Fi r e r at ed and smok e out l et

duc t w or k

An industry guide to design and installation






Association House, 99 West Street, Farnham, Surrey GU9 7EN
t: 01252 739142 f: 01252 739140 www.asfp.org.uk

FR&SODUCTWORK Page i
June 2000
FOREWORD

I am pleased to have been asked to introduce this new publication from the
Association for Specialist Fire Protection.
This publication from ASFP should be warmly welcomed by designers, insurers and
end-users alike. The prevention of fire spread through ducted systems is of critical
importance, as evidenced by a number of recent serious fire losses. This document
provides details and gives recommendations not previously covered in other
standards or codes of practice and should make a significant contribution to improved
fire safety.
Contained within the document are sections on the different types of system and their
function, information on all the relevant legislation, standards and codes of practice
and notes on penetration seals and support systems. BRE particularly recognises the
importance of using fire-rated ductwork for air distribution and smoke extraction
applications, and is particularly pleased to see these topics addressed here. Our
commitment in this area is illustrated by their inclusion in the LPC Design Guide for
the Fire Protection of Buildings, the UK insurers' guidance document on building fire
protection, which BRE will continue to maintain on their behalf.
The merger of BRE and LPC offers exciting new opportunities for working in
partnership with ASFP and other experts from the fire industry to promote high
standards of fire protection. BRE is sure that this Guide will become an essential
reference work within the industry and congratulates ASFP on producing another
excellent technical document.
Dr Jeremy Hodge
Managing Director, Fire and Risk Sciences, BRE
FR&SODUCTWORK Page ii
June 2000
Association for Specialist Fire Protection (ASFP)
Association House, 99 West Street, Farnham, Surrey GU9 7EN
t: +44(0)1252 739142 f: +44(0)1252 739140 www.asfp.org.uk
The Association was formed in 1976, and currently represents the majority of UK
contractors and manufacturers of specialist fire protection products, with associate
members representing regulatory, certification, testing and consulting bodies.
ASFP seeks to increase awareness and understanding of the nature of fire and the
various forms, functions and benefits provided by passive fire protection.
It is willing to make available its specialist knowledge on all aspects of fire protection
and can assist specifiers and main contractors in identifying products suitable for
specific requirements, both in the UK and overseas.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This document has been prepared by the Fire Rated and Smoke Outlet Ductwork
Working Group of the ASFP, and the work of the members of that Committee, as
follows, is gratefully acknowledged:
R H Earle, Chairman FR&SOD Working Group, Loss Prevention Council;
C W Aitken, McCartney Fire Protection Ltd;
P W Crewe, Warrington Fire Research Centre;
A P Flint, Cape Calsil Systems Ltd (Durasteel);
B A James, Fire Protection Ltd;
N J MacDonald, Promat Fire Protection Ltd;
J E Murray, Senior Hargreaves;
N Ralph, Rockwool Ltd;
R B Smith, ASFP Technical Officer
and B S Webster, Cape Calsil Systems Ltd (Durasteel)


Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all data
and information contained herein is accurate to the extent that it relates to either
matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication,
the Association for Specialist Fire Protection accepts no responsibility for any errors
in or misinterpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or damage arising
from or related to its use.


Compliance with this ASFP document does not
of itself confer immunity from legal obligation.


© Association for Specialist Fire Protection 2000
ISBN: 1 870409 15 9

FR&SODUCTWORK Page iii
June 2000
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................1
2. DEFINITIONS .....................................................................................................2
2.1 Duct/Ductwork ............................................................................................2
2.2 Dampers .....................................................................................................3
2.3 General .......................................................................................................4
3. TYPES AND FUNCTIONS..................................................................................5
3.1 Mechanical Ventilation Systems .................................................................5
3.2 Smoke Extraction Systems.........................................................................5
3.3 Dual Ventilation/Smoke Extraction Systems...............................................6
3.4 Pressurisation Systems ..............................................................................6
3.5 Car Park and Kitchen Extraction Systems..................................................6
4. REGULATIONS AND CODES..........................................................................14
4.1 Introduction...............................................................................................15
4.2 Statutory Instruments................................................................................15
4.3 Documents Supporting the Statutory Instruments ....................................15
4.4 British Standards Institution (BSI) .............................................................16
4.5 International Organisation of Standardisation (ISO) .................................17
4.6 Draft European Standards ........................................................................17
4.7 HVCA Documents.....................................................................................17
5. STANDARD FIRE TESTS.................................................................................19
5.1 Fire Resistance Test on Ducts..................................................................19
5.2 Reaction to Fire Tests...............................................................................21
6. FIELD OF APPLICATION FOR FIRE RESISTING DUCTS..............................25
6.1 Field of Direct Application (Ducts Tested to BS 476: Part 24) ..................26
6.2 Extended Application................................................................................29
7. NOTES ON PENETRATION SEALS, SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND
ANCILLARY ITEMS ..........................................................................................30
7.1 Penetration Seals .....................................................................................30
7.2 Support Systems ......................................................................................31
7.3 Ancillary Items/In-Line Equipment ............................................................31
7.4 Interface between Fire Rated Ductwork and Elements of Building
Construction .............................................................................................31
8. LIMITATIONS....................................................................................................32
9. STANDARD SPECIFICATION..........................................................................33
10. STANDARD METHOD OF MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORKS.............35
11. DATA SHEETS.................................................................................................35


FR&SODUCTWORK Page iv
June 2000
SCOPE
This publication is intended to assist the reader in understanding many of the
essential details which play a significant part in ensuring that fire rated (which
includes smoke outlet) ductwork is correctly designed and installed in accordance
with current UK legislative requirements.
The information given in this guidance note therefore relates to the types and
functions of fire rated ductwork, and references the Building Regulations, British
Standards and Codes of Practice which apply to these specific types of duct.
Detailed information on current UK standard fire resistance and reaction to fire tests
is provided, together with recommended methods for appraisal systems for both
direct and extended fields of application. Guidance is also given in respect of the fire
resisting requirements for penetration seals, support systems and ancillary items,
with a section relating to limitations.
Drawings of typical BS 476: Part 24 test constructions are reproduced (by kind
permission of the British Standards Institution) and diagrams of types and functions
of various fire rated ductwork systems are included. These are for guidance
purposes only.
The guidance given in this publication specifically refers to fire rated ductwork and
does not, therefore, include advice on conventional non-fire rated ventilation
ductwork systems.

CAUTIONARY NOTE TO ALL DUCTWORK DESIGNERS, MANUFACTURERS
AND INSTALLERS
Sections of this document emphasise the fact that general purpose ventilation/air
conditioning ductwork cannot be utilised as, or converted into, a fire rated ductwork
system unless the construction/materials of the whole system are proven by test or
assessment in accordance with the requirements of BS 476: Part 24. In this respect
the section entitled 'Limitations' will be of particular interest to the reader.

FR&SODUCTWORK Page v
June 2000
1. INTRODUCTION
This publication has been produced to assist those involved in the specification,
installation, inspection and verification of Fire Rated Ductwork and to ensure that
minimum performance standards are maintained which will contribute to ensuring
that fire compartmentation systems are not breached prematurely.
Fire Rated Ductwork can be provided either by specialist companies producing
proprietary systems, or by treatment to satisfactorily constructed and supported steel
ductwork with the addition of fire insulating materials. Care must be taken when
choosing a fire rated ductwork system and checks should be made to ensure that the
ductwork fire performance meets with the requirements of the relevant application.
Compartment walls and floors will have a prescribed fire resistance period which
means that the performance criteria of load-bearing capacity (stability), integrity and
insulation have been met for a duration of 30 to 240 minutes. It is therefore vitally
important for fire security that where compartmentation boundaries are penetrated by
building services, the fire separation and the performance criteria for the penetrated
wall or floor are maintained and, in particular, that all forms of ducting in a building
should not become a conduit along which fires may spread to other areas. The fire
performance of a duct which penetrates a fire resisting/separating element requires
careful consideration by specifiers and controlling authorities. The standard periods
of stability and integrity should in all cases be at least equal to those required for the
penetrated element. Controlling authorities have, in certain circumstances, waived
the insulation requirement or allowed a reduced period of insulation (e.g. where they
considered that there was no possibility of combustible materials being in the
proximity of the ductwork).
The guidance given in Approved Document B1 (Means of Escape) and B3 (Internal
Fire Spread Structure) of the Building Regulations 1991 for England and Wales refers
to BS 5588: Part 9 for alternative ways in which the integrity of compartments may be
maintained where ventilation and air conditioning ductwork penetrate fire separating
elements.
Similar recommendations are given in the Northern Ireland Building Regulations and
in the Building Standards (Scotland) Regulations.
Many ventilation ductwork systems offer little or no protection against fire spread and
therefore, when ventilation ductwork penetrates building compartmentation, the
guidance of BS 5588: Part 9 should be followed:
i.e. Method 1 Protection using fire dampers;
Method 2 Protection using fire resisting enclosures;
Method 3 Protection using fire resisting ductwork.
Statutory regulations and design codes provide the designer with prescribed periods
of fire resistance to construction elements, which give a safe period for evacuation of
people, a safe period for fire fighting and also provide for property protection. It is
vitally important for life safety that the fire resistance of the construction element is
not reduced when ductwork is routed through it.
Good practice dictates that fire dampers should not be installed within certain
ductwork systems in buildings (e.g. kitchen extraction, staircase and lobby
pressurisation, lift shaft ventilation, fresh air make up provision, etc.) therefore either
Method 2 or Method 3 of BS 5588 Part 9 should be used.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 1
June 2000
Steel ductwork systems for air movements around buildings are generally
constructed to the HVCA guide DW/144 (formerly 142) which is a document covering
a wide range of construction standards in the manufacture of sheet metal ductwork
for use in low, medium or high pressure applications and includes various methods of
jointing, stiffening and supporting of the ductwork.
BS 5588: Part 9 paragraph 7.5.1 acknowledges that steel ductwork ‘if satisfactorily
constructed and supported will be able to provide a high degree of resistance to
the passage of smoke and decomposition products. However, rapid transfer of heat
through the steel regardless of its thickness prevents the ductwork achieving any
degree of fire resistance without supplementary insulation’. A satisfactorily
constructed and supported steel duct is one proven by test and/or assessment
to BS 476: Part 24.
An alternative to steel systems is self supporting ductwork such as that constructed
from rigid boards. Supplementary insulation may also have to be considered for
these systems.
In 1987 the British Standards Institution introduced Part 24 of the BS 476 Fire Test
series; a method for determination of the fire resistance of ventilation ducts. The
document has an annex which gives guidance on the fire performance criteria
required for kitchen extract and smoke outlet applications, which differ from the
requirements for ventilation ducts. It is therefore vitally important when assessing the
suitability of a proposed system of fire rated ductwork that the performance of the
proposed system matches the requirements of the application for which it is required;
(e.g. a smoke outlet duct is required to maintain a minimum 75% of the original cross
section when tested to BS 476: Part 24).
It is particularly important, when assessing the suitability of a proposed system of fire
rated ductwork, to give due consideration to factors other than fire that may be
required. These may include:
• Seismic qualification of ductwork, support system and penetration sealing
method;
• Pressure/air carrying capacity;
• Materials sensitive to thermal shock;
• Acoustic performance requirement of the system;
• Thermal performance requirement of the system;
• Resistance to air flow.
2. DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this document the following definitions apply.
2.1 Duct/Ductwork
Duct/Ductwork
A system of enclosures of any cross sectional shape for the distribution or
extraction of air.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 2
June 2000
Duct/Ductwork - Fire Rated
Ductwork that conforms to one or more of the following three definitions (types)
of fire resisting duct/ductwork:
Duct/Ductwork - Fire Resisting
A duct or ductwork used for the distribution or extraction of air, designed
and tested to satisfy the criteria defined in BS 476: Part 24. (ISO 6944).
Duct/Ductwork - Fire Resisting Smoke Outlet
A fire resisting smoke outlet duct, for the extraction of products of
combustion, designed and tested to satisfy the criteria defined in BS 476:
Part 24. (ISO 6944). A smoke outlet duct must retain at least 75% of its
cross-sectional area throughout the test.
Duct/Ductwork - Fire Resisting Kitchen Extract
A duct or ductwork that is installed entirely independent of any other duct
or ductwork within the building and which serves as an extract for non-
domestic kitchens (see clause 9.5 of BS 5588: Part 9), designed and
tested to satisfy the criteria defined in BS 476: Part 24. (ISO6944).
Shunt System
A duct or ductwork used solely for extraction ductwork in flats and maisonettes
which may be used to avoid the need to provide fire dampers in extract
ductwork from bathrooms and WC’s. (see clauses 6.1, 6.2 and 9.6 of BS 5588:
Part 9).
Support System
The components used for supporting a duct or ductwork from, and fixing to, a
fire resisting element of construction.
2.2 Dampers
Damper - Fire
A closure system within a duct which is operated automatically or manually and
is designed to prevent the passage of fire and which, together with its
supporting frame, is capable of satisfying for a stated period of time the
designated fire resistance criteria.
Damper - Smoke
A closure system within a duct which is operated automatically or manually and
is designed to control the movement of smoke. A smoke damper is not
necessarily a fire damper. A combination fire and smoke damper shall meet the
requirements of both.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 3
June 2000
2.3 General
Compartment
A part of a building, comprising one or more rooms, spaces or storeys
constructed to prevent the spread of fire to, or from, another part of the same
building.
Fire Resistance
The ability of a component or construction to satisfy, for a stated period of time,
the appropriate criteria specified in the relevant part of BS 476. The following
criteria are applied to fire rated ductwork.
Stability
The ability of a duct, ductwork and the support system to remain intact and
fulfil their intended function for a specified period of time, when tested to
the requirements of BS 476: Part 24 (ISO 6944).
Insulation
The ability of a duct or ductwork to maintain its separating function without
developing temperatures on its external surface, outside the compartment
in which the fire is present, which exceed:
i) 140°C as an average value above ambient and/or
ii) 180°C as a maximum value above ambient at any one point
when tested for a specified period of time to the requirements of BS 476:
Part 24. (ISO 6944). For kitchen extract ductwork (duct A) these
limitations also apply to the internal surface of the duct within the
compartment in which the fire is present.
Integrity
The ability of a duct or ductwork to remain free of cracks, holes or
openings outside the compartment in which the fire is present for a
specified period of time, when tested to the requirements of BS 476: Part
24 (ISO 6944).
Fire Separating Elements
Floors, walls, fire protected shafts (multi-service or dedicated) and other
separating elements of construction having a period of fire resistance as
determined in accordance with BS 476: Parts 20, 21 or 22.
Penetration
An aperture through a fire separating element for the passage of a duct or
ductwork.
Penetration Seal
The system used to maintain the fire resistance of the fire separating element,
in accordance with BS 476: Part 24, at the position where there is provision for
a duct or ductwork to pass through the element.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 4
June 2000
Pressurisation
A method of protecting escape routes against the ingress of smoke by
maintaining the air within them at pressures higher than those in adjacent parts
of the building.
Protected shaft
A shaft which enables persons, air or objects to pass from one compartment to
another, and which is enclosed with fire-resisting construction.
3. TYPES AND FUNCTIONS
This document does not apply to ducts containing services such as water pipes or
electrical cables. It covers only ductwork that is part of the following systems for
handling air, fumes or products of combustion. Typical examples are illustrated in
figures 1-8.
3.1 Mechanical Ventilation Systems
Mechanical ventilation systems are used to extract vitiated or polluted air from a
building and to supply replacement fresh or conditioned air. The necessary fans and
conditioning equipment are generally located in separate plant rooms, often in a
basement or on the roof. The distribution of the air involves ductwork which may be
very large, extend throughout the building, penetrate compartment walls and/or floors
and have openings in every space through which it passes.
Without suitable fire precautions, therefore, ventilation ductwork can provide a route
by which fire, smoke and toxic gases are enabled to spread rapidly through a
building.
3.2 Smoke Extraction Systems
Smoke extraction is the evacuation from a building of products of combustion, such
as smoke and toxic gases, which could otherwise reduce visibility and impair human
functions. This facilitates the escape of the building occupants and assists fire
fighters in locating the seat of the fire and extinguishing it.
In situations where smoke clearance by natural ventilation through windows or other
openings may be difficult (e.g. in large or deep basements or in high rise buildings
without openable windows) ductwork is required to conduct the smoke to a suitable
outlet from the building. In cases where the natural buoyancy of the combustion
products is not adequate to ensure the required smoke extraction rate through the
ductwork, fan assisted systems are used. It may also be necessary to install ducted
air inlets as part of the smoke extraction scheme, in order to provide the replacement
air.
If the ductwork incorporated in a smoke extraction system is wholly contained within
the fire compartment, it must at least be capable of resisting the anticipated smoke
temperatures generated during the development of a fire. These will generally be
lower than the temperatures specified in BS 476: Part 24, which are intended to
represent a fully developed fire. However, if the ductwork penetrates a fire resisting
barrier, it must also be capable of providing the relevant fire resistance in a test to
Part 24. Further clarification of the fire testing requirements for these two different
situations is provided in Section ‘5’ of this document ‘Standard Fire Tests’. In view of
the importance of maintaining the design extraction rates during a fire, Part 24 also
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 5
June 2000
imposes an additional requirement on smoke outlet ductwork (i.e. the retention of at
least 75% of its original cross sectional area during the test).
3.3 Dual Ventilation/Smoke Extraction Systems
These systems serve as a conventional ventilation system under normal conditions,
but are converted to a smoke extraction system in the event of fire, thus providing an
economical dual system.
3.4 Pressurisation Systems
Pressurisation is a method of restricting the penetration of smoke into certain critical
areas of a building, by maintaining the air within them at pressures higher than those
in adjacent areas. It applies particularly to protected stairways, lobbies and corridors,
as smoke within these areas would inhibit escape, and also to firefighting shafts
serving deep basements, because of the difficulties in clearing smoke from
basements.
A pressurisation system is a special form of mechanical ventilation system.
However, as the air supply creating the pressurisation must be maintained for the
duration of a fire, fire dampers cannot be used within the ductwork to prevent the
spread of fire. Any duct or ductwork penetrating fire resisting barriers should
therefore be fire resisting.
BS 5588: Part 4 gives guidance on the use of pressurisation in buildings for the
purpose of smoke control.
3.5 Car Park and Kitchen Extraction Systems
Car parks and non-domestic kitchens are required to have separate and independent
extraction systems, because of the polluted nature of the extracted air. As BS 5588:
Part 9 recommends that fire dampers should not be installed in extraction ductwork
serving car parks or kitchens, any duct or ductwork penetrating fire resisting barriers
should be fire resisting.
Kitchen extraction ductwork presents a particular hazard, in that combustible deposits
such as grease are likely to accumulate on its internal surfaces. A fire in an adjacent
compartment through which the ductwork passes could therefore initiate a fire within
the ductwork which, in the absence of fire dampers, might prejudice the safety of the
kitchen occupants. For this reason, BS 476: Part 24 imposes an additional
requirement, (i.e. when tested as duct A against external fire) the internal surface of
the ductwork within the furnace must meet the insulation criteria. It is also essential
that this particular type of ductwork is provided with access for cleaning, at distances
not exceeding 3m.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 6
June 2000
Figure 1
Compartmentation: An example
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 7
June 2000
PROTECTED

IN LINE WITH DOCUMENT ' B' OF THE BUILDING REGULATIONS
]
CAVITY BARRIER --.:
• •
C8UNG VOID
T' BOllER 3
" HOUSE
;j·. y
OFFICE
CBUNG VOID

f:
....
t i
C8LING VOID ;


f:i!'Jl!LJ FIRE RATED WAU.S
- FIRE RATED FlOORS
CJ NOO-RRE RATED WAllS
PAPER
STORE
BOILER
HOUSE
KITCHEN
PARTITIONS TO BE
1· FIRE RATED

SECTION I A' - I A'
RATED WALLS
ESCAPE CORRIDOR
PLAN
OFFICE
FLOOR
SHOP AND
COMMERClAI.
FLOOR
BASEMENT FlOOR
( 10m + BELCMI
GROUND LEVEL )
Figure 2
Types of extract ductwork from multi-cellular buildings
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 8
June 2000
OPTION l
NON FIRE RATED DUCTWORK FITTED WITH FIRE DAMPERS.
NOT SUITABLE TO BE SMOKE EXTRACT
... -----·
PLANTROOM
- ·
f \
FIRE DAMPERS
NON FIRE RATED DUCTWORK
~ .... -: . . . . ··•···· ... ~ · - · ,• ou. ·: . ; . ~ · ~ ,::r.: ~ · - · · : ; :·-:,.. • ... •••••,
FIRE COMPARTMENT WALLS OR FLOORS EXTENT OF TYPICAL FIRE COMPARTMENT
Figure 3
Types of extract ductwork from multi-cellular buildings
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 9
June 2000
DUCTWORK
SUITABLE FOR
CLEARING SMOKE,
OFTEN l HOUR
STABILITY AND
INTEGRITY TO
B.S 476 Pt 24
- ISO 6944
RETAINING
CROSS SECTIONAL
AREA OF 75%
OF DUCT
OPTION 2
COMBINATION OF FIRE PROTECTED SHAFT WITH
FIRE RESISTING DUCTWORK, SMOKE I FIRE DAMPERS
AND DUCT RUN-OUTS, SUITABLE AS SMOKE EXTRACT
~ f ~
PENETRATION SEALS
TO B.S 476 Pt24 I ISO 6944
•• _. .... 1: 1' .,.·· :· ;:;r,.: •• :.. • •• l,{i' , ~ •• • -.,.,..
FIRE COMPARTMENT WALLS OR FLOORS METHOD 3 FIRE RESISTING DUCTWORK
Figure 4
Types of extract ductwork from multi-cellular buildings
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 10
June 2000
DUClWORK
SUITABLE FOR
CLEARING SMOKE,
OFTEN 1 HOUR
STABILI1Y AND
INTEGRI1Y TO
B.S 476 pt 24
- ISO 6944
RETAINING
CROSS SECTIONAL
AREA OF 75%
OF DUCT
OPTION 3
FIRE RESISTING DUClWORK WITH SMOKE I FIRE DAMPERS
AND DUCT RUN-OUTS SUITABLE AS SMOKE EXTRACT
\
MOTORISED SMOKE I FIRE DAMPERS
\ f \
PENETRATION SEALS
TO B.S 476 Pf24 I ISO 6944
FIRE COMPARTMENT WALLS OR FLOORS METHOD 3 FIRE RESISTING DUCTWORK
Figure 5
Typical smoke outlet ductwork system
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 11
June 2000
DUCTWORK
SUITABLE FOR
CLEARING SMOKE,
OFTEN 1 HOUR
STABILilY AND
INTEGRilY TO
B.S 476 pt 24
- ISO 6944
RETAINING
CROSS SECTIONAL
AREA OF 75%
OF DUCT
OPTION 3
FIRE RESISTING DUCTWORK WITH SMOKE I FIRE DAMPERS
AND DUCT RUN-OUTS SUITABLE AS SMOKE EXTRACT
PLANTROOM
f ~
¥0TORISED S M O K ~ I FIRE DAMPERS
~ f ~
PENETRATION SEALS
TO B.S 476 pt24 I ISO 6944
FIRE COMPARTMENT WALLS OR FLOORS METHOD 3 FIRE RESISTING DUCTWORK
Figure 6
Typical non-domestic kitchen extract ductwork
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 12
June 2000
ROOF PLANT
COMPARTMENT FLOOR
NON-FIRE
RATED DUCT
COMPARTMENT
WALL
r
SUITABLY FIRE RATED FAN
FIRE RESISTING
DUCT NOT
REQUIRED
..
FIRE
KITCHEN EXTRACT
DUCT, STABILITY,
INTEGRITY AND
INSULATION RATING
EQUAL TO
COMPARTMENT
WALLS
KITCHEN
NOTE : THERE SHOULD BE NO FIRE DAMPERS WITHIN
NON DOMESTIC KITCHEN EXTRACT SYSTEMS
Figure 7
Typical pressurisation ductwork system
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 13
June 2000
ROOF PLANT
I\
1\
COMPARTMENT FLOOR
SUITABLY FIRE RATED FAN
PENETRATION SEALS
TO B.S 476 Pt 24
ISO 6944
FIRE RESISTING
PRESSURISATION
DUCI STABIUTY,
INTEGRITY AND
INSULATION RATING
EQUAL TO
COMPARTMENT
WALLS I FLOORS
FIRE RESISTING PRESSURISATION
DUCT
NON-FIRE RATED DUCT
PRESSURISATION SHAFT
PRESSURISED LOBBY NOT CONSTRUCTED TO METHOD 2
Figure 8
Typical basement car park extract
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 14
June 2000
AS DOCUMENT ' B' OF BUILDING REGULATIONS ( 1991 ) & B.S 5588 Pt 9
FANS DESIGNED TO OPERATE AT 400°C FOR 1 HOUR
EACH FAN DESIGNED TO RUN AT 50% OF THE
NORMAL AND SMOKE VOLUMES AND DESIGNED
SO THAT EACH FAN CAN OPERATE SINGULARLY
AND SIMULTANEOUSLY
PENETRATION SEAL AS TESTED
TO BS476 Pt24 - ISO 6944
TYPICAL BASEMENT CAR PARK EXTRACT, 6 AIR CHANGES I HOUR NORMAL
( 10 AIR CHANGES I HOUR SMOKE EXTRACT, RETAINING CROSS SECTIONAL
AREA OF 75% OF DUCT, 1 HOUR STABILITY AND INTEGRITY TO B.S 476 pt 24 - (ISO 6944.))
THIS ALSO DEMONSTRATES COMPLIANCE WITH THE BUILDING REGULATION
REQUIREMENT OF 800 DEG C MINIMUM MELTING POINT FOR ALL COMPONENTS
4. REGULATIONS AND CODES
4.1 Introduction
The documents listed in this section are most of the publications relevant to the
performance requirements of ductwork in the event of a fire.
For new buildings, buildings which are changing their use, and for extensions or
alterations to existing buildings, one generally should refer to the guidance given in
Approved Document B, (England and Wales), Technical Standards, Parts D and E
(Scotland) or Technical Booklet E (Northern Ireland).
For commercial and industrial buildings insurance may also be an important
consideration. The Loss Prevention Council publish their recommendations in the
LPC Design Guide for the Fire Protection of Buildings.
4.2 Statutory Instruments
England and Wales - Building and Buildings - The Building Regulations 1991 (SI 1991 No.
2768)
Scotland - Building and Buildings - The Building Standards (Scotland) Regulations 1990 (SI
1990 No. 2179 (S187))
Northern Ireland - Building Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1994 (SRNI 1994 No. 243)
4.3 Documents Supporting the Statutory Instruments
England and Wales - Approved Document B - Fire Safety
Scotland - Technical Standards, Part D: Structural fire precautions and Part E: Means of
escape from fire and facilities for fire-fighting
Northern Ireland - Technical Booklet E - Fire Safety
Some Publications referenced in Supporting Documents
• Fire Precautions Act 1971. Guide to fire precautions in existing places of work
that require a fire certificate: Factories, offices, shops and railway premises.
1989
• Design principles for smoke ventilation in enclosed shopping centres.
BR186,BRE,1990 (Revision of smoke control methods in enclosed shopping
complexes of one or more storeys. A design summary. (BRE) 1979)
• Draft guide to fire precautions in existing residential care premises Home
Office/Scottish Home and Health Dept. 1983
• Firecode HTM 81 - Fire precautions in new hospitals (NHS Estates). 1996
• Firecode HTM 84 - Fire safety in residential care premises (Northern Ireland).
1995
• Firecode HTM 85 - Fire precautions in existing hospitals (NHS Estates). 1994
• Firecode HTM 86 - Fire risk assessment in hospitals (NHS Estates). 1994
• Firecode HTM 88 - Guide to fire precautions in NHS housing in the community for
mentally handicapped (or mentally ill) people (DHSS). 1986
• Firecode - Nucleus fire precautions recommendations (D of H). 1989
• Building Bulletin 7 - Fire and the design of educational buildings (DES). 1988
• Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds Home Office/ Scottish Office. 1990
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 15
June 2000
London District Surveyors Association
Fire Safety Guide No 1 - Fire Safety in Section 20 Buildings. 1990
Fire Safety Guide No 2 - Fire Safety in Atrium Buildings. 1989
Loss Prevention Council
LPC Design Guide for the Fire Protection of Buildings
4.4 British Standards Institution (BSI)
BS 476: Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures
Part 4: 1970 Non-combustibility test for materials
1984 Non-combustibility test for materials
Part 6: 1981 Method of test for fire propagation for products
1989 Method of test for fire propagation for products
Part 7: 1971 Surface spread of flame test for materials
1987 Method for classification of the surface spread of flame of products
1997 Method of test to determine the classification of the surface spread
of flame of products
Part 11: 1982 Method for assessing the heat emission from building materials
1988 Method for assessing the heat emission from building materials
Part 20: 1987 Method for determination of the fire resistance of Elements of
construction (general principles)
Part 21: 1987 Methods for determination of the fire resistance of loadbearing
elements of construction
Part 22: 1987 Methods for determination of the fire resistance of non-loadbearing
elements of construction
Part 23: 1987 Methods for determination of the contribution of components to the
fire resistance of a structure
Part 24: 1987 Method for determination of the fire resistance of ventilation ducts
(ISO 6944)
BS 5588: Fire Precautions in the Design, Construction and Use of Buildings
Part 1: 1990 Code of practice for residential buildings
Part 2: 1985 Code of practice for shops (withdrawn, now superseded by BS
5588: Part 11)
Part 3: 1983 Code of practice for office buildings (withdrawn, now superseded
by BS 5588: Part 11)
Part 4: 1978 Code of practice for smoke control in protected escape routes
using pressurisation
Part 5: 1991 Code of practice for fire-fighting stairs and lifts.
Part 6: 1991 Code of practice for places of assembly.
Part 8: 1988 Code of practice for means of escape for disabled people.
Part 9: 1989 Code of practice for ventilation and air conditioning ductwork.
Part 10: 1989 Code of practice for shopping complexes.
Part 11 1997 Code of practice for shops, offices, industrial, storage and other
similar buildings.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 16
June 2000
BS 8313: 1989 Code of practice for accommodation of building services
in ducts.
BS ISO 10294-1: Fire Resistance tests - Fire dampers for air distribution
systems
Part 1 1996 Test method.
4.5 International Organisation of Standardisation (ISO)
ISO 834: 1975 Fire Resistance Tests - Part 1 General Requirements
ISO 6944: 1985 Fire Resistance Tests - Method for determination of the fire
resistance of ventilation ducts.
4.6 Draft European Standards
prEN 1366-1 Fire resistance tests on service installations in buildings -
Part 1: Fire resisting ducts
prEN 1366-2 Fire resistance tests on service installations in buildings -
Part 2: Fire dampers
prEN 1366-3 Fire resistance tests on service installations in buildings -
Part 3: Penetration Seals
prEN 1366-5 Fire resistance tests on service installations in buildings -
Part 5: Service ducts and shafts
prEN 1366-8 Fire resistance tests on service installations in buildings -
Part 8: Smoke extraction ducts
prEN 1366-9 Fire resistance tests on service installations in buildings -
Part 9: Single compartment extract ducts
4.7 HVCA Documents
DW/143 A practical guide to ductwork leakage testing
DW/144 Specification for sheet metal ductwork; low medium and high
pressure velocity systems (supersedes DW/142)
DW/171 Specification for kitchen ventilation systems
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 17
June 2000
Figure 9
Regulations and Codes

STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS
BUILDING REGULATIONS
INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS



SUPPORTING
DOCUMENTS
BRITISH
STANDARDS
ADVISORY
GUIDES


Approved
Document B
(England
and Wales)
Technical
Standards
Parts D & E
(Scotland)
Technical
Booklet E
(Northern
Ireland)
LPC Design
Guide for
the Fire
Protection
of Buildings



Codes of Practice Fire Tests



BS 8313
BS 5588:
Parts 1-6
Parts 8-11

BS ISO 10294-1
BS 476:
Parts 4, 6, 7,11
Parts 20 to 24



LDSA
Fire Safety
Guide No 1
Fire Safety
Guide No 2
Dept of Health
HTM 81
HTM 84
HTM 85
HTM 86
HTM 88

FR&SODUCTWORK Page 18
June 2000
5. STANDARD FIRE TESTS
5.1 Fire Resistance Test on Ducts
Standard fire resistance tests on ventilation ducts are carried out in accordance with
BS 476: Part 24 (ISO 6944). This standard specifies a method of test and criteria for
the determination of the fire resistance of vertical and horizontal ventilation ducts
under standardised fire conditions. The general purpose of the test is to measure the
ability of a representative duct or duct assembly to resist the spread of fire from one
compartment to another. The test is conducted without the involvement of fire
dampers. It is applicable to vertical and horizontal ducts, with or without branches,
taking into account joints, air supply and exhaust openings, as well as suspension
devices and penetration seals. The performance of the duct assembly is measured
in terms of its ability to withstand exposure to high temperatures by setting criteria by
which the resistance to collapse - ensuring the duct is able to fulfil its intended
function - (stability), the fire containment (integrity) and the thermal transmittance
(insulation) functions can be judged. The standard temperature/time fire exposure
specified in BS 476: Part 20 is representative of only one possible fire exposure
condition at the fully developed fire stage. The method of test does not quantify the
behaviour of a duct for a precise period of time in a real fire situation but can be used
directly to show compliance with fire resistance requirements in regulations or other
safety specifications, and enables comparisons to be made between constructions.
The specimen which is subjected to the fire test must be designed and constructed to
be representative of how it would be constructed on site. Two ducts are tested, one
with fire outside only (duct A) and one with fire on the inside (duct B). Both ducts
may be tested in either a horizontal or vertical orientation. See Figures 10 to 13.
The minimum length of the specimen duct required by the test standard is 3.0m in
the furnace and 2.5m outside the furnace for horizontal ducts and 2.0m in the furnace
and 2.0m outside the furnace for vertical ducts. Horizontal duct A is fitted with a
branch duct within the furnace. The recommended cross section of duct for test is
1.0m x 0.25m internally. A fan is connected to the end of horizontal duct A outside
the furnace which induces an underpressure of 300Pa inside the duct. A fan is
connected to the end of horizontal and vertical ducts B outside the furnace which
induces air velocity of 3m/s within the ducts at ambient temperature drawn through
an opening in the side wall of the duct within the furnace. The settings of the fan are
not altered during the test. Every 30 minutes of the test the fans are switched off for
five minutes to evaluate the integrity of the ducts in the ‘fan off’ situation.
The test specimen is subjected to fire on all four sides. The standard
temperature/time fire exposure is followed and the pressure in the furnace at the
height of the duct (or 100mm below the top of the furnace for vertical ducts) is
controlled after the first five minutes of the test to be positive by 10 ± 2Pa compared
to that of the laboratory. Thermocouples are applied to the non-fire face of the duct
outside the furnace as required by the standard and extra thermocouples are
included within the duct to gain additional data on the fire performance. These
additional thermocouples enable assessments to be carried out on the duct system
when used as a kitchen extract duct. Observations must also be made during the
test regarding the retention of the cross-sectional area of the duct so that
assessments can be made on the duct system when used as a smoke outlet duct. A
smoke outlet duct should retain at least 75% of its cross-sectional area.
The tested duct assembly is judged against three performance criteria. These are:
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 19
June 2000
Stability
Stability failure shall be deemed to have occurred in duct A within the furnace
and in ducts A and B outside the furnace when the duct collapses in such a
manner that the duct no longer fulfils its intended function. Included in this is
the ability of a smoke outlet duct to retain at least 75% of its cross-sectional
area.
Insulation
Insulation failure shall be deemed to have occurred when the temperature rise
above initial ambient temperature in the laboratory on the unexposed surface of
the test specimen outside the furnace exceeds either
i) 140°C as an average value; or
ii) 180°C as a maximum value read by any surface thermocouple.
For kitchen extract duct A, these temperature rise limits also apply to the inside
surface of the duct within the furnace.
Integrity
The presence and formation in the test specimen of cracks, holes or other
openings outside the furnace through which flames or hot gases can pass shall
constitute integrity failure. Integrity failure shall also be deemed to have
occurred when the cotton pad referred to in ISO 834 is ignited or when
sustained flaming, of duration at least 10s, appears on the unexposed face of
the test specimen outside the furnace.
In order to interpret the presence and formation in the test specimen of cracks,
holes or other openings outside the furnace through which flames or hot gases
can pass, the following modes of failure under the integrity criterion of BS 476:
Part 20 are adopted:
Failure is deemed to occur:
i) when a 6mm diameter gap gauge can penetrate through a gap and
can be moved in the gap for a distance of at least 150mm;
ii) when a 25mm diameter gap gauge can penetrate through a gap.
Non-standard tests are carried out to the principles of BS 476: Part 24, but at
reduced furnace temperatures, for applications such as smoke extraction systems
where the maximum exhaust temperatures are specified and the ductwork does not
penetrate fire separating elements. The results from similar tests can also be utilised
for installations where a fire engineering analysis has been carried out on the building
and the maximum temperature to which the duct would be exposed in a fire situation
has been calculated. An example of such an installation is in an atrium of a multi-
storey building where the ducts are designed to extract smoke and hot gases in the
event of a fire and to prevent flash-over occurring.
BS 7346: Part 2 describes the classification and method of test for powered
ventilators (not ductwork) designed to remove hot gases and smoke from buildings in
the event of fire. The standard is primarily concerned with the evaluation of ventilator
performance at elevated temperatures.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 20
June 2000
5.2 Reaction to Fire Tests
In order to restrict the use of materials in the construction of buildings which ignite
easily, which have a high rate of heat release and/or which reduce the time to flash-
over, reaction to fire tests are carried out on component materials and linings of
ducts. These are carried out to show compliance with reaction to fire requirements in
regulations or other specifications. The tests which are used to demonstrate
compliance are:
• Method of test to determine the classification of the surface spread of flame of
products - BS 476: Part 7. This test measures the rate at which flame is able to
spread over the surface of a lining material. The material or product is
classified 1,2,3 or 4 with Class 1 being the highest classification (least flame
spread).
• Method of test for fire propagation for products - BS 476: Part 6. This test
measures the rate of heat release from a product or material. From this test,
indices of performance are calculated. Index of performance (I) relates to the
overall test performance, whereas sub-index (i
1
) is derived from the first three
minutes of test. The maximum acceptable ‘fire propagation’ indices are
specified in the various regulations.
• Method for assessing the heat emission from building materials - BS 476: Part
11, and Non-combustibility test for materials - BS 476: Part 4. These two tests
are similar and are used to determine the heat emission from a product or
material. Materials of limited combustibility are defined in the national Building
Regulations by reference to the method of test specified in Part 11. Non-
combustible materials are also defined in the national Building Regulations
either as listed products or in terms of performance when tested to Part 4 or
Part 11. Non-combustible materials may be used whenever there is a
requirement for materials of limited combustibility.
An additional product performance classification for lining materials defined in the
national Building Regulations is Class 0. This is achieved if a material or the surface
of a composite product is either:
i) composed throughout of materials of limited combustibility, or
ii) a Class 1 material which has a fire propagation index (I) of not more
than 12 and sub index (i
1
) of not more than 6.
Class 0 is not a classification identified in any British Standard test.
NOTE: The fire resistance tests and reaction to fire tests described above are the
current UK national standards and reflect the requirements of the various UK national
building regulations or other safety specifications. Work is proceeding within CEN to
develop European Standards for fire resistance tests on ducts and reaction to fire
tests. However, at the time of writing, these standards have only been published in
draft form.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 21
June 2000
Figure 10: Test arrangement for vertical ducts
Typical test arrangement to BS 476: part 24: 1987
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 22
June 2000
Section Dimensions in miHimetres
Sealed end
Duct B
Opening

Duct A
N
Fumace roof
A
Joints --f"t----.... §
N

A
/ / /
Sealed end-'--------./
Measurement of elongation or shortening
A-A
1::.::.·.::::. :::::::::1
Alternative arrangement for assemblies of ducts
t::::·;:::::::::·,:::J:::::::;:::::::::J
Figure 11: Test arrangement for horizontal ducts
Typical test arrangement to BS 476: part 24: 1987
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 23
June 2000
Plan
Duct A
Duct B
>2 500
NOTE: The sealed end shall be independent of the furnace wall
Joints
2000
Fire-stopping
as in practice
Insulation
:>2 500
Fire-stopping as in practice
Joint
2000
;;;..2500
Dimensions in millimetres
Rigid restraint, if
applicable
Figure 12: Location of thermocouples on vertical ducts outside the
furnace (also see figure 10)
Typical test arrangement to BS 476: part 24: 1987
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 24
June 2000
Duct A
Inside
the ventilation
duct
Duct B
D
A-A
Dimensions in millimetres
A
On the duct surface, 50 mm
~ f r o m the roof surface
X : Thermocouples
® : Thermocouples inside the duct
{:::::::::l
Alternative locations for assemblies of ducts
Figure 13
Location of thermocouples on horizontal ducts outside the furnace
Typical test arrangement to BS 476: part 24: 1987
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 25
June 2000
Plan
~ : ::.::::.::: .. 1><
Dimensions in millimetres
...,. .... ___ Furnace wall
On the surface, 60. mm from the wall surface
Duct A
Duct 8
"1 000
A-A
I
I
®
Inside the ventilation duct
X : Thermocouples
_ Thermocouples
- inside the duct

6. FIELD OF APPLICATION FOR FIRE RESISTING DUCTS
The field of application may be split into two distinct categories viz. Direct and
extended fields of application.
The field of direct application is derived from information obtained from tests
carried out in accordance with BS 476: Part 24 at NAMAS accredited laboratories
and means the test results achieved by a particular design may be directly applied to
a number of variations (e.g. a reduction in duct size) without recourse to expert
advice, providing the design remains substantially as tested.
Extended application is primarily based on test evidence to BS 476: Part: 24 which
may be supplemented by appropriate test evidence generated from other sources
and considers variations not covered by direct application and variations which
require modifications in the tested design (e.g. an increase in duct size) which
necessitates the inclusion of a joint in the duct walls.
6.1 Field of Direct Application (Ducts Tested to BS 476: Part 24)
Introduction
The scope of the current BS test method does not consider the effect,
detrimental or otherwise, that variations in the test construction may have on the
achieved performance of the duct (i.e. the field of direct application is very
limited).
However, the appropriate European (CEN) standard will include a greater field
of direct application which will allow certain modifications to tested
configurations without the need to seek expert/specialist fire safety advice.
At present the draft CEN test standard for ducts meant to be fire resisting has
been prepared by the Technical Committee CEN/TC127 and is referenced prEN
1366-Part 1.
The draft test document includes guidelines with respect to the field of direct
application and therefore presents acceptable changes to tested conditions and
constructions.
The principles of the draft test procedure are largely similar to those of the
current BS test method. The field of application presented in the draft is
therefore considered a reasonable basis.
Critical Parameters
The following text largely follows the principles of the draft document pr EN
1366: Part 1 suitably amended to conform to currently accepted good practice
in the UK.
• Vertical and Horizontal Ducts
A test result for horizontal ducts A and B is applicable to horizontal ducts
only.
A test result obtained for vertical ducts A and B is applicable to vertical
ducts without a horizontal branch. However, if a test on a horizontal duct
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 26
June 2000
A with a branch is also undertaken the vertical ducts may include a
horizontal branch.
• Sizes of Ducts
A test result obtained for the standard sizes of ducts A and B is applicable
to all internal dimensions up to the size tested and to sizes above that,
subject to the following limits:

Rectangular Width
(mm)
Rectangular Height
(mm)
Circular Diameter
(mm)
Duct A
Standard Size:
Up to:
Minus:

1000
1250
no limit

500
1000
no limit

800
1000
no limit
Duct B
Standard Size:
Up to:
Minus:

1000
1250
no limit

250
1000
no limit

630
1000
no limit
NOTE: Part 24 size requirement is full size but is usually of the order indicated above.
For ducts tested with smaller sizes than the specified standard sizes, no
extrapolation to larger sizes can be allowed.
For ducts tested at sizes larger than the allowable upper limits for
extrapolation, no further extrapolation to larger sizes is allowed.
• Pressure Difference
The test results obtained for the standard underpressure of 300 Pa in duct
A is applicable to an underpressure and an overpressure up to the same
value.
• Height of Vertical Ducts
Ducts supported at each storey
The test results are applicable to any number of storeys provided:
i) the distance between supporting constructions does not exceed 3m
(unless intermediate supports are provided) or 1.5 times the height
tested whichever is the lesser.
ii) limitations on buckling are satisfied
• Self Loadbearing Ducts
Test results, obtained from ducts with additional loads, are applicable to
ducts with an overall height corresponding to the load applied in the fire
test. Limitations on buckling shall also be satisfied.
• Limitations on Buckling
In order to prevent self damage from the buckling of vertical ducts, the test
results are only applicable to situations where the ratio between the length
of the duct exposed in the compartment and the smallest lateral dimension
across the outside face of the duct (or outer diameter) does not exceed 8,
unless additional supports are provided.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 27
June 2000
In cases where additional supports have to be provided, the ratio of the
distance between the additional supports, or the distance between the
additional supports and the supporting construction, and the smallest
lateral dimension across the outside face of the duct, shall not exceed 8.
• Support systems - Horizontal Ducts
Horizontal ducts are typically supported along their length by a system of
frames and fire resisting fixings to the building structure, which generally
consist of vertical hangers connected to a horizontal member, or
members. The vertical hangers are fixed to the building structure above
the duct.
Unprotected hangers made of steel may be sized such that the calculated
stresses do not exceed the values given as follows:
Allowable Tensile Stress
Up to 60 minutes Over 60 minutes
up to 120 minutes
Over 120 minutes
up to 240 minutes
Tensile stress in
all vertically
oriented
components
15 N/mm
2
10 N/mm
2
6 N/mm
2
Note 1: The elongation in mm of the hangers of the test ducts can be calculated
on the basis of temperature increases and stress levels. For unprotected
supporting systems, the temperature used will be the maximum furnace
temperature. For protected steel hangers, the maximum recorded hanger
temperature, if available, shall be used. The value represents the elongation limit
for hangers with a greater length than in the test.
Note 2: Stress is calculated from supported load only.
An example for the calculation of tensile stress in vertical hanger members:
W = weight of duct assembly per unit length - kg/m
W
b
= weight of bearer per unit length - kg/m
W
r
= weight of drop rod per unit length - kg/m
L
h
= distance between hanger supports - m
L
b
= length of bearer - m
h = height of drop rod - m
A = cross section area of drop rod * - mm
2
Weight of duct on each hanger support = (W x L
h
) kg
Weight of hanger support = (W
b
x L
b
+ 2W
r
x h) kg
Therefore tensile strength stress in drop rod (σ)
=
2A
9.81 x h) x 2W xL W L x (W r b b h + +
N/mm
2
* If the drop rod is a threaded rod then A is based on the root diameter.
Note 3: The maximum tested stress may be used if greater than above.
Note 4: The largest distance between frames of the support systems used in the
test construction must not be exceeded in practice.
Note 5: If frames of the support system have been positioned at all joints within
the furnace, then these must be located at all joints in practice.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 28
June 2000
Note 6: In cases where the lateral dimension between the outer vertical surface of
the duct and the centre line of the vertical hanger rod is less than 50mm, the test
result will apply up to 50mm. The lateral dimension must not exceed 50mm unless
demonstrated by test. The horizontal loadbearing component of the support
system shall be sized so that the bending stress does not exceed that applied to
the equivalent member in the test.
• Compensators
If compensators providing for expansion have been incorporated in the
test, in practice the distance between each compensator must not be more
than 10m. Where the duct passes through a wall, the compensator must
be located not more than 5m from the wall.
• Supporting Construction
For the purpose of this publication the supporting construction is the wall
or floor through which the duct passed under test. In practice it may be
referred to as a compartment floor or wall or separating element.
Consequently a test result obtained for a fire resisting duct passing
through a wall or floor made of masonry, concrete or a partition (without
any cavity) is applicable to the same type of construction providing its
thickness and density is equal to or greater than that used for the test.
• Ducts
Provided a duct is selected for test representing a certain leakage value,
the test results will apply to those ducts having lower leakage values.
(See HVCA publications DW/143 and DW/144.)
Test results on a steel duct that has been stiffened shall only apply to
ducts that are also stiffened in a similar manner.
• Penetration Seal
It is important in order to maintain the performance of the duct that the
position where it passes through the supporting construction is effectively
sealed. The test method considers this seal to be an integral part of the
duct construction. Therefore, for the field of direct application, it must be
constructed of the same material and be installed using the same method
as tested. The gap dimension between the inside edge of the supporting
construction and the perimeter of the duct and hence the seal ‘thickness’
must also remain as tested.
6.2 Extended Application
Specialist technical advice should be sought from a competent organisation if desired
variations in the tested construction are not included within the field of direct
application. Such variations may include the following:
i) Increase in size of duct beyond direct application;
ii) Ducts with 1,2 or 3 sides;
iii) Variation in supporting method;
iv) Change in duct construction (e.g. alternative materials);
v) Change in duct orientation (e.g. from horizontal to vertical);
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 29
June 2000
vi) Change in duct use (e.g. ventilation to smoke extract);
vii) Change in duct shape;
viii) Variation in jointing method;
ix) Variation in penetration sealing system.
The above list is not exhaustive and acceptable variations are subject to test
performance and duct design. It is prudent to consider the intended range of ducts to
be offered prior to testing to ensure a large number of tests are avoided.
For the purpose of assessments for the extended field of application suitably qualified
fire safety engineers and laboratories accredited by NAMAS for conducting the
relevant tests might be expected to have the necessary expertise.
7. NOTES ON PENETRATION SEALS, SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND ANCILLARY
ITEMS
7.1 Penetration Seals
Where ductwork passes through a compartment wall or floor it must be ensured that
the fire separation of the wall or floor is maintained. This is usually achieved in one
of two ways:
i) For fire rated ductwork a penetration seal is fitted between the duct and
the wall or floor. The penetration seal and the ductwork are considered as
one integral system and for the field of direct application must be the same
as that tested or assessed in accordance with BS 476: Part 24.
ii) For non-fire rated ductwork a fire damper must be fitted in the plane of the
wall or floor. The damper and associated penetration seal must be
installed to a procedure substantiated by test or assessment. Note that
the damper must be mounted in the wall or floor and must be
supported/restrained independently of the ductwork.
Where fire rated ductwork adjoins a damper fitted in a wall or floor the penetration
seal to the wall or floor must be installed as (ii) above.
The fire resistance test for ducts (BS 476: Part 24) is designed to evaluate the fire
performance of the duct penetration seal system through a wall or floor construction
(the fire separating element), as well as the fire performance of the duct system itself.
The purpose of the penetration seal system is to seal the gap between the duct walls
and the surrounding wall or floor. In a fire situation, an integrity failure of the
penetration seal system is often caused by the movement or distortion of the duct.
Therefore it is not possible to separate the fire performance of the penetration seal
from the construction of the duct. A successful test on a penetration seal fitted
around one type of duct construction does not mean that the penetration seal is
suitable for use with a different type of duct construction. Similar comments apply for
duct sizes other than that tested.
Usually the penetration seal will be suitable for duct sizes smaller than that tested,
but the construction of the duct may have to be modified or the duct locally
strengthened at the penetration, for duct sizes larger than that tested. Most of the
fire tests on duct penetration seal systems have been carried out through concrete
floors or masonry/concrete walls. If the fire separating element is of a different type of
construction from that tested, for example a timber floor or a fire rated partition
system, then an indicative fire test and an assessment should be carried out to
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 30
June 2000
ensure that the duct penetration seal system and/or any damper restraint system is
compatible with the different fire separating element for the required fire rating. The
fire tests on ducts are carried out on specimens in the horizontal orientation and in
the vertical orientation. The fire performance of the penetration seal system must be
demonstrated for the orientation in which the duct is being used, or have been
assessed as being suitable. If the penetration seal system fails to satisfy the test
criteria during the test then the duct or damper system is also deemed to have failed.
7.2 Support Systems
The support systems used for fire rated ductwork must be capable of bearing the
load of the ductwork under fire conditions. The support system consists of the
hangers and bearers, the fixings and brackets. Attention must be given to the
spacing of the supports and the size of the support components in accordance with
the manufacturer’s test data and recommendations. The maximum allowable span of
the duct between supports must not be exceeded, the maximum distance of the
hangers from the side of the duct must not be exceeded and the maximum allowable
stress within the components of the supports must not be exceeded for the required
fire rating. Stresses within the support components can be reduced by increasing the
size of the components, or reducing the spacing of the supports, or applying fire
protection to the support systems. If supports were positioned at all duct joints within
the furnace in the fire test then the supports must be located at all duct joints in
practice. The element of building construction to which the support systems are
attached must have a fire rating of at least that specified for the duct and be able to
support the weight of the duct under fire conditions.
7.3 Ancillary Items/In-Line Equipment
A fire rated duct will often adjoin a component or structure which does not form part
of the tested ductwork system, and could have in-line equipment and control devices
such as balancing dampers, filters, attenuators, fans, etc. The performance
characteristics of the fire-rated duct must be continued through these ancillary items
of equipment to ensure the fire resistance of the system is maintained.
Fire Dampers
It is not appropriate for fire rated ductwork to be required to rectify the incorrect
installation or positioning of dampers (e.g. in situations where a damper tested
only for installation in the plane of a wall or floor has been installed remote from
a wall or floor).
7.4 Interface between Fire Rated Ductwork and Elements of Building
Construction
Responsibility for the satisfactory performance of each element of building
construction (e.g. walls, floors, cavity barriers, etc.) lies with the installer of each
particular element. The ‘change over’ of responsibility occurs at the interface
between the fire rated ductwork and the elements. It is imperative that the interface
detail does not compromise the fire performance of either the element of building
construction or the fire rated duct.
The building designer, mechanical services designer and the installer all have a
responsibility to pay ‘due care’ to this detail.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 31
June 2000
8. LIMITATIONS
This list sets out the principal limitations in the scope of the guidance given in this
publication and is not intended to be exhaustive.
• The term Fire Rated Ductwork is deemed to refer to a system as tested or
assessed in accordance with BS 476 : Part 24. As the vast majority of tests on
steel ducts are conducted with rigid ducts it is not appropriate to extrapolate this
data for flexible steel ducts. Therefore, unless the flexible steel duct system has
been tested in accordance with BS 476 : Part 24, this guidance note cannot be
assumed to apply.
• Service ducts are not included within this guidance note.
• Fire rated ductwork systems shall be deemed to include all the components as
tested or assessed, including supporting systems and penetration seals.
Reference is made to the Field of Application section within this guidance note.
• The element of building construction to which the support systems are attached
must have a fire rating of at least that specified for the duct and be able to
support the weight of the duct under fire conditions.
• Fire resistance of a fire rated ductwork system shall be expressed as the three
time period components - stability, integrity and insulation. Where only a single
time period is expressed it shall be deemed to apply to all three components,
unless clearly defined otherwise. (e.g. 90 minutes, stability & integrity only).
• It is essential when choosing a fire rated duct system that it is fit for the purpose
to which it is being applied. Considerations other than the successful
completion of a BS 476 : Part 24 fire test on a sample section of ductwork may
need to be given when assessing the suitability of a fire rated duct for a
particular application. Reference may be made to the footnotes to the Table in
Explanatory Note A8 within the Annex to BS 476 : Part 24.
• During any defined non-fire operating conditions, fire rated ductwork must be
capable of both performing and being tested to the ductwork classification and
the air leakage limits of the designated ductwork specification (e.g. DW/144
(142)).
• In general, the air flow characteristics of ductwork and its associated
components such as bends, branches and changes of section must all be in
accordance with both DW/144 (142) and CIBSE Technical Memoranda TM8,
Design Notes for Ductwork.
• In the case of an existing metal duct, where application of a fire insulation
cladding material to provide fire resistance is considered, it is imperative that
the construction standard of the metal duct is checked for conformity with the
appropriate fire test report. Similarly, the construction of a newly erected metal
duct should be the subject of like scrutiny. Metal gauge, spacing & size of
flanges and stiffeners, bolting centres, use of steel / aluminum rivets, sealants,
spacing of hanger supports and fixing method to the soffit should all be checked
for compliance with the fire tested construction. It is not sufficient to rely on a
DW/144 (142) construction classification for fitness for purpose in this regard.
• For the purposes of independent assessment, suitably qualified fire safety
engineers and laboratories accredited by NAMAS for conducting the relevant
test might be expected to have the necessary expertise.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 32
June 2000
• It is recommended that the installed fire rated duct system be verified by the use
of a quality system, based upon the ISO 9000 Series. This will enable the
supplier/installer to provide documentary evidence of the conformity of the
installed system and its components. Verification will require to include
research, checking or test of existing ductwork installations which are being
modified and / or overclad to provide a fire rated system.
• Light gauge specifications such as DW/144 (142) recognise many machine
forming techniques for ancillary items such as air turning vanes and the
increased gauges associated with fire rated ductwork systems may not only
preclude the use of such techniques but may also, out of necessity, introduce a
geometric change that may require the approval of the HVAC designer in terms
of a component's air flow characteristics.
• A fire rated duct tested to BS 476 : Part 24 (Ventilation duct test) which meets
criteria of stability, integrity and insulation may not be suitable for kitchen extract
application or smoke extract application unless proven by additional test criteria,
as outlined in the Explanatory Notes Annex to the Standard (A.1(c) & A.8).
• For the field of direct application penetration seals to be the same as tested in
the BS 476 : Part 24 test.
• The adequacy of damper installations to which a fire rated duct may be
connected is assumed by this guidance note. However it is incumbent upon the
designers and providers of such damper installations to verify that they have
been appropriately tested adopting the procedures and criteria of BS 476: Part
20.
• This guidance note does not address the complex and detailed issue of fire
and/or smoke dampers or any other fire resisting components or elements of
structure with which the fire rated ductwork system interfaces, save for their
assumed levels of adequacy. Responsibility is therefore deemed to end with
the interface connection.
• Special care must be taken with in-line items of equipment such as fans,
volume control dampers, attenuators etc. Where such items are within a fire
rated ductwork run, the item of equipment must maintain the full fire
performance of the duct into which it is fitted or it must be installed within its
own fire rated enclosure (same performance as the duct). Access provisions to
the ductwork for cleaning and maintenance should also maintain the fire
performance of the duct to which they are fitted.
• This publication does not consider the effect of expansion of ductwork in fire
conditions. Therefore, it is recommended that the specifier takes this
phenomenon into consideration when designing the ductwork route. If it is
considered that expansion of the ductwork could cause excessive forces on the
associated wall or floor penetration seals, (which, could result in their failure
under fire conditions), the ductwork route should either be reconsidered (to
lessen the effect of expansion on the penetration seals), or fire resisting
expansion devices/compensators should be included within the ductwork.
9. STANDARD SPECIFICATION
In order to ensure fire rated ductwork is correctly specified prior to the
commencement of work, several factors should be carefully considered and defined.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 33
June 2000
The Specification should therefore:
(1) Define Type: i.e.;
Smoke / Ventilation / Kitchen / Pressurisation
(2) Define if System is Duct Type A (fire outside) or Duct B (fire inside) or
requirement for both Fire Inside and Fire Outside
(3) State Fire Rating to BS 476: Part 24 in minutes for:
i) Stability
ii) Integrity
iii) Insulation
(4) Define Static Pressure Limits
i) Low pressure/velocity Class A up to 500 Pa positive or 500 Pa
negative
ii) Medium pressure/velocity Class B up to 1000 Pa positive or 750 Pa
negative
iii) High pressure/velocity Class C up to 2000 Pa positive or 750 Pa
negative
Note: Classifications are to DW/144 (142) requirements.
(5) The Fire Duct manufacturer should define the friction resistant coefficients
of all bends and tapers, etc. which are to be used if they differ from those
for galvanised sheet steel.
(6) It is recommended that the manufacturer/installer is working to a Quality
Assurance System based upon the ISO 9000 series.
With reference to the above factors, the standard Specification should read:
‘The ___(1)___ Ductwork should be constructed in accordance with the ASFP
Guide to Fire Rated and Smoke Extract Ductwork to provide __(3)i)__ minutes
stability, __(3)ii)__ minutes integrity, and __(3)iii)__ minutes insulation when
tested to the requirements of BS 476: Part 24 by a NAMAS approved
laboratory. The ductwork should be capable of providing Type ___(2)___ fire
containment and, under normal non-fire operating conditions, should conform to
the ___(4)___ pressure classification of the current HVCA DW/144 (142)
Specification for Sheet Metal Ductwork.’
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 34
June 2000
10. STANDARD METHOD OF MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORKS
The measurement of fire resisting ductwork should follow the guidelines of Table
Y30/Y31 on pages 156 and 157 of SMM7 (Standard Method of Measurement of
Building Works Seventh Edition).
It is essential that any bill of quantities description for fire resisting ductwork includes
ALL of the following:
• System type (eg: kitchen extract)
• Duct size
• Duct shape
• Fire resisting requirement (eg: 60 minutes stability, 60 minutes integrity
and 60 minutes insulation when tested in accordance with BS 476: Part
24)
Fire resisting ductwork must be measured as a complete item in linear metres with
ancillaries and fittings described and measured separately.
11. DATA SHEETS
The ASFP member companies listed on the following pages are able to supply, or
supply and install, a full range of fire rated and smoke outlet ductwork systems and/or
materials.
It should be noted, however, that it is the responsibility of the specifier/end user to
ensure the system(s) or material(s) will satisfy the requirements of relevant building
legislation. It is therefore important that any system(s) or material(s) offered is
supported by a relevant fire test report(s) or assessment(s) from a UKAS (NAMAS)
approved fire test laboratory.
The second edition of this publication will include data sheets, which will provide full
details of fire tested systems that have been tested and assessed by UKAS approved
fire test laboratories and checked by the ASFP Technical Review Panel.
FR&SODUCTWORK Page 35
June 2000
SUPPLIERS AND INSTALLERS
CAFCO INTERNATIONAL
Bluebell Close, Clover Nook Industrial Park, Alfreton, Derbyshire DE55 4RA
t: 01773 837900
f: 01773 836710
www.cafcointl.com
FIRE PROTECTION LTD
Millars 3, Southmill Road, Bishops Stortford, Herts CM23 3DH
t: 01279 467077
f: 01279 466994
www.fireprotection.co.uk
PROMAT UK LTD
The Sterling Centre, Eastern Road, Bracknell, Berks RG12 2TD
t: 01344 381300
f: 01344 381301
www.promat.co.uk
ROCKWOOL LTD
Pencoed, Bridgend, Mid Glamorgan CF35 6NY
t: 01656 862621
f: 01656 862302
www.rockwool.co.uk
SENIOR HARGREAVES
Lord Street, Bury, Lancashire BL9 0RG
t: 0161 764 5082
f: 0161 762 2336
THERMAL CERAMICS
Tebay Road, Bromborough, Wirral, Cheshire CH62 3PH
t: 0151 334 4030
f: 0151 334 1684
www.thermal-ceramics-firemaster.co.uk


FR&SODUCTWORK Page 36
June 2000

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