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Proses kajian tindakan melibatkan refleksi ke atas isu pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang hendak ditangani. Kemudian guru itu menyediakan satu pelan yang sesuai untuk mengatasi masalah yang dihadapinya. Seterusnya guru melaksanakan pelan yang dihasilkan dan dalam proses pelaksanaannya guru terpaksalah memerhati kemajuan tindakan yang dijalankan itu. Keseluruhan pelaksanaan itu disifatkan sebagai Gelungan Pertama dan jika masalah itu tidak dapat diatasi, maka guru bolehlah memulakan proses semula ke Gelungan Kedua sehinggalah masalah itu diselesaikan. Pada Gelungan Kedua guru mesti mereflek dan membuat adaptasi terhadap pelan tindakan beliau. Satu kritikan terhadap model ini ialah ia sentiasa berlanjutan dan tiada mutakhirnya . Oleh itu, seseorang guru yang menjalankan kajian tindakan hendaklah pragmatik dan perlu memastikan bahawa pelan tindakan beliau selaras dengan kurikulum yang hendak disampaikan.
Pendekatan spiral tersebut melibatkan beberapa langkah seperti. Ulangkaji pelan tindakan berdasarkan apa yang dipelajari dari langkah 5 7). 1). Mengenal pasti idea 2)... (Terma "Action Research" telah dikreditkan kepada Kurt Lewin seorang ahli teori sosial yang mempelopori kajian tindakan). Pencarian fakta 3). Reka Bentuk Kajian Tindakan Kurt Lewin telah dibina pada tahun 1940-an dan dikenali sebagai Kurt Lewin's Action Research Spiral yang mana menunjukkan penambahbaikan yang berterusan dalam pembelajaran mengenai apa yang telah dikaji. Mengambil langkah tindakan seterusnya dan begitu berikutnya melalui beberapa kitar.Kurt Lewin Antara reka bentuk atau model yang perlu dilihat dalam Kajian Tindakan adalah yang reka bentuk kajian oleh pelopor Action Research itu sendiri iaitu Kurt Lewin. Penilaian tindakan yang diambil 6). Pelaksanaan tindakan 5). Perancangan pelan tindakan 4). .
blogspot.Ebbut Elliot http://kajiantindakancikgulee.com/2009/05/models-of-action-research-nota-kuliah-2.html .
. 1985) [Action Research] . and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out. instructors and other parties) with the means to improve the practices conducted within the educational experience (Hopkins. and we need to make a great effort in this regard. 1985) The action research framework is most appropriate for participants who recognize the existence of shortcomings in their educational activities and who would like to adopt some initial stance in regard to the problem. formative. .An Introduction to Action Research I feel that we need to make a greater effort to involve teachers in Action Research.Ebbutt (cited in Hopkins. qualitative. April 24.Rapoport (cited in Hopkins. Dorothy Gabel Presidential Address National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) San Francisco. reflective and experiential model of inquiry in which all individuals involved in the study are knowing and contributing participants (Hopkins. But many are waiting to be invited to participate in research studies in which they examine students' preconceptions. All participants were knowing. Teachers already know much about teaching--more than many of us do. 1993). active members of the research process.. 1995 Action Research (AR) represents a growing field of educational research whose chief identifying characteristic is the recognition of the pragmatic requirements of educational practitioners for organized reflective inquiry into classroom instruction. In short. (b) their understanding of these practices. ..sometimes in cooperation with outsiders. 1985) Action Research is a form of self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. or effective teaching strategies. 1993). Action research has been described as an informal. interpretive. It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. It is through joint research studies that science instruction in the schools will improve. evaluate the outcomes and develop further strategies in an iterative fashion (Hopkins.aims to contribute both to the practical concerns of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of social science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework..is the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practise by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of their own reflection upon the effects of those actions. Some of the most widely accepted definitions of Action Research include following: [Action Research] . carry out an intervention. formulate a plan. 1993).Kemmis (cited in Hopkins... . subjective.. AR is an process designed to empower all participants in the educational process (students. Action research has the primary intent of providing a framework for qualitative investigations by teachers and researchers in complex working classroom situations.
Figure 1: Action Research Protocol after Kemmis (cited in Hopkins. observation and reflection before revising the plan .action research is characterized by those constraints and strengths given a research methodology intended to be a workable technique for working classroom teachers. action. and the cyclic process repeats. starting with conceptualizing and particularizing the problem and moving through several interventions and evaluations. (The Reconnaissance & General Plan . 1993) as per the following characteristic cycle: Initially an exploratory stance is adopted. This may be thought of as similar . pertinent observations are collected in various forms. (The Action in Action Research) During and around the time of the intervention. The protocol is iterative or cyclical in nature and is intended to foster deeper understanding of a given situation. continuing until a sufficient understanding of (or implement able solution for) the problem is achieved (Reflection and Revision). Action Research Design The essentials of action research design are considered by Elliott (in Hopkins. (Monitoring the implementation by Observation. A representation of an AR protocol by Kemmis is provided in Figure 1. 1985) Figure 1 clearly displays the iterative nature of AR along with the major steps of planning.) Then the intervention is carried out . ) The new interventional strategies are carried out. where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy.
the idea is to close in upon a final goal or outcome by repeated iterations. The reconnaissance necessarily includes some degree of analysis. For instance. as described in Figure 3. Ebbutt further illustrates the evolution of the overall plan through a spiral analogy.. Later protocols reflect changes in the goal as determined via experience during the reflections of earlier iterations of AR.. . 1985) Elliott's model emphasizes constant evolution and redefinition of the original goal through a series of reconnaissances recurring every cycle. Figure 2 reflects the evolution of the general idea or main topic of interest throughout the process. 1985).recapture some of the 'messiness' which the Kemmis version tends to gloss [over] " (Hopkins. Figure 2: Action Research after Elliott (cited in Hopkins. and seeks to ". This design permits much greater flexibility.in nature to the numerical computing technique known as successive approximation .
1985) The Role of Communication Another distinguishing characteristic of Action Research is the degree of empowerment given to all participants. The Role of Reflection Another distinguishing characteristic of action research is the degree of empowerment given to all participants. the teachers and the students. Action research is intended to be the reflective counterpart of practical diagnosis (Elliott. This model (called reflectionin-action) frames means and ends interdependently and recognizes that there is little or no separation of research from practice. All participants including the university researchers. Involvement is of a knowing nature. Elliott (in Kemmis & McTaggart. Schon (1983) describes the use of reflection to generate models from a body of previous knowledge. Schon's . then experiments are performed to bring about outcomes which are subjected to further analysis. with no hidden controls or preemption of direction by the researcher. .. (p.Since action research involves unconstrained dialogue between "researcher" (whether he be an outsider or teacher/researcher) and the participants. with no hidden controls or preemption of direction by the researcher. including the university researchers. 1990b) considers the need for communication between all participants to be of paramount importance: Since action research looks at a problem from the point of view of those involved it can only be validated in unconstrained dialogue with them. there must be free information flow between them. These models are used to re-frame a problem.Figure 3: Action Research Protocol after Ebbutt (cited in Hopkins.. little or no separation of knowing and doing. 1978). 122) Perhaps the key component involved in action research is the notion of praxis. All participants negotiate meaning from the data and contribute to the selection of interventionary strategies. Involvement is of a knowing nature. the teachers and the students negotiate meaning from the data and contribute to the selection of interventionary strategies.
& McTaggart. (1985). (1995). D.). A. (1983). (1990b). Presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Hopkins.. The reflective practitioner : How professionals think in action. CA. Victoria: Deakin University. D.physics. Philadelphia: Open University Press.model of reflection-in-action compliments the iterative and investigative natures of action research.buffalostate. R. S. Dan MacIsaac.edu/danowner/actionrsch.html . New York: Basic Boo http://physicsed.edu/~danmac) References: Gabel. San Francisco. (Eds. 1996 (http://www. D. A teacher's guide to classroom research. NARST President's Speech. Kemmis. The action research reader.nau. Schon.
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