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to both the fabric designer and the textile technologist, say Mounir Jaouadi, Slah Msehli and Faouzi Sakli.
In a yarn structure, fibres represent the main component. The other component is air pockets created by the technology forming the structure. The knowledge of the real fibres volume within the yarn allows to better estimate various textile fabrics properties. Yarn diameter is used to predict fabric structural parameters such as width, cover factor, porosity, fabric comfort and so on. Since thousands of ends or picks are presented side-by-side in the woven or the knit fabrics, a slight change in yarn diameter can result in a substantial change in the overall fabric cover factor. Measuring yarn diameter and compressibility and their effect on fabric quality is important to both the fabric designer and the textile technologist. In fact, the dimensional and mechanical characteristics of fabrics are dependent on yarn diameter, thread spacing of warp and weft in woven fabrics, courses and wales per unit length and stitch length in knitted goods. Many researchers studied the yarn diameter and they estimated it using empirical formula. One of the most commonly used expressions for estimating yarn diameter is that developed by Peirce in 1937 . In this expression, yarn density was assumed to be 1.1 g/cm3. In a recent study, Elmoghazy et al in 1993  developed empirical expressions for estimating the diameters of ring-spun, rotor-spun and MJS air-jet spun yarns. These expressions (Table 1) were developed by an extensive microscopic testing of actual yarn thickness for a wide range of yarn count and twist levels. In 2003 A Basu et al (SITRA)  measured the rotor spun cotton yarn diameter using the image analysis method. The used yarns count range from 6 Ne to 20 Ne and they found that the actual yarn diameter can be predicted by using the formula shown in Table 1. The formulae shown in Table 1 indicate that yarns made by different spinning systems and of equal nominal count will exhibit different values of yarn diameter. This is a result of the difference in fibre arrangement and fibre compactness of different yarn types. Table 1 Empirical formulae of yarn diameter Yarn type Ring Spun Expression Units inch Source Peirce (1937)
In this paper. cotton.Ring Spun Rotor Spun MJS air jet yarn Rotor Spun mm mm mm mm El Mogahzy (1993) El Mogahzy (1993) El Moghazy (1993) SITRA (2003) We should point out that the formula for ring spun yarn developed by El Moghazy in 1993  tends to produce a value of yarn diameter that is slightly higher than that estimated by Peirce equation. fibre characteristics.29 9. the density of cotton ring-spun yarns can range from 0.42 Yarn twist T (tr/m) 200 936 . Indeed.85 to 1. viscose and wool) and of fineness (Nm) ranging from 10 and 68 were tested. the knowledge of the real fibres volume within the yarn allows to determine the real yarn diameter. Material and method Sixty one yarns of different material (polyester. acrylic. The yarns and fibres properties are summarised in Table 2. Using a combination of capacitive and optical measures of different yarns. Table 2 Yarns and fibres properties. The majority of the studies were interested in the determination of the apparent yarn diameter However. the determination of the real diameter influences so much the fabric geometrical and mechanical properties.65 13 . the authors discuss the development of an experimental device allowing the determination of the real yarn diameter and study the effect of yarn and fibre properties on the yarn packing fraction.87 Fibers length (mm) 26 65 Yarn count (Nm) 10 68 Yarn irregularity CV (%) 8. Yarns and fibers properties min max Fiber micronnair (µg/inch) 3 . Thus. the real diameter is defined as the measurement of the yarn dimension without air. particularly in the coarse to medium range of yarn count. These yarns were randomly collected and were manufactured by two different processes: 33 Open-end yarns and 28 ring spun yarns.2 g/cm3 depending on the spinning process. and structural parameters (count and twist). The main reason for the difference was due to discrepancy in the value of yarn density.
image. a yarn photo is captured and examined by a Motic microscope with 40x magnification. So the yarn diameter can evaluated by determined the edges of the yarn core. On its surface the fibres are laid along the curves characterising the twist.0" software was used. 500 mm test length yarn is maintained right between the grips of the twist tester and subjected to twist increase (a step of 50 turns). The image analysis was performed using the sequence: process. The initial study of variation it was decided to take 100 readings. For determination of them.From this brief review. The twist variation is proportional to the yarn count one. constitutes hairiness. to find out (graphically) some links and to identify some macro features . segmentation. "Image-Pro-Plus 2. The core is defined as a part of the yarn that forms a compact agglomeration of fibres. They also noted that the apparent yarn is in inverse proportion to square root of yarn count. (1) where: `d : average diameter in mm Li : diameter of yarn at position i in mm A statistical study was carried out in order to determine the more influent parameters on yarn packing fraction. The first yarn sample edge was fixed on one grip and they applied the pretension and they fixed the second edge on the other grip. processing and measurement. So the average of yarn diameter was calculated by the following equation . In order to evaluate this variation. the images were processed (Figure 2) and the yarn diameter was measured. The yarn sample undergoes a uniform tension while mounting on the grips. Figure 1 represents the used experimental device. For each twist step. to limit the number of factors. the yarn can be divided into two basic elements: the yarn core and hairiness. The principal component analysis (PCA) is an extraction method of the principal factors based on a quantitative analysis of the correlations . they developed an experimental device made up of a twist tester. the authors noticed that all researchers into the evaluation of yarn diameter have mainly accentuated the importance of yarn count. Average of 10 measurements were taken in 10 different positions throughout the yarn length. consisting outlying fibres or their agglomerations. The rest of the yarn. Its goal is to study and to reduce the survey space of variables in order to simplify the raw data. It has a cylindrical form and a variable diameter. With regard to the external structure. For analysis of the yarn images. The tension of 1 cN/ tex was applied to the yarn sample according to the French Standard NF G07-079  for removal of crimp. so they can conclude that there is a relationship between the yarn diameter variation and the twist one. using Principal Components Analysis (PCA)  and contribution analysis (Path method) . acquise. a camera and a computer with image processing software. This study allowed us.
volumetric density describes the degree of compactness of fibres in the yarn structure. defined by the following equation: (3) with: -V f iber: fibers volume in yarn : yarn density .Vyarn: yarn volume (fibers + air) .dm: yarn real diameter . Indeed. which consists of rolling fibres in propellers so that the initially parallel fibres are helicoidally placed around the yarn axis. the twist increase generates an increase in the radial forces applied to fibres with the same intensity in all directions resulting a circular section of the tested yarn.dyarn : yarn apparent diameter. As indicated earlier. the yarn volume is occupied by the fibres volume and the air one. the yarn density "?yarn" tends to the fibres density "?fibre" and the apparent diameter tends to a limit noted real diameter (Figures 3 and 4).: fiber density .(principal components). This method consists on subjective grouping of the correlated variables. Twist has a significant role in the yarn density variation. More the twist is important more the radial forces exert a compressibility effect on fibres and the air volume will be increasingly negligible and in consequence. The knowledge of the real yarn diameter allows estimating its packing fraction "F". . Theoretical study In the spinning process. In order to validate the experimental device results.Nm:Yarn metric count This formula was established by supposing that the yarn is cylindrical. which were represented graphically by the coordinates corresponding to two centred and reduced principal variables. the authors compare them with the calculated ones drc by using the following theoretical model: (2) Where: : theoretical real diameter : Fibre density (g/cm3) . The expression indicates that the value of yarn diameter mainly depends on the linear density and the volumetric density of yarn. This means that yarn twist will have a significant effect on yarn diameter. the yarn generally undergoes a twist. Indeed.
with different materials (Figure 6) and for different spinning processes: Rotor spun and ring spun (Figure 7).1%. resulting in free air volume reduction. the measured diameter corresponds to the fibres volume. The higher value of rotor-spun yarn diameter indicates that it is bulkier than the ring-spun yarn. This result has been confirmed by the authors study and for the other tested materials. the fibres approach the ones to the others in a maximum interference configuration. Comparison of experimental and theoretical methods Figures 8 and 9 present a comparison of the real yarn diameter given by the microscopic method noted (dm) to the theoretical one (drc). For all tested yarns.82 %.33 % and 6. Most of spun cotton yarns have packing fraction above 0. For a given fibre material. This phenomena was observed to a limit twist value from wich the two yarn diameters tend to the same value since the yarn density tends to the fibre one. packing fractions are summarised in Table 3. For the two ring and OE processes. It is one of the major design parameters of textile fabrics. For different yarn counts (case of ring yarn cotton).Results and discussion The yarn diameter variations versus the twist increase are shown in Figures 5 and 6. therefore to the real yarn diameter. Effect of spinning process on yarn diameter Figure 7 shows that for yarns with same yarn linear density and material. This phenomenon was noticed for the other yarns having same count. The apparent diameter decreases until reaching a limit value known as real yarn diameter. the apparent yarn diameter decreases with the twist increase (Figure 5). the measured error % (= [experimental value . This limit can be explained by the fact that from a certain twist value. Yarn packing fraction The packing fraction is an indication of the air pockets enclosed by the fibres.5 .theoretical value] / theoretical value %) is small. yarn diameter was greater for rotor spun process than ring spun one. the average real diameter error determined by the microscopic method compared to the theoretical model is 4. And for a yarn with . it is respectively about 5. a yarn of very high packing fraction is likely to be stiff and probably weak. For instance. a ring-spun yarn will typically exhibit higher degree of compactness than a comparable rotor-spun yarn due to the true twist with the high tension used in ring spinning. Nm 10. The experimental measurements are within the confidence interval of the theoretical values. Different spinning processes produce different degrees of yarn density as a result of the different patterns of fibre compactness imposed by yarn twisting and spinning process. The importance of packing fraction lies in its powerful effects on many yarn and fabric properties. Thus.
Statistical analysis of packing fraction variation The application of the principal component analysis method allows obtaining the graph shown in Figure 10.4 %. The yarn irregularity is important for the thin yarn. The yarn count is proportional to the twist. is based on a contribution law obtained under the following shape: Y = a1 X1 + … + aj Xj +… + aq Xq (4) Where: Y : Yarn packing fraction ai : Regression coefficient of the normalised factor Xi Xi : Centred and reduced variables The contribution coefficient Ci of factor Xi is calculated by the following formula: (5) Where: R2(adjusted): Correlation coefficient of the normalised regression Y versus Xi So. the material and the yarn irregularity have a . In order to determine the contribution of each factor on the studied properties. Besides.The spinning process has not any correlation with the others parameters But.very low packing fraction. . In fact. they contribute with 65% in yarn packing fraction prevision.The twist. this method doesn't allow judging the internal dispersion of each group. . Then. the standardised regression coefficients have been calculated in accordance with the Path analysis . This method confirms the PCA results. The two principal vectors (Figure 10) have an important weight with a ratio of 69. The correlated parameters are grouped in small groups: .The material and the fibre properties are positively correlated. Indeed. The contribution of the variables (Xi) according to the yarn packing fraction (Y). the authors obtained the contribution factors corresponding to the different parameters. the fibre properties. it is likely to lose the bulk and the surface integrity required to hold the yarn structure during processing. Thus. it is necessary to analyse the database by the method of contribution of the different factors. The statistical determination of the contribution coefficients of the different factors allows studying the internal dispersion of each group determined by the principal component analysis.9]. which are calculated for the yarn packing fraction. as shown in Figure 11. whereas. the analysed data had to be centred and reduced. the most influent parameters on yarn packing fraction are the count and the twist yarn. which is the multiple regression application. the aim of this method is to reduce the number of factors and to eliminate the low influence parameters [8. the yarn count and the yarn irregularity are correlated.
fibre length also affects yarn density and consequently yarn diameter. So. In general. So the apparent diameter tends to a limit value.00265 × Nm . A SEYAM and Aly El-SHIEKH A: Mechanics of Woven Fabrics. the larger the fibre length. the real diameter. R2 = 78. which can be due to the tested yarns irregularities. The twist increase results in a free air volume reduction to a null value. A statistical study allowed the authors. As indicated earlier. the effect of fibre and yarn properties can be summarised in the Table 4: In the context of fibre to yarn engineering. yarn density becomes smaller. The analysis of variance in Table V shows that the regression model is highly meaningful at 5% significance level (high Fisher constant F value). For a given yarn count and at the same twist factor.320 . So. although the count of yarn remains unchanged. and the smaller the yarn diameter. fibre properties that are expected to influence fibre compactness include: fibre fineness. fibre length and fibre crimp. coarse and stiff fibre will result in bulkier or thicker yarn than fine and flexible fibres. On the same ground. Conclusion An enumeration of various research revealed that all the studies were interested in the determination of the apparent diameter and not of the real diameter. In this study. the authors used the analysis of variance method. these parameters (the count and the twist yarn) will be used to estimate the yarn packing fraction. fibre stiffness. Part III: Critical . The experimental method validation results gave low error values. In other words. by using the principal components analysis and the contribution method (Path method) to retain the most influential factors in the yarn packing fraction prevision: the yarn count and the twist yarn. References 1.lower influence.8 × 10-4 T . The objective of this work is to determine the real diameter and the packing fraction of textile yarns with determining the more influential intrinsic yarn parameters.6 % (6) where : dm: real yarn diameter (mm) T: yant twist (tr/m) Nm: yarn count (m/g) In order to test the significance of the model. dm = 0. Factors affecting real yarn diameter are essentially those that affect yarn density or fibre compactness.0. This prevision is based on the determination of the apparent diameter by microscopical method and the real one by using the following linear model. the authors developed an experimental device measuring the real yarn diameter according to the twist variation. leading to an increase in a real yarn diameter. as the fibre becomes coarser (higher denier). the higher the yarn density. yarn diameter is a major design criterion.
D Mathieu. Textile Research Journal.2. Volume 94. 1993. 4. 28 T 45 Jambu M: Méthode de base de l'analyse des données. Tunisia. Lagarde P: Initiation à l'analyse des données. B P 68 Ksar Hellal 5070. pp 153-162. pp 89-116. I Doraiswamy and R L Gotipamul: Meaurement of Yarn Diameter and Twist by Image Analysis. Journal of Textile Institute 2003. 1993. Journal of Textile Institute 1937. Mounir Jaouadi. Review of Weavability Limit Studies. E-mail: jaouadimounir@yahoo. Yehia E. Legendre P: l'Analyse Statistiques Multivariée dans Cartes et Données. pp 371-378. Dunod. 9. La norme Française : Méthode de mesure de la torsion du fil NFG07-079. 7. R Phan-Tan-Luu et G Drava.Elmoghazy: Understanding the Fibre-to-yarn System: Yarn Characteristics. Part 1. A Basu. 6. 27. . pp 431. 1995. Chem and Intel Laboratory Systems. Tel: (+216) 73 475 900. Slah Msehli and Faouzi Sakli. 5. 1995. M Sergent. 8. Textile Research Unit of ISET Ksar Hellal. Note: For detailed version of this article please refer the print version of The Indian Textile Journal September 2007 issue. Edition 1999. Correct and Incorrect Use of Multi-linear Regression. décembre 1999. 3. Volume 63 (7). pp 47-58 Peirce F T: The Geometry of Cloth Structure.fr.
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