ Dative expressing a point of time: ‘on the sixth day’. 350. ὕστερον ἤ ‘later than …’.e. They are doing everything so that they do not (as a result) pay the penalty.
349. #293 and p. Having heard the story from me. 16 The case for prosecution could only be brought by a relation or the master of the deceased. and that you do not bring a suit for murder before the king archon. #305. and the ﬁne had been paid? But then. Apollodoros. But when Theophemos was not willing and I could not persuade him. All he could do was to go through a ritual of puriﬁcation to free himself and his household from the pollution of the death.’
. The old woman was neither family nor slave. the ofﬁcers gave this advice: ‘Since you yourself were not present. But having puriﬁed yourself on behalf of your household and yourself. since the furniture had been carried off. 345–346. 316. 15 εὐλαβήθητι Aorist passive imperative. my old nurse died. if nothing else. the old woman was in danger of her life. take care that you do not make a public denunciation of anyone by name. from what you say. #321. and where should I have turned. nor is she a slave. ‘because she would not give up the cup’. Therefore Aristarchos could not legally bring a case against Theophemos and Euergos for her murder. and try to think up some other means of vengeance. Purpose clause in secondary sequence. bear the tragedy as easily as you can. #317. See GE p. For the woman is not one of your family. on the sixth day after they had charged into the house. I brought in a doctor whom I had used for many years. 9 τό τε ὁρμηθῆναι αὐτούς … καὶ ἐλθεῖν τό is followed by two inﬁnitives used as nouns with the subject in the accusative: ‘the fact that they had charged … and that they had come …’ εἰς τοῦτο ἀσελγείας ἐλθεῖν ὥστε … ‘to reach such a pitch of depravity that …’ Literally ‘to reach this [point] of depravity that …’ See GE pp. and to carry off the furniture. In addition to this I recalled the goodwill of the woman and that she had died because she would not give up the cup. 12 διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀϕεῖναι Once again the inﬁnitive is used as a noun: ‘owing to the fact that she did not give up the cup’.234
7–8 ἵνα εἰδείην ‘so that I might know’. But yesterday. the fact that they had charged into the farm and reached such a pitch of depravity that they had not been ashamed to burst in on my wife and children. I was at once very angry. and to beat up the old woman for the sake of a cup. See GE p. and I went early (as I have said) to the ofﬁcers to ﬁnd out what should be done about this. and I told them all that had happened. but your wife and children. εὐλαβήθητι μή … ‘take care lest …’ The construction is the same as after a verb of fearing. I ordered Theophemos to look after the old woman who had been beaten and to bring in whatever doctor he wished. ὅ τι ποιητέον ‘what must be done’. 332. and since other witnesses did not appear for you. and take vengeance in any other way you like.
Translation for 17D
What should I have done.
1.’ 5 τί δρῶμεν Why is the subjunctive used here? 6 σκοπῶμεν ‘Let us consider’. 7 δεινὸν ἂν εἴη Note the ἄν. 3 οὐδ᾿ ἄν … ‘Nor would I dare to lie even if I knew well that …’ Here you need to understand ‘dare to lie’ repeated from the previous line. or Reference Grammar 404. #325. τράπωμαι.
1 ποιήσω. #327). #328). γράφητε
let him/her be set free (s.) let them be punished be taken (pl. 351. See GE p. γένωμαι All these are deliberative subjunctives. 351–352. What effect does it have? 7–8 The desire to inﬂict vengeance on one’s enemies was regarded as natural and proper by the majority of people in the ancient world. λήφθητε 4. 351.Section 17E
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17D
MORE IMPERATIVES 17D: 1
1. κολασθέντων 3. 351–352.
This section introduces two new pieces of syntax. ἄν + optative expresses potential: ‘could’ or ‘would’. στήτω 4. γνῶτε 2. Make sure that you have digested it and fully understand it all. φαθί
5.) be honoured (s. 2–3 οὕτως … ὥστε … + inﬁnitive indicates result. and correlatives (GE pp. λυθήτω 2. βῆθι
3. 4–5 οὐ γὰρ οὕτω τούτους μισῶ ὡς ἐμαυτὸν φιλῶ For the use of correlatives see GE pp. 2 χρῶμαι χράομαι + dative means ‘to use’ or ‘to treat someone’. Here ‘I do not know what to do with myself’ (GE p. #328. ‘What am I to do?’. ‘Where am I to turn?’ etc. τιμήθητι 5. the deliberative subjunctive (GE p. (Socrates was unusual in taking the opposite view that it is never right to do wrong.)
. Otherwise it brings in as much as it can of the syntax that you have learned in Sections 16 and 17. 351.’ ‘I do not hate them as much as I like myself. #325–327). μὴ φοβηθῇς μή … ‘Don’t be afraid lest …’ μή + aorist subjunctive expresses the prohibition.) be written (pl. even in retaliation. and #293. ‘I do not hate them in such a way as I like myself. and the second μή introduces the fear for the future with its verb in the subjunctive in primary sequence (optative in secondary): GE #292.
460. The idea comes from the opening of Menander’s Misoumenos. #402. then. But you act thus for me. AR. vengeance was just as much a matter of honour for the man in the street as for the Homeric hero. See GE Reference Grammar p. ποίησον.
. #294 for verbal nouns expressing obligation. I am delighted by what you say. 317. What am I to do? Where am I to turn? What will become of me? For I do not know what to do with myself. Reference Grammar p. For surely I would not be so foolish as to dare to lie to the jurors. and do not be afraid that I won’t share your enthusiasm. APOLLODOROS Let us consider together. καὶ μὴ ἄλλως ποιήσῃς Literally this means ‘Don’t do otherwise’.’ ἵνα βουλευσώμεθα Why the subjunctive? It is the verb in a purpose clause in primary sequence. For it is raining. ἀναλάβωμεν What mood and why? οὐ κυνὶ πλανητέον ‘It ought not to be wandered by a dog. #398. 304–305. See GE #298–299 or Reference Grammar #399. please come (and don’t do otherwise). even if I knew that I would convict my enemies of doing wrong. AR. Let us do this. Apollodoros. and for conditions in general. the Greek for ‘Do please come’ would be ‘Come and don’t do otherwise. so that we can take counsel about these very things.’ For future conditions see GE pp. my excellent friend. Let us be going. not even a dog should be wandering about now. Come to my house tomorrow at dawn. #282. Thus a friend could be expected to give all possible help in making plans for revenge. χάριν εἴσομαι What tense of οἶδα is this? ποιώμεθα.g.
Translation for 17E
So be it. ἀϕικοῦ What part of the verb is this? Revise aorist imperatives. πρὶν ἂν συμβουλεύωμαι For πρίν meaning ‘until’ see GE #311–312 and compare this with indeﬁnite clauses in general. but it is frequently used to beg someone to do what you suggest: e. But let us do this later and resume our talk. my good friend. 457. For I do not dislike them as much as I like myself.’ See GE p. if you are not sure: GE #198–199. So it is necessary for me most of all to help you in your perplexity. Consider then what we are to do. and. if God wills it. Indeed I shall be grateful to you. ἐὰν θεὸς ἐθέλῃ ‘If god is willing. and I agree that I must do nothing before I have consulted with you. for sharing my enthusiasm. I will come to you tomorrow. and #206–207. nor would I do so.’ ‘Not even a dog should be wandering about. You have the story. AP.236
10 11 12
In general. AP. For indeed it would be a terrible thing for a good friend not to share his friends’ desire to be revenged on their enemies. by the Gods.
2. or to choose a different Greek word in some places. It is quite possible. as it seems.Revision exercises for section 17
REVISION EXERCISES FOR SECTION 17
D – ENGLISH INTO GREEK
1. for example. like most people.
TEST EXERCISE 17
Let us talk then. But when the Muses were born and song appeared.
Sentences 1. πάντα λαβόντες ἀπῆλθον. ‘μὴ τὰ σκεύη λάβητε’. at midday not talking but sleeping and being bewitched by them through idleness of thought. οὕτως ὠλιγώρουν ὥστε εἰσελθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν ἐκϕορεῖν τὰ σκεύη. regarding us as slaves who sleep like sheep round the spring. What am I to do? It is clear that I must tell you. singing and talking to one another. 2. πάντ᾿ ἀκούσας. τὸν ἐμὸν υἱὸν ἦγον ἕως γείτων τις εἶπεν ὅτι υἱὸς οὐ δούλου ἀλλὰ πολίτου εἴη. ἐκέλευσα ἀκολουθεῖν ἐμοὶ ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν ἵνα τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἐνταῦθα κείμενον συλλάβῃ. προσελθὼν πρὸς αὐτόν. περιμένετε δή· οὐ γὰρ δεῖ ὑμᾶς ἀπελθεῖν πρὶν ἂν ἐπανελθῇ ὁ ἐμὸς ἀνήρ. And at the same time the cicadas seem to me to be watching us. my dear Phaedrus. SOC. 5. 3. αἱ θεράπαιναι οὐκ ἔμειναν ἕως ἅλoιεν. ὠργίσθην ὅτι ὑβρισταὶ ὄντες οὕτω διέθεσαν τὴν τίτθην ὥστε περὶ ψυχῆς ἐκινδύνευεν. For I really am unaware of it. 4. But if they see us talking and sailing uncharmed past them as if they were the Sirens. Prose There are a several alternative ways of translating the English into Greek. If they were to see us. although it is proper to call you a lover of music and literature. they would rightly laugh at us. before the Muses existed. It is said that once upon a time cicadas were men. perhaps they would be pleased and grant us the gift which they have from the gods to give to men. then some men of that time were so astounded and listened with such delight that while singing they neglected food and drink and did not
. τῇ δὲ ὑστεραίᾳ. ἔϕη. ἡ δὲ ἐμὴ γυνὴ ὀργισθεῖσα. ἐγὼ δέ. there is leisure. to use a subordinate clause instead of a participle. ‘ἆρ’ οὐκ ἤδη πεντήκοντα ἔχετε πρόβατα. certainly we have the time. ἄγγελός τις προσελθὼν πρὸς τὸν Πειραιᾶ ἐπήγγειλεν ἐμοὶ τὰ γεγενημένα. ἐκινδύνευσα οὕτως ὀργισθῆναι ὥστε τὸν Θεόϕημον αὐτὸς παίειν. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα. it seems (lit.’ οἱ δὲ οὐκ ἀκούσαντες τῆς γυναικὸς ταῦτα λεγούσης. For. as it seems). οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο ἐκϕοροῦντες τὰ σκεύη ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας πρὶν πάντα ἁρπάσειεν (ἁρπάζοιεν). PHAEDRUS What is the gift? Don’t keep it a secret. I am afraid that you may appear to be uncultured if you are ignorant of such matters.
they should tell them which of men honoured the Muses. that they should need no food. verbs. receiving this gift from the Muses. We must indeed make conversation.238
Revision exercises for section 17
ΡΗ. provides an essential list of irregular verbs and their principal parts (ultimately you should make it your goal to know all these by heart). going to the Muses.
# 390–391 # 392–394 # 396–406
. And from these men the race of cicadas later sprang.
notice that they were dying. pronouns.(ὥς). and after that. gives a summary of the main syntactical constructions. Therefore. but that without food or drink they should sing until they died. # 352–388 # 389 has tables of nouns. for many reasons we must have some conversation and we must not sleep in the middle of the day. give uses of ὡς. From now on you may ﬁnd it increasingly useful to use the Reference Grammar. participles and inﬁnitives. adjectives. gives lists of prepositions and particles.
Whatever its origins. it is a fascinating passage which describes the creation of the world and the social necessity for man of possessing δίκη and αἰδώς (a sense of right and a moral awareness of others and their response to one’s actions).
1 The verb ‘to be’ is often used in the sense of ‘to exist’. It is likely that he is here imitating the style of the sophist Protagoras. νέμει.) 6–9 Note the careful patterning of the phrases: τοῖς μέν … τοὺς δέ …. 6 ἐπίσκεψαι Can you recognise this? What kind of imperative is it? (2nd s. aorist. earth. ὅσα πυρὶ καὶ γῇ κεράννυται ‘as many as are mixed with ﬁre and earth’. νέμων Note the repetitions. When the appointed time came for these also to be born (time of birth). νείμαντος. Protagoras 320c–323a.) 5–6 νεῖμαι. the other two elements. (Some Greek philosophers believed that all things were composed of four elements. Here the article is used as a demonstrative pronoun. 3 τῶν = ἐκείνων. into whose mouth he puts the speech. ‘fated’. This refers to air and water. and also that the aorist stem of νέμω is νειμ-. but the iambic rhythms also suggest that the myth may be based on a long established story which had been told often in verse. ﬁre and water. The introduction to this section in Reading Greek is important. This is rare in Attic Greek.Section Eighteen: How Zeus gave justice to men
This passage is reproduced unadapted from Plato. though normal in Homer. The style is not typical of Plato. τοὺς δέ … τοῖς δέ … (ABBA) followed by ἃ μὲν γὰρ σμικρότητι ἤμπισχε … ἃ δὲ ηὖξε μεγέθει … 10 καὶ τἆλλα = καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ‘and he assigned the other qualities also …’
Translation for 18A
There was once a time when gods existed but mortal creatures did not. air. the gods formed them within the earth out of a mixture (having mixed) of earth and ﬁre and of the
. perhaps in tragedy. 2 χρόνος εἱρμαρμένος ‘allotted’ in the sense of ‘allotted by destiny’. γῆς ἔνδoν ‘within the earth’.
taking care that no species should be destroyed. ‘family’. ‘birth’. Steroids thicken your physique. and he planned that when they went to bed. 3 Notice ἱκανοῖς μέν … δυνατοῖς δέ … and understand a repeat of ἀμῦναι in the second phrase. but to the weaker he gave speed. δέρμασιν Cf. 8 ὀλιγο-γονία. he devised some other power for their protection.
1 ἀλληλοϕθοριῶν This is made up of two words: ἀλλήλους which means ‘One another’. And when they were ready to bring them to the light. pl. Next he provided different sorts of food for them. 5 ἄλλοις ἄλλας ‘different foods for different creatures’.108) also points out that animals that are preyed on reproduce rapidly. ‘And when I have done it’. These he made less fertile. he allotted winged ﬂight or an underground dwelling. 2 στερεοῖς ‘thick’. ὥρας ‘hours’ or ‘seasons’. διαϕθείρω. skins)’. To those on whom he bestowed smallness. ‘epidermis’. subject has a singular verb. those whom he enlarged in size. the same skins should serve as individual and natural coverings for each one. for some grass from the earth. γονstands for ‘race’. to whom he gave an unarmed nature. 7. while
. πολυ-γονία These should be guessable. balancing everything in this way. for some fruit from the trees. εἰς εὐνὰς ἰοῦσιν ‘for them going to bed’. while for others. he gave some creatures strength without speed. he began to distribute the powers. The root γεν-. Epimetheus asked Prometheus [to allow him] to do the distributing himself. some with hooves and some with tough and bloodless skin.240
things that are compounded with ﬁre and earth. and the root ϕθορ as in διαϕθορά ‘destruction’. he contrived comfort against the seasons sent from Zeus. He planned these things. stereophonic sound is ‘dense’ or ‘thick’. Cf.
Translation for 18B
When he had provided enough means of escape for them from mutual slaughter. Herodotus (3. Remember that a n.e. ‘solid’. ‘dermatology’. 6–7 ἔστι δ᾿ οἷς ἔδωκεν … ‘and there were some to whom he gave …’ This use of ἔστι + relative pronoun is a fairly common idiom. they ordered Prometheus and Epimetheus to equip them and assign powers suitable to each one. This is the subject of ὑπάρχοι. ‘dermatitis’. In his distribution. he protected by that very quality. ‘pachyderm’. ‘you review it’. and he assigned the other qualities also. Having thus persuaded him. And he shod them too. clothing them with thick hair or tough skins. and for some roots. some he armed with weapons. And there were some to whom he gave the ﬂesh of other animals for their food. sufﬁcient to ward off the winter’s cold and capable of withstanding also the summer’s heat. What part of the verb is ἰοῦσιν? 4 τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ‘these same things (i. he said.
In addition. as here.
1 ἅτε + participle means ‘since’. 356–358. You will probably be able to recognise them when you meet them. The dual can be used in verbs.g. e. #331–332. 8–9 ἀμήχανον … γενέσθαι ‘for it was impossible for it (αὐτὴν = τὴν ἔντεχνον σοϕίαν) to be possessed (κτητήν) by anyone (τῳ = τινί) or to be useful (χρησίμην) without ﬁre’. when two people or things are the subject. in fact. ἀποροῦντι δὲ αὐτῷ ἔρχεται Προμηθεύς ‘to him being in doubt. It is worth looking at the pattern of the duals. 10 ταύτῃ ‘in this way’. But the human race was still left over for him. τέχνη covers both the skill of the craftsman and the creative genius of the artist. since Epimetheus was not particularly brilliant. but it is not essential to learn them by heart. possibly ‘technical knowledge’ would suit the context best here. #330. agree with σοϕίαν. The power of speech is what distinguishes man from beasts. Hephaistos is the god of ﬁre and the master-craftsman. Man now has the skills to stay alive. he did not notice that he had used up all the powers on the animals (he escaped his own notice having used up the powers). two hands. thus conserving the species (providing safety for the race). without any
. See GE pp. Prometheus comes …’ 6–7 ἀπορίᾳ οὖν σχόμενος … ἥντινα σωτηρίαν … εὕρoι See note on line 3 above. a couple. καταναλώσας ἀναλίσκω (ἀναλωσ-) means ‘I spend’ or ‘I expend’. It is difﬁcult to ﬁnd an adequate translation. he made more fertile. and in nouns and adjectives. and so τὰ ἄλογα becomes the normal word for ‘beasts’. 9–10 Notice the contrast between τὴν περὶ τὸν βίον σοϕίαν and τὴν πολιτικήν. See GE p. 3 ἠπόρει ὅ τι χρήσαιτο This is a deliberative question in secondary sequence: ‘What am I to use?’ becomes ‘He was in doubt what he was to use. Athene is the goddess of wisdom.Section 18C
those on whom they fed. thus it does. a chariot team or. 2 τὰ ἄλογα ‘the speechless ones’. 356. 356. usually when they are a pair. 8 τὴν ἔντεχνον σοϕίαν ἔντεχνον is a compound adjective and has only two terminations. #329. and so this phrase encompasses both meanings. ‘in as much as’. and so both their attributes are reﬂected in the phrase.
Translation for 18C
Now. but has not yet acquired social skills which enable him to live in a community.’ See GE p.
13 ἐϕιλοτεχνείτην This is a dual.
and cattle would make them like cattle. The verb in the optative shows that this is an indeﬁnite clause. thanks to Epimetheus. While he was still at a loss. Μοῖρα (personiﬁed) is the goddess of fate. unshod. In this way man acquired skill to keep him alive.
1 μοίρας Here this simply means ‘portion’. had later on to stand trial for theft. hence ‘destiny’. As Xenophanes (fr. 10 ἅτε οὐκ ἔχοντες ‘since they did not have’. the sentinels of Zeus were terrible. The μοῖρα referred to here is the skill of ﬁre and the technical skill to use it. 5 κατ᾽ ἀρχάς This means ‘in the beginning’. And so he secretly entered the house shared by Athene and Hephaistos in which they practised their art. and stealing Hephaistos’ art of working with ﬁre and the other art of Athene. stole from Hephaistos and Athene the gift of technical skill together with ﬁre – for without ﬁre it was impossible for anyone to possess or use this skill – and so he gave it to man. so the story goes. 9–10 ὅτ’ οὖν ἀθροισθεῖεν ‘whenever they gathered together’. and he did not know what to do. ‘at ﬁrst’. Prometheus came to inspect the work (the distribution) and he saw that the other creatures were well provided with everything. Men had to live in scattered groups because they had not the πολιτικὴ τέχνη to live peacefully and cooperatively in cities (or to organise an army). man imagines gods in his own image: ‘But if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could draw and make works of art with their hands as men do. but that man was naked. 2 θεoὺς ἐνόμισε Here νομίζω means ‘to acknowledge’. Prometheus. Whenever they tried. σποράδην This is an adverb. 7 δημιουργική Α δημιουργός is a craftsman (from δῆμος and ἔργον). cf. but Prometheus. therefore.’ 5–11 This is a most ingenious explanation of the need for social skills. not ‘to think’. and Prometheus no longer had permission to enter the acropolis. English ‘sporadically’. It can also mean ‘that which is rightly one’s portion’. hence ‘one’s due’. then horses would draw the images of their gods and make their bodies like horses. but it can mean ‘one’s portion in life’. he gave them to man. for that was in the keeping of Zeus. which were divine prerogatives. As a result of this man had the means of life. without a bed and without weapons. just like the body that each species possesses. ‘doom’. the house of Zeus – moreover.242
attributes. they had to give up and then in their small groups they once again fell prey to wild beasts. but he did not have political skill. being at a loss to ﬁnd any protection for man. 6) points out.
. ἅτε + participle expressing the cause. and already the appointed day had come on which man too had to emerge from the earth into the light.
something that actually took place. the main verb πέμπει is a ‘historic present’. they injured one another because they did not have political skills. It contains an element of fear – men behave well through fear of what others may think of them if they do not. R. and secondly. δίκη is here more abstract. respect for others and their rights. shows that this is an actual result. 2 ἵν᾽ εἶεν … ‘so that they might be …’ A purpose clause in secondary sequence. E. but is the aorist participle of δείδω. Dodds in The Greeks and the Irrational discusses the nature of the ‘shame culture’. the capacity to feel ashamed if you act wrongly to others.
10–11 ὥστε … διεϕθείροντο The verb in the indicative. making it emphatic: ‘lest it might be destroyed totally’. although. but the narrative is still about a past event and the verbs in the subordinate clauses still reﬂect a secondary sequence. αἰδώς means ‘shame’. with the result that they scattered again and were again devoured. ‘modesty’. rather than the inﬁnitive. he alone of living creatures believed in the gods and set to work to build altars and images of the gods. hence. That means the present is used instead of the past to make the story more dramatic. and it is everywhere apparent in Homer – the heroes must not ‘lose face’. In this passage the two words express the two qualities which make community living possible: respect for others and a sense of justice and the rule of law. men lived to begin with in scattered groups. and the technical skill which was sufﬁcient help to them in getting food was not adequate for ﬁghting the beasts – for they did not yet have the political skill of which the art of war is a part. but whenever they gathered in communities. and invented houses and clothes and shoes and bedding and food from the earth. 2 αἰδῶ τε καὶ δίκην Two immensely important words which have a wide range of meanings. and there were no cities. he quickly discovered speech and names by his art. or private morality and public observance of the law. See vocabulary. ﬁrst of all. Therefore they were destroyed by the wild beasts. They did indeed seek to come together and to protect themselves by founding cities. it can range from abstract justice to a legal case or the penalty inﬂicted.
1 δείσας This is in no way related to δεῖ. because of his divine kinship. as you already know.
Translation for 18D
Since man had a share in the portion of the gods. since they were in every way weaker than them. Thus provided for. Notice the position of πᾶν at the end of the clause. an irregular verb.
τὸν μὴ δυνάμενον … κτείνειν. ὦ Σώκρατες. but it is the aorist subjunctive (aorist stem νειμ-). εἰ ὀλίγοι αὐτῶν μετέχοιεν The optative mood of the verbs and presence of ἄν will tell you what sort of a condition this is. and why? It is not the future (νεμῶ). δεσμοί These are ‘bonds’ or ‘fetters’. τούτου αἰτία Q. makes the participle phrase indeﬁnite: ‘whoever is incapable of …’ rather than ‘the one who is not capable …’ Here the difference in meaning is slight. προσῆκον Accusative absolute. at developing the potential for political skill. ‘order’. ‘the universe’ (‘the cosmos’) or the ‘world’ (‘cosmopolitan’).) Note once again the chiasmus (ABBA pattern) in πόλεων κόσμοι τε καὶ δεσμοὶ ϕιλίας. (Cf.e. or Reference Grammar #395.
. nominative – nominative. 320. i. Protagoras rests his case. The brutal extermination of those without the right qualities underlines the importance which Zeus attaches to them.E. but in some cases it can be signiﬁcant. δεσμωτήριον ‘a prison’. θῶ. the summing-up of the meaning of the myth. ὅταν μὲν … ᾖ λόγος ‘whenever the argument is concerned with …’ ὅταν δὲ … ἴωσιν A balancing and contrasting clause to the previous one. Here the sense is ‘order’. The normal prose use would be ἀποκτείνειν. #296. νείμω Can you recognise what mood this is. αὕτη. genitive. ἐρωτᾷ Continuing use of the historic present. τίνα οὖν τρόπον ‘in what way’. 351.D. ἰδιώταις Often ἰδιώτης means ‘a private individual as opposed to one of a citizen group’. Be careful not to confuse εἷς with εἰς. οἵ τε ἄλλοι καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι Literally this means ‘both the others and the Athenians’. In effect it means ‘the Athenians in particular’. Notice how the meaning has deteriorated over the centuries into ‘idiot’. and then ‘the thing that is ordered’. νείμω Do you recognise the deliberative subjunctives? μετεχόντων Can you recognise this? ‘Let them all have a share …’ οὐ γὰρ ἂν γένοιντο πόλεις. οὕτω δή Introduces the conclusion. and the basic human qualities which all should share. It means ‘decoration’ (‘cosmetic’). #325–326. See GE p. 460. p. The accusative is used adverbially. ὡς νόσον πόλεως This is the law they must enforce. rather than οὐ. but here it simply means ‘individuals’. genitive. and thus reﬂects secondary sequence. You will see that δοίη is optative. used in a deliberative question. from earliest childhood. κτείνειν Poetic.244
6 7 7–8
9–10 10 12–13 14 15
κόσμοι κόσμος is another important and wide-ranging word. See Reference Grammar #402. The use of μή. ‘Am I to assign these (qualities) in this way?’ See GE p. He goes on to describe how Athenian education was aimed. which illustrates the difference between specialist knowledge and expertise.
That. sent Hermes to take to men the qualities of respect for others and a sense of justice so that there could be order in the cities and bonds of friendship uniting men.Section 18E
Translation for 18E
Therefore Zeus. that. or am I to assign them to all men?’ ‘To all men’. And moreover lay it down as a law from me that if anyone is incapable of sharing in justice and respect he must be put to death as a plague to the city. ‘and let all men have a share. like other people. said Zeus. believe that only a few are capable of giving advice. whenever the debate is about skill in architecture or any other expertise. for there could never be cities if only a few people shared in these qualities as in the other arts. is the reason for this. Hermes asked Zeus in what way he was to give justice and respect to men: ‘Am I to distribute these gifts in the same way as the skills have been allocated? They have been distributed in this way: one man having the skill of a doctor is sufﬁcient for many individuals (laymen). they do not tolerate it. Socrates. which must always follow the path of justice and moderation. and the same is true of other experts.’ Thus it is for these reasons. as you say – reasonably in my view – but whenever they seek advice on political wisdom.
. they rightly listen to every man. Am I then to give justice and respect to men in this way. Socrates. the Athenians. and if anyone outside these few gives advice. fearing that our whole race would be destroyed. since they think it is proper for every man to have a share in this virtue or there would not be any cities.
it ‘stood over him’. 2–3 ἐπέστη ὄνειρoς The dream is personiﬁed. its position near the beginning of a sentence should help to distinguish it. before you start.34–45. and thus attracts the vengeance of the gods. This is not punishment for an evil act.Section Nineteen: The story of Adrastos
This passage is reproduced unadapted from Herodotus. Perpetual happiness is the prerogative of the gods and not of man. pp. 227–229. #333–334 ‘The Dialect of Herodotus’. 2 ἑωυτόν = ἑαυτόν. μιν ‘him’. οὐδαμῇ ‘nowhere’. However. Histories 1. 225–226 of RGT and the beginning of the story. which is translated for you. The form is uncontracted. Herodotus writes in the Ionic dialect (see Introduction). 8 ἐωθότα δὲ στρατηγέειν μιν … Object of ἐξέπεμπε in the next line. 6 ἀπολέει Here the future of ἀπόλλυμι means something like ‘will lose’ rather than ‘will destroy’. Croesus commits an act of ‘hubris’ by exhibiting pride in his continuing happiness. ‘written off’). but punishment for ‘thinking more than mortal thoughts’. but it shows Croesus’ feeling that he had only one son. You will meet it frequently. ὀλβιώτατον Note the emphatic position.
1 νέμεσις ‘retribution’. It is very important to read both the introduction on pp. or ‘stood beside him’. for all practical purposes. you may want to look at GE pp. 9–10 ἀκόντια δὲ καὶ δοράτια καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα πάντα Objects of both ἐκκομίσας and συνένησε. and the vocabularies will help you as well. and it is always easy to confuse it with ὤν ‘being’. Note this carefully. Apart from the accent. 5 ὦν = οὖν. 4 διέϕθαρτο Literally this means that ‘he had been destroyed’. oἱ ‘to him’. as are many of the verbs. 359–360. a brutal word for ‘handicapped’ (cf. 11 μή τί oἱ κρεμάμενον … ‘lest anything having been hung over him might…’
. You will ﬁnd that you get used to this quite quickly.
1–2 συμϕορῇ ἐχόμενος Literally ‘being held by disaster’. line 10. ἀέκων is the uncontracted form of ἄκων. ἀμείβετο There is no augment.
. This is an accusative of respect. (Cf. οὐ καθαρὸς χεῖρας ‘not clean in respect of his hands’. 239. 19F. lest anything hanging over the boy might fall on him. 360. is used here as a noun. the relationship of guestfriendship would be established.Section 19B
Translation for 19A
After Solon had gone. Straightaway a dream came to him when he was asleep which revealed to him the truth of the evils which were going to happen with regard to his son. Thus ξένος can mean ‘stranger’. Croesus had two sons. fearing the dream. p. ‘puriﬁcatory’. A suppliant would sit by the hearth and was under the protection of Zeus Epistios. ‘host’ and ‘friend’. This means literally ‘by the hearth’. Croesus no longer sent him out on this sort of venture anywhere. And it was this Atys that the dream pointed out to Croesus that he would lose. Catharsis is the rite of puriﬁcation which the perpetrator of a crime (whether voluntarily or involuntarily committed) must undergo before he can cease to be regarded as polluted and return to normal life and relationships. struck by an iron spear-head. and he also removed javelins and spears and all such weapons as men use in war from the men’s quarters and stacked them in the inner chambers. but the other was far superior to his contemporaries in every way. overtook Croesus. but you can tell that the verb is past because of the ending. 3 καθαρσίου The neuter of the adjective καθάρσιος. See GE p. 6 ὁκόθεν = ὁπόθεν. of whom one was disabled (for he was deaf and dumb). and then. 7 ἐπίστιος = ἐϕέστιος.) Once he had been accepted into the house. also in the next line κόθεν = πόθεν. perhaps ‘gripped by disaster’. his name was Atys.
1 ἔχοντος … τὸν γάμον ‘(with) his (οἱ) son having his marriage in hand …’ ἀπικνέεται = ἀϕικνεῖται. #335. ‘guest’. 5 ἐπυνθάνετο The imperfect tense suggests that Croesus ‘began the process of ﬁnding out’ or ‘wanted to ﬁnd out’. Then when he woke up and took counsel with himself. it is the object of ἐπικυρῆσαι. to make a reasonable guess. although he had been accustomed to command the Lydians in battle. because he thought himself to be the happiest of all men. ἐών = ὤν ‘being’. he ﬁrst brought a woman in marriage for the boy. great retribution from god. 9 ἐμεωυτοῦ = ἐμαυτοῦ.
3 διαϕθείρεσκε The ending in -έσκω is ‘frequentative’. See list of irregular verbs. The process of puriﬁcation is very similar in Lydia and in Greece (among the Lydians and among the Hellenes). 54: ‘τὸ χρῆμα τῶν νυκτῶν’. #389. being a Phrygian by birth. Now therefore we ask you to send us your
. but were harmed by it. 436–442. ‘You are the son of men who are my friends and you have come to friends. and I am here because I killed my own brother by accident. Cf. Cf. a huge monster of a boar has appeared in our land. ‘O King. Finally. begged him to cleanse him of his blood-guilt in accordance with the laws of the country. he started to ask who he was and where he came from. coming to Croesus. Making forays from this mountain. on the Mysian Mount Olympus. 12 ἐν ἡμετέρου ‘in [the house] of ours’. who are you and where in Phrygia do you come from? What man or woman did you kill?’ And he answered. 11 τοῖσι ἰοῦσι ‘to those going’. a huge monster of a boar appeared. and shows that the action took place repeatedly. I am called Adrastos.’
2 ὑὸς χρῆμα μέγα Literally ‘a great thing of a boar’. ποιέεσκον later in the same line. I am the son of Gordias. No augment for either. who were my suppliant. ‘at the doctor’s’. often setting out against it. this creature used to destroy the Mysians’ crops. sir. Dative plural of the participle. and the Mysians. It will be best for you (you will proﬁt most) if you bear this misfortune as lightly as possible.
10 οἱ ‘to him’.
Translation for 19B
While his son was occupied with his wedding. Cf Section 5A line 6.’ Croesus answered him in these words. p. coming to the house of Croesus.248
ἐξεληλαμένος From ἐξ-ελαύνω ἐλάω ἤλασα ἐλήλακα ἐλήλαμαι ἠλάθην. where you shall be in need of nothing while you remain in my house.
Translation for 19C
So he took up residence in the house of Croesus. there arrived in Sardis a man who was beset by misfortune and whose hands were polluted (not pure).’at the dentist’s’. we cannot do so. messengers from the Mysians spoke thus: ‘O King. did it no harm. the son of Midas. and at this same period. and related to the royal family. 4 ἀπικόμενοι = ἀϕικόμενοι. Although we are eager to destroy it. When Croesus had performed the customary rites. This man. And Croesus did cleanse him. GE pp. which is destroying our crops. I have been driven out by my father and deprived of everything. saying these words: ‘You.
but. 12 πρός ‘with regard to’. 14 τυγχάνεις ἐών Here the meaning is ‘you really are’ rather than ‘you happen to be’. #336 for the meaning of οὔ ϕημι. remembering the words of the dream. but Croesus. for I would not send him to you. 6 τέοισι ὄμμασι τέοισι = τίσι: ‘with what eyes?’ How will he look to observers? What will people think of him? How will he appear in their eyes? 7 κοῖος = ποῖος. and in respect of which the dream has escaped your notice (which you have failed to observe in the dream)’.
2 οὐ ϕαμένου See GE p. 11 ὄψις ὀνείρoυ … ἐπιστᾶσα This echoes the ἐπέστη in Section 18A. 17 τό is both the object of μανθάνεις and accusative of respect with λέληθέ σε ‘there is something which you do not understand. going to wars and to hunts to win fame’. Latin nego. 15 διεϕθαρμένον τὴν ἀκοήν ‘destroyed in respect of his hearing’. spoke these words to them. 361. there is no ἄν used with χρῆν. ‘in consideration of’. τὴν ἀκοήν is an accusative of respect. I shall send selected bands of Lydians and the whole pack of hounds and I shall order those who go to be as eager as possible to join in ridding your land of this creature. for χρῆν was felt to be virtually potential on its own.e.’ This is the aorist imperative from μεθίημι. 7–8 Notice the crescendo of indignant questions.’ They made these requests.Section 19D
son and a selected band of young men and hounds. 3–4 τὰ κάλλιστα … ἡμῖν ἦν … ϕοιτέοντας εὐδοκιμέειν Literally ‘the most glorious and noble deeds were once formerly to us (mine). so that we may rid our country of it. i. ‘deaf’.’ This was his answer. σϕι ‘to them’. he is newly married and this is what concerns him now. However. 5 ἀποκληίσας ἔχεις Herodotus often uses a past tense made up of ἔχω + aorist participle. as often.
. ‘Do not mention my son any more. 8 μέθες ‘Let me go.
19–21 εἰ μὲν γὰρ … εἶπε … . because it is seen as part of an accusative and inﬁnitive phrase which explains the ﬁrst statement. 16 τoι = σοι. Cf. 13–14 εἴ κως … ‘if in some way …’ διακλέψαι ‘steal you (from death or Fate)’. ϕοιτέοντας does not agree with ἡμῖν. ὀλιγοχρόνιον You will be able to guess this if you derive it from the two words you know. χρῆν … This is an unfulﬁlled condition.
20 ὀδόντος Cf. let me go.’ Croesus answered in these words: ‘My son. as it is. Now to what eyes must I appear as I walk to and from the agora? (What must people think of me?) What sort of person shall I seem to the citizens.’
1 εἴπας This is the aorist participle formed from the ﬁrst aorist εἶπα which is the alternative to εἶπον. Because of this dream. Father. τοι = σοι. but because the apparition of a dream came to me in my sleep. So. Since therefore our ﬁght is not against men. but what sort of hands does a boar have. I hastened this marriage of yours and I do not send you on this undertaking. I change my mind and let you go to the hunt. it is right that I should point out to you.’ The young man answered with these words. it was most honourable and noble for me to go to war and to the hunt to win glory. then you ought to be doing what you are doing. ‘orthodontist’. showing me your opinion about the dream.’ Croesus answered. taking precautions to see if I can somehow steal you [from death] for as long as I live (for the period of my life). for the other one is deaf (disabled in respect of hearing). the son of Croesus went to him. ‘somehow’. Since Croesus was refusing to send his son to them.
Translation for 19D
Although the Mysians were contented with this. ‘I forgive your protectiveness for me. as far as I am concerned (for me). But now you have barred me from both these activities. what sort of iron spearhead does it have that you should fear? For if it had said to you that I would be killed by a boar’s tusk. ‘odontology’. the young man spoke thus to him: ‘Previously. Cf. 23 ἔστι τῇ ‘there is a way in which …’. τευ = τινός. although you have noticed no cowardice or lack of spirit in me. and that you would perish by an iron spearhead. You say that the dream says that I will die by an iron spearhead. For you are in reality my only son. what sort of man to my new-wed wife? With what sort of husband will she seem to be living? You must therefore either let me go to the hunt. ‘someone’. it is a weapon that is to kill me. since you have had such a dream. having heard what the Mysians were asking.
. But. it is not because I have noticed any cowardice or any other disagreeable trait in you that I do this. ‘My son. οἶκε = ἔοικε. ἔστι τις ‘there is a sort of person who …’. ἢ ἄλλου τευ ὅ τι τούτῳ οἶκε ‘or of anything else which seems like to this’. or persuade me by reason that these things are better for me if done this way. but what you do not understand and have failed to observe in respect of the dream. and I do not consider that he exists. Father. then. and standing by me said that you would be short-lived. or something else like this. it is the case that you conquer me. defeated by you.
‘in other circumstances’. 5 What does ὁρμωμένου agree with? 6 ἐπὶ δηλήσι = ἐπὶ δηλήσει ‘with a view to harm’. for it is not seemly for a man who has experienced such a disaster to join his peers who are more fortunate. Croesus sent for the Phrygian Adrastos.’ 11–13 Notice the highly dramatic use of short phrases as the climax is reached: ‘I am ready to do this / your son / whom you order me to guard / unharmed / thanks to his guardian / expect to return to you. But now.’
Translation for 19E
Having said this. 19D line 5. I am ready to do these things. 10 πάρα = πάρεστι ‘it is present’. and you can expect to see your son. I gave you puriﬁcation when you had been stricken by an unpleasant misfortune (for which I do not blame you). This is the aorist subjunctive. in an uncontracted form. ἤια = ᾖα. 4 προποιήσαντος χρηστὰ ἐς σέ ‘having done good things for you previously’. ἔγωγε ἂν οὐκ ἤια ἄν + the past tense of εἶμι (‘I go’) make this an unfulﬁlled condition. to return my generosity. whom you command me to guard. In addition. ‘Adrastos. 8 ἄλλως ‘otherwise’. ἂν ἶσχον ἄν + the imperfect indicative continues the unfulﬁlled condition: ‘I would be holding myself back. providing for all your expenses.’ Adrastos answered: ‘O King. and for many reasons I would restrain myself. of future tense.Section 19E
3 ὑποδεξάμενος ἔχω Another example of this form of past tense. since you are eager. χρηστοῖσί με ἀμείβεσθαι ‘to repay me with good things’. who ﬁrst did you a good turn. τὸ βούλεσθαι = ‘the will’. ‘the wish’ – the inﬁnitive is used as a noun. 7 ἀπολαμπρυνέαι For -έεαι. and it is my duty to please you (for I owe it to you to return your generosity). and when he arrived he spoke to him like this. return to you unharmed so far as depends on his guardian. it is your birthright and besides you have the strength.
9 οἰκός = ἐοικός ‘likely’ or ‘ﬁtting’. Cf. Here the aorist passive form is used instead of the aorist middle. under other circumstances I would not go to such a contest. ϕανέωσι Can you recognise this? ϕαίνω has a second aorist passive ἐϕάνην. 2nd person sing. ἀποκληίσας ἔχεις. it is right for you to go where you can distinguish yourself by your deeds. I ask you to be the guardian of my son when he sets out for the hunt. and I have received you in my household. lest any evil thieves appear to do you harm on the road.’
. because you owe it to me. now therefore. nor could I wish it.
13 ϕύλακα … πολεμιώτατον Here the antithesis is marked by placing the contrasting words at the beginning and the end of the clause. 15 ἐπικατασϕάξαι σϕάζω means ‘to kill with a sword’. ‘he struck the son of Croesus’ reminds us of the full signiﬁcance of the relationship with Croesus. ἐπίστιος and ἑταιρήιος. This technique is used even more forcefully later in this passage. and the succession of vivid impressions. 2. ‘shattered’.
. clear phrases. 13–14 The focus of attention moves from the Lydians (‘there they were’). Once again the inevitable progress of predestined events is made clear. and ﬁnally the quiet statement of utter despair. Croesus’ act and the bond of guest-friendship between them. 3 ἐζήτεον. The killer and the killed. τυγχάνει The present tense is used for dramatic effect. Under the auspices of Zeus Katharsios he had puriﬁed the stranger. 6 ἀγγελέων Future participle expressing purpose. 5–6 The emphasis is on the fulﬁlment of the prophecy. illustrating the tragic consequences of his observance of the proper duties in each case.252
2–5 Notice the succession of short clear phrases as the dramatic climax is reached. called Adrastos’. the one who had been cleansed of blood-guilt. and its effect on Croesus. ἐσηκόντιζον Imperfect: ‘they began to …’ 5 ἁμαρτάνει. This reminds us of Adrastos’ history. under the auspices of Zeus Epistios he had taken him into his house and under the auspices of Zeus Hetairesios he had befriended him and sent out as guardian of his son the man who proved to be his murderer. as with a defeated army. The brief plain phrases leading inexorably to the disaster are deeply moving. (You can tell it is future by the single λ and the -εω ending. 12 τὸν ξεῖνον ϕονέα τοῦ παιδός The contrast is enhanced by the juxtaposition. He is given no name and he dominates the coming passage. καθάρσιος. and is often associated with sacriﬁcial slaughter. Similarly. following behind. then to the corpse and then to the solitary ﬁgure of the killer.
14–17 Again the short.) 8 συντεταραγμένος A very strong word. so ‘overwhelmed’. the attitude of surrender. Notice also the formal description of Adrastos as ‘the stranger. ‘distraught’. ταράσσω means ‘to throw into confusion’. The formal expression seems to give a ritual quality which emphasises the universal truth underlying the story and to make it more than the personal fate of individuals. 9–13 Croesus calls on Zeus in three capacities. 10 πεπονθὼς εἴη The perfect optative is used because this is in indirect speech in secondary sequence: ‘bearing witness to the things which he had suffered’. the plea for death with the brutal word ἐπικατασϕάξαι thrown into prominence as the ﬁrst word in its clause.
Translation for 19F
When he had answered Croesus with these words. bearing witness to the things that he had suffered at the hands of the stranger. even though he was in such personal distress. A digniﬁed and moving end. Cf. nobility and forgiveness. and when he reached Sardis. he called in anger upon Zeus the Puriﬁer. ἐπικατασϕάζει τῷ τύμβῳ ἑωυτόν. and he called upon him as the god of the hearth and the god of friendship. calling upon him as the god of the hearth because having received the stranger into his house he had unwittingly nurtured the murderer of his son. and having found it and surrounded it they began to hurl javelins at it. except in so far as you unintentionally did the deed. and. 20 εἶς = εἶ ‘you are’. but hit the son of Croesus. naming this same god. of all the men whom he knew. when all is quiet and the mourners have gone from the tomb. and the murderer followed behind. he was βαρυσυμϕορώτατος’ (a most weighty and impressive word saved to the last to make it even more emphatic). and how in addition to it he had destroyed the man who had cleansed him.Then indeed he. ϕονεὺς δέ … the repetition recalls the double tragedy. the Lydians came bearing the corpse. missed the boar. Euripides’ Hippolytus. hurled his javelin at the boar. they started to look for the boar. being hit by a spearhead. Among mortals there can be pity. since you condemn yourself to death. where the reconciliation of Theseus and his son contrasts with the unrelenting vengefulness of Aphrodite.) Next. in contrast perhaps to the relentless force of destiny fulﬁlling the design of the gods. he said that life was no longer liveable for him. they set off after this accompanied by the selected young men and the hounds. (Adrastos is the ‘destroyer’ of the man who puriﬁed him. the one who had been ritually cleansed of murder. And standing before the body. 21–25 The climax opens quietly. and someone ran to tell Croesus what had happened. he begged him to slay him over the corpse. When they arrived at Mount Olympus. ‘realising that. he told him about the ﬁght and the fate of his son.Section 19F
17–21 The reaction of Croesus. Κροῖσος μέν … buries his son. hearing this. In his grief at this tragedy. then our attention moves to Ἄδρηστος δέ … (Adrastos is now given his full formal name at this ﬁnal moment of the story. who prophesied to me long ago the events that would come to pass. fulﬁlled the prophecy of the dream. ὁ ϕονεὺς μέν … . and stretching out his hands. pitied Adrastos. was even more grieved because he himself had cleansed of murder the man who had killed him. the man called Adrastos. And there the stranger. and spoke thus to him: ‘Stranger. but it was some god.) Finally. But Croesus. speaking of his former disaster. and calling upon him as the god of friendship on the grounds that he had sent him as a guardian for his son and found him to be a most deadly enemy. After this.’
. You are not the one who is responsible for this tragedy. in the sense that by killing his son he has destroyed his life. I have full justice from you. overwhelmed by the death of his son. But Croesus. he offered himself to Croesus.
without having to struggle quite so hard to understand the Greek. ἕνεκα ἐγένου. the son of Gordias the son of Midas. χρηστοῖς
. and the destroyer of the man who had cleansed him. regarding himself as the most accursed of all men whom he knew. so that. EXERCISE FOR SECTION 19
THE DIALECT OF HERODOTUS
(a) (b) (c) (e) (f) (g)
νεανίας. the one who had been the killer of his own brother. ἀπολεῖ. you can appreciate fully both the dramatic effect of the story and the varied artistry of Herodotus’ narrative technique.
You may perhaps want to read through this whole section again. when it was quiet and the crowd of people had gone from the tomb (when it was quiet of people about the tomb). καλούμενος. συμφορά πράττω. ποιοῦμεν Περσῶν ταύταις. killed himself upon the tomb. But Adrastos. φυλάττω μόνος.254
Exercise for section 19
Croesus then buried his son as was ﬁtting.
. 362–364. ‘anemone’ = ‘wind-ﬂower’. and it is interesting to consider how Homer uses them. 3 βῆ = ἔβη. and then returns to where it started. ‘thus’. No augment. ῥ’ = ῥά. 4ff.Section Twenty: Odysseus and Nausikaa
Here you have the whole of Odyssey 6.
20 ἀνέμου Cf. and notice GE p. 243–244. This is known as ‘ring composition’ and is a common feature in Homer. You will quickly come to recognise such phrases. Odysseus is often referred to by this description. There is also the Reference Grammar pp. thus ‘much-enduring’. 362. #337 on some vital features of Homeric dialect and syntax. Make sure you read the excellent Introduction. The passage in English gives the earlier history of the Phaeacian people. -τλας is from τλάω ‘I endure’. καθεῦδε = καθηῦδε. #349–352 ‘Homeric dialect – the main features’. Do you remember the rhapsode in Section 1H. The absence of the augment is very common in Homer. Remember that this is poetry in the oral tradition. πολύτλας: πολύ = ‘much’. and GE pp. #337(a). having covered himself with leaves. with the ‘winedark sea’ (ἐπὶ οἴνοπα πόντον) and the ‘black. 378–382. 21 στῆ = ἔστη. with Athene making her way to Phaeacia. 362. RGT pp. πολύτλας δῖος ’Oδυσσεύς A formulaic phrase. See GE p. #338–339 on Homeric hexameters and Greek metre. partly in Greek and partly in translation. ἔνθα Odysseus is sleeping under an olive bush. μιν = αὐτήν. An abbreviated form of ἄρα: ‘then’. Oral poets did not commit a poem to memory verbatim. and it is entirely apt.
1 ὥς with an accent = οὕτως ‘so’. hollow or swift ship’? These were ‘formulas’. but they had in their minds a huge collection of formulaic phrases which ﬁtted neatly into a hexameter line and they could use these to tell the story. ‘anemometer’ = ‘wind-measurer’.
32–33 ὄϕρα …ἐντύνεαι ὄϕρα + subjunctive/optative expresses purpose. 362. and does not express purpose. There is also a particle τοι which means ‘in fact’. καλά Understand εἵματα from the previous line. although in Homer an indeﬁnite is very close to a future: ‘those who will lead you’. 29 τοι Here this probably means ‘in fact’. This is the ‘dative of the person concerned’. the bird of Athene. 280. 30 πότνια μήτηρ πότνια is a stock epithet for goddesses and great ladies. αὐτήν Agrees with σε (understood).256
πρὸς … ἔειπεν ‘spoke to’. ‘addressed’. 362. #350). ἡ γλαύξ is ‘the owl’. not -σται. ‘How did your mother come to have such a lazy daughter?’ 26 τοι = σοι. 23 οἱ = αὐτῇ (GE p. Present subjunctive. κεχάριστο This is the pluperfect of χαρίζομαι (not the perfect. ‘let us go’. ‘addressed her a word’. πλυνέουσαι Future participle expressing purpose. but it could be either in the context. but only the context will help you to decide between them.
. 31 ἴομεν = ἴωμεν. #337(j). #337(i)). γλαυκός = ‘gleaming’ or ‘grey-green’. GE p. Here it is almost certainly the pronoun: compare this example with 20B line 59. 33 τοι Here probably the particle ‘indeed’. although it has no augment. 362. and is frequently found with μήτηρ. it ends in -στο. GE p. ὤψ = ‘face’ or ‘eyes’. ἔην = ἦν. 22 ναυσικλειτοῖο Genitive ending (GE p. as GE says in the vocabulary for 19A). This is a standard epithet for Athene. The preposition is ‘cut off’ from its verb. Therefore this is an indeﬁnite clause. ‘look here’. See GE p. It is often translated ‘lady’. ‘And you must provide others for those who …’ οἵ κέ σ’ ἄγωνται κε or κεν = ἄν. 27 ἵνα + indicative means ‘where’. 28 τὰ δὲ τοῖσι The article is normally used for ‘them’ or ‘these’ in Homer instead of αὐτόν and οὗτος. 25 τί νύ σ’ ὧδε … Literally ‘How did your mother bear you thus lazy?’. In poetry the preposition is often left out if it is used as the preﬁx to the verb. it means either ‘grey-eyed’ or owl-faced’. ἀνθρώπους ἀναβαίνει Understand another ἀνά before ἀνθρώπους: ‘goes up among men’. Here the verb is used with two accusatives. It is usually the second word in the sentence. ἕπομαι takes the dative.
24 γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη Another formula. and is not equivalent to σοι. 32 τοι = σοι. #337(d). as seen on the Athenian silver drachma. This is called ‘tmesis’ (‘cutting’). ἔσσεαι = ἔσει ‘you will be’. another ethic dative ‘as far as you are concerned’. 362. The Phaeacians were famed for their nautical skills. You can see it is pluperfect because. where μοι is equivalent to τοι in this line. #337(k).
followed by a command. 38 ῥήγεα σιγαλόεντα Cf. 37 ἡμιόνους ‘mules’ as in Section 8E. For from these things indeed a good reputation spreads among men. Cf. It was copied by Lucretius in De rerum natura 3. But let us go and do the washing as soon as dawn appears. 40 ἀπὸ … εἰσί Tmesis again. and by Tennyson: Where falls not hail. 47 διεπέϕραδε Aorist of διαϕράζω. ‘are distant from’. hurried to the bed of the girl. e. #198–199). since you will not be a maiden much longer. #351(iv). 36 ἄγ᾽ = ἄγε. ‘Nausikaa.428–9)
Translation for 20A
So much-enduring. 41–47 Ring composition again: (line 4) ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη … ἔνθ᾽ ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις (line 10). making herself like the daughter of Dymas. overcome by sleep and weariness. 42 Οὔλυμπόνδε The sufﬁx -δε means ‘towards’. Nor ever wind blows loudly. or any snow. ask your famous father before dawn to equip you with mules and a wagon to take the girdles. But come. the robes and the shining covers. 18–22. famous for ships. for already the noblest of all the Phaeacian men throughout the people are courting you – you are of the same race as them. the home of the gods. when you must wear ﬁne [clothes] yourself and provide others for those who will escort you. ‘where is your race too’. See GE p. the grey-eyed Athene addressed her. 189–190. godlike Odysseus slept there. like a breath of wind. ‘and they are your nation too’. 41 ὣς εἰποῦσα ‘so speaking’. so that you may get ready very quickly. In between these repeated phrases there is a marvellous description of Olympus.g. who was of the same age as her and was very dear to her heart. Likening herself to her.Section 20A
35 τοι = σοι.’
. ‘where is the race to you yourself also’. line 19 ἀκηδέα σιγαλόεντα. ‘thus’. ὥς with an accent = οὕτως ‘so’. and stood above her head and addressed her a word. or rain. ἄμαξαν ‘wagon’ as in Section 6H. 381. ‘phrase’. but Athene went to the people and the city of the Phaeacian men … * * * She. οἰκάδε. 39 πολὺ κάλλιον Understand ἐστί. Possessive dative. for the washing-places are far from the city. ἐπότρυνον Aorist imperative (GE pp. And it is much better for you yourself to go in this way than on foot. ‘Come on’. and I will go with you as a helper. how has your mother borne such a lazy [daughter as] you? The shining clothes are lying uncared for by you (as far as you are concerned) – and your wedding is near. ἐϕοπλίσαι Aorist inﬁnitive of ἐϕοπλίζω. and a father and lady mother rejoice. (Idylls of the King 1. 43 ἔμμεναι = εἶναι This is a common form of the inﬁnitive in Homer.
. explained by Ναυσικάαν εὔπεπλον in the next line. 53–54 τῷ δὲ … ξύμβλητο ‘She met him …’ ἐρχομένῳ agrees with τῷ. θαλερὸν γάμον ‘fruitful marriage’. Nausikaa uses this same phrase (p. Nausikaa was modest about her marriage. 54 βασιλῆας ‘chieftains’. the grey-eyed Athene went away to Olympus. ἁλι. nor wet by showers.
Translation for 20B
At once fair-throned dawn came and she woke fair-robed Nausikaa. 53 θύραζε = θύρασδε. not ashamed. 57 πάππα ϕίλ’ This is informal: ‘Daddy. It means ‘she went’. 50 βῆ δ᾽ ἴμεναι Literally ‘she went to go’. line 308) when speaking to Odysseus. 380 #350. Note the accent. It cannot be τοι = σοι. οὐκ ἂν δή μοι ἐϕοπλίσσειας A polite request: ‘Wouldn’t you provide me with …’ 59 τά = ἅ ‘which’. 71 τοί = οἱ ‘they’. a very common idiom in Homer. dye came from the murex (a shell-ﬁsh). It was particularly valuable.258
So speaking. τοκεῦσι ‘to her parents’.
48 μιν ‘her’. 19A line 19. 52 σὺν ἀμϕιπόλοισι γυναιξίν Another formula which ﬁts the second half of the hexameter. 56 μάλ᾽ ἄγχι ‘very close’. #351(iv). There the grey-eyed one went. See GE p. 60 σοὶ αὐτῷ ἔοικε This is followed by accusative + inﬁnitive: ‘it is right for you yourself to discuss plans (βουλὰς βουλεύειν) being among the foremost men (ἐόντα) having (ἔχοντα) clean clothes on your body’. as often in Homer. Cf. itemised in the next line. but a very clear sky spreads over it. ἴμεναι is a form of inﬁnitive. 66 αἴδετο ‘felt reticent about’. and a white radiance covers it. ‘right up close’. 55 ἵνα + indicative means ‘where’. as daughter to father. 53 ἠλάκατα στρωϕῶσ’ ἁλιπόρϕυρα ‘spinning the sea-purple wool’. ‘nobles’ (not ‘kings’). ‘Sea-purple’ because purple. where they say the safe seat of the gods is for ever. at once she was amazed at the dream and she went through the palace to tell it to her parents. ‘in the purple’. and then described more fully with ἡ μέν … in line 52. 68 τευ = τινος. and τῷ δέ … in line 53. in it the blessed gods enjoy themselves all their days. almost certainly a stock epithet. dear’. hence ‘royal purple’. 265. See GE p. or crimson. ἵν᾽ ἀγγείλειε ἵνα + optative expresses purpose in secondary sequence. when she had spoken to the girl. it is not shaken by winds. cloudless.is from the word meaning ‘salt’ or ‘sea’. 381. nor does snow come near. µοι Another ethic dative (dative of the person concerned).
It is a possessive dative. If the inhabitants are ‘god-fearing’. ἄϋσαν Three syllables.’ Almost ‘It was time to go home. the breathing (ἀ) and the diaeresis (ϋ) show this. on his way to his distinguished counsellors to a council to which the Phaeacian nobles called him. spinning sea-purple wool. i. for she was hesitant to mention fruitful marriage to her dear father. And it is ﬁtting for you yourself.’ So she spoke. ἔχουσι ἔχω often has the sense of ‘have (as their home)’.’ 112 ἄλλ’ ἐνόησε Note the accent on ἄλλο: ‘planned something else’. ﬁtted with a canopy. 113 ὡς + optative expresses purpose in secondary sequence. child. See GE p. him she met going towards the door. when you are with your nobles. 173. 123 νυμϕάων This recalls the simile likening Nausikaa to Artemis and her nymphs on p. 121 σϕίν ‘to them’. lines 33–39.
119 ὤ μοι ἐγώ Difﬁcult to translate naturally. Odysseus had the same thoughts before he met the Cyclops. ἡγήσαιτο takes the dative and it is in the optative because it continues the purpose clause started in line 113. #350. πόλιν ‘to the city’. βασίλεια Nominative and feminine. dirty. She found them indoors. The preposition is omitted. nor anything else.’ So saying. Perhaps ‘Oh dear me!’ 119–121 A most important consideration on arriving in a strange land.
110 ἔμελλε ‘She was going to return home. but he realised all and replied: ‘I do not be grudge you mules. 114 oἱ = ‘him’ (dative). ‘inhabit’. they all wish to go to the dance with newly washed clothes. 119 τέων = τίνων. so that I may take the lovely clothes to the river to wash them? They are lying there. 380. 117 ἐπὶ μακρόν Adverbial. Remember the sophist in Section 6F ‘catching up the argument like a ball’. to discuss plans with clean clothes on your body. All these things are a concern to my mind. She stood very close to him and addressed her dear father: ‘Daddy dear.e. won’t you get ready for me a high well-wheeled wagon. two are married and three are thriving bachelors. with her servant women. I know. ἀλλά (as in line 110) means ‘but’.Section 20C
her dear father and mother. Go. she (her mother) was sitting by the hearth. but here he is more fortunate. 115 σϕαῖραν ‘sphere’. = ‘loudly’.
. The servants will equip for you a high well-wheeled wagon. he ordered the servants and they obeyed. Five dear sons have been born to you in the palace. they will respect the laws of hospitality and look after the stranger kindly.
who inhabit the steep peaks of mountains and sources of rivers and grassy meadows. Odysseus appears as savage and terrible as a lion to the girls. Aorist of κλάζω without the augment. considered in his heart and mind. or are they hospitable and have a god-fearing mind? The female shriek of maidens surrounded me – of nymphs. Godlike Odysseus awoke. let me try and see for myself. 138 ἄλλυδις ἄλλη The whole phrase means ‘in different directions’ (as in GE). 380. The simile of the mountain lion. after yoking the mules and folding the ﬁne clothing. ἐν probably belongs to δαίεται and is cut off by tmesis. a thick-skinned animal. ‘let me …’ ἠδέ ‘and’. driven down from the hills by hunger to raid the village animals. ‘a leafy branch’. of εἶμι. sitting up. ‘a different one in a different direction’. as with a neuter plural subject. 132 ὀΐεσσιν Four syllables. ‘his eyes’. ἠμέν … ἠδέ … ‘both … and …’
Translation for 20C
But when she was about to go back home again.260
126 πειρήσομαι ἠδὲ ἴδωμαι These verbs are both subjunctives. Or am I now somewhere near men who speak with human voices? But come. accusative. 131 εἶσ’ = εἶσι: 3rd s. The princess then threw a ball to a hand-maiden. savage and not just. παχείῃ Cf. ‘gastritis’ etc. 130 βῆ δ᾽ ἴμεν See note on 20B line 50 above. literally. ‘Oh dear me. note on 20C line 117 ἄϋσαν. and he too is storm-tossed and driven by desperate necessity to come from the wild to seek help in a civilised community. then again the grey-eyed goddess Athene planned something else. and they shrieked loudly. 130–134 Just as our attention was drawn to Nausikaa with a simile (Artemis and the nymphs). and. οἱ is a possessive dative. ‘pachyderm’. 136 περ = καίπερ. to the land of what people have I come this time? Are they violent. that Odysseus should wake up and see the beautiful girl who would lead him to the city of the Phaeacian men. so at this point it is focused on Odysseus. #350. 129 ϕύλλων Goes with πτόρθον in the previous line. ‘who goes’. See GE p. ϕωτός Be careful not to confuse ϕώς ϕωτός ‘man’ and τὸ ϕῶς (ϕάος) ‘light’.
. is apt. it missed the handmaiden and fell into the deep eddy. 134 δόμον Here referring to the ‘pens’ where the sheep and cattle were kept. γαστήρ Cf. the aorist of ϕαίνομαι. ὄσσε A dual (GE #331–332).’
128 κλάσε = ἔκλασε. 133 ἑ = ‘him’. 137 ϕάνη = ἐϕάνη. Note that the verb (δαίεται) is singular. Cf. ‘gastric’. Cf.
Alcinous’ daughter alone remained. 143 μειλιχίοισι GE gives this as ‘winning’.
. Cf. in case the girl should grow angry in her heart with him for taking her knees. It seemed to him. ‘Honeyed words’ is a frequent formula. He went forward like a mountain-bred lion trusting in his strength. though rained upon and blown upon. Both are in an indirect question in secondary sequence. ‘soothing’. they are often employed by Odysseus. ‘more advantageous’. ‘to see if she would show him the city and give him clothes’. disﬁgured with brine. the arch-persuader. 142 γούνων … λαβών Touching or clasping the knees was a sign of supplication. holding her ground. 145 κέρδιον ‘more proﬁtable’. He seemed terrible to them. Do not confuse this with οἷος ‘such as’. 141 σχομένη Middle participle of ἔχω. line 113. and ‘honeyed’ would be equally appropriate here. Its basic root is μέλι ‘honey’. 252. So Odysseus was going to meet the maidens with beautiful hair. 144 δοίη Aorist optative of δίδωμι. godlike Odysseus emerged from the bushes. and is picked up by κερδαλέον (‘subtle’.Section 20E
139 οἴη The feminine of οἶος ‘alone’. ‘Are you a god or a mortal?’ A splendid piece of ﬂattery and also of reassurance. naked though he was.
149 γουνοῦμαι GE gives this as ‘beseech’. for need was upon him. 147 μὴ … χολώσαιτο ‘lest she be angry’. p. She stood and faced him. εὐώπιδα κούρην Another formulaic phrase. so ‘holding her ground’. with his broad hand he broke a leafy branch from the thick-foliaged bush so that shielding (around) his body he could hide his male genitals. This shows the shrewdly calculating mind of Odysseus. hunger orders him to go even into the densely-packed pens. or goes after the wild deer. It literally means Ί clasp your knees’ – the very thing that Odysseus has not done! θεός νύ τις ἦ βροτός ἐσσι. for no man is going to offend or rape a goddess. δείξειε is also an aorist optative. and they ran in different directions along the jutting shores. Literally ‘maintaining herself’. At once he addressed to her a honeyed and cunning speech. ‘crafty’) in line 148.
Translation for 20D
Speaking thus. who goes on. Odysseus debated whether to take her knees and beseech the beautiful girl or simply with honeyed words at a distance to beseech her to show him the city and give him clothing. but he attacks the oxen or sheep. as he thought about it. to make trial of the sheep. and his eyes burn. for Athene put courage in her heart and removed the fear from her limbs. to be better to beseech her with honeyed words from a distance.
λευσσόντων ‘agrees’ with σϕισι in line 155 ‘when they see …’. where Nausikaa is likened to Artemis. The construction follows the sense: ‘if you are one of the gods who’. of course. The point of the comparison is the slender beauty of the palm and the awe it induces in the beholder.262
150 θεός … τοί τοί is a plural relative pronoun. lines 102–109. 158–159 The climax and another reference to Nausikaa’s marriage. …’ 153 εἰ δέ τίς ἐσσι βροτῶν … More ﬂattery and reassurance as Odysseus develops the second possibility. that she may be a mortal. 162–163 Note the order in which the ideas are presented: ‘in Delos once … such a … by the altar of Apollo … of a palm … the young shoot springing up … I saw’.
. Translate ‘yesterday’. 168–169 δείδια … γούνων ἅψασθαι Another example of ring composition. γουνοῦμαι in line 8 at the start of the speech. Zeus. 160–165 Note the transition from his admiration and awe at the beauty of Nausikaa to his own story and the ‘hint’ to her (mentioned in the introduction). created the palm and the bay tree. after a singular antecedent θεός. It is also particularly suitable. 167 δόρυ This refers to the palm. 170 χθιζός An adjective agreeing with the subject Odysseus. 173 ὄϕρα … πάθω ὄϕρα + subjunctive expresses purpose: ‘so that I may suffer some trouble (κακόν) here as well (καί)’. It was there that Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis and in honour of this their father. 155–157 There are more constructions here that go with the sense rather than with strict grammar. οἴνοπα πόντον ‘the wine-dark sea’. also to explain to Nausikaa why he is not clasping her knees in the attitude of formal supplication. 151 Ἀρτέμιδι This recalls the simile on p. and brings us back in the ‘ring-composition’ structure to the starting-point of the simile. 152 εἶδός τε μέγεθός τε ϕυήν τ’… All these are accusatives of respect: ‘I liken you to Artemis in appearance. and the feminine participle εἰσοιχνεῦσαν ‘agrees’ with the neuter noun θάλος. and both Nausikaa and her parents hope at some time that Odysseus might perhaps remain and become her husband. 172 νήσου ἀπ᾽ Ὠγυγίης This was the island of Calypso where Odysseus was detained for seven years. Cf. since Artemis is a virgin goddess. Literally ‘yesterday’s’. Odysseus has. 162 Delos was sacred to Apollo. 252. a formulaic phrase.
170–174 Now he speaks of his past sufferings and his foreboding for the future. τοῖον agrees with ἔρνος. etc. This is a recurring theme in the Phaeacia story. that he has been a person of some importance: line164 πολὺς δέ μοι ἕσπετο λαός.
and thrice blessed are your brothers. He means any old piece of material. 181 ὀπάσειαν Another optative expressing a wish. The sense suggests future. give me a rag to put round myself. for so long the waves and swift storms carried me always from the island of Ogygia. in appearance. and I do not know any other of the people who inhabit this city and land. But. I am astonished and I am terribly afraid to touch your knees. In the same way as. ‘Yesterday. when I saw it. ‘than this’. princess. ‘may they grant’. but the gods will accomplish even more before that. ‘This’ is explained in the next line. after suffering many evils I have come to you ﬁrst. such as inhabit the broad heaven. In Delos once. stature and beauty. a husband and a home.’ παύσεσθαι = future middle inﬁnitive of παύω. leads you home [as his wife]. ‘To you may the gods give all that you desire in your heart. 175 σε Governed by ἐς in the next line: ‘I came to you ﬁrst. but hard grief has come upon me. I escaped from the wine-dark sea. ἢ ὅθ’ ‘than when …’ 183 ὁμοϕρονέοντε. since no such shoot ever yet came up from the earth. I delighted in my heart for a long time. I had gone there. I saw such a young shoot of a date-palm growing up. lady. princess. now a god has cast me up here. on that journey on which evil troubles were destined to befall me. ἔχητον These are both duals. for surely the heart within them always warms very much with pleasure through you when they see such young beauty entering the dance. Show me the city. I look at you in awe. I liken you most closely to Artemis. near the altar of Apollo.
. 180 δοῖεν Optative for a wish. and may they grant beautiful harmony: for there is nothing greater and better than this. and a large company followed me. after loading you with gifts. if you had any wrapping for the clothes when you came here. But he in his heart is most blessed above [all] others who. 182 τοῦ Genitive of comparison. ‘a rag to put round me’. neither man nor woman. thrice blessed are your father and lady mother. awe holds me as I look.
Translation for 20E
‘I beseech you by your knees. the subject is ἀνὴρ ἠδὲ γυνή. so that I may suffer some evil here too. ‘may they give’. If you are one of the mortals who live upon earth. whatever they wrapped the washing in. on the twentieth day. ‘I have not seen with my eyes such a one. than when in harmony of mind a man and woman share a home. daughter of great Zeus. have pity.Section 20E
173–174 οὐ γὰρ ὀΐω παύσεσθαι ‘I do not think it will cease. so. are you a god or a mortal? If you are a god.’ 178 δεῖξον Aorist imperative of δείκνυμι. for I do not think it will stop. ἀμϕιβαλέσθαι An explanatory inﬁnitive. ῥάκος Very close to ‘rag’. 174 τελέουσι In form this could be present or future.
190 τετλάμεν Inﬁnitive of τλάω. please’. ἔμμεναι = εἶναι. they themselves are greatly respected. beyond the reach of pirates and enemies and with their magic ships that need no helmsman to take them anywhere they wish to go.. 197 GE tells you that ἐκ governs τοῦ and that ἔχεται ἐκ means here ‘depend on’. Once again the religious requirement of hospitality is emphasised. so that the -ος ending can be feminine. On Minoan frescos women are conventionally coloured white and men terracotta. pres. The meaning. 9. It is therefore complimentary. 191–193 A complicated clause. lines 31–32. διερός occurs in Homer only here and in Od. see 218b) it is right (ἐπέοιχ᾽) for a poor suppliant (ἱκέτην ταλαπείριον) not to lack (μὴ δεύεσθαι is understood from οὐ δευήσεαι in the previous line) having met [someone]. almost in a fairy-tale land. 204–205 ἀπάνευθε. Nausikaa tells her maids to wash Odysseus. and women who do not work in the ﬁelds and get sun-burned. 199 στῆτέ μοι ‘stop. ἔσχατοι The Phaeacians live far away on the edge of the known world. It is a compound adjective with only two terminations. ‘just as he pleases’.43. ἦ δ᾽ ὅς in sections 7D and 7E (Plato. is ‘So you will lack neither clothing nor anything else which it is right for a poor suppliant [to have] when he has met [someone to help him]. hence. The μοι is rather like our colloquial phrase ‘Will you do this for me?’ 200 ϕάσθ᾽ Here this is more like ‘consider’ than ‘say’. 48. 3rd s.’ 194 ἐρέω Future of λέγω. This is an epithet which is applied only to women. Euthydemos). Tradition has it that Phaeacia is the modern Corfu. 189 ἐθέλῃσιν = ἐθέλῃ.) clothing or anything else which (ὧν is genitive by relative attraction. starting with the previous line.264
they are a great grief to their enemies and a delight to their friends. subj. but ‘there is not a mortal man living who …’ The accent on ἔσθ᾽ shows that it means ‘exists’ rather than ‘is’. not to take him to a place where he can wash himself. ‘On him the power and might of the Phaeacians depend. 201 This is easy to mistranslate: – not ‘this is not a mortal man’. 210 λούσατε Note that this is active. You ﬁrst met these lines in Section 4C p.
. Odysseus is described in the ﬁrst line of this book as πολύτλας. Cf.’ 198 ἦ ῥα A common formulaic phrase: ἦ = ‘she spoke’. 187–189 Nausikaa means that since Odysseus is sensible and intelligent he must accept whatever fate Zeus sends him. 207 πρὸς Διός πρός here means ‘under the protection of’. ῥά = ἄρα.’ In grammatical detail: ‘You will not lack (+ gen.’
186 λευκώλενος ‘white-armed’.
although the ordinary plural is used in lines 225 and 235. the root of ἕζω = ἕδος. 214 πάρ = παρά Note the shortening of some prepositions to monosyllables – κάδ has just occurred and recurs in line 230. since you seem to be neither an evil nor a foolish man. where there is shelter from the wind. They escorted Odysseus to a sheltered spot and sat him down there. Olympian Zeus himself apportions happiness to mankind. and you must doubtless endure them.Section 20G
Translation for 20F
Then white-armed Nausikaa answered him in reply: ‘Stranger. but are in fact aorist subjunctives. The two verbs look like futures. whom we must now look after. But now. just as he pleases. give the stranger meat and drink. I will show you the city and tell you the name of the people. ἀνά can be treated in the same way. ‘washed his body’ and ‘washed the brine’. for we are very dear to the immortal gods. who would come to the land of Phaeacian men bringing slaughter. But. But this is some poor wanderer who has arrived here. and wash him in the river. the furthest [of peoples]. and a gift is small but welcome. to each.
218–220 ὄϕρ᾽ … ἀπολούσομαι … χρίσομαι ὄϕρα + subjunctive expresses purpose. you will not lack for clothing nor anything else which it is right for a poor suppliant [to have] when he has met [someone to help him]. for all strangers and beggars are under the protection of Zeus. 212 κάδ … εἷσαν Note κάδ = κατά. I am the daughter of great-hearted Alcinous. handmaidens. The Phaeacians inhabit this city and land. 219 ὤμοιϊν Dual – he has two shoulders. 221 αἰδέομαι It was normal practice in the world of Homer for girl-slaves to bath male visitors. to good and bad.’
211 ἔσταν = ἔστησαν ‘they stopped’. 226 ἀτρυγέτοιο A regular epithet for the sea. 224 νίζετο The verb takes two accusatives here. nor does any other of mortals have dealings with us. where we would have to say ‘washed the brine from his body’. on him the power and might of the Phaeacians depend. since you have come to our city and land. We live far away in the loud-roaring sea. It means ‘unharvested’ and so ‘unharvestable’ and so ‘barren’.’ She spoke. and gave orders to her handmaidens with pretty hair: ‘Stop. and so he has given you these things. Odysseus refuses their assistance because his body is in such a dreadful state after his hardships that he ‘is ashamed to be naked among maidens with well-ordered hair’. where are you ﬂeeing after seeing a man? Surely you do not think this is one of the hostile men? That mortal man does not exist. handmaidens.
. nor will he ever be born.
πόσις ‘husband’. where Athene and Hephaistos are the gods who are the masters of the craftsman’s art. 231 ὑακινθίνῳ ἄνθει ὁμοίας Presumably thick. grant me to reach my house and see my day of homecoming. stranger. The last we hear of her is in Book 8.266
228 ἕσσαθ᾽ First aorist middle of ἕννυμι: ‘he put on’. 238 μετηύδα From μεταυδάω ‘I speak to’. where there is an underlying pathos when Odysseus speaks his last words to her the day before he leaves for Ithaca. with ‘on his head and shoulders’ in apposition. never to see her again. 244 αἲ γάρ = εἰ γάρ. ‘on him’. and gazed upon Odysseus with all her eyes and admired him.’ So he spoke. For. For indeed ointment has been absent from my body for a long time.’
Translation for 20G
So she spoke. and they went far off and told the girl. stand thus far off. my life was your gift.’ Then resourceful Odysseus spoke in turn and answered her: ‘Nausicaa. daughter of great-hearted Alkinoos. So even when I am there I will pray to you as a goddess. all the days of my life. ‘whom … have taught all skill’. 230 εἰσιδέειν An explanatory inﬁnitive. 232–234 In this simile Athene enhances the appearance of Odysseus as a skilled craftsman puts the ﬁnishing touches to a work of art. But I will not wash in front of you . But from the river godlike Odysseus washed from his body the brine which lay thick upon his back and
. Then Nausicaa. Then indeed godlike Odysseus said to the handmaidens: ‘Handmaidens. how I was the ﬁrst you owed your life to. high-thundering husband of Hera. Once again the marriage theme. 245 οἱ ἅδοι ‘and that it might be pleasing to him …’ ἅδοι is the aorist optative of ἁνδάνω. and spoke to him aloud and addressed him in winged words. for I am ashamed to be naked coming among maidens with lovely hair. as Nausikaa daughter of great-hearted Alcinous ordered. 248 πόσιν Here = ‘drink’. They sat Odysseus down in shelter. εἰ γάρ + optative expresses a wish. so that I myself may wash the brine from my shoulders and anoint myself with olive-oil. ‘greater to look upon’. saying: ‘Goodbye. maiden. and think of me sometimes when you are back at home. clustering curls are like the wild hyacinth petals. even so may Zeus. and they told him to wash in the stream of the river. Nausikaa is to be disappointed. 233 δέδαεν Takes two objects. next to him they put a cloak and a tunic as clothing and gave him moist olive-oil in a golden oil-jar. You may remember the passage from Plato in Section 18. 235 τῷ Indirect object. lines 457–468. with the gods’ loveliness on her stood beside the pillar that supported the roof with its joinery. and they stood and encouraged each other.
because for a long time he had not tasted food. Would that such a man might be called my husband dwelling here. But when he had washed all and richly anointed himself. In Books 9–12 he tells what has happened to him since he left Troy until the time he was washed up on the shore of the island of Calypso. Then indeed much-enduring godlike Odysseus drank and ate greedily. whom Hephaistos and Pallas Athene have taught all skill. But.
. Not against the will of all the gods who inhabit Olympus has this man come among the godlike Phaeacians. then Athene. the maiden watched him admiringly. given hospitality. he sat far off.’ So she spoke. white-armed handmaidens. Now read on in English to the end of Book 6. and put on the clothes which the unmarried girl provided for him. daughter of Zeus. lays gold on silver and completes graceful work. but now he is like the gods who inhabit the broad heaven. and that it might please him to remain here. down from his head she sent bushy hair. Earlier he seemed to me to be wretched. with Athene’s help. after some debate. From his head he wiped the scum of the unharvested sea. As when a skilled craftsman. In Book 13 he departs from Phaeacia and the story moves forward again to his return to Ithaca and all the problems which await him there. Then going along the seashore. and after the banquet the singer Demodocus tells the story of the wooden horse at Troy. he goes to the palace and appeals to the Queen. Then indeed she spoke to her beautiful-haired handmaidens. ‘Listen to me. and put beside Odysseus meat and drink. In Book 7 Odysseus follows Nausikaa’s advice and. Odysseus reveals his identity and starts to tell his story. shining with beauty and grace. Odysseus is moved to tears. and Alcinous at last asks him who he is.Section 20G
broad shoulders. He is welcomed and. handmaidens. on his head and shoulders. In the evening there is a banquet. so that I may say something. like the hyacinth ﬂower. and they readily heard and obeyed her. On the next day (Book 8) the Phaeacians hold games at which Odysseus establishes his prowess. give the stranger meat and drink. made him taller and broader to look upon. so she poured on him grace.