Fire window Fire wall



Consideration ACTIVE

Fire stopper


Hose reel

compartmentati on method


Means of escape

Sprinkler System Riser Wet Dry

location Portable fire extinguisher Soda-acid foam

Types of exit CO2
Smoke control
Pressurised escape routes Smoke reservoirs

3 parts factors Exit Exit access Exit discharge

-Operation/installation -Components -Drawings -Functions/consideration

The overall protection strategies for development projects in Malaysia are based on ‘Fire Safety Philosophy’ of the Malaysian Uniform Building ByLaws (1984) (UBBL)  UBBL are to ensure the safety of the occupant in term of fire safety.

MALAYSIAN FIRE CODES & REGULATIONS  The provisions of the fire requirements in UBBL are implemented by several Malaysian Fire Codes which are: i) British Standard (BS) ii) Malaysian Standard (MS) .

we mean the uncontrolled fire such as happens in furnaces. etc. disastrous & costly.  Mostly when the term fire is referred to. both in terms of human life & business costs. . unexpected.  Fire is often unwanted. A process of combustion characterized by the emission of heat accompanied by smoke or flame.

. This is known as ‘fire triangle’. oxygen. fuel.e.  Fire cannot occur if one of the key components is missing. i. : if the heat.  There is an interrelationship between heat. the fuel or oxygen is eliminated. What causes a fire?  Fire exist as a result of combustion /reaction between 3 elements – heat (high temperature). fuel & oxygen.


Methods of extinguishing fire (Starvation.separation) .

(2) COOLING by applying water or other method to reduce ignition temperature. lid. blanket.(1)EXCLUDE OXYGEN (smothering) by covering the top surface of burning material with foam. cover. . etc. etc. transferring liquid to another tank.sprinkler (3) STARVATION (separation) by reducing or separation fuel by compartmentation.

an  Heat.FIRE TRIANGLE  The combustion process was once depicted as a triangle with three sides  Each side represented essential ingredient for fire. . fuel and oxygen were thought to be essential elements.

CLASSES OF FIRE The classes of fire Ordinary Combustibles Fires in paper. and other electrical sources require an extinguisher labeled C. energized electrical equipment. grease. gasoline. rubber. computers. Electrical Equipment Fires in wiring. lacquers. fuse boxes. cloth. Flammable Liquids Fires in oils. solvents. wood. and many plastics require a water type extinguisher labeled A. . some paints. and other flammable liquids require an extinguisher labeled B.

FIRE PROTECTION APPROACH Protection of a building and its contents from damage by fire can be divided into two (2) categories : i) Passive ii) Active .


alarms. detectors.WHAT IS PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION? “the combination of all methods used in a building to warn people of an emergency. ceiling and roofs •fire and smoke control doors •fire and smoke stopping seals. etc. blankets. floors. pillows. and includes both active and passive protection. provide for safe evacuation. Examples of PFP features in typical buildings are: •fire rated walls. collars. and restrict the spread of fire. etc for services penetrations •fire rated protective coatings for structural steel members etc •fire and smoke dampers/curtains •fire rated glass systems •fire rated lift landing doors •fire rated ducting .” PFP features relate to elements of construction which are generally part of the fabric of the building as opposed to active features such as sprinklers.

ceilings. and shaft enclosures that are built to a prescribed fire resistance rating. floors.PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM  Control the fire growth through material control or by providing physical barriers to the movement of flame or smoke. fire doors and dampers (that may be otherwise held open to allow normal building function. beams.  Fire alarm systems used to initiate the closing of .)  Often fixed in walls. columns.

.PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM  Passive fire protection systems intended to maintain the following: are  Provide structural integrity of floor. and ceiling assemblies during a fire for a specified time period to control the fire spread  Compartmentalize the fire room or space  Provide exiting systems for occupants to evacuate the building safely. wall.


 This compartmentation may be of. ceiling or fire stop.subdivided a large building so that a fire starting anywhere is caged within its cell of origin. drywall.  This is known as compartmentation . fire window.PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM COMPARTMENTATION  A concept that reduce the likelihood of smoke inhalation-deaths. these products of combustion must be contained in the area of origin. fire door. . fire wall.

from the building and separate particular hazards from high-risk occupancies 4. To avoid large volumes and interconnecting spaces 3.PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM COMPARTMENTATION The Need 1. To separate one building from another . To contain specific hazards (bolters. To subdivide a large building so that a fire starting anywhere is caged within its cell of origin 2. To isolate escape routes 5. fuel stores).

Walls and floors  Major compartment division will normally have longer fire resistance periods than the enclosure to escape routes. the less potential for damage .PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Compartmentation – The method  Obviously the smaller the compartment. but up to four hours or more are possible.  One hour is a common minimum. demanded by fire authorities or insurers anxious to minimise their risk.  The presence of sprinklers is a significant mitigation.  Escalators in department stores break the compartmentation . between floors. allowing larger compartment sizes – perhaps double. but there has to be sensible compromise.

or steel more than one hour. locked. i. They can be self-closing and possibly.e factory. they can be  Industrial scale take form of roller steel shutters.  For ordinary circulations. counterweight or hung on inclined runners so that they shut on the melting of a fusible link or the release of an automatic catch.  Enclosure can include horizontal steel roller shutters activated by detectors.PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Compartmentation – Door  Timber up to one hour. .

paint or stainless steel .wooden inner structure .Finishing with.PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Metal door .

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Smoke curtains Smoke curtains (as part of a smoke and heat ventilation system compartment screens) may be required to form part of the reservoir boundary or to limit smoke travel from the fire source. or above false ceilings in commercial and retail premises. Fixed smoke curtains are commonly used in the roof space of either large single storey buildings. .

Compartmentation. Eg : in air conditioning ducting.Fire wall Fire wall opening protection Physical barriers such as fire damper & fire door Fire damper All ducts that pass through fire rated wall must be equipped by fire dampers.  Fire door i) Horizontal type ii) Overhead rolling iii) Special fire door .

COMPARTMENTATION – Fire damper DAMPER Figure : Location of fire damper in the air conditioning ducting .

COMPARTMENTATION – Fire damper DAMPER Figure : Location of fire damper in the air conditioning ducting (at the intersection of ducting) .

COMPARTMENTATION – Fire damper DAMPER DAMPER Figure : Location of fire damper in the air conditioning ducting (at the corner of ducting) .

horizontal .COMPARTMENTATION .Fire door Horizontal type -Mounted on roller and suspended from a track -It moves horizontally to close the opening in the fire wall. Figure : Fire door.

Fire door Overhead rolling Drop vertically into place - Figure : Fire door. overhead rolling .COMPARTMENTATION .

Installed in areas such as where the conveyor has to pass through the fire wall. conveyor pass through . Figure : Fire door.COMPARTMENTATION .Fire door Special fire door .

COMPARTMENTATION .Fire door This situation will provide a path of travel for fire to breach the wall Figure : unprotected opening through fire wall .

the ordinary vibration of the service run.the method : Fire wall opening protection Ducts and Pipes  Service runs often have compartment divisions. is minimal and filled with a non combustible or intumescent packing .  The packing has to be flexible enough to allow for . and its expansion and distortion in fire.Compartmentation. where they pass through. to pass through  Duct and pipe sections immediately adjacent to the compartment wall or floor are made fire resisting and the gap around them.

. Intumescents are typically used in passive fire protection. thus increasing in volume.An Intumescent is a substance which swells as a result of heat exposure. and decreasing in density.

the method : Fire wall opening protection  Most fire door close by gravity through the door own weight or weight on a closing mechanism. .Compartmentation.  It is essential to installed fusible link so they are exposed to heat transfer from either side of the door.

the method : Fire wall opening protection  Regular checks should be made to ensure that no materials are placed in the path of the door.  Guides and bearings should be checked regularly.  Any time that the facility is not in normal operation. .Compartmentation. fire doors should be closed manually.  This is particularly important if no guard or security service is available in the plant. as should the counter-balance weights.


   Its 3 parts are:  exit access – that portion that leads to an entrance to an exit exit – the portion that is separate from all other buildings spaces by construction or equipment required to provide a protected path to the exit discharge exit discharge – the portion that connects the termination of an exit to a public way . unobstructed path for evacuees from any point in a building to a public way.PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Means of Escape  Means of escape is a continuous.

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Means of Escape  The effectiveness of All the exits must be ensured by these following factors:      clear and unobstructed access is provided to all exits exits are identified and well lit the proper type of door is used and it opens in the direction of travel exits are equipped with the proper opening and locking hardware Clear exits discharge to a public way .

Means of Escape
Types of exit
    

corridors exit passageway exit doors interior stairs exterior stairs

Figure : Types of exit

SMOKE CONTROL Pressurized escape routes
 to create greater air pressure in escape routes such as corridors and stairs, than the remainder of rooms  Usually in an office block and other large and high-rise compartmentation buildings.  The effect is to contain smoke -and fire at its point of outbreak
made ventilation grills.

 allowing it to leak out through windows or purpose-


Figure : Pressurised escape route .

Figure : Plan of escape route and rooms .

.  A fire in a shop or in the mall can cause a rapid spread of smoke and hot gases  If the centre is sprinkler the water may cool the smoke and hot gases so reducing their buoyancy and possible fogging at floor level.Smoke Reservoirs  Most enclosed shopping centre have a mall with a parade of shops.

Smoke Reservoirs Smoke can be controlled by: (a) providing smoke reservoirs into which the smoke can flow through before being extracted by either mechanical or natural means. (b) allowing cooler air to enter the centre at low level to replace the smoke flowing out of the centre .


ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS Main groups under which active precautions must be considered:  Installation of an alarm and detecting system to give warning of outbreak.  Installation and equipment for automatic fire extinction  Provision of first-aid fire fighting equipment  Provide for facilities to assist the fire services .

Detect 2. Suppress a fire .ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS  Active fire protection system involves systems which designed to: 1.

-not suitable for electronics industry. Hydraulic hose reel system 6.ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS  Water Suppression System 1. and electrical sub-station 2. Deluge system 4. Water spray system 3. Wet riser system 5.5%. Hydrant system . Automatic sprinkler system -most common & effective fire suppression system with a success rate of 98.

Line detector 6. High expansion foam 2. Infrared detector. Heat detector 4. Premix foam  Smoke & Fire Detection 1. Optical detector 3. Low expansion foam 3. Beam detector 5. Ionisation detector 2. flame detector .ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS  Foam 1.

Halon alternative . Halogenated hydrocarbon 2. CO2 system 3.ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS  Gas Suppression System 1.

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Active approach means of fire protection and fire engineering is a specialised area of building services and the following will be considered: i) ii) iii) iv) portable extinguishers hose reel and hydrants automatic extinguishers alarm detection .

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Portable extinguishers Colour-coded cylinders containing compressed liquids and gases appropriate to various sources of fire public buildings. . Standards fire-fighting equipment in all commercial and Objectives : to remove or sufficiently reduce at least one element of the fire triangle discussed previously. A portable fire extinguisher must contain type of fire suitable for the fire it is required to It is identified by colour coding for its intended purpose. extinguishing agent extinguish.

Figure 1 : A Fire extinguisher .

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Portable extinguishers .

Figure : Colour coded cylinders and content .

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Portable extinguishers  Types available:  Group 1: Water extinguisher i) water (soda-acid) ii) water (gas pressure)  Group 2: CO2 extinguisher  Group 3: Vapourising liquid extinguisher i) bromochlorodifluoro methane  Group 4: Dry Powder extinguisher  Group 5: Foam extinguishers i) foam (chemical) ii)foam (mechanical or gas pressure) .


acid water fire extinguisher .   The acid mixes with the water which contains carbonate of soda to create a chemical reaction producing carbon dioxide gas The gas pressurises the cylinder to displace water from the nozzle  Figure : Soda.Soda-acid water fire extinguisher  It has a small glass container of sulphuric acid It is released into the water cylinder when a knob is struck.

Foam fire extinguisher •Foam is formed by chemical reaction between sodium bicarbonate and aluminium sulphate dissolved in water in the presence of a foaming agent •When the extinguisher is inverted the chemicals are mixed to create foam under pressure which is forced out of the nozzle. Figure : Foam fire extinguisher .

Figure : Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher .Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher    Carbon dioxide is pressurised as a liquid inside a cylinder Striking a knob at the top of the cylinder pierces a disc to release the carbon dioxide It then converts to a gas as it depressurises through the extinguisher nozzle.

. and C fires. • Dry Chemical extinguishers will have a label indicating they may be used on class A. separating the fuel from the oxygen. B. Dry Powder Extinguisher • Dry powder extinguishers put out fires by coating the fuel with a thin layer of fire retardant powder. • Dry powder extinguishers are usually rated for class B and C fires and may be marked multiple purpose for use in A. B. • They contain an extinguishing agent and use a compressed. which makes these extinguishers extremely effective. and/or C fires. non-flammable gas as a propellant. • The powder also works to interrupt the chemical reaction.

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Hose reel  Fire fighting equipment for use as a first aid measure by building occupants  Location : in recess along corridors  Length : provided with up to 45m of reinforced rubber hose (to cover 800m2 floor area per installations)  A range of hose reels is available including manual and automatic. swinging and recessed and come with detachable mounting plate for fast installation by one person . fixed.

Figure : Fixed Manual Hose Reel Figure : Swinging Manual Hose Reel Figure : Recessed Manual Hose Reel .

.  If the supply cannot be supplied from the main automatic pumping equipment will have to be installed.ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Hose reel Water supply  Water can be supplied directly from the mains if the supply to the highest reel can be 200kPa and also supply sufficient discharge.

Pearson Education Ltd. Figure 9. Edinburgh. If a suction tank is required it should hold a minimum volume of 1.4litre/second at a distance 6m from the end of the nozzle.18 & 9.Operation  The hose reel should be able to discharge 0. Technology and Design. Building Services.19 .  Source : R Greeno (2000).6m3 water.

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Hydrant (wet & dry riser)  Dry and wet rising mains are intended for use by the Fire Brigade or other trained personnel  It provide a readily available means of delivering considerable quantities of water to extinguish or to prevent the spread of fire. .

.Hydrant (wet & dry riser)  Dry risers comprise vertical mains. which are fitted into staircase enclosures or other suitable positions with outlet valves on each floor  inlets fitted at ground level to enable the Fire Brigade to connect into the water supply.

Hydrant (wet & dry riser)  Wet riser is a pipe kept permanently charged with water available either direct from a storage tank. or fed directly from the towns main water supply.  Before installation of a dry or wet riser mains the local Fire Brigade must be consulted. via a booster pump. . to ascertain their exact requirements.

Hydrant (wet riser)  Wet risers are a form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use and are always charged with water.  A jockey pump is usually provided to maintain system pressure. each stage of the wet riser should no exceed 71m. .5 m above the fire appliance access level.  For high rise buildings.  Wet risers are only required for buildings where the topmost floor is-higher than 30.  Wet riser system comprises duty fire pump with standby pump discharge into a 150mm diameter riser pipe with landing valves at each floor.

 This system provide infrastructure for Fire Brigade to connect its pipes and pump the water from outside the building (mains).  Hoses supplied with water from standpipes (vertically) are the usual means of manual application of water to interior building fires.ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Hydrant (wet riser) Installations :  The wet riser is permanently filled with water to supply hydrant valves on each floor. (cont’d) . ensuring an immediate supply of water.

however.  Experience is normally required to effectively use fire hoses because nozzle reaction forces can be considerable. establishes the need for building occupants to be trained in the use of fire hoses.ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Hydrant (wet riser) Installations :  Standpipes are usually designed for this use by the fire department.  Provision of a wet riser system. . but building occupants also can use them.

Technology and Design.Operations :  The duty pump is activated by a fall in water level registering at the pipeline switch. Edinburgh. Pearson Education Ltd.  The flow and pressure switch responds to water flowing  when all hydrant landing valves are closed . Source : R Greeno (2000).21 . Building Services. Figure 9. lack of hydraulic movement engages the flow and pressure switch to disconnect the pump.

 The flow and pressure switch responds to water flowing  when all hydrant landing valves are closed .wet riser Operations :  The duty pump is activated by a fall in water level registering at the pipeline switch. lack of hydraulic movement engages the flow and pressure switch to disconnect the pump. .


 Dry risers are normally dry and depend on the fire engine to pump water into the system.  Dry riser system comprises a riser pipe with landing valves at each floor and to which rubber-lined hose with nozzles can be connected to direct the water jet at the fire.5m above the fire appliance access level.  Breeching inlets into which the firemen pump water are provided at ground level and connected to the bottom of the dry risers.3m and less than 30.Hydrant (dry riser)  Dry risers are a form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use and are only required for buildings where the topmost floor is higher than 18. .

Building Services. Edinburgh.Source : R Greeno (2000). Pearson Education Ltd. Technology and Design.20 . Figure 9.


Dry riser .

ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION (Sprinkler system)  The most widely used apparatus for fire protection in buildings is the automatic sprinkler system  Special treatment and use of additional extinguishing agents. though. Carbon dioxide)  Sprinkler system consists of a network of piping installed at the ceiling or roof and supplied with water from a suitable source . industrial and storage occupancies ( ie: foam. may be required in many high-hazard.

Building Services.25 ceiling mounted sprinkler head . Technology and Design. Edinburgh. Pearson Education Ltd.Figure : Sprinkler heads Source : R Greeno (2000). Figure 9.

Figure : Simplified sprinkler installation .

which discharge water when a predetermined temperature is reached at any head ii) A stop/gate valve is installed in the main supply.Sprinkler system i) On the piping at systematic intervals are placed heat-sensitive heads. and drains are provided iii) An alarm can be connected to the system so that local and remote signals can be given when the water flows (concurrently : water flow and alarm) .


A dry pipe sprinkler system is one in which pipes are filled with pressurized air or nitrogen. . Typical dry pipe installations include unheated warehouses and attics. Once this happens. It uses dry air and it can cover a vast area. the dry-pipe valve prevents water from entering the pipe until a fire causes one or more sprinklers to operate. This fire sprinkler system uses water. It is mostly used in refrigerated coolers. the air escapes and the dry pipe valve releases. Wet pipe system This is more popular than the dry pipe system.The types of fire sprinkler systems: Dry pipe system This fire sprinkler system does not use water. rather than water. Located in a heated space. Advantages of using dry pipe fire sprinkler systems include: • Dry pipe sprinkler systems provide automatic protection in spaces where freezing is possible. It is more common in homes and small business premises. outside exposed loading docks and within commercial freezers. Air is pumped in the pipes then out.

. The deluge valve is normally closed. The arrangement of deluge system piping is similar to a wet or dry pipe system with two major differences: A.The types of fire sprinkler systems: Deluge Fire sprinkler system This system uses open pipes. pneumatically or hydraulically operated. Deluge valves can be electrically. Deluge systems are used where large quantities of water are needed quickly to control a fastdeveloping fire. The activating elements have been removed so that when the control valve is opened water will flow from all of the sprinklers simultaneously and deluge the area with water. but they are all open. The valve is opened by the activation of a separate fire detection system. Standard sprinklers are used. B. Deluge valves open up and allow water to flow into all the sprinklers. It uses open pipes connected to the water system. Water flow is constant in all the sprinklers.

The types of fire sprinkler systems: Foam water fire sprinkler system This uses foam and water. This system is more efficient than the wet system. . There are single interlock pre action systems that operate like the dry pipe systems. It is commonly used in gas stations and places dealing with highly flammable goods like airports. This system is used to protect artefacts or things of great value. The double interlock systems operate like the deluge systems. Pre action system This is a combination of all the above mentioned fire sprinkler systems. pre-action sprinkler system is similar to a deluge sprinkler system except the sprinklers are closed. The pre-action valve is normally closed and is operated by a separate detection system. This type system is typically used in areas containing high value equipment or contents and spaces which are highly sensitive to the effects of accidental sprinkler water discharge.

Sprinkler system .

this pressure falls and valve opens under the excess water pressure beneath it. .  Immediately above the main control valve is alarm valve which separates the sprinkler systems from the supply. allowing water to flow into the system to replace that discharged at the sprinklers.  When a sprinkler operates.ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Sprinkler system Operation :  The water from the appropriate supply is fed to an automatically controlled pump and then to the main control valve of the system.

on which the sprinkler heads are mounted. .ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Sprinkler system Operation :  Water passing through the valve flows up a vertical riser and then to the main distribution pipes at each ceiling level in the protected premises.  From the main distribution pipes it passes to the distribution pipes and range pipes.

 The sprinkler therefore acts as a detector as well as a distributor. .ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION Sprinkler system Operation :  It is then discharged at those sprinklers which have been caused to operate by the hot gases rising from the fire. and its opening brings the sprinkler system into operation automatically.

Sprinkler system .

Sprinkler system and dry riser piping layout

1. 2. 3.



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