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Introduction To Thermodynamics

# Introduction To Thermodynamics

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11/26/2013

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Figure 4.8: In the liquid/vapor two-phase region, the liquid has speciﬁc volume

vf and the vapor has speciﬁc volume vg.

phase diagram. The two phases have very diﬀerent properties. For example,

the speciﬁc volume of a liquid is much less than that of a gas. How can we

determine both values from a phase diagram?

The key is to realize that in a two-phase region, the properties of each phase

present are those at the “edges” of the region. For example, consider boiling

a liquid at constant pressure. Just before the temperature where gas bubbles

ﬁrst appear, the cylinder is still ﬁlled with liquid. Call the speciﬁc volume at

this point vf.4

As more heat is added at constant pressure, the only thing that

happens is that some liquid becomes vapor – the properties (per unit mass)

of the remaining liquid don’t change. Although there is less liquid, the liquid

remaining still has speciﬁc volume vf.

What is the speciﬁc volume of the vapor which has been created? It too is

constant during the constant-pressure boiling process, and thus must equal the

value of v obtained once the cylinder contains only vapor. Call this value vg.

Suppose now that the system is somewhere in the two-phase region on the

isobar5

labeled P in Fig. 4.8 and the measured total volume V results in a value

for v = V/M as shown in this ﬁgure. This v does not actually correspond to

the speciﬁc volume of either the liquid or the vapor in the container. These are

vf and vg, respectively. Instead, v is an average of vf and vg, weighted by the

mass of each in the container.

We use the term “saturated” to denote the states on either side of the vapor

dome (Fig. 4.9). Thus, “saturated liquid”has speciﬁc volumevf, and “saturated

4

Although it is not entirely logical, it is conventional to use the subscript “f” to denote
propertiesof theliquidand“g”todenotepropertiesofthevaporin anequilibriumliquid/vapor

mixture.

5

An isobar is a line of constant pressure. The P in a circle simply labels the pressure of

this isobar.

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