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This guidebook is prepared by the Occupational Safety and Health Branch Labour Department This edition April 2008
T h i s g u i d e b o o k i s i s s u e d f r e e o f c h a rg e a n d c a n b e o b t a i n e d f ro m the o ffi c e s o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n a l S a fe t y a n d H e a l t h B ra n c h o f t h e L a b o u r D e p a r t m e n t . I t c a n a l s o b e d ow n l o a d e d f r o m w e b s i t e o f t h e L a b o u r D e p a r t m e n t a t http://www.labour.gov.hk/eng/public/content2_8d.htm. For enquiries about addresses and telephone numbers of the offices, please visit the website of the Department at http://www.labour.gov.hk/eng/tele/osh.htm or call 2559 2297. This guidebook may be freely reproduced except for advertising, endorsement or commercial purposes. Please acknowledge the source as “Safety in the Use of Abrasive Wheels” published by the Labour Department.
SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS 1 .
.......................................................... 7 TRUING AND DRESSING .... 3 OPERATING SPEED ......................................................................................... 3 SELECTION OF WHEELS ......... 10 2 ........................................................... 6 GUARDS ........................... 7 WORK-RESTS ............... 4 MARKING SYSTEM FOR ABRASIVE WHEELS .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 MOUNTING OF DEPRESSED-CENTRE WHEELS ................................ 8 SAFETY AND THE OPERATOR .........................SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 7 PROTECTION OF EYES .................................................... 9 SKETCHES AND TABLES / FORMS ..................... 5 MOUNTING . 8 ENQUIRIES AND COMPLAINTS ...................................................................................................................
If not in use. The main dangers are — (1) bursting of wheels as the result of: (i) defective wheel (ii) overspeeding (iii) faulty mounting (iv) misuse (2) contact with the wheel.) * Wheels should be kept dry and not exposed to extreme temperatures. * Do not use defective wheels. they should be stored properly in suitable racks as in Fig. 2. It does not include technical aspects of grinding or operational techniques. soft wheels are more suitable for hard materials and hard wheels for soft materials. such as a wooden screwdriver handle. Do not use the wheel if it sounds cracked. and (3) injury to the eyes from flying particles. It should ring. The use of abrasive wheels in an unsafe way often causes accidents leading to personal injuries and/or damage to properties. (Suspend the wheel vertically and tap the areas as shown in Fig. Check for soundness of wheels by a ‘ring test’. 3 . 1 with a light non-metallic tool.SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Introduction Abrasive wheels are extensively used in industries for various purposes. Selection of Wheels * Consult the manufacturer for the proper type of wheels to suit a particular job. The purpose of this guidebook is to advise readers on the precautions for the prevention of accidents in the use of abrasive wheels. Generally.
the following formula can be used for conversion into rpm: ∆ Speed in rpm = peripheral speed in ft/min x 12 3. 4 . in inches peripheral speed in m/sec x 1000 x 60 3.1416 x dia. however. in mm or = The conversion of speed measurement for a number of specified speeds and wheel diameters can be found in the Conversion Table shown in Fig. 3. be increased as the diameter of the wheel is reduced through wear as follows: ∆ increased speed in rpm = original speed in rpm x original diameter reduced diameter * If the spindle is air driven. A suitable pressure reducing regulator should be fitted between the governor and the air supply outlet if the working pressure of the outlet is greater than that of the grinding machine.SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Operating Speed * Check that the spindle speed of a machine does not exceed the maximum permissible speed of the wheel as specified by the manufacturer. it is also recommended that an automatic hose brake valve be fitted to the hose before joining the grinder. it should be properly maintained to prevent clogging by dust or grits. * The speed of the wheel in rpm may. But in case the wheel is marked to give the peripheral speed in feet per minute (ft/min) or in metres per second (m/sec). Where a filter is incorporated in the air supply system. ∆ Note: The maximum permissible speed of a wheel may also change upon aging of the bonding material of the wheel after prolonged use. To prevent accidents caused by snaking hoses when severed under high pressure of air. The spindle speed and the maximum permissible speed of the wheel should be marked in revolutions per minute (rpm). Consult the manufacturer or supplier in case of doubt. make sure that there is a governor or other device fitted so as to control the speed of the spindle. Such device should be effectively maintained at all time.1416 x dia.
discs. * Flanges on both sides of the wheel should have the same outside diameter and diameter of recess. 5 . * Flanges should not be less than one-third of the diameter of the wheels and their bearing surfaces should be true and free from burrs. Mounting * All mountings shall only be done by competent persons appointed in writing by the proprietors. * Washers. all flanges should be properly recessed or undercut. Washers should be slightly larger than the flanges and there should be no wrinkles in them. 4). if any.) * A wheel should not be mounted on a machine for which it is not intended and certainly not on any make-shift apparatus or where there is vibration of the machine. except tapered wheels. 5 for appointment of a competent person. should be used with all bonded abrasive wheels. * Do not mount a wheel on a machine the speed of which exceeds the maximum permissible speed of the wheel. Competent persons should be well trained and have the practical experience in the mounting job.SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Marking System for Abrasive Wheels Abrasive wheels are marked to identify their characteristics. * The bush. either paper or other compressible material. (See form in Fig. cylinder wheels. * Check for soundness of the wheel before it is mounted. * With the exception of the single flange used for threaded-hole wheels. should not project beyond the sides of the wheel. Persons responsible for wheel mounting should be able to recognise the specifications marked on the wheel (See Fig. threaded-hole wheels. * The wheel should fit freely but not loosely on the spindle. and the hub section of depressed-centre wheels. * Clamping nuts and screws should be tightened uniformly in pattern formation (diametrical sequence) and only sufficiently to hold the wheel firmly.
This ensures that clamping pressure is exerted only at the centre of the hub section.SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS * Screws for inserted nut for mounting of discs. Mounting of Depressed-centre Wheels Depressed-centre wheels should only be mounted with a flange as shown in Fig. When the adaptor has been tightened.750 mm (12 inches . 2. Three points should be noted: 1. the overhang (distance between end of support and base of wheel as illustrated in Fig. Also there should be sufficient length of the mandrel in the collet or chuck. but not so long as to contact the abrasive material. cylinders or cones should be long enough to engage a sufficient length of thread. speed and size of a wheel should not be exceeded. This allows the full width of the flange to support the wheel during the grinding operation. 3.30 inches) above 750 mm (30 inches) diameter of protection flanges at least half the diameter of wheel at least the diameter of wheel minus 150 mm (6 inches) at least the diameter of wheel minus 200 mm (8 inches) * Study carefully Fig. 6 . 7 to Fig. Consult the manufacturer for details of overhang permissible for a particular wheel. there should be a slight clearance between the flange and the wheel at (A). 11 which show the correct mounting of certain types of wheels commonly used. The outer part of the face of the flange adjacent to the wheel should be tapered as shown in Fig. 6) for a particular diameter of mandrel. * Protection flanges are used on tapered wheels which are not provided with safety guards. 12. * When re-mounting factory-mounted wheels and points. 12. Both these flanges and the tapered wheels should be equally tapered to at least 6% and with the following dimensions: diameter of wheel below 300 mm (12 inches) 300 mm . A paper washer should not be used on the hub section of a depressed-centre wheel.
(4) to prevent an oversized wheel from being fitted. * Guards must be of rigid construction. Protection of Eyes Persons carrying out dry grinding operations and truing or dressing an abrasive wheel should wear properly fitted eye protectors or be protected by suitable transparent screens which are fitted in front of the exposed part of the wheel so as to intercept flying particles. 7 . in any case not exceeding 3. a work-rest has to be provided and properly adjusted as close as possible. 14. band or disc driven by mechanical power. (2) to protect the wheel from accidental damage. Lack of adjustment is the cause of many serious accidents in that the workpiece was jammed between the wheel and the work-rest which forced the operator’s fingers against the wheel face. For maximum protection. shields or fixed shields shall be provided to employees engaged in: 1. Regulation 5 of the Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Protection of Eyes) Regulations requires that approved eye protectors. to the wheel. Truing or dressing of an abrasive wheel. Work-rests For bench and floor stand grinders. (3) to prevent the operator from coming into contact with the wheel.2mm (1/8 inch). Dry grinding of metals or articles of metal applied by hand to a revolving wheel. proper dimensions and securely anchored to the machine frame. See Fig.SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Guards * Unless the nature of the work absolutely precludes its use. the guards have to be adjusted to limit the exposure angles as in Fig. a guard shall be provided and kept in position at every abrasive wheel for the following purposes: (1) to hold the wheel parts in the event of breakage. 2. 13.
Switch it off before you leave. and if the force becomes excessive. * Do not mount an abrasive wheel yourself. * Remember grinding on the sides of straight-sided wheels is dangerous. choose the one which does not exceed the maximum permissible speed of the wheel.2 mm (1/8”) (3) the protective screen (or wear eye protectors) * Always report any fault or unusual signs of the machine to your foreman or supervisor. * Do not operate a grinding machine unless you have been properly trained in its safe use. * Do not allow the wheel to revolve unattended. * If there is more than one speed of the machine. it may damage the spindle and cause the wheel to burst. free from obstruction and not slippery.SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Truing and Dressing * The wheel should be dressed when necessary to remove loading or glazing at the wheel surface. Safety and the Operator * Ensure that the floor in the vicinity is in good condition. both of which reduce the cutting action. ensure the proper provision and adjustment of: (1) the wheel guards with minimum exposure angle (2) the clearance between the work-rest and the wheel should be less than 3. Eccentric force will be created at wheels used for hand grinding rendering them out of balance if they are not trued. It is the job for a competent person appointed by the proprietor. 8 . * Before operating a bench or floor stand grinding wheel. * Do not apply sudden pressure to the wheel.
9 . All complaints will be treated in the strictest confidence. you can contact the Occupational Safety and Health Branch of the Labour Department through: Telephone Fax E-mail : : : 2559 2297 (auto-recording after office hours) 2915 1410 enquiry@labour.SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Enquiries If you wish to enquire about this guidebook or require advice on occupational safety and health.gov.hk. Complaints If you have any complaints about unsafe workplaces and practices. Information on the services offered by the Occupational Safety and Health Council can be obtained through hotline 2739 9000.labour. please call the Labour Department’s occupational safety and health complaint hotline at 2542 2172.hk Information on the services offered by the Labour Department and on major labour legislation can also be found by visiting our homepage at http://www.gov.
SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Sketches and Tables / Forms 45 o 45 o 45 o 45 o TAP HERE FLOOR Fig. 1: Tap points for the “ring test” Fig. 2: Proper storage of wheels 10 .
3: CONVERSION TABLE From peripheral speeds in feet per minute (metres per second) to wheel speed in rpm =mbofmebo^i=pmbba RIRMM SIMMM SIRMM TIMMM TIRMM UIMMM UIRMM VIMMM VIRMM NMIMMM NOIMMM NQIMMM TNKN SMKV RMKU QUKO QRKT QPKN QMKS PUKN PRKS PP PMKR OTKV NSIMMM UNKP SAFETY ÑíLãáå QIMMM QIRMM RIMMM ãLëÉÅ OMKP OOKU ORKQ IN aá~ãÉíÉê çÑ=ïÜÉÉä áå ãã =obslirqflkp=mbo=jfkrqb ONIMMU NMIRMQ TIMMP OOIVNU NNIQRV TISPV OQIUOU NOIQNQ UIOTS OSITPT NPIPSU UIVNP OUISQT NQIPOU VIRQV PMIRRU NRIOTU NMINUS POIQST NSIOPU NMIUOO PQIPTT NTINUU NNIQRV PSIOUT NUINQP NOIMVS PUINVS NVIMVU NOITPO VIRQV TISQM SIPSS RIQRS QITTR QIOQQ PISOV PIMOP OIRVO OINQV NIVNM NITNV NIQTS NIPRP NIOQU NIMVO NIMNU VRQ UQP TVR TRQ SSV SPS SMU RUO RRU RMP QNQ PQR QQS PTN TNS SUO SRN SOQ RVT RPV QTU PVU UVU UQU UMQ TSQ TPO SVQ SSS SPS RTS RNM QOQ NINRV NIMUO NIMNQ VRR VMO URQ UNO TTR TPT TMU STS SNO RQO QRN NIRSO NIQPP NIPOO NIOOU NINQS NIMTQ NIMNN VRQ VMQ USM UNU TUM TRM TNS SQU RTQ QTT OIOSU NIMNS NIUNQ NISQV NIRNO NIPVR NIOVS NIONM NINPQ NIMST NIMMT VRR VMU USP UOQ TVN TRS SUP SMS RMQ PIUOM PINUP OITOU OIPUT OINOO NIVNM NITPS NIRVN NIQSU NIPSQ NIOTQ NINVQ NINOQ NIMSN NIMMS VRS VMU USU UPO TVS TOM SPU RPM VIMTO TIORU SIMQU RINUP QIRPR QIMPO UIRVR SIUTS RITOV QIVNN QIOVT PIUOM PIQPU OIUSQ OIQRR UINNS SIQVQ RIQNN QISPU QIMRU PISMS PIOQT OITMR OIPNV OIMOV NIUMP NISOP TISQM SINNO RIMVO QIPSS PIUOM PIPVS PIMRS OIRQS OINUO NIVNM NISVU NIROU NIPUU NIOTQ NINTS TINSO RITPM QITTR QIMVO PIRUM PINUO OIUSR OIPUS OIMQS NITVN NIRVN NIQPO NIPMO NINVQ NINMN NIMOP VRR UVR SISUR RIPQU QIQRS PIUOM PIPQO OIVTM OISTQ OIOOU NIVNM NISTO NIQUR NIPPT NIONR NINNR NIMOU VRR UVN UPS TUS TQO TMQ SIOMT QIVSS QINPU PIRQT PINMP OITRU OIQUP OIMSV NITTP NIRRO NIPTV NIOQN NINOU NIMPQ VRR UUT UOU TTS TPM SVM SRP SOM RVN RSQ RQN RNT QSU RITOV QIRUQ PIUOM PIOTQ OIUSR OIRQS OIOVO NIVNM NISPT NIQPO NIOTP NINQS NIMQO VRR UUN UNU TSQ TNS STQ SPT SMP RTP RQR RON RMM QTU QPO PUT PNU RIORO QIOMO PIRMN PIMMN OISOS OIPPQ OINMN NITRN NIRMM NIPNP NINST NIMRM VRR UTR UMU TRM TMM SRS SNU RUP RRP ROR RMM QTU QRU QPU PVR PRM OVN QRIUPS OOIVNU NRIOTU NNIQRV VINSU TISPV SIRQU RITOV RIMVO QIRUQ PIUOM PIOTQ OIUSR OIRQS OIOVO OIMUQ NIVNM NITSO NISPT NIROU NIQPO NIPQU NIOTP NIOMS NINQS NIMVM NIMQO NIMMM VRS USQ TTQ SPT RPIQTQ OSITPT NTIUOS NPIPSU NMISVS UIVNP TISQM SISUR RIVQM RIPQU QIQRS PIUOM PIPQO OIVTM OISTQ OIQPM OIOOU OIMRS NIVNM NITUO NISTO NIRTO NIQUQ NIQMU NIPPU NIOTO NIONS NINSQ NINNS NIMMS UVO TQO SNINNS PMIRRU OMIPTO NRIOTU NOIOOQ NMINUS UITPO TISQM SITVO SINNO RIMVO QIPSS N O P OR RM TR NRIOTV TISPV RIMVP NTINUV UIRVQ RITOV NVIMVU VIRQV SIPSS THE Q R S NMM NOR NRM PIUOM PIMRS OIRQS QIOVT PIQPU OIUSR QITTR PIUOM PINUP T U V NTR OMM OOR OINUP NIVNM NISVU OIQRR OINQU NIVNM OITOU OIPUT OINOO USE NM NO NQ ORM PMM PRM NIROU NIOTP NIMVN NITNV NIQPO NIOOU NIVNM NIRVN NIPSQ OF NS NU OM USU TVS TPQ SUO SPT RVT RSO RPM RMP QTU QRQ QPQ QNS PVU PSM PNV OSR QMM QRM RMM VRR UQV TSQ NIMTQ VRR URV NINVQ NIMSN VRR PIUOM PIPVS PIMRS OITTS OIRQS OIPRO OINUO OIMPS NIVNM NITVS NISVU NISMU NIROU NIQSQ NIPUU NIPPO NIOTO NINRO NIMOM UQV OO OQ OS RRM SMM SRM SVQ SPT RUU TUN TNS SSN ABRASIVE OU PM PO TMM TRM UMM RQS RMV QTT SNQ RTP RPT PQ PS PU URM VMM VRM QQV QOQ QMO RMR QTT QRO QM QO QQ NIMMM NIMRM NINMM PUO PSS PQT QPM QMV PVM WHEELS QS QU RP NINRM NIOMM NIPOR PPP PNU OUU PTR PRU POQ SM TO NIRMM NIUMM ORR ONO OUT OPV 11 .Fig.
SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Maximum operation speed TESTED AT 6445 R.P.M. 4: Marking system sequence of symbols M Order of marking Example Type of abrasive* 51 N Nature of abrasive A O Grain size P Grade Q Structure* R Nature of bond V S Type of bond etc* 23 36 L 5 Aluminium abrasives Silicon carbides A C Spacing from the closest to the most open V S R B BF îáíêáÑáÉÇ ëáäáÅ~íÉ êìÄÄÉê resinoid (synthetic resins) resinoid (synthetic resins) reinforced coarse medium fine very fine U NM NO NQ NS OM OQ PM PS QS RQ SM TM UM VM NMM NOM NRM NUM OOM OQM OUM POM QMM RMM SMM M N O P Q R S T U V NM NN NO NP NQ ÉíÅK E ëÜÉää~Å Mg ã~ÖåÉëá~ Soft Medium Hard A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z * Optional symbols – The symbols 0 and 6 are the manufacturer’s own setting 12 . SPEED NOT TO EXCEED 3600 R.P. OPER.M. 51A 36 L 5V 23 Fig.
SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Fig. 13 . 5: Form* (Regulation 7(2)) Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Abrasive Wheels) Regulations k~ãÉ=çÑ =fåÇìëíêá~ä=råÇÉêí~âáåÖ ^ÇÇêÉëë=çÑ =fåÇìëíêá~ä=råÇÉêí~âáåÖ ^ééçáåíãÉåí=çÑ =`çãéÉíÉåí=mÉêëçåë=íç=ãçìåí=~Äê~ëáîÉ=ïÜÉÉäë Date of Appointment Name of competent persons appointed Identity card number Address of competent person Signature of proprietor Signature of competent person * This is not a prescribed form because the law does not require one. This form is merely offered for the convenience of proprietors for the purpose of appointing a competent person.
6: Sketch defining “overhang” washers fitted inner flange keyed on spindle flange recessed here Fig. 7: A straight-wheel with a small bore 14 .SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS chuck mounted wheel overhang Fig.
SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS washers fitted inner flange keyed on spindle flange undercut here Fig. 9 : A threaded-hole wheel 15 . 8: A straight-wheel with a large bore Flat flange. no relief — to provide proper support for steel bushing and wheel Fig.
no relief Spindle is shorter than hole and sufficiently threaded Fig.SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Flat flange. 10: A cone wheel wheel tapered to 6% flange tapered here equally Fig. 11: A tapered wheel 16 .
EXPOSURE 150º MAX. 12 : Flange assembly for a depressed-centre wheel. 125º MAX. The outer part of the flange adjacent to the wheel should be tapered as shown and there should be a slight clearance at A. 90º MAX. 60º MAX.SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS Tapered surface A Fig. 15º MIN. OR OF SPINDLE IS REQUIRED) TOP GRINDER 65º MAX. EXPOSURE 180º MAX. EXPOSURE 65º MAX. EXPOSURE BENCH AND FLOOR STAND GRINDERS (WHEEL CONTACT IN GENERAL) BENCH AND FLOOR STAND GRINDERS (GREATER WHEEL CONTACT BELOW. EXPOSURE SWING-FRAME GRINDER CYLINDRICAL GRINDER SURFACE GRINDERS AND CUTTING-OFF MACHINES Fig. 180º MAX. 13: Maximum exposure angles for various grinding applications 17 . 15º MIN. 65º MAX.
14 : A grinding wheel fitted with wheel guard. with minimum exposure angle 3.2mm maximum (1/8”) work-rest Fig. 18 .SAFETY IN THE USE OF ABRASIVE WHEELS protective screen wheel guard. work-rest and protective screen.
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