ManifC!1 and Latent F'unctioru

Sociological Imagin;uion

Conflict Perspccl.h'c Inlcractionut Pcrspcah'(" 111e Sociological Approach

Sociology and th~ Social Scknces Sociology alld Coll1mon Sense'

End)' T hinkcl'S: Comic, MartinC:lu,


,md Spencer
t rnil c Du rkh cim Max Weber

Karl Mal'X
Twcn tiet.h-CcIlI.UIY SocioloKY

I· ) E\cr)'d:ly Ik h:wior: FUllcliollalisl, Conl1kt , and In lf:rnctiouisl VieW!!


of Sporl5
1-2 E\'cl")xI:l} Ikhavior. A Feminist View or Public ))Iaces

PERSPECTIVES f unclionaliu I'crs~ti\'c


To attempt to 'Understand human behaviol' is ... the most exciting intellectual challenge in the "World.
Milto/! M . CcrtiOl'l

TIl t &vpt' of S(Jcioiqo': J988

• How does the sociological imagination, as a unique fealllre of sociology, distinguish sociolo!,Y from the other social sciences? ' • Why is sociolob'Y more tJlan a collec tion o f commonsensc obserwltions? • Why do sociologists feg:.lrd suicide as a social as "'cll as an individual act? • How did tm ile Dllrkhcim, Ma.x \Vcber. and K;1l'1 ~I arx conU'ibu te to the developme nt of sociological thought? • How can the sociological perspecLives of funct ionalism, con fl ict lheol1', and inlc ractionism be used to be ncr understand the world o f SPCIl'tS? • What career options <'1I'e avai lable 10 sociologists?

1992, lJOciO\OgiSl David spe nt a cold and wet Saturday afternooll transporting donated food items fl'Olll the parking 101 of a local supermarket in Macomb, Illinois, 10 the baseme nt food pantry of his local church. M ille r "'as impressed by lhc suI). stamia] amount of food t11<1t had bee n donated , and soon leanH. d that the church's pantry was an imp0l1anl source of food for some of his nCighbors, This church regularly disldbules canned and boxed food products to a ny needy person in the comm unit)" Mille r \\'as cu rious as 10 what the source o f these food products was and how widespread such pantri es were,



Since that day, Miller and Richard Sch acfer (Lhis textbook's senior author) have joined forccs to study the food bank system of tJ1C United States, which distributes food to hungl) ' individuals and families, As part of tJ lCir research, they have examined government documents and othe r reference mat e rials in libraries; the), have conducted pho ne illtl.'lyiews with food bank directors in Illinois, Iowa, Oregon, and Califo rnia : and they have observed the distribution of foo d at various churches a nd Salva!jon Alm y facilities. r." liller and Schacfer lea m cd that more than one oul o f four children in the Un iled Sla teS arc hungry. Onc-third of the nation 's ho meless people report eating one meal pcr day or less, With these disturbing realities in mind, charities are rediSllii; tiling food 1.0 panllies and shelters tJlat jusl a decade ago was desti ned for land fill s, In fa ct. the fourth-largest charity in the United States, Second Harvest, is a food distribution orb'<!niza!jon with an a nn ual revenue of more lhan halfa bi llion do llars, ] n 199 I, S(. Cond Harvest disuibuted 500 million " po unds of food from hundreds of individual and corporate donOI'S to more than 43,000 food pamdes, soup k.itche ns, and social service agenck'S. In writing about hungel- in the United Stales, a newspaper reponer might look for exposes or Wlus ual human inte rest stories. However, as sociologists, Mil1er :md Schacfcr ( 1993) focus on broad social mcan ings evident in the naLion 's food disll;' bution system . For exa mp le, they note tJ1C \".1.111(' judgments made in determining which food items arc "proper" 10 dist.ribute to hunb'T}' people, AlCo.

I'MU o ,w·: • TNt: SOClOLOCfOtI. 1'fo::l(Sl'f:crlVi-.

, ,., U,ul'(/ S/JII,.l IIt1.1 IIn n.1'nJltJt food

6ttM Ift/,,. ",1I"h dUlnbutn ~/ to
Itu"t:? 1w,1 /t',tluliJ., (""I/fII,,,/Ii ..

hol and lob;tcco pH.KIIIC:U , Ir~ 1I.lIIlIcd from 11\1": -food t>ipellll ~. " but il is li ll'I.III), mlllllllcd full of -junk food" ~u(h ~I!o c wd) .lI1d it ~ ((CdlU. M,HI), o l.lSCncl'x \\ould Ulll l lIIl.tll\· .Ippl.lllt! thc dL~tnbull llH of tOllll of lvvd 10 tll ..• IIl·(.'d ),. Whil~ lilll' poni\'t' o f ;and personall) II l\'ohnl III , u( h cnorts. Miller .md SC'hacftr ne\cru l clc&.~ dl .lw 0 11 Ihe in· iighL'I of St)("ioltlg)' to o lfl,: l a IIlUH' plOhlllK ,it'w of thl"Se ;lClh it it·,. nil' )' n0 1(' 111.11 l")\\ ~ dul l\,u l C) III our socicl),-"'Iurh ;1\ tilt.' It'ell'l.11 t()\'(, llI m~ltl. ilia· jor food I c l.ulc l""', .md u t h e .. l ' lrg~ etJl pUI,lIio ns-t\:l\C juillcd 11\ Lh.lnl .,hlc loud dl\lnhUliOII .1I 1.lngc· Illcnts. Pcrh.lpli .l.S .1 rc,ult . Ih~ tueu"" u l /mdt rclief progra m.~ b spc:dfiL .lIId !!lUl led . I h c h u meless arc lO be fcd . not hou~d : Ihl' u lIClIlplu) cd .tlt" to be 1P\'e1l IIleal}.. IIOIJV~ Re hel dtOllll.t.\..'>I:t1 hUIISI) inru\idu;11$ and 1.lIll1hn \\-Uhuu1 th.lllellglllg the t"xlSung social ordcl (for e!l:.ullple. b)' d CIII.tnd illg .a redistnbulIon of weallh) . Mille r .1IIl! Seh.lelcl .ttld that wilho ut these limited 'Ul('~"t" in dhllibuting food , hO:lld$ of sl...,...oill ~ pC\lp1c IIIIKln ,l:>S,1U 1t 1),1trollS o t re ~mu r;Ult.s, 1 001 g l'occ r)' IUUI I". 0 1 litc l ,llIy d i~ Ofllml"\" l ion Oi l llle ~IC pll u t \ it)' h all, lln d ;tcrnss .t from lhe White 1101.1.«;. S lIc h n il iGlll h in king i~ 01' ial of tlte Ihcol clk.ll .1IIt! Icscardl dlum of ..oci· oIogi.!lu ill Mud)i llg ;t \OCi~11 ill..m c 1I11 h :l'> hunger h« al!tO Cohn e t ~I.. I9<J!J) .

1 \\'C h .l\'1: MoTIl. 111(' 'lUCiuluW'" h,,~ .. d i.. IIIICII\'t: wa)' \$
of ex,III1I11I11K hUIII.I.II

IIIlc l ,tCUu n , Sucio/agy IS the ll)'Sll'IIMIJl "ud) ul /IOCi.11 l~ h .l\'lor .llId hUIH:tn grO Upt'" It rOCU"l'S prim:lri l)' o n lhe 1IIf11t(' It(.t · of ">0ciill rel,luo ll\IIIP, UIM.)U PC:UI)lc'll .Iujtud(·~ :u ul be· ha\;or ;and 0 11 h{m' '>OCielic!o .lIt· c,I.lbl i.. hctl :md ch.mgc, A... ;l field of study. wciolu[{), h .L~ .111 ex· lrc mel), bro.ld """pe. ' I hcn:fOl'l'. Utili tcxtbuok de.ds with l;ul1ilic ... lfomK~ . hll~ill l'\.S fit ms, poIiUl••lIIMnies, schools, rcligiulI'. :lI1d 1 I)or 1I11iom It is lOlllel'lICd " \"'ith Imc. I)4J\'~n), conform ity. di:KfllIllII.UlUII. IllIt,,-S", ahClldU ulI . O\"c'-I>OI)ul.auoll ••llId COllll'lllllli t) . In lhc Lnitcd ::tt.lld, nC\\~I};lpCJ'~,lcI ,i~lon ••lIId radiO .are the lbu.II iOllrcC' u t infonn.llloll ,.bulll ~lI ch group:f .lIId l)I'oblcm,. 1I<,\'oc\l..'r, ,,"'Ill le the basiC funcuvlI 01 jOUlIIOllblS I~ 10 '-CllUl1 th e nCh~. 'iOCiologllll' briug ,I chlTcn:1I1 typc o llllldt""I,m ding IQ 'lIeh I""e'. : 1'hl' ... hion 0 1 l«.Kiolu b il\\'o lH.'s ,) .'iCci IIK Ihl oug:11 ti lt: o llt ~idc ;'t>IW:t I' IIIC'C:f 0 1 people's iiCljons ,uld (,rg:tn i/.atiUII\ (Bcrgt'r. IUG3:.3 1-37) . Olll' 1II .~tJI ~u. 1 1 01 ' ociuluh,) i~ 10 Id~lIlify lIlI' d e , l>'ing. rculI rinK Ilattcln.., of .1Ilt! in flu ences on soci:,1 tx.'h .l\'iUl . cx.lmpl('. :tuciologi\'s stud) the p:\SSlonalc (Iellil c vi mO\'ie 01 rod. IIl IL 1::11111 to sec ,ic in perSOll , 10 taiL ..... ith . C\C II 11, gmb Ihe clolhi ng of

" 'm

UI.U·U)f I ' 1111· X.UUtt (JI ' !;(}tJfJl.JX,)

a ~Iar. Why do pcuple fcd thi~ need so powc:rflLlI}'? 10 " IIaL t·xtC III doe~ 1 ticipatiml illl1 e rowd 'lffhn" ),11 al1(ih' individuals to ac t IlIore bold I) U.;U'I thc), I)U ,erwi~l' might ? W il l p,' ople gain g'n .... tc l· t'Cspcct from lamih' mc:rnocrs nr fricnds ir the y h:wc ~ h:tkell
halld~ wi th ;\ Iarlonna and cxc1mngcd three sentelltt.:s n l ccHI\'crsatiou? SocinIH&')' gOl'~ hcyond idclHifri llg I><Htcrns of '-0cial bc h;wior: it "hn aue m pts t(~ provide cXI)I ,malioll'! fOl' ~ lI c h p;ttlcrll~. l lcre tilt' impact of hroad ~ocic l a l rorces bccolllclI .1 ccntrotl co n ~idC I'-;t1 ion o f ~oci o lu.!..,,·. Sociologi st" art· 1111\ CUll\cnt to look at till' illdi~'idu al rail '" pe.· r~un alit y 01 M UlliqllC reasom I'lt' w:mling to III1,:el 1'0111 Cr ui'l:, .I lllia Rouel'l.s, \J1' Dc'n7.cI \\,,,,,hingtun . R:Hher. they rc.·coglli/c lha t Illitlion~ of people wa nt 10 meel celebrities. and the.'r exami ne tl1l' ~"arNl Icdi n g~ a nd be h a\~or of (;ms within thc larger ~()c ;a l context of th e c.llltur(' of the United St ;a te~.

qllt'sl io n ably :I person:1 harddlip rft r a mall or 1 woman \,'ithollt a job. I-Iow('wr. C. \\'right Mills poi nted 0111 ,ha t whell IIncmployment i.~ :t social proble m sh;rred b~' mifJimls of people. it is appropri.ue lo (lueslio tl lite w~ly th ,u a socie ty is SII'ueItlred. imi la rl)', ~mb <ldvocaled u ~e of the sociological inwgina tion to \ic ..... divorcc not. sitUpl)' .t.S the pcrsonal problem of a particular man :\lId W(lman, bLll rathc r as a ~ \.J· lI(utt-:11 p l'o blem , since it wa~ the Ollt (ome of so many rnaniagcs. l\n d he W:15 'nTiling Ihi .. in the 1950s, whe n thc divorce ..He was hilt <I frac tion or what it. i~ 10dOl)· ( I. l--Ioro\\'il1, 19H-3:87- IOH) . Sllciological im agina tio n C:1Il bring ncw \1I1d el~

...... M

The Sociolomcal Imamnation h! ..................... 9. .................................................. ..

In attem pting to Iltl(!e rst:Ul(1 ~oda l Ix havior. ~oci­ olugisb I'd)' 0 11 all untt ~Hal type of crC::ll iv(' rhinl-.· ing. C. Wrig ht !\'Iills ( 1959) d escribed ~\l c h rhinkiIll; :L~ lhe $oc;olog;cal i magillu lio1l- an :'lwa rcn('s.~ of Ihe rela tiu nship betwee n an in(\i\·jdmtl :Itlrl the wider ~ocicty . Th i~ aw.,rcm: s.~ allows people (n o \ ~;m pl )' ~ocio l ogi st~) tu comprdlcncl Ihe l in k ~ be... t'n'cen lh d ,' imtne d ia lc , pc r~om,l sud;,1 selti ng" ilml the rCtltOle, itl1p<:r~omll ~oci ,,1 world . It:lt ~lltTOllllds the m ,md he lps to sha pe lhem. t\ key ('i<' IU('nt in the .iodological i ll1 a~';lIatioll is tht' ;,hili,y to \·; cw O I1 (" ~ 0\"11 ~ociety as.Ht ulIl'>id el' wou ld . t~uh('1' th an fro m th e limited perspective o r 'K'~m1:lll·xpt·Tic n ccs and cultlll';l l biases. Thus. in~ t,ea d uf ~ intp l ) "cupling Ihe rac t Ih :1I 1110\·i<: Sta fS :md rock sta r~ arc the ~rop1t}'" of 0111' "O('ict)', 'n'C cott ld :L~ k. ill a 1I1ore critical SCIl"C, wll)' Ihis i~ the ca~c , Cotu:eh~ ,bly, :m ollt.~ id er IIn lam iliar \"ilh Ihe C niled St.,tCs IIlig-ht wUllder wh y we arc not ,L~ int ~rCSled in meeti tl):: Olt LS1:ulding scicntists, cleltlCt,1:11)' school lC;lc1I(' I·S. or MchitcCl~ . As \\IllS ll'UC of the study o f hut Igel' alld food d isu;lmtion by :\'fill er :wc! Schac::fcI , Ihe sociological imagil1:1tion ;llImvs liS to go 1 )C}ond pel'l:!onal expeI'icnccs :md ob'''cl'\,lI jC)ll~ 10 unclefSl;t1LC1 broadCI' public is.illell. Unc:mployllwtlt. rill' e X<lIll I)1e, is Itn-

sla llding lo daily liff.' arollnd u.... Snciologist. ,,·t ul'1':lY Mel bin ( 1978. lfl87) h ~L'i like n cd Ihe social lire in c ir ic~ of lhe United SIa tcs during latc nighuimc hou r" 10 5O(: ial li fe o n frontiers or the old h·CSI.. In his view. there arc tll-any simi laritiCl! in the social ami heha\-·io ml p;t t l(.' rn~ of people in ci tie8 at nig ht and 0 11 the frontier, atllong th(!tlll hc following: (I) th e populat io n Il'nds to be .. parse -and hOIll()ge· t1C(I "~ , (2) thert' ;,,;'t welcome solit ude wi th fewcr ~nc i a l cn n ~mlil1t$. (3) Ihe l't' i ~ m o re I:,wl e"" n c~'! and vio h.· lIc('. an d (4) i11le l't'~1 groups em crgc wh ich have eoncern.~ ~ pc ci l ic to tilt' nig ht 01' th e fromicr. OtIC or Mclnin ', mo~1 ' Itrprising :L~se r tion~ is that both in tJ1(.' ci l) at nighl aurl on lhe fro THi e r. there is m(JJ'I' hclpflllnc ~~ a mi friendl;ne.s.~ lhan in nlher t ilJle~ ami place:.. l ie :tttelllpted 10 Sub$l.-ulIi:u e thiot , iel-l' by co n ducti n g foUl' tcSb of Boslon reside nts' h el p ful n ess rmd fricnd lint's,o, at \';.Irioull lime$ duI" in s' lhe:: 2'J..hOllr c)c1c. "-'lel bi ,. round th.1I Ix:twecl1 midn ight a n d 7 A . M .-a~ compared wilh other limC$ dll1i ng the d:t>"-I, cople \,'ere mOl'e likely 10 gh'c di· rcction .. , 10 cotlselll to:ln interview. and to Ix: soci ablt' Ni th a stnlnger.l\ pparcllrJy, when ,,"<:\I'C thal Ihe}' a r(' 0111 in a da ngerous Cll\iron mcm (lhe night or the frontier) , people idclllil}' ....~th the vulnera· hili t)' of othel':'! and hecome mo rc outgoing. B)' dt'awing Oil lhe sociological irnagimlliol1 , :\'Ic lhin ', inl!ig uing stud), helps 11 ~ to view Ilighuimc ~oda l ill.:ti"il)' ;l.\ diffc l'e nt frortl-',lIld 1101 ncceMari l)' mort w Ihre:tteni ng lhau-;\Clh-ity duri ng "1I0!1l1:11 ho urs. Sociologht:l put their imagi natio n lO work in a variet)' of ltrClL1. Ta blc I- I j>1 nt.s a pMlia l liSl01 ·esc th ~ spccia li1;ttions with in eontelll l)Or,lry socio logy. TIlmllgh Oll l thi~ tcxtbook. the 5OC.iologic:11 im:lgj..

J'II1I7 O.VI - '1711 ,'V CroJ.OGIC."1. J,,;tt""'."CII\'1;

Italion ....·ill be: mt.·c1 1 ~xalnil1e the United SI:lleS 0

r\UI t I ·)

(1lfld other !lodelie:t) from the \ricv.'poim of respt'Ctful but queslioning out.sidcnI.


""w.. ......... c!ookw

In this chaptl·r. thc nature of sociology a!J a science and its relaliol1!1hip 10 other "f)Ci,,1 science'! will be rxplon:d. TIle com ribUlions of three pioneering Ihinkers-f:milc Durkheim, ~1:tx Weher, :m rl ~Irl MJrx-tn Ihe d evclllpllll'nt of sociology will be ,="al· ualcd . A IIlImbe .. of impOrlllTlt t,hcon= licnl l}e ..... 'lCco li\'tS lI.5Cd by sOciologisL" will be diSCllll~ed . Fi n ally, proKtic:.II :lpplicalio n~ of the dilcipline 0 1 MJCiOlog), rot hunmn t)t.'h.lvior and org<lIIilrllioml ....ill be de......

MMef,oodoIooOol",y ond ,~ch ted-.dogy ...

SoaoIogy' hi"", ond o+-y
$odaj po"hoIog,


I Mon phenomena

and •.odal 11IUCNrtI Complell Ofg<Jnlzotion Soclol chonee am:! .conomlc dtMIlopment Political aoclology alKl lnlerocllonl Soclol ..rorlllcotton and mobI~ty Sociology of OCCupotlonl and profeuions RLlto! wcloAagy arod ogriallMe Urban toCk»Io;y Sociology oIlong~ and .,. Ofb Sodo'ogy of edLlCOtlon SocIology cl religion


Sociolol!V and th .• _._" ___ 'MM'_"_MM' _ _ _ _._._ 5I'. ("_•• __ ._ e Social Sciences
In a gene .... ~lIk. wciology can be COlllllde ..t:d ;1 oIl ,0 I('icnce. TIle term sc;ellcf! I'cfel'll 1 llit' body of kno.....ledge Obl;lilled by meth od.. b;l.\Cd lIpOIl 1I}'iItcmatic ol)Sc! .lliOIl . Like othel' lIcil'lIt ific disciI)lines, 5()Ciology cngagc!I in organi/.cd. ~y, c clmu.ic Jludy of phcnomcn:, (in lhis C\~e. human bch:w· illr) in ordc r 10 cn lmllce lllldcrSI;}ndillg. All .scienIL ~'helhl'r .md~ing mushroom') 0" Illun:lerel"i. .mcmpt 10 collec t preci~ infonn:uion tlll'OlIgh rm:thcxb of~ tlldy which are a.. ol~eC l i\'~ ~h pOIl.~iblc . They rdy on Glrdul recordi ng of OlbC'f\"IIIOII~ :md

.LCt'\lmul.ltiOTl of d:lt.I..

or course.

theI'C i§


b'TCa l dilfcfcnc(' Ilct .....ecn

~olog). ami ,)h}'~ic!l. bet..... cen p~)·cl lf) l ogy and ~1!OnOIl I)·. for lh is reasel!. tJlC scien ces ;!I'C COOl-

ml)n~' divided into natural alld social 'iCicnce'Jo. N,fll,al .rnmlce i, the stud)' ofthc I)h)""kal fc;u\lrcs MILIA: and the "''a)'5 in which they interact and (hange. Mlfonomy, biology. c herni,try. geology. :.tnd ph)'lics arc all natllJ"31 sciencC!l. Socia l scie,.ce Itr Ihe" study o f various MpeCIlI ofhum3n !loriet) . The IOC'WsOcnct'l inc lllde MXiolog)', anlhrol>O\ogy. crOo

SoaoIogy of low Poia. p8ncMogy, and cOl'reclionol problemt Sociology of Klenu o.mogrophy and humon beMm'or The family and IOClolizalion Soodogy of M)tvol benovior SodoIogy of n.o~h and medici~ Sod""", of knowtodge CornlTll.ll'lity and '-Sionol .. <Iow;.!.Iop_,,, ....... PoliCy panning and fotM:alling RocIicol aoclology Sl\ldies In po"""f Studie. In violence Femlnl.. ond gender . ludie. M a,III.1 aocl%gy Sociological pl'octica [clinical and applledl SocIology of !)ijlint>n 0fId enll'eptenaurl.m


Ib rI}Vrud
"" t'Jftllrl'


Om exmpt fro .. IIv ktbV

of rMllmlJ oj'Sociologu:al At" U7acUoarl,rld.

noft1ta, hi'!tOl')'. I),)'chology. and pnliticot' !i('it·lIct:. 11u~:!tC academic discipline!! havc a ,'omUIOIl fonlll on the :lod:!l bchavior of peoplc. YCI l'ach l ul.~ ~ p.trcicul:,r Ol'icllImion in slIId)rin tl M I h beh;tvior. ,\J1dIl'OI)()\ogisu w,imlly study C U1tU I'C~ o f the !'.ISt and prdndll~lria l socieuc~ 111al rem:lin ill cxi~lence tuday.:I.' .....ell ;IS the o rigins of men and women ; th is knOlrtit'dg<" h used to examine contempor.11)' sodtIltS, including evcn indu.\lrial &odr'II~ . t:',cQno-

loool"lO-IM di!f'lplll~ of wrioIotJ bf d,vUUJ illla /1 diwu~ I'III'ri)' (If mbfidds.


GM MmatVl'f d61(J~ of IIl1d booIu an topio of

(:1I-tJ' ll:If I ' nlEN,.,ruNF.OI-"SOCKJI.J)C.'

In 1"'/1 ,,XlIIII,,wtU}II

luOollJgub fool.! {Jf/ (h, MKwl nm.wll th/lf III'I"{II/I "~III/1. mm,) flflfliri/Klnls,

of p,OwJHlIl/f,

tIIi~IS ~"pl ll rc Ihe: 'lol}'!! in which Iwopk produce and eKclllITlge Kond~ ,lIld scn ic<-'\, .llong wi lh Illonc}' and OI lwr I't:MlUrC'l.'lI, I lislori.IIlS,u'f' cOII('l'mecl \\'lth Ihe l)t'oplc$ .1IIt1 c\ellt.~ or till' ,,.,,1 ,I lid Ihci l' :.iglIilic,mcc for Ill> toc:l.I)', Political '\('1('lIl i\111 \llId)' m· ter!1:llIolI:tl 1'c1.llj(Jlli, lhe \\or)..ill).,'S ul 811\el1 l1 llel1l , and ,ile cXCICi!l('orpO\\el' .U1d .tUlhotil~ , Ps)chulogist.s imcMigalc j>C1'\oII:tli t\ ,lIld Llldi\·idll.11 bch'l\~ ior. III Con ll"M1 10 Olh el' \()('1.11 lI(. lellCrot, scxiolUJ.,,)'

d en l Ull ':-,lIIl bl i ilK II,al the .Ic·ti\'il), fill'i .111 IllOlionaJ IICNt. A~ .1 I ~\LLII. Ihe)' ca n llOI give Lip g<lmbling wit h oul Ih'ling I1CI,\'01 ;tnd IIp~1 ny C()T1I1~ L~I. in Ihcir cx:ul1in;uion 01 g;tlublillg. s(Kiologi\llI IOCIIS 011 Ihe MlC ial nelwork., Ihal de-

"cl0I' .1I11ong III.IIIY panicill<lllu. Whcther they be
beUOI.... "II>Ort.>J

Ix-HOrs. or poker plil)'t:n.. uf
cOltvi,~al i l)'

gounhlcOi l.'SI;thli!>h fricnds hip Kruul)S :lIId work
hard to lIe.llc
redi nK~



tltc inllucllc<" Ihal 5OCic l)' has 00 pc~ ple ' ~ atti tudcs ,md heh;tvior ;lI1d thl' W;I>~ in which Pt.OI)\c ~h:tpc \OCit'I)". 11 11111:111<1 life .social ani uMls; ' thererore, \()CiologisL" !tC"icll tifiol ll) l' X,IIIUIIC our fo()o I.litl rdatiomhips with people .

10 better illUlIlr<ilc lh e cli.~li,,< tj\·l' pcrspcc li\·l.·.. or lhe .social M:icl1ccII. 1t'1 us ex.llllill(' \(KiologiCll I :mcl 1)$)'chologi~1 <l l)pro.lchcs 10 lhe i~ue u t g;unhling. r he glowing Ic~li/a l iun ufg.llubling in Ihe Ulllled Sl.,teS h:L'i, in dfl'U. IlIt.I'ca...cd tlte 1II111l1 ur pal" )C1 tid ll:U) I ~ .lIld l.oll llibutcd tu a liSt: ill Ihe nlll n bcr 0 1 ·pruhlc III g:uTlh\t'rs"- t h :1l i... PCI)p\(' \~' h o con· ~i~te:1\11)' l o~(' Inu re l!Ionc)' I h~1IL IILl')' L i lt afTt' ld I() lose. Camhlc l"lI' I)ro!"(·"'..cd goa l i, l'('OIlOtn ic g... in ; ),e t , bec.ILL~ thl.' \.L~IIII.tioril)'t.'ml u p \ ()~iIlK 111Imc)'. lhci l' I)CI~PC t.i\"l· i.. t'ollltnoniy lit.·wed :L\ MirraliCln:I\· 01' c..'\"CU "p;lIhologiGll.· Vie\H'c1 frum liL(' 1X'I"\Jx"C, lil'C 01 1>:I)'hoIO)..') . 1(.IIIlIJliltg rt.I,rl·M'nl'i'1Il eSdIX' · ilHo a r.lIlt.I'>} hor\d wILl.'l 'Kl eal rVIUlIlC can be .11· lained ~si l , . f,cnlll;llh. PCOI,II.· 1)C( uTI)e '\0 dCJX:II'

c;\:jual ;lcqllaiul,lI lct.'!l "'holll they IIIttl lh rough ){"".lIubling, CUI1!!l.''lut:llll). rorlluch pe:ople.lfolmbling i,:a forll1 of rCCH~'Hion and ilia) (\CII be lheir pri11131'\' social.lclhil). nlis sociological pel'lllleCli\'e on g:tll1bling c::~ts" \hadow on l'cctllTing dfor ..'! lO disCO\lr;lge 1}'lniculM indl\'iduab frolll g;lInbling and 10 di~our;tge the pr.lctice in general, Ch· ng up i go'l1lbling Ill:!)'. in f.:le!. meall fo rguing all social in· ICntClioll tlla l :a person ha.' previOlll!lly lound la be
ml·,mingful. A ltern.llj\,c1). p.u·t.lcip;tlio n in C:tm1J1C1"~ AII0 1I),1II0111l-<;1 sdf·hdp g ruup fi)1' "problem gamblers· 11lodclccl on }\Icohvlics }\n on),1Il0llS-pro\ ides fI IICW fO I'lLtll 10 wh ich ex·ga m blers call llll 11 ror imemCliOIl . tllldcl'St.'Hl<lillg. and encour· ag~mcllt , T h e i n di\~dual ClIn find social supporl lO replace Lhc rriendship groups dC\'elol)ed in his or hcr belt ing d:I)1I ( RoSt.'(:rance. 1986. 1987). Sodologisl Ronald 1 ),I\..,lko Im.s inill'lled many ..ludil'S of g'",unbling and I "l.~ roundl.'({ Ih e ..tnter rur ~tlllblillK Sludit."'I;1I the L:nhc~ll)' ufWi!IConsin·


Q.'" • nit: !ilJCJQI.CKJ(~U f'f::JCiJ'fjf'fl\"f

M'lck' In tC:Khing undcrgrncl\lall'



1hr !\lIoology of Gambling,"

P'I\~l lko approarhcs

pmbhnll' .... ;'t booming indu~lI") (which a(("QIIllIcd for S'l"J hlllion in legal """'gc" in lh e Unilt'd ~""(''ll in tm), ll~ a public poliC} isslIe, :md ."'''' an inccrpmun.tl.md lamil) problem . Pot..".I!;.. and his col· ~r":\ 11.1\'(' cx.:l.mined slIdl is\lLC\ Ihe rok ul pmbling in the ....'orkplacc:. gmnbting ;" :1 Id ~ul c timr oMll\ it) for older people. and (ompulsh (: gam· ~ within Nati\'e Amcri(:m lribc!i th~1 1 01>(: 1~lIc "'lMl1Oo(l l mH!ry. I 993).


~Iogy and C~~.:.~?.!'_~~~~ ,,_._,.._._,._.._..

AI"", h.il(' -.etn. sociololr' .md lhe olher '-OCi:1.1 M'i· locus on the lIU1dy of ccrt:tin :"~pcct\ or 1111~ brll.\\ior. Yet human bch:wjur i.o. lIol1u:thillg IItb "Iuth \0,(,,,11 h:l\'C experience ami abOut which 1ft bm' .1I1e-.In .. bit orl:no..... lcdgc. :\1:111) or U~. (\e ll Wh:JUI l»tl,n, dcgrce.\ in the ~iat sell'nec'l, might .... WAAt~lioll\ abouI how socj~l\ co uld C;ISC the "u1II4~ f.'I«d b)' dual-carcer rouplc\ \\'ith ~ollng
dldttll. \11 of U~ lIIigll1 well h;w(" Ih('ori('b about

arc more signiliclIIl . ni~"~ l cl"'i do nOl gencrnll ' pro.. duce I};mic, In Ihc ;Iftem\ath of mum,:,1 di"'"~lers. grt.."3lcr ~ial OIlr-UliJ;llion and Mnlcturc cmerge 10 deal \l ith n ('omnlllll it)' 1I p"oblems, Like othcr' "<Killl SCil·!ltisls. sociologisu do n OI :IC' (;C!}t ~o l1l cth illg :I~ a ract bec;Ulse "C\'cl,onl' ).;nOh'l! i t.· Instead. e<lch piece of information n ltt."1 be l""1lt,,'(I,1IId I'ccordcd, thcn anal)'"/ed in IcI:uiollShip 10 other dal;l, Sociology relics o n $Cicn lilic lIh/die:J in ordcr to d escrilJc ;me! undcr.mmd a social e!lvi· rontn(·nt. ,\1 lin lcli. Ihe lindings of ~ioloKis t :l may S("t.1lI lik(· cOlumOn sense bcc2usc the), de.. 1 \\lith r..cels of C\(:I)'(L'l)' life. Ycl it is impoI"I'lIu to MIC\S that such finding:! h:wc bt.-cll lhJro by research ers. Common sell\(: now Iells us that tJu: canh is round. nUL t.his p;u tieular commonscnsc notion il ba~'d 011 ('Cl1turic,~ of' scientific \I'o l'k upholding the bre"k· lhrough made b)' PYlhagor.l.s and Aristotle.

mll\l(; t .. r~ and rod. Ulusi.:- ~1.I1"ol l'Irt· th(' sui> jl'tuul ....lll\uch attention and :ulul.niOll . Our Ih(.. \URgC\CioIU cOllie frol11 Ollr t'''l)t'(ienccs •

IQ OU I 1I.11Iy liles, ....'c rcl)' 0 11 COII)I1Ion '1cmJC 10 '" u\ through tn:"lny unfamili:u' ,i l lL , lIioll~ . 1101\' ,,".lh,,1 .. no .....ledgc is nOt alwl\):I accur.lIc. ht' C;lIl'''C 11 rnt.. (In commonly held Ix"lit·r:! l~lthcl Ih.ln .Io>~ _lit .1II.11)"i" of rllCIS. h W;IS' OIlI;C r Oll1it\l'red -maum'll 'C.'''~ .. 10 a«epl Ihat rhe cal lh , ••,,~ 0:11• ~ IIRIIII) questioned by 1 ')1h:'1(0I':h ;lIId A,;'1' . . . hK1Mlrt' CQllllllonscnsc nf)lions .. re 1101 just Ip't" Ihc' di.s.. "ul\ iXISC; Ihey rcmaill hilll 1, ... IO d.lr. la thr ll1ll((1 tal(:S. common 5C1l$(' h'lI ... \1:1 111:"11 . n .. 1'.... 1011 minOlil), t:;ruul) 1ll01'C!( into a I)r(·vi· ..at JU-\\lllll' ncighborhood. j)l'o]Jcny \~ I III CII c1",,cInt Cmtlnt()1I sense le lls IlS that pco,.lc pan ic *n1.1(C'{\ .....hlt nalUmJ dimft: I'lI, $\ Ich a ... tloucL" :l\1d anhqwlh, ....it.ll the I'e8Ull th ,lt aU ...ocilll ~IIK.Ulil..l· ... dr'Ullqll'atOl. I.. o .....c\·cr. these p;tnkubr com· ~nl((" 11Qllon)o-like the notion chat tlte c:ulh is ~ ItttltUr, neither of lhcm j ... ~uflPQnccl bl' 8duIoKK.d l'l~ICh . R..IC(:' ha~ been round 11) h:wc 1IIr R"bllun)h,p 10 propeny \'"hll'S: ","ch r.l.((f)I"$ '" ~ ch.IIIJ;I'\, ()\'trcrO\\din((. am.! age 01 hou.,i ng


... .-,d
IDd fmm


ch('rish,,-d M)urcc of wio,clolll: comTTlon

WIll d o Ik'Oplt' commi t ~uicidc : Om' lI".1diIIUlI.,1 pt'uple mherll Illl d~ "irc to l.,lllhelll't·1\ c .... Anol her ne,,· 1'1 I ha! $lIIl\I)OLS d l'l\c p(.'o plc to I:Il.:e Iheir own Itn.... 111Cl1C cxplan ;\li o n~ Ill:t) 110t ,",-'Cm c:llx-ciil.llr convincing In conICllllx)!':,,)' rCM!':u'chl' I~ , bUI Ihc), rcpl'CSCl11 I)did.. I"idcly hdcl ,b rClclllly .L WOO \ Sociologi:ll'l :11'e nOl p:u·licul:trl), illtcrClIlCci ill \vh )' :1Tl)' o n c individ ual commit:! s uicide; the)' al'e I1IOI'C cOl1cemed h itlt \I Ill' /II'Q/II, I1I I!!"'I""/Iakl' Ihdr own Ih·~. nU!! lead .. !lodologisl!I 10 exam ine thc !lOOal fo rcc ... lit:'t influcnce people in dl"Ciding " 'hclller or 1101 10 ;'Iu'mpl ~uicide. In ordcl' 10 undcn.lkl' slIch rC~'arcl l , liOCio logtsls de\'clop llu.' Orio th:llOr· fer a gcncl'al cxplana tion orsome I)'J>C of beh:1\ior. TI\4,.'orics c m be rcg;lrdc.-o a~ :.lIempl.'( 10 explain C\'CIIU, rurcc"', lIIalc lia l.~, idca~. or bch avior in a com p rd l c ll.~ivc tn:UUlCI'. \·Vithin sociology, a In tQ')' is ascI Of'iJWII'IIlCllb Ihat .Ioccks 10 explain pl'(lhlclII.~. :t'lion~. or hch:wiol. An cffeclive lhcory nmy 1 1a\'c bolh cxpl;lIl:-l lory :"Ind I" 'cdiclh'c powcr , "I 1t:11 i:l, il C UI hell} I~ 10 dc\clop a broad tmd intcgmlc..-d ,-ic\\' of thc rel:llionship.. amo ng seemingly icolatc..'C.1 .,hl'" nomella :L' \l'dl ;-1\ 1 underSland how Ollc 1)1)4,.' or 0 chan gc in :ut cm'1ronlncnt leads to olhc ..... All c<-scllti:li t;t.~k in bujlding a sociological the(1)' i~ le) exruninc the r~la t iomjh i p be!\\·(!t'1I hill or
l O UIIIIO lIll, ·IN• •1II ~\\'('r 1;0; Iha.

t:J/V'IJ;R I • m £ .,\,I/Ufi: (]£:t()(:JUl(X01

d:U:I, ~ thcred through resca rc h , IImt nmy foCCIII comple te l), unrchued. For exa lllp le, lIUPP0ll(! that YO" arc g1\'cn data abolll Ihe number of rt'portcd suicidC1ll in \'ltriOH~ Europc:m n;lIiol1ll in 1869. YO II are lold Ihal lhC:Tt' I"crc 5'4" rcported . IlIiddcs in l Fr.mct' in Ih:1l ),e,lI, 1588 in £.lIgl'lIId, and onl)' '162 in Denmark. If)'Ou ratl'icU.f1 )'oUl'lfClfIO IhO<1C dOlt.'!, " )'ou l11iglll aHcmpt to dc\'clop a Iheory about why lhere .....ere .so man)' suicides in France and 50 few i.. Denmark. I loweH!1'. in I'cscarchi ng thill \'cry problem , [milc Durkhcim (195 1, original e ditio n 1897) looked into suicide dOl i" in much greatcr deI;:Iil [lnd dC\'elol>cd a highl), original theory abo ul Ihe relationship bel.... ecn suic ide a n d ,\OCiaJ l".u: IOI'$. Durkheim was primaril)' o llccrllcd 1101 with Ihe pel'rona l ili~ of indi\idual suicitlc victim!;, but r.uher ,>rilh suicide ml~ a lld how the)' varied frOIll coumry to COll llt ry, ~ :t resllll. when he looked Oi l the IIIl1ubc!r of reponed suicide!! in F'r:Ul CC En', ~Ia lld , alltl Lle ll lll:II'k in 18ti9, Il l' .11"0 t')(.UlllI1Cd t h(' l)Upul,llioll!l of Ilw ~( ' n:t1it)II" to tI(·lcI'IlIim.' th eir r";\lC8 o f sllicld~ , In cioing SII, Iw 1 (lUlld Ih;l\. Whl' l C:LS Eu gland lI:ul onl)' 67 rCfX)rt~d .~lIi dd~, pt'r mill ion inhahit:uus. Fr.UlCl' hOld \~:; )1('r lIlilliulI :lI ld Ut.'IIIlla rk had '1.77 PCI' million . Thll!l . in 1~"1II" u l na· lIonal com ();lri'oOII", Ih~ qm.1Iliol1 thclI !xc<llIle: -\'\11) did Ot'nlll.lrk (I~lth r-r Ih:1I1 Jo' I~ulcd h;l\e ;1 cornp.uol1l\·c.'I\ high r.lle o f repurtl.'d ~uu: id~ ..?Ourl.hellll went lIIuch d~('pcr 11110 Ill!! m\'eslig.l· lion of :uucicle rales. ,lIId Ihe rcsllIr \,"U hi\ 101 0(1 iliaI'''' h a rk ,\IIlnd" publi~hed Ol I ~J7. Durkhdrn rcfll3Cd tu :Iutumali<'ally accepl unprO\clll')( I)I ,lIlalluns r~g;lIding lllUcidc. including I h ~ bchcl~ Ih.11 'lIdl deMit! Wl're c.IU!I<'d I>) cosnuc fcm:~s 1.11' tw inhcriIt~ d Icndcncil"f I n~It' ad, hc 10(11""'(\ 1.111 MICh pro\» lem .. a~ Ihl' coht'~i\,(! l1c\" Ilr 1.lcl. Hf COhCS I \ellC~ of religious :111(1 ~cu l)Ouinllal gruui'lI Durkhc lln·.. resc:.u'CIl !illggc~led tlt.ll !lUlI.:ide, . whil ~ :a lIoli l.II')' aCI. i5 rcl:lled to STUUp hfe . I'rotl'''' 1:1Il\.~ l\:Id much h igher ,uicide r;UC<i Ihall (,:~alholics did; the uurnatTied h rld much higher I,IIC\ Ih:m llIanicd peOI)I(' did: ~ol"it:11'I w~rl' more m"'ly 10 u.ke Ihell 1i\CS IIulI1 civili:lf1S \\'(·re. III :tdflitiu u. it appeared Ilmt there wcr~ h igher I';I\C" 0 1 "1Iic-iflc ill limc.. of p('a('(' t hOln in lim~ or ......Ir lIlId i't'\'o lulion . and in l,ill1l'!! of f'cnnomir inMtabilit)' tllld rt.'c.e.!lSion !':tlher Ilum III lirnl'~ of prosperit),. Llurkheim COilc1uded lh,lI the !l lIidd~ !':tICS or:l !W.K.iety reflcclcd lhe eXIt'n! to which Ix'Opl~ M.· I ~ 01 \\'t'f~ 1101 mlegl.ued inlo tht- Kl'OuP li fe uf lIll' :IO('ICI\ ,

Emi le Durkhcilll . like 111.111) o ther sud,11 scicnthts. dc\clop'd .1 Iheury to ('XI)I.lin huw individual bdla\~OI can bf: tl ucll'l'Slo(KI withm :1 MKi.II COlllexl. "Ie poinlt:d OUl Ilw inUllcncC' uf grollps :llId 5Ocicl;11 fo rct'lC o n wh:tl h,ld .lh\,I)'lI l)Cell \il·.... ed a., a high I)' j>e.'lKmal ,tet. Cleat I\'. Ourl.hellll offered a more frlnlttjir t'''I>I<IIMI1011 101 Ihe C.UL..eS or lIuicidc Ilmn thoU of :l lUl \I)Ol.~ ur in lwrned tClldenri,'s. I ll, Iheory h a.. 1 )ledi{liw 1)O,,·cl . ~IIlC(, 11 "IIS1,'l"~l" that suicid e IOlICiI will risc or r.11I ill t.OIlJUllcuun wilh ccrmill llocial and ccunomic Ch,lIIgl·\. h is imporGUlI 10 tl mll'rsr,md 11 ,I Ihl'OI'}'-C\ocn 1.11 lhe lx... t of Iheuties-Is nOI ,I Hnal ~t,IIC lll c nl ,IboUl human belllwiol I)UI·l.hel1l1 ·~ Ihl'OI)' of suic.ide IS no exc<'plion ; socllllogiSl1 co nljnu~ lu l'",am m t' facfOrs ,.,.hich conuibulc 10 a M.K.icI),·" '- of lluicide. .HC!' For exam ple, pc.'Uplc "cros~ the: Unill'd St.llt'S \~'e re s hockt"d b) th e lI.\1ioll,ll n(.'''·'' rel)()n~ 111 19t:\7 COliccming fOU l' Nl'W Jero.c) lecn;lgcnl ""hu IlIgl:thcr drovc im o.i I-;.II,II-;C . cl o~d lh e dUQI • •llIcI Ic t carboil 111(1111 1)\lllt' I tl111 C '~ I:Ikt· Ih c'it Iht"~. IheICh)' eng"gi llJ.t ill a ( o lll·ccivt.· lICI 1.11' ..... i( ide. \'Vil hi" little morc 111.111 11 heck, 10 11101t" tt'c lloIKcl'S ill four d ifler~1II ~ ' ,lIt'S killt'd thl'lmch'C,'" III ~.u~IR~~ u!ling car· bon m o n mdd t'. I hc.q : ,uil.ltlcs !,\en' "h.lle IIMU .. foincidence; "IX"inl ~ cal rcsc;lr(h frorn 1 97~ ... Ihrough the prcsclII dOClltnclIl.. tluH the incidence 01 \uicicll' incrc.·:lst·" rollowin)it nationally te!t.,,;\Cd ~Im'ic:\ aWllt s lIlddc ,lIld Ihat leenaKers are C5peciall) \'lIln e l~lble tu ')ilch ~coJ>yc,lI - beh:wiol·. Stud· ie! show th.1I lhe unp,u,;1 b gre.lIe ..t "flt'l Ihe pllblid/cd sui( Ide 0 1 ,HI CIII(,I\:iliner or l>olilician :lI1d is /K)lI1cwh.lt I ~!t~ •• 't('r IIU' suicide ul .111 .mist. crilllimd , ur mClUbc~ I' 1)1 the economic dlle (l.sI~lcI an d SI.lck. 19K7; 1)lulli,)\ .md l...1f\t~II'W.'n . 1986; Slacl.. 1m:s7; W:a ....~nu:II1 , 1984).

Peopll' h:l\'e :ll w.I)'~ becn cunous ;IOOllt how we get Iyh al Wl: do, and h 'h o m \\c ..elect a!> our Icad· (: I'S. I'hilm o p h c llI and religious rlu thoritic8 of ancicnt amI lIIediev,,1 '-OCielies made coul111c.;.s obserYlHiun:t about hUllmn beh,l\;or '11Ic&C OllllC:!l"'.... tiom \\t'rl' lIot Il~I t'(1 01' \'clilicd !lCiellliliC",dly; ne\'Cnh~ Ic.ss. they olteu bcc'oUnC' tilt" foundation ror moral code ... & ...·cl1ll or the carl)' suel,,1 !)hilO\Ophen predicteci Ihll l ;1 .!i)'lur- m:ttic Mud)' of hum;m beh.n ior \"o uld Dill' d:ly elll~rgC' , Beginning in the ninclt.'c=mh
:(11) 11 )1: .

I'Vfl ·O\l- · Tllt: J/OCJOI.O(iJl:.Af IUWt"lI1i

n'lIcul)'. fo' umpean lhcori~lS m:,dc piullcl'ling nlll'

uibuuolls 10 !he: dc\elopmcll1 01 :, ,dcnrc o f human bd!3\ior,

Early Thinkers: Comte, M~~~~~!..~~,~~~~~r
III hiulce. che ninctccnlh cent Ill)' W:L~:1I1 IIllsclCling lUll(: for thal rmlion'~ imellccllmh . nll' hcnc h lllOOMdt)' h.'ld bcen dcpoSt.'d c;lrlicr in !he rc\'olu· UUf\ 011789, and ~:iI)()lco" had IHlbsc..·qUCI III), been tidt..ucd in his efTon 10 con(luer europe. Amirut Ih.., chaos. phi1~phcu considered how socicty "ught be illlplo\·ed. Augw,tc COIllIC ( li98- 1857). u\"(htl'd ",leh being che Inos l Innucntial of these JNIII(),ol)hen~ 01 tin- c;lrl) 1800s, bdk\·c..'(\ Ihac a I he... .. Clrrli~,tI ~icnu: uf -..xiel)' .Ine! Iit~telll;lIic ill\ e.st.;g;l· tiulI ufbeha\'iol' "ei"e nccded tu 1t111.I'OH' 'Iodel)'. ComiC C(lin(.'(\ the tenu )QI'I'oI'1{'I ' U "ppl)' to .hf' M 1l'11Ct' uf human bchadol' ,lilt! in,isted t h", sodo]· ~'(ould m;:lke a critical con I.! lbulion 10.1 IICW lUld unlMU'o'etl hum:m comlllu l lit )', \-Voting ill thl' IK()()ll, (:nfOlt' fC;U'l-o Ilml Fram.c·s llt:.bilil ) h.ul lleell PCI" UUllt'nti) imp;Ihed h ) thc ClI.(ClI'>(.~ ul thl' Flcm:h ttt'\llImion. Vel Ill' hoped th.1l thc 111uth' uf Wt.lallx.... hmur in a \)"Icmalir W:l)' \\ould c\cllIualh !t.·;ld 10 m"'t rationOlI hmll.1Il in I C I.l lllon~ In CullltC\ Iti· rr,,"I1) of K'it'IICC'. 'iOCiolOK} W:I.'I .11 lite lOI) ' I ll.' c-.tIII:d 11 the "tjlll"en~ :me! il~ prat'IIII(,m'r\ M'oC'iemisl' pnN.,.M'l,ij hcndl thl!od,' did lUll :limpl,. Io:'I\'C • Ill>k~!ls 11.11111.'; Iit.' .the) presclltc..'C1 :. r.UIIl.~ 1 .tllI· ... tM1t"U~ thOlllcllgc Iu Ihe 1Ic..' tlglinK dt ... d lllinc , \tholun \\crc: .Ible to le:'1'1I u t (:urlllc'" wor"-" Lul(t.'h through tl';UlSl.lliolh b~ the ellghsh MJCIUlo<I\C It,lflicl ~I.u IIneau ( 1802- 1876), nUl ~ 1 .1I1111C::1U "" .. , ~ palh br .11..(". ill her (I\o',on I igh! .1' .1 wdoloIlhl: 1h( onercd lIl~igh'ful (It~I",ltioll" 0 1 tht: tU'" MU' ..net KOclOlI prolCI i('c,~ or both tlCr n,1I i\'t' Urllalll .uMI thl' UllilCd State:;!, M.Lrcinc.Lu', book ,XKul, /11 I~ri(l'l (1962, origina l edition I fI~7) l'x: u nine~ re· hJ!:l,m. I)QJltic~. child n :al'illg, :met inunigrilt10n ill the \flung n:L lion, ~ I :trt itlcau Ki\'C~ ~1)cci.L] attclLtiOl I III ~1J.tUJ diSlinClions :lIld 10 llILt'h filclOl'~ ,L" Kcndcl' .rid raft. \1 ;,rUneau's wrilillK~ eml>h'L,iLl-d Ihc IlIlpact ch.11 lhl'cconomy. l;n\ . II';lcie. and 1)OI)LlI:llion could h:1\ C 011 !hC' ~al problellls of !';olllclI1l)()rarv ")Ol..'h . 'ht" ~p()kc out in I:.\or of the riglll~ or hOlocn , Ihe MILIllLipiUiOIl I'll ~l.l\l" . and rcligio u, coll'l.tIlce , In


M I.rlr,u'tlU ( 1N/)2-IH76/,
UM'I\' 1111


J IIg/u" Jllwlm,


III f/lf


,,-'nu VI/dlllt


INIIt III Itn n"/II" (mini" mu! I "'"Itd ')lain ,

~1 'LI'lincall ·t. ( I Htl6) \ il·w. illlcl l cclll.ll~ ;Hld hui:ar' should nul 'illlpl> IIftel othC ...... tlion~ of \OCiill con· d"ion~ ; Ih!';')' should aCl upon ,hl·il c..ollyictioll" in .1 m:!nller Ih.11 will h""Ctil society, In lill(, with thi~ \iCh, \I ,Ll1inl';1I1 cnnfiucl('d rC'iCafch 0 11 the n:lll1re of fCIn.lle f"lIIpld) mell' ,llld P"llllt'(l tn tht· need for Ulu<:h mOH' rl~c.lrch UIl 1i1L ~ import .1Il1 is~uc (lIOCl I..C,'" Ul'pd.l lc. 1!}9',l ), 1\lIotllCI illlpml.11l1 conlnbll lrJI' to Ihe di-.ci])lilll..' 01 ,utir,I{)K" \~,I' I lel ben SI)l' II(CI' ( 1820- I90g), Wllt;ll); rlOllllilc \,k·\\'I.Mlint 01 rcl.tlilciy IJ ru~pcrolls Victo ri.11l "_Itj.ll:lnd. SllenccI (ur llikc f\'11II1 illcau) did nllt led cOIll I)('l ll'd 10 ("on'cc! or inL I'ro\C sociel),; instead . he lllt.'l'd ) hoped h> L llldcl's l.LIle! it be tter. n ntwin~ un Charlc~ n;1n\'in'~ ~lIIdy Oil 'hI' 0,,$,"'" of \)/J'(lI'S, Slll'IIt'CI' Ilsed Ihe (,I)!leer' 01 l"\'ollllion of :Ulilll.rJ~ to expl.lin how ".lCicl.i~ eh.mKc o\'er limc. 1II\1larl~'. hc 'ld.lpl ~Il>.II'\Oo' ill ·S c.."\'ululion:u,) vic.."Wof thl;! -,ul'vi\.11 01 du,: tilll.:st" b) lIrguillg lh.lt It L~ "mu· ur.t.l " tJloit o"omc 1K.' Oplc .U'C lieh wlult" tld tcr....Ire


UIII'I,.Jf I • 1111 ,·d l( HI- (JI' '>I.IlJ(HIII,1

Spe ncer', ~Ippl'oal h 10 rucicla l c h:Ul gl' \\'a~ l'x· tre mely popIII:II'11I hIs 0\\'11 lifclillll', Unlike COIIHc, pencer \uKgClIl'd th:1I soci<:lil'~ ,Ir(' bound 10 change : therefore. onc need nOI hl' highly critical of Ilrcscnl ~Kial arr.mgemcnL' 01 wl)rk :!C'lhely fO l M>Ci;,1 thangc-, This position appealed 10 lIlall), in· nul'mi"II:K:OP\(o in Engl:lIld and Ihe Cniled Sl:"l~ who had :1 ",-",led illlercsl illlhe 'i'UlIII\ quo :lIId \",' re su~pi iou.'! (II' SOCillllhillkcnI who elHlo~d change. \Ve will cOII~idcr Spcntl'r', \;('\\'111111 ~u(il'IY and '0cilll change in mor(' tll'lail in Chaptcr ~O ,

E.mile I)urkhci lll '\ impon:lnt du:oreuc.11 "·(Ifl.. o n suicide "":I~ bUI o nc of his 111:111\1 I>io llcl'ring (01111;, bUlioll!S to sociolog). The son 01 a ... bbi, Durkhcim (1858- 1917) W;h educ;llcd in ootll F'mnl!:: and Ccr· many. He eSlablhhed an ilT1plt'~'hc a~ldenllc rep' umuon and "":1" a ppo inled :1 Olll' 01 Ih e linl profe~sOl'S of sociology in France , Al>o,'e :111 , Durkhcim will hl' r('lHe mhelcd for insi~lcnc(! that beh:niOl' COI l1not bc.' full) \Ind('r~IO()(I in inrli,icluali"I.ic tcnn\, IIml il "U~t be Ulldcr~IOQd ',ilhin .. I,II)!:(~ I -.orial ("nlll(",,1 ,,-, OIlC {'x.unplt, ot Ull~ cmph"'-''', I)lIrkhellll {I~J.l7, ungilloll ('dillon 1912) d c,clblx:d :1 tunil;:,mcm;.1 Ihcl>! IU hell) 1111 ' deN~tl1d :,,' f()nml 01 sod.:;t, Ihrough IIIlen,i".. stud" of the Arullt.l, ,Ill Au.nr.,li;m tribe . I lc lucu'\Cd 011 lhe functlOlllo 111.11 religloll IX:' fonned Im' the ,\ rol,ta ,mcl ul1dencorcd the role thill gruup life pla\"!> in defining Ihat which \\C c:olI~idcl' rcligluulo. Durkh cim COIIChldcd th'II.1il..c othcl forms ufgroup be ha\;or. religion rl'il1forC(.~ a gH)UI'S ..olidaril) , Anothe r of DUfl.hcim·\ main mtl' rt"\.j W;l!I 111l'

the ('1;1)110111) ill Chaplcr I:;, DlII'klll'i lll \\~I.S (011cel1lcd "hOIlI Ihe clanger' Ih,lI ,uch aliclIalion. lunclirll'"!l", ;!IId i\oC)l;ttiml might I)().q' 101' mnc.lcnI in.. dlt.~II1,11 ;;ocictil'!', l ie slmred CunIlC' , l>clief Ihat $O(ioh,~ ~hullld prt'\1de dill'ClIOI, forf,od,11 c ha"ge. As.1 n ..'liull, Ilc "dml.II("(lthc creatlun of new sodal glolll)\--bt'thl'c.'n lhe IIldh l(h",l'. f.1milt .lIld un' Slatl-\~ h ic h would idl'"lh' pru,;dl' :t <;t'I1!IC o f belong-mg fOI mcmlX'I"I'I of h\lgc·. ilUl)('l....oll:Il "O(iclies. Like many Ollll'r sociologists, 1)1Ifkhcim ' ~ inter· esl~ "ere rH) 1 Iimi led to Ol1l' ;l\pt'ct of t(Uci;l1 bc h a~ ior. 1.;'ll' r III thi, h()()k. wc will gi\c I"reher :lIIl'nliun to hi, Ihillkillg 0 11 uilT1e and 1)lIni'(h lllcnl. religion. ;Hld Ill(' workl)I,I(,(, ... c·\\ "ocil)lugisLS ha,'e h,ld such ;1 (II.III'.IIIC 1I11P.1 , 0 11 \0 !luny dine rent ;ucas "Idun I,ht.' di'Klphlle.


COII"l'fIUt' nC(!1I ul w()rl. ill 1lI001l' m ,oelctil'S In IllS ,ic"'. UII' gro"lIIg di,i\jon 01 1.lbOI' found in indu,,", lrial societies ,Il> workef"5 beelullc much mort' '1)('ciali7erl in their l.tSl..l> led In whal lit' ('"lied (111(11111'. A.,.om;fl rel'ef~ to :. fO!C~ of direcuon that i~ leh in a society when ,oda l COlltrol of ind i\'i4Iu.d bcha\'iOl h ;L~ hecome iIlCnC(I.i\'e. T h l' state 01 flllo!llie occurs ",hl'lI people IUI\'C' I,)sl I hei,' sell \(.' of pili pu~e or dirC(licJII. orlell during ;:1 time of 1)l"o (olll1d .social ch;ange, In ,I I)l'riod ofallonlil' , l>CoPIl' .'f(,~) (onfn~d .Hld llllable 10 COpt: w,lh rhe; 11t'\\ \OCial c m·il'Ufll1ICIll Ihal Ihe\' " "'" rC\oC}!1 In laking their 0\\'11 livc!>. .NI "ill Ix: IICcn in Ihe ('xanrin ,lI ion 01 worl.. :mct

Another 11l11>OI mil l tll("Ori~1 who cOllt libuled 10 the scienlilic i'l11d y or llocielY was ~bx Vlcbtr ( pr~ nounced "V,W·be,") , Sorn in Ccnmll1Y ill 18&1. Weber look h i\ carly aCOldcmic Iraining in I c~al :md ('conomic hi slory. but he Kr.tduall)' dt:....·cl0l)Cd an im<'rl'st III 'iOClolo!<;) bentua ll) , he became a pr()1Cs.'If:)r :n ,... 1;01111 (;.cnn;1II IInh·('l"lIitje~. Weber told h,,,, !iludt·nu Ihat th!'y ,hollld employ Vt'Nlt!hfttl, tlu: (.cnl1,1II \\ord 101' MIIII{ICI'~l .. ndlllgM or "insight," in thd, i'lIelletUl,.1 "ork. lie' pointl'cI Ollt Ilmt much 01 ollr social belt:.'·I"r (";UIlIOt be an:tlw:c:d !l>' Ihe kjn(L~ o f ol~cctl\'c Clilel;a ,\e II!>C to I1lC:I\lIre "'eighl or lClIlpel'aturc. 10 lull" comprl'hend bcha\ior. we II1U~1 IC;II'I\ lhe llllbjl'(:Li\e lIle:minglJ people am.ch to lhdl :tClioll...-hoh' lhc) t.heUl:tCI,,~ \iew and ex· pl.un their bcha\lor. For ex.llnple, suppose th<jl M>Ciologists we~ "llId)'in~ the \OCi,.1 r;ml..ing or il ldi\·idu.,!s hithin all CIC(lrici<l111 ' union . We bcr..,ould expect researcJlen 10 CI1II)loy I'"",.h", in order 1 dl'lCflni ne ule .sig0 nilic:lllce 01111(' 1,llion's §uc:i:ll hit'l'arch), for illl m(,l1I1 .... ~.lCi()IH... 11I would llt:ck 10 IC;11l 1 h o'" ' ''c:re dec· )C1 ri~ Idc::ianH rela lt' In uniol1 I\1CIII\.)<:I'.\ III high er ur 100I'cr StaIllS; Ihe), lIIi~' hl cxamine the e lleclS of M:lliorit}' on lIt:tIIdiug within lhe unio u, \Vhilc ilwcsLig:uing lirC!)C C llIestioll!l, le)Carchef!, \~ould t.lkc into acCOllnt peoplc's t.'moUons, thoughl'l, bclicu. and atdlutie, (L Ctbcr, 1977:1:W). We "00 Oh e Cfcdil 10 \\ 'ebcr fOt a key conc('ptu:alloo\: Ihe Idcal l),pc. An ,' df!al rypeill a consuuct •

(J~ '

TI",:wcJOIo(;JCAJ 1't..HSIU·I11J;



Kefl Mlr" 1818 1883


'881 -

'88l - rlw O/,;Won ()I



Su~: A Sn-dt' In

ItiOI19O!i Sill'" 01

S«lOIoW 01 Rfl1ftOOf W.


Wirtsll'" und


T"'PrOfHf~IIfEI" o(>.lIdl'"

Itl' - EfHnW!I"1f F"",,,
M nll

qf 'fI'lflil

$on~'mfl ~"lI/fn'

f/'(lfn Oil Iht fl(lfi

/ltlltl1¥1I/h fmlury

of fhty Ihm'hmlvTI.

a mudd ilial \CI'CS

:t~ :1 IIIc:ulIIillK rod againsl \\'hKh actual c:m.ol (:an be (.'\o;i..Iu::lh.'t1. III hi~ I tWII wurk.... Wdx=r idcntilk'd ''ariou~ Ch"r.U.:ICli,:uIC or t.) llrCml-

[racy as ;111 ide:tl !)pc.' (LheSt: \'1'111 Iw di~u~cd ill dCI..li! III Clmptcl 6), In plc~cl1li llg IIII~ mudd of bureaucracy, WcI>CI' W.L\ nOl desc. ribillK any IMl1icuw bwi nL~s, nor was he (' sing Ihe term Iflflll in a '11,1.\ that stlgge<i.Iet'1 a po~ith c e,,;,iu:ui n. lmu:ad. hi .. purpo5C WolS 10 provide ~ usefu l smnd<ll(l for rnC<I~ring how bUH!'allcr.uic an tlCHlOI1 ol):,lIIiloll ioll i.. «~nh and Mill ... 1958:2 19), 1 _'llcl' ill Ihi"lexlbonk, till: (oncept or idC:IIIYIX" will be lI'\t!d tu ,,'lid), Iht.· lanlily, religion , aUlhol1lY. al1Cl ecunUlllic '')'''IC.'I11'' iHld L IIl1alyl.c bureotucr..lC)'. O Although I hci l' l)rofcss i o l ,"I('~lrcer!l c:ulle at the ~J.tIIC lime. t..n ilc Ourkh c im an d ~ I ax Webel l.ev('1' llJet :md pl'ob;lb l)' we l e lln;. \\ ....e u l each ulhel '"l'xi1W!lCe, let alone idca..... Thi., \'~I" eel l~ il1l ) not true of the work or K:lrI Marx. I)urkht.'im·s th inking .wout anomie h'a\ related 10 'hint'" writinglJ. while Wd)Cr's COlleen! fOI":1 \'alu(.... free. oh.J(''C l h~ sociolOK) (whtch will be cxplor("d in ( Impll'l ~) b"'(IS;1 dirttt ~spon\C to ' ''uox''i decpl) held ("ml\'inion .. ,

il 1.\ nu .surpl i'oC Ih.\I K...t.ri M.&fX is \ iC\\t.'d as;1 majol' 1I({\II'c ill the de\clopmclU of ~c."'\'el"'(11 social science....lInong them ~(H.ioIO){). (Scc F'j{lll c I-I.)

Karl Marx
K;u'l ~ I.u".)( (1818- 1883) .;;h ....cd with Durkhcim ;lIld Weber •• du....1 mlel c"l in ab~lrnct I)hilosophical isSU('" .met ill tht" concrete rcalilY of e\('I)'day lite. UnIlle Ihe otht"f'i, M:II"X W~'i so ("riliea] of ('xi.~lIing in· s tltutio ns Ih.1I .1 fomemion,11 aCldemk l'arcer ,,":\~ it1lpl.ls,~ ihlc .•lt1d .t l1 hough he w,,~ born :lIId l'dllClll cd in Germany. r " "~1 uf hi~ 1ill.- \'I:t.~ sl.tCll t in exile. "" l an.:'~ Jler~U1 1 al l ilt' W:LS a cl ifficu h ~In lgg l e , When .. paper' Ih:1t he had ..nitlcn W:I~ 'i ll ppre'i~ed , he fled hi... mui\(* bud and \Vellt 10 1~1'rIllce . I11 Pari!!. he tHel Flk.drich Engds (IR20-IH95). with \\'holll he fonn(.'(1 a lifelo ng fticnd~hil)' n le) Ih(.'(1 during a time in ",hic:h bn l>ca n .1Ild ::"\' olth Amcnoll economic life w.... in('f("'\'~III~ I ) being d Olllinat(od bY Ihe faCIO .... rather than the farm ,

tJ/ 'P'''N I • 1/11" .\'nntl 0/' 5f)(:J(HOt.)

In 1847, M:u'X and Engels Olllended secret meetings in London of an illegal coaliliCln o f Iolbo r unio ns, lhe Communise I..c.tguc. 11u: following year, ehey finished preparing:1 phllfo nll c lllt."tI 'l7rt ComlNlUlul M fUliJ l o. in which Lhey arguctleha l the n ma.uc... ofl)Coplc who h.wc no rt.'1OlIf('t.S Olher Ihan ' thcirla bo r (who ll1 lhc)' rcfcl red 10 as the ImJil'fOna/) should unite 10 fighl for tJle o\'cnllrow o f Ctl)il:llise S(x:iel,ic!!, III the word" of ""1111")( and Engcls:

111c hinoryof ••11 h i,hcno Cxl)lillg !tOdl'l), is dH! hL~IOT)' of db! l!.nlggle). .. TIle I'rok:lari.lll~ h.l\'t' !lolhing 10 I~ but their dl:.ainJ. The), ha\'c a ~(t(ld 10 ~'m , "',..... il'G .U"I' Of' AU (XIlNIltU'!i u'.'Inl (Fellcr. 19!:l9:7. 41 ).
MU: I cOlUp l c tin ~ 'flu- u)H//Iwm.sl Mom!nlo, \I;u"S r('luflled 10 Gentlall),. On l)' to be ('xpellt:d. 11(' Ihen mo...ed 10 f:n~ h\ll d , where ht· (OIl IItIUcd lO wri lt· books :lntl ('"a)',. V I:I1"S'!I life there \\~!' line of exIt'c lUe I)()\'efly. Il c p:twned mORI 0 1 h j~ pn,~e·S!> i () m. ,lIld se\ e ral o f his child r(>1 1 died of ma ll l!ltl'itiun and di.sca.~c , :\'h! ,'X dearly h'; L~ :Ill O Il L~icl(' r ill nritj~h soci'·I),. tI laC! \~ h ic h lIIay well ha\'(' aOcCtcd h b dew o f \\e5le rn cult urc!! ( N.. Collill~ ,lIul M:lkO\Io'!>ky. 1978:40). :\ I :trx'~ lhillkiu(( h.1.!I Slroll;.;ly il\flu enced by the ""o rkof:l Cc. m.1Il phllosophcr, C<orK Il cJ{t"i. 11l'1I:e1 MW hi<;IOI) .l!> 3 dialecfical pYfl("l!I~" M: I it·, of dasht."I tX',,~ ee n conflicting idea.' :tlld fo ..cc5.. AI Ihe cnd of each cI:..~ h , a nl'w a nd impro\cd M!I o f i dea.~ ....~..., expecl('d 10 emerge. In I leKe !', "i('w, conflicl ....-;u :111 c'iSClllial t"iclllCllt in progrc!I.~ . ( Am llicl led 10 progr('~: progn...." canlt" un I)' through C Hllflic l. In appl)'ing I lcgc!" IheOl;e" ~1 .lrx ICl(.lL'lCd 0 11 conflict ix:lhcen lIlKial d;L"SC~ , a.\ rt' prl~'lIted hv illdU"lri;11 '\'orke .... and the own cl'l' of '.I(.Ione"l ;lIId bu...ines.'lCJo. Undel ~1 .1I"S·.s :UI;II),,,h. M)("1t.'t) was fllllditllle nlally dhided between cI~"M" \~ho dash ill pursuit o f thei r own cia's iTUel"l_ 'lII" l ie nt'J.:lIed Ihat hilltOI,), could be IIlld er~100d in diall.'clic;ll tc .-m, a$ a I'eco ..d of Ihe incvil:lblc CO Il I1iCI ~ bN\~e(! 1I eco110Illic grolt'.... T h b view forms Ihe b; L~i.", IOI' l h e CUIltcmpor.u')' ~C)dC) l og i C'.l 1 I)c rspec ch'c ul CUllll ict Iheory. whic h will be examined I:lter in till' d laptel . \\o'h l:: l1 Mal")( cxamin ed lhe indtl.'ll.l i:.1 MKielicS: of hill time, such as G<:rlll:my, I::n81 :lIId. :lIId lite United St:uc.s. h e ~w the f;II..IOI) :t.!I the CCllh.:r o f conflict between lhe exploiters (the Owl1e .... of the means of

pmducc,ioll) and the exploited (lhe workl'r'l). ~bl'X "i(:\H. d thc~ rdauonshipiI ills),"lematic lerms; lhat · is, he I)CBc\'(x l thal .. n enlire S),5:ICII1 o f t.'Conomic. .social, and IJOli lical re la' ionshi p~ Il:Id bc..-cll ClItaI> lished to m;'linl:utllhc power and d o minance o flhe o\\-'ncn U\'er lhe \\oork(:n. Con!k.'fIUenlly, t.'larx and Engcls :lrgucd 1 11:11 the working elMS n(."('(led 10 o loen.hrow Ihe cxi.'lting CI:M :lySlem . M:U'X's writin~ inspired those \tho were .sub~llICntly 10 lead communist rt."\'o lutio ns: in Rus5ia, China, C uba. Viet· nam. ;Uld d~whele. l::\ell :11)an lro m the political rc\'olutio n'ilhac his wo rl helped to fosler, Mal")('" inOucHcc on COillempor-\! chinklllg has been dr:un:uic. Although he ccrtaml)' did 1101 \r1e'\' himself as ';1 sociologin. M:trx lIe\'crlh clt'!l~ made :t critical contributio n to lhe de\'elo p ment of 5OCio10f.,'Y :lIld o llter .saci,,1 sciences. I'.u ll), this reflected M:u'X's cmpha~i'i on carcfuJly I'e~e;lfc h ill g the :\cllml. Ulca$ lIl~h l c condi, tioll' of people", Ih'es, a Imlclice which fOl'cs hadowc'tlt l!c llcienl ific nature of cod,,),', 5QCi ;&1 llcicIICC5. III ;-IClelition . Mar,. p laced ",'Tea l \,,,Iue OIlthl' group idcnlifkalion~ and a.~SOC'iation~ Ihat inf\uCllC4..'ti an i"di ddual'~ r,lace in socielY. A~ we h:wc \Cen. thi$ lU'e:t s ludy ill Ihe majo r locu\ of conlcmpor..U)' sociolog) . "11lrougho Ul Ihh Icxtbook, \\oC will roe .. "icl(.'l· ho..,' mc m hcr~hip in ;a part icul.lr gender classification. OlgC gmul), rotei .. 1 group. o r l"Cono mic daM OlfTc"Cl~ Ol I)cI'!Ion's :tuitudt.'!l.U1d hchavior, In an impol'I;lIlt 'Clue, llth w;.y o f 1Il1de l-,taJlding society ca n be t,raccd hack 10 tile pioneering h'ork of Karl \-I01 n( , (!)cc f'i~UI'e 1-2.)


TwenLicl.h-Ccnlurv Sociolopv ....... _ .. _,_._ .• _._ .._ .._...1.._._ . __ ..fl1'_ .• _ ... __._._. __
Sociolog). ,l~ ..... t· kn o ..... it in the 1990s. draws upon the lirm fo unciOll ion dc...dolk.'C! by t mile DUl'khcim, Max Webe r, ;utd I\;lrl ~ I arx , I lowl'\'Cf , the dl.scipline h:" cCl1ainl)' !lOt rClllai n(."tI s .... gnant over Ihe lasl ceIlLlII)·. Sociologi~LS h ave g;tincd ne..... insights whid! h:w(! llcl l)cd IJu;:m to bcllel' undc l'stand Ihe working!> of ,ociel),. Chal'l~ I lorlon ('.ouley (18&1- 1929) ....'as lypk.ll of th e sociologiSl:l \\'ho became p ro minent in the C'Mly 1900~. 1\0111 ill Ann Arbor, Miclliga.l1, Coolcy rccci,,'cd hi grdduate lmining in econ o mics but laterbeC'.lntc a llOciolog)' profosor III the Univenit},

The) were genuinely cOIU"cntcd about lhe li ... '~'cre uftcll aClhc in 1 >001' UI'I>. Weber. a mcmhcr of and ~I)ca kcl' hefore thc Americul Sociological Se..: '1 Mox wobo< 1'86 ' ~::::.HCURE 1-2 Prominellt Contributors /(} Sociological Thought ..tl'l . n llltO clo so rffrcu\'c!)'.'fI' of communi!)' ('cnters kllOWTl . For example • ."'Ork hrought new under~t:lIlc.1 n:l1 urc _ r. s.. ('orounded the r: .~ Chicago M!tUel1lelll ... hnr lJI'l't IIn IIlm '1 11'rflil1lf! rlmmrlk>Jc...:... 922 98 21 I·I'. e!io or immigrants in the n:lli on'~ gruwing citit. ComJ.. Addotm.._. beliefs .r ·11 1It.. Hull HOllse..920 '~1 Cho<I.il aC livism~1I with Ihe gO<l1 o 15 • .. combim. E• • • "" ••.. :uld other piollccri llg fe male ..___':. iaec-Io-r-ace groupil !Ill h ..1l size."llCll ~w .::.:::: 929 F86'.IS 5(1I1(!lIItI" IUlf'kJ..llsllIallcr unil$. . Cooley slmfcd the desirc of Durkhcim..-.:. and po litiC. In the colrl)' 1900s...9 • .9 '~ 1'::::.(~olry·J ..sociologisll! cOlUmon l)... cie ty.IJllrt~ ~/wul/I EfVing GoIrmon .. he Ix"'" umt' inlcrc~ l cd ill this "ne\~·· di'ICiplillc while pur"ling a related area of Mudy. and sud. Honoo CooIoy I" I..::. a nd tm-rnlship networks_ li e sa .::.s ide"ls. Uke other t.c m :Hic.1':: % '1 w. ~:::::.. [- Roborl_ ~ 91:::_ _ _ _-l~~ 1 '.. ~~1~~______~~~ 1 '~ 1 9~ .:s.1 pt~I~Cl i\'C: to look first :.~1. f:llnilic5.:.. ... ~=-__~~~1 8~ 19 17 .l l798 1857 1 ~~ ~~~______~ n I' ~ 2 18~~1 ..'\I) are~L't as lemh.bort Mood ~ 863 _ _. .n ou._.':::~1 1' 820 90 ' Kol'l Monil 1818 1883[ 1'.:t1 intellectual inqu iry • . 0 C. m'UI)' of lhe leading sociolo~IJ of tllC I. 1 II... whe t... and Mllrx to 1C"fll more about society. uf \ikhigan .. Wright Mib. [ . Ho. \~llues .lane Add 1 ullS (1860-1935).::~ '97 ~1 1916 1962 . Cook')' pl'CfcITed to use the sociologic.. 1 :. Ifou ' g~.:.in linmle.I902 ______..·:ul)' suciologi.llIy Mud)'ing a nd the n impnwi ng a corntpt sodel). in particular.1:::~. these KrouP'~ tL~ the \('I'(lbcds or !locielY in the sense lh:1I thc)' Ioh"pc pec!plc'.hcmsch·c\ 1I~ Stl('i:11 rcrormcf'll: dediCOlt('ri toO s~ .._ _ _...lillg CO emUI_ of rcl:llhcly llm.social scr\-icc work ... 1' 86 8~_ _ _ _""':::~ TolorJlt PCQOn.nilOO St..:.her these immigr:IIIL~ came frOIll Euror>c 01' from the American routh_ I::arly fCIII:I!c sociologislS. Emilt Durkheim f· .

19:-\(). Mertoll .·UL'lI (Ill klrNe:«:tle pitCl1nllWml or clltin' chilj1.r('judiccd attitudes (l'{.'cI lIy .ui o n scheme. . In fact. 'tlld the p0j>uL .ll ur OlC· Cllrnul. Me n o " '" t1wol) .ng lhis goal..c1 rl"'C:1I h o n lite micro IC\-d h.1 ro-lt.~ 1 ~1..un ... Wt· C"IIlIc. In h is \'il'\'" $Onte Illay nvt . cnn inf1u nce lhe ex· pn·.idem in t\ddams' effort'! la e~ l:. hiftc ·d . The praclir. -- " 16 I'\IU I~'" • nit Sflf'. l"Y·:' apprnv<'c! goals ami IlIcans-)"t" il h :L~ wider npplir.t. blis h •• jl1\'t'l1ilc COlll'1 S)'SICIIl . h.- . >h Merloct ilulm:quc ml)' hon .\ dd:un:ri.cd 011 i lldi\~ dl". I his ~hire aw"'~ 0 frolll o. Mort' I"ceclIIl)" cnacrosocio loghl" h:l\c ex. while: thl" :li m o f 1I'.cpwr 19)..S<X'iOI •• ~i~t Ro be rt Mcn011 ( 1 968.lTni ..L' illchldl.. For CX..Il. Well" public Add:u I\S slIcces:. f.lIor Id .UIIU: II 'S tl"itdl' 11111011 (.bott 1ftM.. ( h ira~o h OI M:hOOI'i. Occg:lIl..Ippr o(lch(·.r cx:unplc..'C Chaptcr 7): :md of 1 1O\~ <1 I('.ullcd I» a gn.h tIn ex..lliUII:!] crime r. lpu: r i). \\ho lIla) .1! ia ll society.wlf wn~tJ "VU t/Jm IIftll . ~1oCjologi~cs find it u~ ful to cmplO) hOlh thest :IPlu(MChell:.forming ~iCl~ \\.. TIH~.. Ch.\}~ in .~io n o f j.III:.iall>· "grct'd-upo n gtl. nOSSo ('1 111.·iII be dl.nul ("fe.lI l1cring iufunll:nion .lht.!I IcO 1 "OCial wlwkcrs :111<1 C)lhl"rs. lie u(ltcd differc nt \~".II'... 11(1.unplc of 11\. l)ud ut oK i~tll f( '\lric'lcd thctltsch. Macrosociotof:.)'conCCI1Ir..lIc<l intent." 0 logk.HiIlS " m o rc eg. ' " potw u.'r 7 ..ct((}lInt for Ihe high clime r:1I~ .M(I'"1 (l86(}-19n) flnT (I ((ljim/ltlrt O/f/ll' !1U11U11l (.. I\y contrast.C\1.KAI nJN·H. an imJ)Qrt.uch .o(('d at ' lumhia Univcl~it) .~t'llg.llcr detail ill C h :lpl'.clions can affect :l studcnt"1 .: lhc soc. ~1t · rt" II '1I explanOltio n of ( l'ill1(· i.".'! phor.. 11 1111 Ill'm..g n ific:mt webl ro1t'l'l (8CC C hapt er· 5): o f h ow cunfh n n it). '''.." of HI4:11I1:111 (01'''''''1111') frflt.KH..tioll 1 )... to the ~lUdy of SOC'kl)'...JlIlttXII 'l(1//t'WI'III.. \"u rkin~ \\1111 the Ul:lck journ. o f .. ~1 t' II O Il ha\ produccd a them y that j... in Pokrton'f da~l'ifi c..Iu(.lII ~ llll " H mof1c1 millority" eo..1 Study orsu icicil.*." (''MM/ill'.llIems 01.lIllplt:.. ex-convict.'\'CI 1 1"\:\I. M CltHU " tC<lchi ng ('an·c r h :L bct'l1 ba.l»t cr 10). .lI. hip t l) Temple Univc:l'l'it}.ocial rt'fQrm " .'.. ~ iIll1()\'alol1!l~ Me Ik'O plc \\'ho .\1111& lhe ull<lcrprh ilcp:cd . burglary. -c no hop(' or . ill the n.lcTQ-lc::\cI~ .11 focus 01 he!' k wm al'iO ".. 199 1: Wcll"". Wc\ ('lIll'cl lhl' i l nplcllu: nl~lt io .~ b..I .1 <.ofogy5lU. n d . (.('it('r'$ CXIX'cl. "lid m lit'r'S di.1gC ]i"ulIl K.. J le COluinued hiil )lUldics . 1!}70}..Iceep' the goal or pUr)lIing maleri.(Jl. $ocio.lIld 1 .. 'twllI'lJ IIj hou..~ th rough I I~d itionaJ mOtel" cu ~uccess .L\ accomp.cd lh :u 'KlCiol(tgY t h ould slri ve: tn bring togct h c r the " 1II.... eQlllluics (sec Ch. o n c o f Ihe m ost fr('(IUCnll)· ci tl"d ex "l ..alj(}Ils.. when' he :tc<llIin: cI his lifelo n g interest in ..1I~ (~C h .3~72) tn:ldc f i . ' :U1d cduC.. U rn in o 1910 of "Ionic inlluigrnm l)arC nl~ in l'hil:ldc1 1 ia.l"ing ( Ollllnitlllent 10 icmifk lIIelhocb of rc:\C.scusscd in gre... IfIlQ."i ng matcd:11 good~ or Ihe acce pted nle:l1IJ hf achie\.. f.lIlIOIIS lhe 1l. of lunall ~'1'OUp6 and of· lell IISC\ cxpclimel1l:ll litudy ill l<lboT'.Idemit" pcnollllance (s« Chapler 16).lllt contribution 10 the discipline by sue(t'O. cnmbining tileo!"} and research.. mit:rosot:.frcc inlC'rpr(' 4.100 c lIlphasi/. Ihe Ih<:u\ ul the di.ltOties.mt beha\> iOI". Emile I)urkhcim ·:.'..l he haviot'-influc llcl.11 11:In'ard.ciplin c had .lc ioll uf d.) m lrmf. ":/IIIJJn.. - -.-UW .. ofho\. I! helps 10 .. Jail' A. divo rrcc\ lIte tl :"lIId " ·Olllcn.ll w~ahh bllll~ i!lt'fr-\IIIlC:uu 10 tlo so.rull).". tht \ It·r('OI}1X: o f ruian Atneric.lrn a great dcal b) us.lli. harc.lcial :regll:g:llioll poli(")...UI :Hi o n~ o f <k"i. a mi t'xlonion.tile! MTllic~ kwl.lIio m .1liun·.-d \ uldic..11 . 10 IItl'clri/.(h o l.• of :1 r.soet.mci ng IhC III~ h .-. including robber)..ing :u\cI g.I(h'. \\.'.sociology. Uy I ht' middle (lr the tWC!lt leth (CIII III)'.hic h people al· tt'm p t In ac hicve 5l1CCt: ~~ in li rc:.cs stud)...fllll).

1 NIII('f'(Jl(J4l(Jlogutll 1'J\'II"""'td'lffl of

II'Owlll utIr ,,,

/I/.tll'ifj fflIlH,dtu1fI1 diffr""ILI '" ,rllK'(lf1J MIJ/OfIIS "lid trod",OfU.

of d/f.\! (,,'" 1tl1iJJ1', tml""'K of utddm, 100.."', ."" 00 /Ott"; (flld I1 aoold tu)t'U flrl' lon~(nl uK'"jirmlu of ,Ant'


d'II"""'(I" , l"utIlT"{ "'... abY(1/(/fI' J i'lI"f
(11" 1I~ldl "g "'JrntSnl,.m. tI bndl' fltld gtOOIlf IAIflfl-'"1: ni' MI n "VIr"" Ju,," "I " U'IfIIH .. W'IIdItlK /11 N,...INlA/. Irttl.n. fllIll n \lr1"(O .. 'i'd/lmt If

~ntll' ,"



If1 u....crowciolog.cal .met

micro~)("if.)logka l


1 Slud) Ihc );II1IC IIl oblcm, f or «sam ple. we 0

II II~hl 11')' 10 undcl'sl.lIId climin;11 heh,tYiOI :1 1 th e ;um l )/; n~ ('rillll' 1 ,lIe'" ill \'ariQIL" and a l the mil 1'(1 k",'d b) e).;uninmg Ihl.' 'Q'w inter:a tio n ~ Ih.1t inlluc.'ncc imli\ldlla l... 10 IN."(Unit" enminal, 0 1' dchllllllClIllI, IA)!lIClIlporary sociulolQ' Ic OcCI:; Ihl' <In'cr\(' (un.. umlions of carlit'1 Iht.."(l fi~b A . . 'VciQlog'l:its .11)tI~no

pro.lt'h ~ u ch I O pl ('~ :ts dimH~c..·, dnII'Plddic.:tion. and I'<:ligious cu ll ... , Ih(') (';111 c.llOlw 111>011 Ill(' thl.'Ofctical ; 1l ~i~ IIl" of thc di,dptill«-·.... pinnce l·~, A Co.ll crul
reader can hear ('''lImc. nurkhci lll , Wcbe, , M.Il's . ('.001«-, )'. A(ld.tlns . •m(l m.UI\ ulhe r... SI)c;lkillg through Ihe p:lg<''l!i .. r U lfn'lH 1·~';II(h , In dc",ril)IIIg th€' \.·url. fir md,1\ '" :'I()ctOlng-i ... t .... I1 j, hell)l ul 10 tx:ullillt' .1 IHlIlllx'l 01 inlluclH il,1 cht.'tlrcckal :1 1 >1 )IO;l(ht·,. (;11". known ,1\ 'H"/~/NY'''''''') ,

k'vcl by


, • "

('J(M"r:lr I • 1111,


'J l t'"

,"" '''-'1/}

(#0 \(/1(10/0(.1

Sociologi$IS view "GCic l), in d ii'l'c.:rclI I \,".I)'S. Somc scc the world basica lly a\ a M;lbl{' :md ongu ing' (' nli tl .
111cyarc imprclI.'iCd with th e c n d ll lOl u(:c of lh e rantil),. org.lIl izcd religion. and miter ~oci;d ill ~ litut.i o n s . Soll\e 5OC i ol ~h t.i scc socie ty ,LS cOI1lI)().'ied o f many groUI)S in conflict. co mlx:ti ll ~ for scOlrce ft'SO Urces.

To o lher

M)( i o l ogist.~.


m~1 r;lSC in ~ t il\g :llIpcc t.~

of the M)(ial wOl'ld a f C the (" 'c1)'tIay, ro u tin e inte raClion" ;uno llg ind i"ichmb th:u we 'IOnlc timt:s t.:lkc

for gra nted. T heS(' diffe ring pt' l"lipcc th'C5 " [lIo del), arc: all waYlI o f exam ining the' !>.'1 I1l C phen omena. Soc i olo~. ic;11 imagin;uio n mal' employ allYclf a Il um lx:r of Ihc~ relical approac hes ill (mic " 1 study hUllla!! beh:,,'.0 ior. " m rn these ;'ppro,l(:hc!I, soc i ol (lgj s t~ dc\'clop ·
theories to explai n specific ' Y I>f.:S of bc h:t\'io r. The th l ct· PCr,,!)t"ct hes th a t .1 1"e rnn~ 1 wi<kl)' Il ~cd by ~o­ cio l ogis l~ will prO\'id e ,Ill iUI1"orluctn ry ion k OIl Ih (' discipline , These OIrl' 11 flln (' liOlmlisl. co n niC't, ;HlrI ll' int c mc ti(.ni~ t IlCl" I"H'Cth cs.

bcl'S o f a ro{iC(y-il \~'i ll not be pas.~ d on from onc gCllc l'<ltion to ' he next. As:m example Ofl l\(' fun (,lio nali ~ 1 pc l·...,)Ccli\'c, lel liS examin e I>I'O" i'" [io n . Wh) ill it lha t tl pr.lcticc SlI widely condem n ed conlmut'S to di:ipla) suc h per· siste n ce ;In<l vit.llit),? I:unc li tl ll al i,t~ ",uAAe"t lhatl>rMtil utio u s;llisfi cs nce d ... of palmus Iha l may n o t be readil), met Ih ro ug h !Il(It',' 50<:1 ,,11)' "c('cptablc rnmu :'I uch as cou nsh ip 01' marriage, T h e "hll\'c r" recci,'(!\ :.ex .....itho ut n n)' r(."( po nsi bilil), ror procrealio n nr !l<:ntime nla l ;\u"dllHt:nt : at Iht, Mml' t i ll1 ~. 1111' "~ Ih·r· ga ins;t lilclihood tlu!'Iugh Ihi .. l'xC'h ,mgt· Th ro ug h slIch ,Ill I,'X,lIn1l1al;UII , wc <'3 11 con clude ,11;11 p ro~lill1 l i oll <lOCI! pe rfo rm cc!'!;'tiu fUll ct;ons Ihal :socict), SCCI", III n ced . I lowc\'cr, this is not 1 0 su ggc."(t l.ha' pru~ lHlll io ll h.1 d c~ir.:t l)l c 0 1 legitimale form o r soci.d Ix-h ,l\'ior. F'Ul I(. II Q lmlis l ~ d o Ilo t ma ke such j udgm cnt ... ;U1d d o nol .....ish to con d o n e lht' abust:! 0 1 C l'i I1lC~ tha l p l'o"'li tll t e~ :trld the ir c lit' l1 u. ' 111 ,1 C(llllln ;! , R.llht' r, a d voc:u l'~ 0 1'111" I'tIIH;:t im m l in )' l><:rsPCCIJvl' hope 1 e-x plain h ow fill .I~ per.l o f 'iOCt0 (' 1\' tha l is so r."' qllc ntly a tlack('d ('an nCI'CI'thelCM
m ;'H I:'IAC 1 1 ')tll' l\'(' (

( K, Davh , 1937) ,

~~~~.~ ~.~~~.I~~... ~.~~.~~~.~ ~~, .......... "............... _,_., .... ..
In t.he ,i l"" o f fUl1l'lio n:tlhm., c ilth I)a l l uf a SOCif'l), contributes to It' \ uf\'h~\ I , T he /'Ul cliOl,a l i. t p,.,.. f sputiv £' ('lll p h asi'lc\ the h';,y Ih;lI part.... ofa sO(ietv are SIl'\I UII L'd 10 ,",Hn min 11\ :-,t<lh ilil)', I~ml k D urk hcim 's annlrsis fit rdlgiclIl rt' pft'-.cntN t .. c ril' ical C01l1ri 1 11 ion to Ill(' clcn- In pmcn l o f functinnal· )l i'm. A'Inulcd c;trlicr. Ollrkh ci ll1 rClClIscd on tilt' ro le o f rl'iig-io n in rcinlul'I:'in,.; fecli tl";" I lr ..olidari l)' "l Id lInit), ",illllll g rOllp Ilrc . Talcoll ParsOIl" ( 1 90~- 1U79 ), ,I lI :U'\~ Ird l ' n i\'c r' ... il)' sociolug isl, \\-.L'! a kc~' figm c in the (\ C\eiul)Jlle m o f fll ncliu nillist thc nl) , 1':11·....0" ... h ad 1 11 gt'c <ll ly )('(' in lluc nccd I", Iht, wOl'k of Emi l(' Dl1 rklwim , \'lax \VCbc l', ;1 nd ot h e r 1',III'n lle-an ~()('iol ()gi ~ "', F(I1" IIln r(' Ih;m rOl ,r d (,r';lflt's, Pa .. st) lI ~ dnmin nl('d M'rilllnR" il' th t' United S i.tl t'S " 'i tlt h i~ :H I\'I " -; II'\' or ILII\C'tin n a l· i~m, I-lc ~aw a n)' ",ocic '" ;l~ a \ 0; .... ' rit'lwOI'k of cnn· IIC('II' " r'1I1.~ , each ofwhid t ("IlIItrihuu'", t((lhe m ain · t.c nancr 1)1 111'-' ...) .... tl·1I\ ;" :1 \~ h u lf · . Untll'l Ihe "1 fllnclio n ati'il a pproac h , ir :111 :1 )('':1 of .~(,ci:11 lift' does nOI .:nnlli b u le- 10 a so{ i(,tl ' ... ~ 1.lb ili ly 01 ' UT'· I·jml-ir 1 rim''! n Ot 1I('l'\e ';folllt' iclc-nt ifi,lb ly lISf'flll 1 fllllrt io n fir p romote I';IIIIC' ('() n ~cn'II'! am.m g nw m-

Man irest and l..alc.nl FUll ctio l\.~ A unil'cl'5ity talalog 1)1)ic;ll l), p rC'IC 1115 ""!'ioll' stated fllllc tio n s of the instit u tio n. I1 111")' illro nn ll.', for cx;unplc . that the u ni\'cr:o;il), inte n ds to "n(fc r t':,ch !lludl'lll a broad cd· UC;tIJUIl ill d~ica l ;Uld cvlltCIl1I>orar), Iho llJthl. in Ih e hmnallitic .... in th e s('"i('nces. a m i in thc ans," I lnwl'\'t:r, it would be (111;1(' .. ~urp ri~' If we canlC acros~:l c llalog \~ h ieh d eclared : ~1 h is u n i\'c rs;I)' W S 'A rou nded m 189:, 10 keep people be tween I he "get of IR a nd 22 0 111 o f Ihe jo b markct, thus red ucing IIn e m pr ,)}'mc llt ,~ No collegc c;II.llog will d l'Cla rt Iha l l h i~ is the p U'llOSC o f Ih c IIn h'cr~ il)', Yc l soc.i· cm l in'ltilUUo nllscrvc m;llIy rlln C li o n~ , ~ m c o flh e m quite" sub, le , l1ll' u n ivc rsil)" in f.lcl. riOl'$ del,,)' 1'("0. p lc's e n lrv in eo Ih t, j ob nm rkl'e, ll T o hcelcr l'X r1l illt' th c III11<:tIOI1$ o f in stit u ti o ns, RolX'rt Mc n Ort ( I ~ )6tj: 11:,- 120) m:ldc :111 illl pol'e:Illl d istillClio ll l)C tIVCCII m;tn ifesl ;\llCI la tenl fun c l;o m . Malli/es t / IIfIct i 0111 ofin!llillllions n l'c open , Slated, cOIl!'Cioll" fllll c l io n ~ , T h L')' il\\ o l\'c Ih e intended, reco gn izcd co n ~c qll c n c(' ~ o r an ;l~peCI o f .society. suc h :IS ' h e u n h'er'ity's mic in certifyi ng aCld emk COIllI)('tellce rmcl excellence, 8)' co nt ri\.~ t , lalu t /IIIIC ' ;OIlS a rt' IUI('o llllcintls 0 1 111l ;nte ndcd functions ' ,lI1d ilia)' 1'('11('('1 h idde n pll rposc.'! of an insutution.

" INr 0\,. • 'rill- '\OCJfH ()(".J{j( f If'.JlSJIf C17l1;

On(" I.\tenl fUl1cliol1 of un iversitics i.i to scrve .. s a mt'cung ground for l)Cople seeking mari tal part·


FlIn ction;tli~l.~

acknowled ge lhalllol

.dl part.\ ofa society conlr ibute IQ i l5 sl" bilit)· all th e lime. A dYS/'HlClio1l refers 10 :m clement o r a
procC11 ofsocicty Iha t lmlY (lc lually disrupt" sodal ~~tcm or lead 1 a decrease in swbi li ty. 0 ' tan)' dysrunctional bc h fn~or patterns . .. ueh a.~ homicidc, arc ,,,idcly rCb"ilrdcd as undcsinlble. YCI d\l{unctiolls sho uld not au to maucally be inler· prt'll'tl as I1cg'llh·c. The evalll;lI io n of a n>-srllnc tiOIl depends o n onc 's own ,~ lu e5. as the saying goes, on ·,,·here you Silo- For cx,lInplc, the o llicial vie ..... 111 pri~ ns in the t.: nil,ec! S late.~ is that in l11a l c~' g'l11gs 1hould be eradic;Iwd beca use Ihey :-Ire drsfu nclion:ll lo smooth 0pl:r.llions. YC t somc b'l.1 ards have .Jwmll)' cOllie to \~ew the prese nce of prison gangs J, fUIIClioml1 for lIwit i oh~ . The d,m ger pn~ed by K.JIIg'> rre,lIell <1 ~,hrcm \0 ~e('m;l( a rid thereby f l..... quirN inc.reast:c! slU"eillullcc mul 1II0rc overtime "'ork for guard!<o (1IIInlC\ <41. , 1993:400) .


In cunll';Ut to rUl1ctjon:ll i.sls ' Clllph:lSis 0 11 swbilit), .md COnSCIUtlS, con nict sociologi ..ts sec thc socia l !>orld ill contimml lltnlggle, 111C cmiflid per$p ~('; 'illn'~umcs that Sf)cia l bt- h il\~or i.. he ... 1 undc' l'slo()d lll l crm~ of con nict o r l(: nsio ll b(, twccll cc)1npc l,i n g KTf~.ps:. Such con n icl need nm be \~ o lcnt: it c<tO t>lkt the form of lahor ncgmiauons, pa l'l)' pnlil ics, {f)tI1llC[i lion a mong religiolls J.,1'OUpS ror mc m bers. " tor dispute! over em s in the federal bmlgcl . '\' wc $'.1' " ea d icr. Karl .' ·brx V il'h'cd stmggle be· ftI't't'lI social clas.~es 'L'C i n e'~tabl c ·. given the:: exploitation of worke rs under capitalism . Expan d i n ~ O Marx's work. sociologi<;l.~ a nd other socia l sc.iil (,Illbb have come to sec ( o n nict n ot Illcrely iloS a rL'tss I)hcnome no n but as a pan of e\'cl')'da)' li fe in .J1I 5Ot'ieties, T h us. in S llld}~ lI g ;In}' culture. m'bran ifalion, or social group, .'IociologisLS \\.~n l IQ knQ'\-' " ho benefits. ,.,.h o s tl frc r~, :md who d omi nates at IhfC'xpcnse ofothers. They are concerned with the HlnflicllI bel",'ccn "'omen ;'lIld l11(>n . ,."l'en lS a nd rhildren . d ues and su bu rbs, and \":hiICs :md Blacks. to lI:lme o nlya lew. In sl,udying .." ch questio ns. con!lit! IheorislS arc illlc rested in hem' $Ocic ty's in<;ti·

tu lions-including the fllllli l)'. go\'c rnrncnt. rcliM g io n . eductlion. a nd the media-lIl :lYhelp to m ain · ta in th e privil egc~ of romc gro llp ~ a nd kee p o thers in :1 su bservie n t posil ion . Ahhough cnntcm pol':lI)' confliel lh eOl), wa... dea!'!)' inSI)ired I>y Kad 1\.·I:u')( ·1'I .walysis. 1111'1'(' art' imponanl diffe rences hrtwee ll Marxist theories and the confl ict pCI'~ I,)(,c li '·c . \\'h c: T'('a~ MiUX fore· told a n c nd to l.onfli el throut-:h till' ('mrrgelu'c' c)f a classless cOlllmu nist societ)'. eurrt:1'lI coumCl ,Il('orisl.<; view conll i<'1 as una\'oiclahk . T hl'), ,li e less likely 10 :lIIl icipa tc. much leM preclin. th .. ! the sodal te nsions arising from incqualit}' will be ('THirC'l)' resoh'e d . ~4 0 re()wr , while Marx \'ie,,,e<l a toW I re· structuring ofsocie t)':lS fund;unc' nlall)' neccs.'mr)' In resolve social problelU" COTT T mpc"''''')' ('(ln fli cl til l'" e o rh;t.~ belicvc that pO\'en)', 1.. lfisl"' . sexi~ m . i .. adc.... qU;He ho using, a nd othc t' pro blems can he u nderstood a nd a ttacked .\lol11e,\'hat imicpendelllly (Agger. 1989). Uke fUT1c t io n ali~I.s. COlln ict sociol(lbrisl:I tend tu uS(' fhe nmc ro-Ic \'c! (l ppl'Oach , Ob,~ou~l)'. though . the re is a ~ I rik i llg dinerc ncc 1>eIWCCII thcse IWO sod(l l n~kal P(:I~I)('Cl ivcs (84.:C Box I- I on p:lge 20 on the IUTI( lion:.ll ist. cOldlicl. ;tTld iCll.cractionist view'"' of )) I)Ol'b) , Cunnicl , heori ... ts :Ire primarily concerned \\'ilh the kind .. o r ( hangel! IImt conllict ca n bring "bOUI , '''h rreas fUllctionalists look fo .' slllbilil.)' and consensus, T he COn n iCI mO(\I' 1 is viewed :L~ more ~ .. cdical~ ~\I1c1 ~;lclh<jS I " because of it.'! c m p h :l~is 0 " sucial cha llgc and rcd isll'ihUTjoll of rcsotl rcc~, On the othe r ha nd. thc rU llction a list perspectivc, becawlc 01 it.~ focus (tn slabi lil)', is gc nemlly secn as mOl'c -col1se rv,u ive" (Daln'cndon, 19.:'18) . Throug hout mOst of the 19005. s(lciology in the United St.:l ICS was mMe infl uenced b)' the fUllc,io mlliSI pcrsl>cct h'e , Ilowc,'<: ." the con ni" al>proach h as l)CcolI\c increasingly 1X: I'!Ina~jve since thc I'Hc I960s. The widcspl'c:ul soc.i:1 1 U1ll'e~ 1 rtsllh ing from bailie... over civil rights, bi ue!' di\<jsio ll ~ over tht' ....~r in Vietna m , the rise of the fcminis t a nd ga}' lihel.ltio n movemcn ts. the ,,,1;\\cl'g;\le K<lII· cla l. urban riOts. ;t nd confn>nl;uion" a l aool·tion cli nics ollcred .sup port for the eon mct...approachthe \;ew tlml o llr ~oci:-l l ""orlel is cha l'aclCl'itcd hv comin ual st ruggle bc~ l wl'e n com pclinggro up .... Curren tly. conflict lheol'y is acce pted .....ithin lhe d isci· pline of sociology :lS onc V;IHd "'~y to ~in insight imo ,I society,



w~ jtt'nC'l"'dUy Ilunkorlh~ fUllctionall!>4. (tmlllet . .. nd illC t'l"'olCltOlI'

m;Ul~ o f che

dl\1$lolI) or -.ocit'C) , Ill-

in pt'npcclhct 01 lIOCiolugy :n ~ ing ;to1'V1icd IQ °-.c.' IIOU'" ~t.l bjcc~ such aoJ the filllli l). health cart', :md crimmal bt:h.wM)r. Yel t'\c n ~ports ca n he an;dp.cd IL., IIJ( IhC'\e Ihc(IR!tiC;11 llC:npt'C1"M.

c1l1dmg thosc: bobed on Jt("nflt'r, r;!Ct'. c lhlllCiw, ...l d Ml('i:al da~:
• Sporl) are a ronn or bl\( bIL.in("", in ""hi(:h proliu: arc mort' lIu porlam 111:1 n Iht' health and ~I fet\ of Ihe \\'orLcu (:r chlt'Cl"lIi). • &,)ort.\ l:lCrpt'Ut;uc' IIIC r.11'I4.' id ...1 tlloll ,'UCCC:M Clll h t' ac h i('\c:d 8 1111 ' p i) lhroug h hard \\'ork, whi le 1:111· li re \ ho uld be bl.Ullc-d on 11ll' i n'

I(to(l:t, 'IOCial be h,lIior I" .. haped I:w IlIc lIL' lIncU\(' t11l1'n ~. ' "altle", .nd dcnl:uul, 01 the' "orld of !op01 u : • • ",)nn.lo uflcn hClgIIICII



lI1'oh~lItelll ;

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III ('urnin iuK .tU) a~ rK"C1 01 wd cl). IIU:III(hnlt \I)()rc." (uBc tlo l1u li,1S cmI)h:uil.c lht'("lIl ltihuIJonI I 1II,lh', Iu ()\'I'mU !Cod.l t \ ' ,II,i lit). FII II( III III.II·

1 0

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dlli< l\ml alone (r.rlhf'r lIull OIL
i nj lL~Iicr:$ III L ilt: 1,II"/oo\CI ~'M'r;r l ~}"I' !(' III ) , SI)()r!.t' ~" •. :,,' an -npl,itl'"

rl1cmhhip li r lwork.. th ,lt c:m per· 111O'alC CI't'I)d:l ) life , UI'~ Pltc· i I ' I'~, md.t!, .lIlcl rdi~'iou...
fHllc' n 'll t t'\, 1t':IIIIII1.II('. lim y work

iS ""Ifowd ~ I)(III ~ ,'" I,
giOIlS i ll bliUlLio tl


alm"st rd i·

whirh lI.'lC'b ri lUa] :u1(1 c(,remony to rl'i nfOff'C the
('common \~lllll'~ nl
, I IKl('i'·I.~

which e l1('ou,.'lgI'5 »C(lplt, 11. ~cc'k

a -fix" or ICenpoml) ~ h igh - r,u hef Ihan focll ~ on Iw ~mal prohlt'lIlc
ant! 'IOwi;11

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11110 !lu('h




.m d 1), lI riod~ tII . ",hlr l", l)('r.lIIl(' rolC' m()(ld, :111<1 .lrt' Irc.utd ""Ih

and rnp«l,
ph)~c 1 ..

111;'II1 (3in Ihe su borrlirmurole of Rlack511lld I-lispamcs. " irQ lo il as :uhl(,lo. hUI art' Ia I'Rdt 1 );lrrcd ffl lfll lilllk'I\i4Qry 1)O~iliol1ll as cvadlO, m.r.nagcn., and Ke n· er.1 mallagcn.. In 1993. (or u -

tll!(ethl't It.ll"n Ulnlll ttsll' :lIId nm)' c"ell .lb;l1'Idon " rt'\iou~ !lleft(> t ~rK" .l nd I'H· llIlli n'\. RI'I,tL lult,hil" III Iht' ~pUrl~ wmld .Ill' defincrl b )' peup ] c'~ liOCr.tl poMUOU\ ;1\ plart'!)" coachcj, and n: rcr~~u. \'0 ("11 a..~ I» 11It' high or I"" ""1111' Ih;1I nrd ilid u :rh hold :u. .I I"('HII! u( Ihr-ir ])I'mlmt.lnct'1 and r("plwulOn\
C:1t';111}-. Iht're l\ 11101(' CHsporl.\ 111al1 t'Xt'r'CIq: or r~rt'".lIjort, From a (unclIon"]"1 JlC~lCCljn~. \j)()ru reinfUffc 'IOCiccalu .ld lllolll, COlHeU!!U5 on \.Iluo. ;101111 'l.lhilm, lI)'collln<o.t, conUlre Iheo rtstJ l'icw ' Ik)f\l! as mCI"t'I) :ltlUllrcr rel1t'cuon o r the poh llc.ll :lIId )U(:i.r l 'lnl K&tcI " l lhlll a '>I:"-ieU'. Icll(" ~tt 1l01ll~b focu~ un M)c i.11 rd,lI i(III ~ lr i lh [11 $1H)rt..... .\$ 1 .k'Oplc' I<.olrk IOK,' ch,' " :1 tt',nllm:t'c~ o r ' lumpt'!" In ,Ull lc tic (unlt'US.

• Sport) COlllnbulc I() thl' ;1d..&pU\C ne«ls oflhe KKial ~\ 1('111 1 ) hd ,,. 1'

illg co 111.11111,.1111 IKOph:",

• Sport!! ~I'\(, ~ a IOalcl) \';1 h'(' 101' bolh P;lrtlcil),"U lh .md \1M"Cc.uur'<l. "

allll,k. AfriGlIl Am C'ncaIU ~ COLHHc~d for onh 7 Ilertt l1l of a ll C' !( c(u li\C'~ .md dCP"lrtl1M:11I hr-;t(lc III professional bmkclb:l.1I .I/1d fOOlooll ;&lId la, Ihan .. l>ercent
III 1J<I..clxtll. • ')I>orlJi fc lcg:l!e wOlllc: n 1 :1 ~­ 0 oml-lry ro le.~ "pcclatoN ;nul M:)(' ual " pri7.c~- and Ic n d 10 l'qU.1 tl· nr.l'ioC'u lin il) wit h hnuc 'tiCIl,qt h , i I1M' II,ilhil~ , :lIId ,iOlllil1.lriUIl,
I I\TF.RAr.TlONI$T "ItW I" .l lIdrin~ the ~OC'ml of(k .., ll11c'r' :lnio ni ~l'l a l'e c~ II('r i a ll y hHClt'CICfl ill , h"rNI IIndCI':'I I,U1fli u R" 1'1 , '\(' 1"\"
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One iml>on am cOlllribution of conflict theory is th.1I it has e ncollraged sociolobrlSlS to view society rhnlugh the eyes of those segme nLs of the population that rJ.rei), in.l1uc nce decision maki ng_ Earl)' Blar.k sociologists such as W. E. B. Du Bois ( 1868Wti3) provided research that they hoped would as~I\t Ihe struggle fo r a racial ly egalitarian societ)'. Du B()is believed Ihal kno wl edge was essential in CUIllI",[iug prejudice and ach ieving toler.m ce and juslire. Sociology. Du Bois conte nded, had to dnlw on \(It:ntilic principles to study social proble ms such '\'\th05e expe rie nced by Blacks in the Unite d Slales . Du Sois had little patie nce fo r lheorists such as Ilerbcn Spencer who seemed con te nt \\'ith the SlaIU~ 1')110. He advocated basic research o n th e lives nf Blacks that would separate opinion from fa ct, and he docul1lem ed their rela tively low slatus in ~hilade lphia and AtlalHiI. Du 8 0is believed tha tlhe Rr.mLing of full politicll rights to Blacks was essell,b.l to their social a nd econo mic P..ob ·css in tile ... l'nitedStales. Many ofllis idca~ challc nbring th e Sla!U~ quo did nOl rind a receptivc audie nce wit h in eilher lhe government or the academic world . As a rcsult, Du Bois hecame incrcasingly involved with (11'g3nizaliol1s questioning lhc estahlished social or(h .'rand helped to found th e Natio nal Association lin the Advancement of Colored Peopl e.:, belle .. known as Ihe NAACP (C reen ,md Driver. 1978). A.5 is true of the work of African American sodnlogisL'l, feminist scholarship in sociolob,), has helped 1 enhance oLlr tlnderstanding of social he0 h;tl;or. Fo r examp le, a nllllily's social standing is no longer viewt..'d as d efin ed solcl}' by the h\l!\band 's position and income. Fe minist sch o l a r~ h:l\'e not only challenged stereotyping of wome n; tht:y have argul'd for a gende l'-ba l,Ulced study o f sociefY in which women's cxpel"ie nces and cont.ributi ons art' ;~\isibl eas those of men (Brewt:r, 1989; Koman)Vsky. l!!lI). Feminist theory builds in important ways on the r(mniC perspective. Like othe r conllict lheori.~ts. l rfminist scholars sce gender differences as a r(" nCClion of th e ~ lIbju gation of o nc grou p (women) bv another gro up (men). On'wing o n the wo rk of M and Engels, contemporary fem inist theod sts ar.< often view women's subordination as inherent in capitalist societies. Some radical feminist th eorists. however, vit!w the oppress ion of women as inCI'it.lbJe in alllllalt·..d o minal<:d societies, including

SOOologi.11 W f~. 11. DII IkJiJ (1868- 1963), {he fi~1 Wark IJenoll



dQCiamle from J-IarTllml

l)l1illn'<ity, Ifller 11I41H'f1 orgfl niu 11,,· N{ltimul/lIs~(Jci(lIiOIl ja,. I/~

Ad"alW'1II1'11 1 of (AlOrM Plopl, (N,\ ACJ').

those lahelcd ;-IS rotJi(aii.{/, .l.wialisl, and commUllist (Tuchma n, 1992).

.~.~~.~~~~.? ~~~.~.~.. ~~.~.p.~~.~.~~ ................................
The fUll ctionalist and connict pen;pCCtivCli bot h an· al)'i'c hc havior illtcnns o f sod ctywidc p:l rt er n ~. How· ever, many cO!lle mpOi....y sociologis ts arc more inte rested in unclt:rstanding ..acid), as a whole through <In ex,lIIlinati on of social inte ractions sllch as slllall groups conducting mectings, two friends ta lki ng casually with each o tlter, a fa mily cclebmt .. ing a birthday, a nd so forth. The inferacfiQ ,. ;!JI perspective gene raiiles " bOUl fUlldanll'lltal or everyday fo rms o f" social interactio n. Inl c raCliunism is Cl sociological fmmewnrk fo r viewi ng hUlllan beings as livingin a world ofmcaningfu l ol~ccts . ' nl CSC ~Objccls" may ind ude material things, aclions, OI her peopl e. reia! ionshi ps. and evcn symbo ls ( l-icllsJin , 1972:95).

e IM/'17:11 I • '1I11!' NA'Il'llf_IN-' SOCIOl.(}(;)


Focusing on e\'er)'day be havio r permit'! illlcr.lctioniSI5 to bcller IJl1dersmnd the large r socie ty. In a c1a...sic example of illleractionist n.'search . sociologist Howard S. Bcckcr ( 1963) studied the process through which people become successful marij uana users. Seeker fOllnd that novice a rc typically introduced to ma rijuana by their friends, but rarely "get high ~ the finll lime the) expe riment with this dntg. InSlcad, people must 11'fH?1 (t hro ugh the assistance of more experienced usen) how to detect and e njoy the effects of marijuana. ('.onsequemly, Seeker viev.'S marijuana smoking as a wcial act and leaming to e l"ti0Y mariju;Ula as a suei,,1 process, Mo re gener.llly. inte l, tctio ni515 c mphasize that most forms of c rimin.11 o r no "m-d clying behavior arc learn ed . onen from close acquaintances (Ril7.cr. 1992:1). GeOl'gc He rbe n Me'ld ( 1863- 1931 ) is widely regarded as the founder of the inleraclionist perspective. Mead taug:ht at tJle University of Chicago fro m 1893 until his death in 193 1. Mead's sociI>logical a nalysis. like that ofCharlcs HOflon Cooley, often focused on human inter.tctions within onct(K)ne situations and small groups, Mead was interested in observing the mon minute forms of conullun ic;uioll-smiles, frowns, nods of the

III lM.y

'roJfPIiu Inn/ .symbols, pholograplu. mn (a", wry


dllfert'lll "Iro"i"8l

diffl'H1l1 snaal

head-and in undcrstanding how suc h ind ividual be h :t\~or wa.~ influe nced by the larger contcxt of a group o r '!Ocicty. I-I o\\'cver. despitc his inno .....dtin~ "iews, Mead o nly occasiona lly wrote articles. a nd nC\'cr a book. Most of his insighl5 have been passed along to liS through edited volullles of his lectures wh ich his studems published arter his deaLh , IllIcractionisLS sec symbols as an especially import..ulL pan o f human communic ltio n. In fuCl, lh~ ' imerdctionist perspectivc is SOme times referred to as the symbolir. illlem(tiollist /w:rs/JuliTJt. Such researchers not e Ihat both :t cle nched fi st a nd a5a.lute have social 1ll('anin~>'S which a rc shared and understood by members o fa society. In the Un ited States, a salute symholiws respect.. while a clenched list sig· nilies defi:mcc. However, in anolher c ulture diffen:nt gestures might be IIscd to convey a feeling of respect or defia nce. Let us examine how variOlls societies portray suicide wi thout the usc of words. People in the United Stales point a finger at the head (shooting): urban





Choroclel'ized by tension and struggle between group,

People ofe $OCiol1zed 10 perform lOCietol function, Moinloined through cooperation and

People ore shaped by power, coercion, and authority N.oinloined through force and coercion
Change tok" pIoai 011 the lime and may hove po,llive

Predidoble, reinlotcing

-Jdp<U\C5e bring a

Active in inRueoclng ond affecting everyday $OCial interaction Micro aoolysis 01 a war 01 underwnding the Iorger ~o phen(Kneno People monlpulate symbols and creote their lOClol worlds through Inhlraction Moinloined by shored undeutonding of everydcry behDYior Reflected In people's social positions and their communications wilh others
George Herbert Mead Charles Horton Cooley frving GoHmon

~mile Durkhelm

Tokon Parsons Robert Merlon

Karl Mo ... W . f . B. Du BoI$ C. Wrlghl MUI,

Tllis tabk shows hO Ihi!!' Ihm W IhtO(ttiClZl pmptctives (tI1I bt torrrpllJM

fist against the stomach (stabbing); and the South Fore of Papua, Ncw Guinea, clench iI h<ind at the throat (hanging), Thcse t)'pes of sym . . bobc interacLion are dassifu."<I as forms o f nonvll!',.. .al commutlicatio", which call include many other Kt"turcs, facial expressions, and poSlLlres, InleracLi oni~ls realize the impormncc of nonver. . b:tI communicatio n as a form of human bchavior. Gcorge Mucdeking ( 1992:232-233) observed inter. . actions in visiting rooms at thl'ec stale prisons for n~n ill California. He found that guards typiC'.tUy use a fonn of nonverbal cOllulluniC:llion which he c.alk-d -gazing" to control the bchavior of inmates and their wivC$ or girlfri ends. A gua.rd will slowl)' shift his gaze back and fonh across the visiting room. If3 couple's inleractions are becoming ovcrly inti . . m:ue.lhe guard will stare din.!cdy into the inmat.e's c)'t:s. TIlis is :I warning that a more direct confmntarion will follow if the intimate bchavior contimlCS.lntcrt..'Stingly, me inmate will allempt to avoid eye contact with the guard, rather than acknowledge that he has received the guard's \\-aming. Since Mead's teachings have become well k.nown, \Ociologisls have expressed grcaLCr imel'csl in the inu:r.actionist perspective. Many have mo\'ed away from ""hat may ha\'c been an excessh'e preoccupa-

albng Sl!lJrfDI irrrpmtard


Lion with the macro level of social behavior and have rcdirectt."<I lIleir allemion toward behaviol' which occurs in small groups. Erving Goffman ( 1922- 1982) made a distinctive contributio n by popularizing a particular type of interactio nisl method known as the dramaturgical approach . The dramaturgist compares everyday life to the selLing of lhe thealer and stage. Just as actors present certain images. all of us seck. la present panicular features of our personalities wh ile we hide o thcr qualiLics. Thus, in a class. wc may feel the need to proj ect a serious image; at a party. it may seem im . . portanlto look like a relaxed and cntertaining per. . son. In Box 1-2 o n page 24, GofTman's work on public place~ is reviewed to sce how accurately it speaks to the experi ences of women.

~~...~.?~~?I.?gi.'?'!..~pp'.~?,~?,>....................................... .
Which perspecLive sho uld a sociologist use in studying human bchavior? The functionalist? The con. . fliCl? The imeractioniSl? Sociology makes use of all three perspectives (see Table 1..2), since each offel'S



em inin sociolog) is oflC:.. associ:tli'd wilh lhe confli ct 1>C I~pective !.It·cause that perspective emphasize>; the struggle among competIng grotllH ill a liOCiety, '·Iowever. ~ciul obrjst Carol Brooh Canlner ( 19B!)), a symbolic in ter.lctlollisl interCSlcrl in gender issllcs. has ofI't'I'ccl a le minist criuquc of Ihe intlue lllial work o n the ~f)ciology of puhlic place5 developed by h(' r dis'iCrtauo n advisCl', Erving Cofflllan
{1963b. 197 1} ,

1llL'I1 , lIIuch less lhe rt/minc u'epid ;u.i o ll that ethnic and rOldaJ mi-

In G;.trdue r's view. the
M)CiOIf>gicall'xam illa[ioll ~

dlL>;~ic· !I .

of public pl :' cc.~ prese nt public sU '('ets. parks. an(\ ro.ldw:l)1I il.'l ill nOt'IIOI15 !lCtli ngs ill whic h str.m gt'r!; eithcr leave each other alone o r intc ...... n po litely. C()n~qtle r lll)', GorFlJlall '~ sllldies of rHlltille illleractions in public


;L~ W hclrill g~

e IlC OIIIl-

ICI1I wllt'Tl a person is lost :.uHI asks ror dircctions) uncie f(' st;lIlate Ule diOirulties commonly experienced by subordin<t{e groups, III Cardncr's view ( 1989:45): ~ R..II·cl y does " CofTru:m cm phasil.c Ihe habilU;11 d isproportionate fear tha l. \'/Omen call cOllie to feci in public to\\~lrd

norities and the di~1. hlecl can eXI>Clie ll ct',~ For example, women are wd l·aW'dre that the oslelUllbly innocuous helpillg enconnter ,,;Ih a 111:111 ;11 a public placc call 100 e.lSHy lead 1 undesired sexual querid 0 1)1' adlf.ltlct.'s , If a man asks for direc ti o ns or for a match, a \~()l1lal1 may ha\c reason to fear Ihat he has a hidden agenda that h ;\.'I ~p<lrkl.-d lIle conversation. A\ p:lrl of her disscn;ltion re" SC<lrc h . Ca.r dner obscn'cd gCllder beha\;or in public places in Sama Fe, New Mex ico, ovel' ;\II lS-nlonlh period: she also conrlucted 35 indepth interviews wi lh WOlllell and meTl from S:Ulta Fe ilbo UI their ex· pc ri c n rc.~ in public pl:lces. In comparing her findin gs \";th Ihose of Goffm:lIl , she places panicular elllphasis 0 11 the impact of street rl'rmu'kl on women, Whereas Goffinan 'Uggesb that Slrl.Ct remarks occur rnrd)'-"'ilnd ' thallhcy genemlly hold no unpleasallt or threatening implicmion.'l-G:lI'dner COlllllel'1l (1989;4!.1) 1.hOll

wfol' )'lJUHK women c~pedall)'... 'Ippeal'illg ill public places carrie!l wil h ilthe const,,1nt poSSibilil),uf {",,u. u.1.uou. CQl1lplinlC'lIl5 that art: not n:ally so COlllplinJe llmry after all. and hafllh or \'1111,,"'1' irn;ull5 if the woman is found w~lJIung.~ Sht; ..dlts thal Streel remarks are OC(a.~i() nally fnl· lowed by Iweaks. pinctll's. nr ('\-'cn bloll'>;. which unmask the latent horr titity of m an)' male"to·fC'lIlal~· SU"Ce1 rellla.I'i:s. Cardne r acknowledgC!; the pi~ neering cont nbutioll of En; n!': Gonma n 10 Ihe Study of public p1;I CC8. calli ng h is work ~(l riginaJ"

and wcollct'plually rich,w 13tll she suggests that CofTlIlan 's view of in· te ractions in public place~ givcs in· ~ um ci" nl ,mention to tht' impacl of gender. For Cardner, man y women hll\'c a \~C'l1 -fo\lllded f('al' of tht' 5('):1131 h3 rass menl.



Ihat C orcur in public places. She Hn therefore cOllciudes that ' pllblic pl ace~ art· arenas for the enactlIIell t 01 inequalit) in evel)day life for women and 101' man)' others(Cardne r, 1989:56: M:e ;1!s0 Cardner, 1990),

lIniqlLc insights imo th e sa me pro ble m , Thus. in stmlying the continLled high levels of ullcml>loymc nt in the United SlateS, the runc tionalist might wish to study how unc mployme nt reduces lh c d emand ror goods but simultan eoLlsly inc reases th e need for public sc lvices, therc by leading lO n e\vjobs in llu: govc rnme lli secto r, Th e interaClio nist mig ht e n courage us to focus o n the ovemll impacl o f L111cmploylllclll on fumi ly life. as manifested in divorce, domenic vio lence, and dependencc 011 drllW' and alcohol. Rescarcher.i with a conflic t pc/'SPCCU\'C might drdW our allention to th e un even clistribuuol1 of unemployment within Ih e labor

rorce ;lIld huw it is panicularly likc l)' to alTect women and racial and eth n ic minoritics-thost gl'OlIpS leml! like ly to illnue nce dccisio n making about cconomic and social policy. No one of these appl'oaches to the issues rc lated lO Lln e mploymclll ;s "co ITe c l ,~ Withill this Lext· boo k, it is assumed that wc ca n gain the broadest tll1derst:uuling or our society hy drawing upon all three pcrs pectivcs in the s tudy or human bchltvior and insututions. These perspecli\'es o\'erlap as their interests coincide but can diverge according to tbe dictates of each appt'oach and of the issue being studied.


Ai nnled before ill thi .. chapter', many early sodol"".,IJ.-notabl)' J ~ll1 e AddamlY-\.\'crc CJuite ca lletnil't! whit social reJOllll. They wtlnl('d lheir tilt,. ... Q(JC'lI findings to be relc\~.lnt tQ po lir.:ymakers 1Jld hJ people's lives in general. Toda)" applied .etioloO is the use or the discipline of sociolot.'Y WIth lite sl>ecific intent o f yielding P'-dCtiClll 'IppliCll!OI1~ for hllm<ll1 bchavior and organiltlliol1~. Oflcn. the goal of sllc h work is to assist in reriving a social problem . For example. in the lasl l.i ",;11'5. ~ix president~ of lhe Uniled Slales have t"StJuhoJled commissions to delvc into major' sodrulll)lltcmS facing Ollr natiun . Sociologists have brt-II called UpOIl la appl)' their ex pertise to studym~ '\Jch issues as violence. pornography, crime, illl~"u(ln. and populadoll. In Europe, both aeadrOll( and gO"ernmental research d eparUllcnt!l arc offenng increasing fimulcial SlIPPOI'I for applied




,\nnthcr example of applied sociology is lhe ~lng 10C011 community rescarch IIlO\'CmenL One IMtlRlIJon which has pioneered in this effurt is lhe (.enter for the Study of Local l.ssucs, a "ese:lrcit unit ul\nut' Anllldel CO lTllllunilY COllege, located in "mold. Malyland . The center encourages sU ldent~ ;aM r.l{'ulty to apply wc ial scientilic research meth· om In ~tud}i.ng cOllununity issues suc h as e mployII\t'nr opportunities for people with disabilities IInd p,1IIt'nl ~ of armed robberies. Silllihll'ly. in :Ill cn'on to Llnpro\'c selvices. the Sodal Sciencc Centcl' fol' (mnrnuniLY Education. Research, :tnd Sen~cc or tbr l'ni\"crsity or Wisconsin-StulIl has studied the r8tcr;l'('nns of Ill.ut:·funde d p rograms designed 10 pmcnl child abuse <tnd lhe auitudes of college .~1\I­ denli wv."aJ'd local retail slOres :lI1d olher commumn rt.'SOlIrCCS (Pampcri.n Cl ;11., 1985; sec also p, Ro~r.I. 1987). TILt' growing popularity of applied ..ociolugy has Itd r\1 the rise of lhe spec blty of clinic.'lJ sociulugy. 111111' V/irth ( 193 1) ,'/I'Ole about clinical socioloJ:.,'Y mort than 60 years ago, but lhe lerm iL~clr has hl'(rnnc popular only in recenl ycal'~. Cli,.ical 1I,;ology employs a ,,:,riel}, of lechniques 10 faciliblr change and is similar in cenain respects to "1>phr!! lIOCiolob Huwever, while applied sociology 'Y. nl.I\ ht· c'~lluative, clinical sociology is dcdic.llCd to .:all~rtng wcial relationships (as in family Iher:lpy)

or 10 restl1JCluring sudal in"lilllliolls (as in the n_ '" organil..lt.ion Ofll medical cenler). The Sociological Pr-deuce As~oc iali on \. . a:. founded in 1978 10 promote the applic:.llioll of ,0dolog-kal knowledge lO illlelvcmion for individual and social change. This professional group has dt:veiol)cd a procedlu'c I()I' ccniryinl{ clinical sociologists-much as physical thelOlpisl,s 01' ps},cho lof.\'isls are certified . As an other indicaLion of the rise of clinic,1 suciology, as of 1989 the American Soda10b",c;l1 A~sodalion bCJrdn publishing a nel\' jollrnal of clinical sodology, Soriowgiml Prfl(.hu Rn'il'W. Applied sociologi..LS general!) !ea\'(' it to o lhe l'S to act. on their (,. ~,Iluatiolls. By COlltrnsl. dinicallln... ciologisu bear direcl responsibility for irnplenu:l1tadon and view Iho~e with whom they work as their c1icnts, TIlis s pec i:tll ~ has bt.-come increa~ingl y :Itu--.tclivc 10 socio logy gr.lduate slude n LS bet:au§t~ i, (,ffen; an upportunity to ilpply inlcllecLUallcal11ing in a pmclical W· ),. Moreovcr. sh rinking prospects fUl d academic; emplo),11Icnt have madc sll ch allc:rtlOHiv(' career roules appealing (H . Freeman ct al., J 9!:i!\: H . Freeman and Rossi. 1984: R. SU':.lUS, 1985: 18). AI)plieri and clinical sociology c:m be cOlllmsted with basic (or /mu,) sociology, which ha.~ the 01>jcclivc of gaining a 11101'(' profound knowledge uf the furlcia111enlal aspects ofsocinl plrenomena, Thi .. Iype of re'>Careh does 110\ ncct!wll'il)' hope to gene ra te specific applic;rLiolls. althottgh such idea,'j ma)' result onee findings arc analp.ed. \Vhen Durkhcim studied suicide rates, he was not primarily interested in disco\'ering a \\'01)' LO eliminate suicide. III Lhis sense, his research \\'as an example of basic r.JlJIC~r than applied sociolog}'.

Onc important way in which the socio l o~..ical im;tgilml.ion ca n be usefully applied is 10 cnhance our L1ndc l'Sl;:mciing of CtllTCIlI social is.~lIes. Beginning wit.h C hapter 3 of' this textbook. which rOClr.~e~ nu culture, each chaple r wi ll conclude with a di~ell~­ sion of · COlllcrupur-.tr)' social policy issuc. In sornt' " cases, a specific issue facing Col1gre,~ l.nll Ix- examined ; in others, there will be ;J more d {,cl'nu~ ll ­ ized issue facing cily co uncils or school boards. FOI example. governmerll fllndingofLhild care (enters will be discussed in Chapter 'I, Soda lizm,ion : Ihe:

r-;JIANI'..R I • /1/1; NATVNt: ()f SfK'JQf ocr

AIDS crisis in Chapte r 5. Social Inte raction and Sodal StnlcLUre; domestic viole nce in Chapter 13, The Family: and natio nal heaJth insurance ill Chair ter 17. Health and Medicine. T hese social policy sceLiOIll; will demonstrate how fundamcnml sociologic:! l concepts can cn hance ollr critical thinking skills and help liS to bc uer undc rsta nd Cll n '(' nt pulr lie policy debates. In ;ulditjon, sociology ha.~ been userlto cV'dlUatc the success of programs or th e impact of c hanges brougl1l about by policyma kcl's and po lilical aclivisl$. Cha pter 2. M C l.h od.~ of Sociological Research , will focus on a study o f how thc corporate rc~po"se to Blacks ' dema nds fo r civil rights afTccted tOlrrnnking African American e)(eCulj"es, Chapter R. Stratilicalion and SaciaJ Mobili ty. inc!ud(.'S discussion of researc h on tJ, e effectiveness of ,..:elfarc programs. Cha pter 18. Com munilies, e,,;lmines a st udy of how:tctivism by homeless people im proved the ir individual situations llnd led to bro."Ic1cr

cha nges in public policy, These discussions, along with t,hc social policy sections of the leXt, will UI1derscore the many practical applications of sociological theory and research . SociologislS expeclthe next qua rter ofa CCn!ury la be perhaps the most exciting and critical period in tJ1e history of Ihe discipline. This is because oh growing rec:.ognition-both in the Unit ed St,lIes and arou nd tll C world-Lh :u current social proble ms must be addressed before their magnilu<k overwh elms human societies. If such predictioN p rove to be accurate, we can expect SOCiologists 10 play an in creasing ro le in the govern ment seClOr b) researching and dcve lopi ng public policy alternatives. Therefore , it seems appropria te fo r' I.his textbook to include a uni(lue focus o n the connection between the work of sociologists and t.he difficult queslions confronting thc policymakers a nd people' of tJ, C United States.



L 1e pl'i m:u)' soun:c o f e mploymen t for sociologists is higher education, About 75 percel\t of recent Ph.D. recipien ts in socio logy sought e mployment in two-year community colleges. liberal arts colleges, and universities. 1l1esc sociologists will teach not o nly m;yors com mitted lO the disciplint.' but also st tld c nL~ hoping lO become doctors. IHIr.:;CS , lawyers, police of1icers. and so forth (B. Hube r. 1985). For sociolob"Y stude nts interested in academic ca~ rcers, Ihe road to a Ph.D. degl'ee (or dOCLOJ':UC) can be long and difficult . This degree symbolizes competence in original research; each cand id:u c must prepare a book-lengt h study known ;L~ a di.fMrlaJion. T ypically, a grad uat!! slIIclent in sociology wiU e ng<lge i'I fo ur to six years of intensivc work . incl uding the time required to comple te the d issertation . YCI this effort is no guamntec of a job as a sociology professor. Over the next decade, tJu;: demand for ;nstruClon;; is expected to decline, si nce there will be fewe r students of college age. Conscquentl)', a nyone who launches a n acadcmic carcer must be prcl)ared fo r comide rnl>le uncertainty and r:ompc-

ulIon ;11 thc coll ege job marke t (America n Soci~ logical Association, 1977: 10-- 1 I ; B. I-Iubcr, 198.'), Of course, not all people working as sociologislI teach o r hold doctoral degrees. Governmc nt is the second-largest source of e mploym ent. for people in u1is disc.ipline. The Census I~ureall relies o n peoplc with sociological lrdin ing to illlcrpre l data in:t way that is usefu l for othe r go\'emmelll agencies and tJ1 C ge ne ral publi c. Virtually eve ,)' age ncy depe nds o n survey researc h-a fi eld in whic h soclo~ ogy students can specializ.e-in order to assess e vcrything from community needs to the morale of the agency's own workers. In addition, people with sociological training ca n plllthe ir academic kno",~ edge to effectivc use in probaljon and pa role, health sciences, communi ty developlllellt. and recrelllio nal services. Some people working in government or pri\~dtc industry have a master's degret (an MA o r M.S.) in .sociology; othe rs have a bad.. elor's dcgree (a BA or n.s.). The accompanying figure sum mar iz.es sources of c mplo)'tI1c nl fo r those with B.A, or 8 ,S, degree., in

/'AH'r OSI'. · ·I'm. SOClOI.O(UCAI. fflH.!iI'f;Cf'I1'E

rntd E.ploymflnt

.... Sodology Graduates

.,r-- R.~,·,h.%

, ~- Oth"' '''

Graduates ",ill! OOCC{II(1!trf'(llf degroc\" ill SQrioloff1fillll rm/Ilr,)'mf'rlt in fl lIum/lrr

of mlaJ, UIII/WrliC'lI/f1 r,,' i'l l)!jsinf'-s~ flnd (ommN"rf', SMilll .vflIiu3. mul


IKlOOlogy. Like o ther libera l ans gr dduates, sociol01\. majors eau generally offer t.heil' e mployers esIl'tlwfjoh-rdated ski lls. J ob app licants with sociol010 dtgrees find that lhcir rciinement in sllch areas .IS UTal and wriue n commu nication , intclversonal WU~. problem solV"ing, and critical thinking gives thrlYl all advantage ove r' gradwl1cs who have purIdl'd more technical degrees (Be nner a nd Hitchill(k. 1986; Billson and Hubcr. 1993). R('necting the utili ty or applied a nd clin ical wx.iology, the fi gure shows that the a reas o f huma n \tMr~. business. and governme nt olfer important carter opportun ities fo r sociology graduates. Un-

de rgradu:uc." arc commonly advised to en ro l! in sociolob'Y courses and speciallies (rerer back to Table 1-1) bcst-suited for their career interests. Fo r e xample, SllIdents hoping to become health planne rs would take a class in medical sociology; students see kin g e mployme nt as social science research assist.1nts would refine their skills in statistics a nd methods, Inlernshi ps, suc h as placeme nts at city plannin g agencies and survey research o rgani1.ations. orrer sodolof,,), undergraduates an imponan1 opportunity 1.0 pre pare for careers. Studies show that students who c hoose an illlernship placement have less trouble findin g jobs, o btain better j obs. and e njoy greate r job satisfactio n than sUlden ts wi thout inte rnship placements (Sa lc m a nd Cra~ barek, 1986) . Many college student.'; view social work as the field mOS1 closely associated with sociolo!:,'Y. Trad itionally. social workers received their undergraduate tmining in sociology and all ied field s such as psycho logy and counscli ng. After some practical experience , social workers would genernlly seek a ma<r te r's dcgr(.'e in social work (M.S.W.) to be considered fo r supervisory o r adminiSlJ"a tj"e posi tions. Today. however. som e stude nlS choose (,,,he re it is aV'dilable) 10 pursue an unde rgrdduate d e~ee in social work (B.S.W.). This degree pre pares grad uates for d irect se lvice positions such as caseworker or g roup \\'orkcl'. rather than 1 1' tht: broader occupa0 tional areas served by the sociolob'Y baccalaureate . Finally, unde rscoring the renewed imerest in ap~ pli ed sociolob'Y. it is cl ear that an inel·easing numbel" of sociologists with grndtt:ltc dC~>,"l'ecs afC being hired by business fi,ms. industry. hospitals. and llonproli t o rgani1.<ltions. Indeed . studies show tha t fIlany sociolob'Y gmdu<lles arc making career c hanges rrom social services areas la business and comme rce. As an 111lde rgradu<tle major, sociology is excellen t pre pamt io n for employment in many parts or the busin ess world (B. Huber, 1985, 1987: W. Watts and Ellis. 1989; Wilkillson, 1980).

f ;IIArnR I • TII/::NA'I"UHf. (11." 'lfI('JQf.f1(";I

Socio lolCl i! the systema tic 6lmty of social I.x! ha\;o r and human groups. In this chapter. "'·c exami ne the nature or sociological theory. the found ers of the discipline. theoretical pcnp«tives of contemporary SOCiology. and the application of sociology to current issues of public policy.
An i01porlanl c le me n t in !.he sociological imagina.

be perhaps the most exciting alld critkal period in tl.r hiSlory of The discipline because o f a b.'TOwing rccogn~ tio n tha t socia l problems must be addrcsSt.'t1 in Ihe rW':U fUlUre.

tio" is the ability to view o ur own socie ty as a n outsider
might. r.uher than from the perspective of Ollr limited cxperiences and cultural biases. 2 In contrast to other rocial ,d,me", sodolo~:y emphasizes the innuence that groups can have on people's behavior and attitudes and lhe W"d)'S in which people shape ~C ty. 3 Sociologisu e mploy theories to examine the relationships bet""ecn obsen. .atiolU or berween d;lIa tha t may Re m comple tel y unrelated. 4 In hi5 pioneering work S,ticicv., published in 1897. Emi]e Durkhe im focused on social r.,Cton: that con· tributcd 10 the ratc.~ of suicide fo und amo ng various groups and natio ns. 5 Max Weber to ld his stude nlS tha l they sho uld cmploy V".f lt ll p,II, the GemllUl word for~ulld erstandin g R or -insight: in their intellectual ,",,'ork. In c mplO}illg Vm~ hen, sociologists coflSidcr the thoughu and feelings of those people under study. 6 Kari M:ux argued tha l history could be understood in dialectkaltenns as a record of tht' inevilitble conflict beLWeen the owners of the means o f production and the maJ\SC5 of l)Coplc who have no resources other than their labor (the prole taria t). 7 Macrosociology concentrates 011 l:u·gc..·..I\c;lle phenome na or e ntire civi1i7.atio ns, whereas m icro.fociology St1"C5SC5 Sludy o f sma ll groups. 8 In contrast 10 the emphasis 011 stabili ty l'o'hich characterizes the functitmalist perspective of sociology. the conflict plI,..fpective assumes thal socia l bchavior is besl understood in IConS of conflict or tension between competi ng groups. 9 Within the d iscipline of socio logy, t he i rlf fl raction· il t perspective is primarily concerne d with fUlld:l1llc nlal o r t'\'e'1'da~· fo n us of in teraction , including symbols :U1d o the r types or 1/onve,.btJi communication, 10 Applied sociology- the LISt" o r th ... discipline with the specific intent of yielding p racTicll applicatiol1s fOl· human beh"vior and organization.s-c-.U1 be COllll' l!lIOO with basil! lociology. th~ o bjective of which is 10 gain a more pro fo und kn owledge o f the runcla nllm1411aspects of socia l pheno me n'l. 11 Socio logisl.'i upcC t the next quartcrofa century 10

If a socioloRist \\'as present in II collc..-ge cafet e l;a, what aspecu of T e social and work e nvironme nt wo uld be of h panicular interest bcrau5c of his o r he l· ~.rociologica1

2 Some sodologisl.'i sc..'C lhe mseivc..'S M social rdomlef) dedicated to systematically smdying aud the ll impro\ing societ)', while others COWlIcr tltal M>Ciologisl! sho uld res trict themselves to theorizing and g:lth eting infonnation. In yo ur view, which of these position! represents a more approp!"ia l ~ goal for the discipline of sociology? 3 H ow mighr functionalist, conl1iCI , alld illlel1lclioniJt theorists view popular music?

Anomill Durkheim 's tcnn for the loss of direction rtlt in a society whcn .social control of indi\ idual beh.nior has become ineffective . (pagt· 12) Appli ed sociology TIle use o f the d iscipline of soci~ wilh the ~pecifk illlent ofyiclding practical llpplications fo r huouUI be.h:wior a nd ol"g-.mi"l3lions. (25) Basic lociology Sociological inqui ry conducted wilh I.he o bjective uf gaining a more profound kn o wlcdgt of r.he fundall1clllal aspects of gociaJ phenomena. AIM! kn own as IIIIIY! rorilllogy. (25) Clinical sociology ' 11e use of the discipline uf 5Ociology wiT Ih e SI)(.'Cifk illl e lll o f altering 'IOcial re lation-h ships and facilitating change. (25) Confl ict pe,.sptdive A sociologicd approach which a. . SUlli es that socjal bchavior i.5 hest undentood in terms ofconflkt or Tension betwt.-cn competing groups. (19) Dialectica l p,.OCtSS A .series of dashes betwee n confl icting ideas a nd fo rces. ( 14) D,.amaturgical approach A view of social intc mcT ion, popui:lri ~(.·d by ~rvi ng GOfflll:lO, umler whic h pcopl~ are cx."1lllincd :L~ if they we re thcmrir.ll pc rlflrmers. (23) Dysfunc tion An clement o r :I process of society t.lw lIIay disrupt a social s~le m or lead 10 a dccre""ASe ill stability. ( I !I) FUllctionalid pe,.spectivlI A M>Ciological approodl which c lIlplmsi1.c..'lI Ihe way that par"L1 or .. soOC!y anstructured to maimain iL~ stability. ( 18)

I~RT 0...., ;

• 11(£ SfXJOLOCJCt.I. 1'ERSI't."CTI\X

lll wurd for ~l1nde"M.'tch . 20036• Kohn.!fld :lll il udes..'1 l'I'ler L.\ o f admini5triIIOrs.m~n groups. 0/' Ihe polilir.J/I( """ New York: Ancho r..wiur..'O'. a romlc rpn:. R. O. 1991... F/W' fmI'm. CnUm1 Sonlliogy (lormerl) rh/' }1IJUfW'lf Socwlogist.>s ClI Iht: rdaI.ioll... o r bch..Ire an illlpon :1II1 reSll urcc for fr.. SocUJfogy for 1\7111111' N~w "(Irk: Oxro rd University Press.-hip helw«1l .e... 1V6!1)...sociology. . Ncw York: Maclnill:m .'wof CtJlllr"'ptlfllry ·I'hrorir. U~i"g. Journals :mcl periodicals ..~al P.. Straus. C .cial exprcssions. IlidrlclI purpo!kos. SIi'J. IUBI:!.."nll'n' :lI"e vcry Ii:w jokt'S abo1l1 s()('i()logiSt.'iMoI.t. ( 16) .. 1 h' :If.. (5) 11".(TOlotifJ/ogy Sociological jnvc~lig.~r femini~1 thcorit'$ in sociolog)' or Ilic-oriCli lI)cfullU '>OCiologists LlI:u h:wc clllcrgt. r.•.I!I'5 (m Iargr. D.e...ical Ic. _ _ .I of cmployme nt oppormuilie:s. l1. and l"e:ISfln.siblc a nd llceoumabl~ 10 the hig h.IMo/lypt A COIISLnlct 01' model th...'1'1011 (I...n.lsca. C.l by M:LX Weber 10 strcss Ihe IICL'<l for "" 1oI. 1963.111(\ h.~_ .: Sagl·...Sonu/o/Jfm/ /Juiglrf: A tI h'ffodllftion 1/1 .-cts ranging from -adtlhhood~ 11) ~\\'ork "f1I..~ sociologkal areas.Ij('IlJ IIf SMnitlgy mid A!llhro/Hllogy (198<1 ). ...wSIS 10 mkc inLO acoount people".. I'\eil J. (18) lIitroutiology Sociologic-dl i1wcstig:UjOII whidl wl't"l. CSI SciClllilic ami e lhic-.. and Sonf)iog. buyr/upIt//o ofSonolOKJ..~ Lt!.. (7) s... a nd t'\cl)'da)' lile tipprlmehes.i nsi ~ hL s I·t'bra rd ing l'elig ion.'"!i' "'1' 011 !ubjt.:ltt' of the clisciplint· and \~dl. Ihrlllllhll. J concise book th at olTen strikiuij" ami ~ I\OI\­ \ obvious.. Ii) N.u interac tio n. Melvin L (cd.\liou~ :upcclS or human \ll(ICI\ (7) Sttiol'rtlll i magi"Cllioll An awarcnc.lIjon wllidl conCCIIU. rmd c(m~dous ru nc-..IL includes more Ih:ln 350 j igncd t...-:II establishmcnt.·nlat..: Amcrican Sociologic-M Assooalion. III 'IOCi. 111is anthology int111(1L-s 17 e~says which pre~cnt com pal...mtadimt fu..wtnce 111e MlId).. 0l11fifllfl1H' &aology (1978). Ill. &Ymf hwrl$ ( 1922) .sciellcc dbciplillC's. I'rc)s. businCS5 leaders.. :1V:ailable fl'Om Ihe ASA aI 1 7~1 N SI..wf Hruil''''( I ~08). lb)1Iid('. 1n". feminist nco-Freudian t...N.OU..mr Open. (I) SooolOKJ: A IIJ/II/(/II...I..till~t which actual COI..o ric ll sociological n:~eafch . I'tOOPI'i1. and Robe" K.1 he ..1L so-ciologisL~ al'e rC5]>on."..: Genu.rbll/ co"""uII..~.'lud..roei. Sills.). 1I~1 bulf'G(fIollist perrpetlivt A sodological :lppro. (12) ADD[fI()N... HullCL" lkltin. Oxford Uni"cl'5il).. An O\'l'I1:. apprals:-.).nifl/!J. allcl g:e~ IUII"_ (2S) Sc-itlllCt !lIe !>od)' of knowledge oblaincd b)' ml'lhod~ IlIbCtI upon S). argues Lh.11 . Washington....ulkmJ ( 1951).mk.. N.. New York.."lfolrciellce Ine ~tudy of Ihe phy.I.'(is.). Newbmy I'al·k..lIlIrr.... ..C"O.lt sociology has a spcrial rl>spol1sihility bcCHI'C " tllt-U)t'~ so o r/clI 0 11 hU llKUl idc:.This cl1c.. I-'r"'i~1St Sonology: A" O!lotT1t. :lction5. .. J :mcl S:llllInan ..hl(h gCllcnlliu'S ahoul fundamClual or everyday rNn.colioll 1111.G.. . '!Isnuly of Mn:11I groups and oFten U~ l:d>OI'IIoI) exptrimcllIaJ studics. Lors lisLand CI'O... of the m. beliefs...' sc ndiug of mC:5.\'011nimimH S". SL Cd. lI(. I ~)85...lIS o n'en> an iIlulllill...-clol>rtiia is a gOI'Xi pl. Rogcl (cd .iQwgy (found ed in 1895).~fl)..:ui vc . emotions... Edgar !-'.heorics..'>CS call be c\~ luaH:d . (2 1) ".oJ!J. /lulctifHlJ Unco nscious or unimellded fune- \111/1\.Slemalic observation. A facllt.{.. of \':... Sllflrty (19(i!\). Ikrg('1 lakc~ a Ihoughtflll . of the disci· plinc arc th e tI mrrira" jOllntllf of S()(.tge.delll of the AmcriC\I1 Sc.~~~. .. crimc. Washington. inlcm(:1 :lIId changc.. Crrm-Natiotlal Rl'wmh HI SonobJgy.. Lee.. (9) "mIMt" Tlu...!jor ' sociological j{llll'na ls lhal cover all area....: S. powel".I IlIlIt. Newb1ll")' Park. 1982.lI:e 10 I>r. .111 illdividu.!1 and Ihe wider ~oc:iCL )...lciologtcal Associaliol1. (18) At.lI1d fr.V.~..>ages tlu"tlgh the use 0 1 pos wre.1)-5 in which the). 1985.).l\'id L.1I1d hi~ l.-.lif. The rn. J.l\'i(lr .m ldy (If social hch. . 29 .dl.....-. 1l1l5 collection l'Xlllllin('~ the St.. Ammrtlll SoriolQguo1 fW ljl'lu ( 1936)..... .. .."... fllw/tj(ul/I ""1n". A fOllfInll/m" work Ih..l J.?~.\'1..~L IWO dt'cade •• including ~-farxi~ I -lc l1lin isl Iht. a nd ~bric L I\orgall<l (lOfls. f !t/III/book ofSnooiqo'...lI sernos I\S a mca· ~UIIII)!..: Gencral liall. In CrmtllH' Soriology ( 1972).!i!l-indcx (llIol:-tlio ns fro m all L . sociologisll> musl not compromise lhese id cal~ in an e ffort to 1tCn"C lhe inLcrl'Sl.. 1 suc::iology.k. Calif...1s :lIld passions. :"IW. rud Jg-....111(1 wh imsica l look :\1 Ihe disc ipli ne . 111c r. (cd. Colli"s.. 10\'('. Ifl) Sori"'Q The syslematic .u in~ "iew or clillic d and applk-d . Lee. 1978..C\\..vlewing: the t lLeSI sociological research.II idea1.llc phenomena o r cnt ire civili/.. 1989... .. . D. Smdser..: Pcanx... pub· Iishers. "'--if"" fiul/} ( 16) / Ull cII·/.). 1988....\ [fred Mc:Clung. a Scl of stalel1le nLS Lhat sceks 10 11 1'\1'1~in problems.. Sarinl Srit!lIU Q!W/Utlllll_ New York: Macmillan. Ernpiqymrlll Pat/mu HI &dO/Cif)': fVanl '("tIIO ami Flltl/fr '~ff1t!d..odil...... In hi~ view..~. ~m lunher reading o r rcscarch. Chafetz.'1 of naum: and the \\'. SoclIJlcgrrnf QuWUf/y (1960). 1992...'tI in Ihl' la.alldillg.()f '""ll(hl-: u!lCf.


.......... .....................£CfING DATA SUI'\'t:)'lI ETIlIes OF RESEARCH Case Stud ies of Ethical Co nlrO\~rsics T C'droorn T rad e Accidelll o r Suicid e? Ne UlralilY a nd I'olitia in Research APPENDIX I: WRITING A UBRARV RESEARCH REPORT APPENDIX 11: UNDERSTANDLNG TABLES AND GRAPHS BOXES 2· 1 Curre nl Rc!W:arch: Racial o n the Street ~ Eye WOl'k~ 2·2 Speaking O Ul: Prcscrvi ng Confide ntiality... ..=====:1...·eloping the Co n cl ll~ion SUPI)(Jrling IlypOlh c5CS Coll lIolling for Olher Factors III SUllIlIIlI ry: The Scie ntific Melhod RESEARCH DESIGNS FOR COu......... METHODS OF SOCIOLOGICAL .One Socio logi5t'l V............ ...1:.... ..... .....Ile5 and Indices ~:!U u ri ng Validity and Reliability Ik............... ............nure Fomllila ting lhe I l ypoth C5i~ CoIlecling and AnalYling Dat:1 St:k'c ting Ihe Sample Creating Sc-............:=====::.....RESEARCH .'" Observation Experi me nts Use of Existing SoUIUS 31 .... . WHAT lS 11-[E SCIENTlnC METHOD? lklining the Problem ~iewi ng lhe Litcr....

!:J'IHJ11S n lUJl mlrd. would na p a nd Leona rd have fo und mo rc I .~~:~~~ that has long char:lclcl. and Till/f) would be 111 0 1e likely to poe". o r music C iven thei r selectio n of subject mall eI'."d modern maganne advertiscmc nts.\Vhy.een the l)Ortl"a).He positions. ill d.olypin!: print advertiseme nts appeari ng in 7 ncs. 7I.~. 1 \115. in pOlrl t wom en COlllinllcd la be trc:tted as MlbOldimue ma n)' ad vertisers.<i ix/OIl Ms.Wlwt'Vt'T wishes to serve sciena: has ~SOn!U Every scientific fuljilbnenl raises new quts/ions.rrl\ ·~ .. social phe no mc na indiR'CtJy? • Why is il valuable for soc:io l ogi ~ l s 10 have a code of c thics? H ow do socio logb..)."-d by sociolobrisLS who wish to w nduct o bl>cn 'a tioll research? • How can :.' IYI9 LOOKIN G AH EAD • How do l>odolob rislS use the sciell1i1ic rnelhod? • How can researchers study the impact of Black d e mand..c evolvcd . 10 resign himself to this facl.t(. movies.IIg SIOII. let liS look bdeny at al1 inle resting study of magazine atlveni '«!lll cllI s." ing lllag:.. SOCJOl.ine_ ' portrayal 01oWO'...'Cond:ul' me<L'iUI'es lo st ud).. 'n Ick foclls was scxual " . j l11c rc.dilio"'l :. dean""t 32 PiR.wio r a nd instillltions? Is il accu rntc to conside r sociology a scie nce? Wha t ethical Sla nda rds b "-lide sociologists in conducting research? As a wolYof beginning o llr eX.1 \\'0111 (:11 in subo rdina te pO . nmg'. d evised a study to examine whe ther tj.. the media per5is\(:d ill typic. as lo newspa pers.. 1 1oIl. WOtS condllctl.:dia continue to show \\'Ol11e n p ril11arily in these con\'cn- lional role .U1)' articles? \\o'h~i:i researche rs choose lO study mag:. Sociologists Pe nny Belknap a nd Wilbc rt LL"Onanl. (11 sho uld be noted tha t SGUd .<11 o r wome n in ". :~.m. Many <]lIcHions may come to mind .17. wo me n ill the United States have in aca ~ ingl y c nte red occupatio ns and careers lhal trad itionall y were resctv cd for me n.lJj nes. both o f Illaga..'d the Illc.~~~::~ cusing o n thc ~pholOb '1l1phs n c " those thal acCOmp.. ing childlike and defe rential) than would ads mod e rn magaL.i".. N:N.:llllin:..ociologists use St.m "'1 e. In reccllI decades.C mt. As this change in the wOl'kpl:u.e".didI Bclkn ap :Hld Lco rlard use advenisemellls in .'IlCarcll cl·s s l1spected that " traditional 1I1ab ral-ines (GOlxl l-l murlw/'fJ.v". I1 ( 199 1).(j(:.lying WOl1le l1 in such traditional ro les as mothe r a nd home make r.I'g.ines (&rllk'~1I S Quartnly.:"'~h~C:~'. u.dnes perpetuated the sexual '..:llIy portr.'d lO show wome n in I o rdin.i l i o ll ~ ( 10 1' example.\5 sideI' this example ofsociologicoll rescarch.t7ines te ndl.~f:n.~.LS stud) huma n be h.'d ia's wome n. tclc\·isio ll.nio ll of the prind ples a nd me thods o f s0ciological research . (J-"1~ • Tilt.lLine '~::t ' lIcccpling adve rtising in 1990.) There was no substan tial c nce bet ..~ 1'0 1' equa l righlS 0 11 corporalc hiring and promotion po lici es? • Why does the concl usio n of a sodo lub ricai sllldy in val'iably po im the way 10 new research? • Wha t arc the pn lctical alld ethical challe nges lac. Maxll~ as- (I \'ora/Jon. They exa mined approximately print advertiseme nts thal llppearc::d in 1985 of the ~ Ll'ad itio n ar and ~ modcrn " I Uelkn ap and Leona rd found tha t in a ll six mag..

collect may prove to be unacceptable for purposes or sociolog- 33 ClIN'1TJf 2 • MJ:TIIOOS OF SOClOUJGlCAL JI£Sf'AHClI . .'St themes ronn tht: core of ChapLe r 2. unhkt' the typical ci tizen .IiSt·d by Mmc Weber's call for ~valu c nc utrality" ill VlClai5Cience rC:\Carch .mrd. the "lI"lologisl is imercstcd in th e cenl. ohscrv:uions.if we are rami liar with the s!':lI1dards of scientific researc h. rather than rdislIIK . 01' allY outer-therc is onc nudal requirement.r. \'I'lInin.uily .lllJrI? Why is thcre so much c rimc in the United \lJlcV Such issues conccrn most pcople. will br prc§clHed.Uld tlhical standards.lhanges in media images ofwomcn iflh~ had comcurrel1l ad\"ertiscmcnls in ulese six maga-IUlM ". O. and thqwilt also be reflected throughout this textbook.'la nd t"'. People in the United States are constantly being bombarded with "facts" or ~ dala. TI1 C scielltific method is a \IMtlllatic. Particular . and surveys. the sociologist has a lOlllruitmcnl to the use of the scic mific me thod In I/Udying society. the scie ntific me thod is sU'ingem and demands that researchers adhere as stric tly as possible to its basic principles. In some cases. it is important that we understand thc scientific me thod .(' aOldc mic training.tO. tions about social intcractions that require fUI'· (hrl 5t ud~ . If investigaLOrs are not carcful . a study wi ll confirm pr~ IIl1ll5 bt-liclS and findings.matic.m e ntion will be given to !ht' prnrtical and e thical challcnges that sociologists faH in studying human bc havior and to the dehate r. Such claims ma). Wc can make bener evaluations or such inrormation-and will not be rooled so e.'W qu. effective research is nnl alwa~'! dm. 11t1~ chapter.lu'ver the area of sociologica l imllli l1 "hl'lhrr culture o r org-<lJ1 ila lio nal behavior. or8" ni7. IKlt they 11..h'C. Are we lagging behind in our abili!)' tQ ked the world po pulation? Is the fa mily falling . A number of tL'C h· Il1~U~ commonly used in sociological research. Within the discipline of socitololn'. Nonethelcss. \lIlh a~ experimenl'!.addilional questions.. respon~Ible Icscarch which meetS the highest scientific .i\1! sociological researc h ("'. advertisers cile sUI>posedl)' scientific studies to p rove that their productS are superior. Th e scientific me thod requires precise prepar dlion in developing useful rescarch.mJr. will cxamine sociology as a social sei""rr. As this chaptcr will indicate. intcrcst us in many n(.. 11. researc h data that the). Howe\'cr. :tll brancJlcs of spt. the n<lnomy or educalion .tll prim ad\'CrUselllents from the 19709 o r t'\l'n the 19509? FITt(l.IIIIOgrs I lIal lil t mmin art lOIiW)'Wg to UJOmf!II ami mm UI IM UlIItaJ Stoln. 11. On the otJlcr hand. for it plays a major role in the workings or our ~iety.[\.:cialilatioll and all theofctkal approac hes depend on imagimu.and whalc\'e r the perffJ«Ii\-e of the socio logist-whethcr fun clionaJist..1t\'1\ Sociologist. J i/!fhap find l\'ifMt 1 ... likt the lypical woman or llI:tn o n lhe s treet. The basic principles and stages or the scic nllfir method will be described . be accllrate o r exaggerated.ll questions of tlur time.I n be quite IhnughI1>r<Jvoldng. building o n what was considered in I1lilpter I." Almost dai l)'. h ma). whelhe r u.tfJ UKUtJl UD'rot)'/JHlK in print tJI/vmismJerlU a~nng in majar mtlpU"t:J ~ that Ihq rDJ/1d ht://u ulld".. WlI. TIlc. interactionist.) I)l"'l. Many of liS wi ll never actuall)' conduc t scicntific research.ed K'ries of stcps that e nsures maximum objectivity and co ns is tency in research· ing a problem.

.. Ihat allowed fo r the clllry or Blacks into top executivc po!'ii lio ns in Wh ite-owned c0'1)Ordti ons?~ O r...... .. CUStomers or clie n ts 10 ma inta in stability a nd prosperity...... 1993:233)..ure. tlllesuo ni ng whe l..".o..ttio na l d d initio n of ~cb concept bt:ing studied..... Collins the n wonde red : "Did lhe progress or these individuals re presc llI a g('n uin c reslruc turingof societ). T he re a re five basic ste ps in lhc scic nLific me thod tha t soc i ologis t~ a nd othe r researchers rollow..t IUS... An actua l exam ple will iIIustr:. ..ings o r the scie ntific method.~ De rmin" th e Problem (i 1 t 'S 10 StCp in a ny sociological rcowarc h projecl !ltme :L~ clearly as possible wha t you hope to investigate. T hus. a socio logist intcl'cSled in stalllS migh t IIse mc m bership in excl usive social cl ubs or p rofessio na l organi1Jllio ns as <Ill opel1' liona l d clillitio n 01 high st...t ing da m.oH1d \-iew the prese nce of Blacks in lIlanageme nt positio ns as a I'e ncclion of business finns' need to atlfllct Blac k.. Ye t h~ls the rclauve success o r ce rtain Blac ks inchided c nLJ)...)' poliC\" ' ilia king P OSitillllS in the cOI110 l"a tc wo l'ld ? Earlv in thei r research . . sJX" cifie e no ugh 10 allow" "escarchcr to measure thf concepl.'... An uperatio'lO l defi"iti" is :UI ("x phlnalio n or an absll'Olct concep t that il..\IId the ir ma ny Wh ite ("Ollll tc q. ML it a I " S ke n responS(: to civi l ri g ht~ prc~s llrt.. In tcractio l1 i~ I'" wo uld fucu~ on tJ1C na tll l'C: or'iOc:i<l\ rcJalio lls bclwecn ll ll.. Dra\\~ lI g o n the C'onOic t pel'spcClivc... ~ocio l ogisL~ faet.. IlkehbWtI of ImtilJlI( Ut Itry pvlirylllQItI"t IIOSt/IO'1I /11 llli' rm1Jf1fr1l~ worM.study a n amltaU 34 . sociologist Sharon Collins ( 1983) had initially relied 0 11 census data to study the c mpiO)'m e nl patle rns o r more affl ue nt Blacks.111 number o r Afrlea ll Alnclicans wc n: being placed ill highl} visible posiuons to prO\-id (' the 1I/Jjl€fl rtl ll Ct' o f change-wh ile the rest o r co.. Whe never researc hers wish to .. At le:ls1 25 percent or African Ame rica ns arc now me mbe rs o r the middle class (Schae rer.'$? We re African Ame rica n cxecuth'es being placc. instead .... (3) ronnu laling lhe h).lle thc .: fe w llIack excc ulives .. m ove rro rn a broad question (Have Blad.. FOI· example. _..... T hesc lire ( I ) d efinin g til e pro ble m.· tht' uN01 rle\'c1oping an uper..... ".pothdL esis... .'elop ing the conclusion..... . Conflict tJlcOriSLS would raise the issuc or toke nism.leal slUd)'. func tionalists . ..'" wotulnf:d .illillgncss 10 hire or work alo ngside me mbers orracQ] and Cthnic minOri ty groul>S. a nd (5) dco.uc ci rcles in the United States?) 10 a researchable pro blem? A sociologist's a pproac h to:'1 rt."" . executivcs been acce pted wltJlin c0'1>or:.../ Bill(..J<ln s... (2) re-viewing lhe lile .o rk.. " .>onnel a nd public relations posts is T he that had liule likelihood of' leading to kt.'Seal'ch proble m is influe nced in impo rta nt ways by his or he r theore lical o rientatio n. 10 a series of q uestions concerning ..... (4) selecting th e researc h design a nd tJlcn collect ing a nd a naly. wrio/'Jf(UI S/I/mm Coli.".. into a nd acce pta nce a mo ng the nation 's corpomte elite? How miglll socio logists 1lS(' the scientific method to sUlciy Blacks' status as corpOrdte exccuti\'es? li ow might tJle)...her a 511 1..IIil~ Illm' M"K pfartd pnmnnl) 11/ hlRIII)' I'uibk jJt'r:JOnrld IlIId /wlJlu 'IIIII"ms /KJ..l? .... "' . . ..fh Ih(llluuj I"....-d primarily ill highly \-i~ih l c per.. A sociologist \\'00 inte nded IU e xam ine prejudice might rely on Itspo n ~c... " ...xmltc III:tJlagell1c lll re mained Wh ite.. Dm'toi"lf Im IIIl all/JUlI pt'fJ~illt..

s ..· trai t or cha racte ristic Ihat is .~~~.t. Income .."sis.iollsh ip between O dema nds fo r equal rig hts a nd corpor:u c hirI.~ not bee n so open to Rlac k CXCl: llIj\'CS. ma n beha"ior inn lle nces o r alJ'cClS anolher. we do 11 0 1 imply th."Qrists. pende nt variable .-tIement "God cxiSl:§" may 01' may nOI be t.. lllUS.is. fitt ed . In her study o r Black executi\les. in ad d ition to dl"IWi llS nn her Oldier I'cse..lcvel if a person 's mltio r j o b . T hese aspects or fa ctors arc call ed V(H1 f1 b{. T he second is terllled the depe1ldent v ariable because it is be lie\'ed to be influe nced by the indepe ndcllt v..~Y.i ng data. 1dc. most Blacks who havc :tc hicved grcat Slll'Less b.He hi ri ng a nd prom o tion po1i cies." a nd Mcorporillc hiri ng and prolllntion policies.e or intluc nce a no ther o m" social scientist!.ll'ia blcs: M Black dem'lllds 101' t..\'. M M Rf\..'csearch .~. . or liberalism . dircctor.1t it is curn :. The \oariablc lhat Collins was trying to expla in. A hypothesis esscn ually tells us \\'hat wc arc look· ing fo r in o u r .:lnU CS and dr.e. it dearly cannol be SciClllific... which rel ied 0 11 ccn:->us d. mm •••••••••••••••••••••••• Ahtr rc\icwing earlier research concem ing Black r.. III hl"f5wdyofBlacks in corpor. d epending o n tht:' o utcom e of thl! stud)" A hypothesis usua lly states how o nc aspect ofhu.iw WletDt'nt about the rela uonsh ip betwccn two 0 1 ' ru~1ft factors is called a hypothe. A resea l'ch hypo thesis must a lso be reasonably specific .rue.t done so ill prol'cssions slILh :.. k executh'cs I>rimaril)' in highly \-lsiblc pel'Wllltd . "cor· pOl·.1ny poli")' decisions. chief cxeculi\lc offi cer. As pa rt of a stud)' 01' Afrit:a n Americans in exec.&I..he rdalionship betwecn \WI) 01' lIIore variables.'mr). 1 1ft' pmidelll . Collins was intc rested in the clTec t that a pa l1.oILAI HL'ilARf'JI . TIlLl.lrch . 5ha1'o n Collins ( 1989:3 18..tte manage me nt poQUtIl1~. If one \" . ca ll the lirst v. llle corporatc 1I11J1d h a.ho la rly studies a nd infol'l na lion Icfi ne the pro blem undcr stlldy.sc"i plivc studict> ut lullt'ge-WlIcated Afl'ic:m Americans a nd gave spc". Such a spec ulat.tria ble .lh c \l. ronception by examining job litles: s ubj ect~ flt'J't' considered "tOp execm ivcs if th e)' held titles \lIth as presidcnl .lwing upo n the contributio ns of !I\' 1OOological th(. . U'lat Ult' hypothesis should Ix: scie mifica ll)' tesu. cladl) f"Miblc techniques to Ut: lIsed in coll ccl.uiablc the indept'. A v ariable i~ a measur.· undc r different cond itio ns. Collins Opcr.icula l' vdri· a ble ( BI. occu pa tio n. the n:se:trche r lIlay develop All InlUiti. In order 10 be mean in gfll l.cb <b Coll ins's.roncfpt-such as in telligence. Black de ma nds 1'01 ' e q ual right!! ha\'e a direct inOuc nce o n cOI'J>Or.ari:lhle is h). ~I that underscores the importance uf studies .l1i1 . a hYPOlhcsis m ust be testabl e.II. onc hypollu!sis m iglH 1Jc: " In I'l'~pol1 ~e lU 1. socio logists a ttc mpt 10 CXI)l:li n or acco unt fo r t. Olllnds ro r equa l righ ts~ is the in de pe nde llt \~driabl c. As thl' ca usal o r influe ncing chamctcrislic..pOthcsi7cd 10 cau ...tblt.'orth)' o f stud)'. a nd de pa rtme nt manager.'esponsibil~ im'Oh'ed pla nning Of imple me ntatio n of (ufflp..'..lced 1\1..llI _M'M"~""""""""""""""''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ' Ih collduui llg a review o f the l i lCI~ lIul'('.d a nd ('onfirmL><I.lI ul pu blic "da tio ns poSts. I't. Jud diminate o r reduce 1111: nurnbc r or <il'oida bl c ml~cs 1I1C) make.. M In rUl lllulaling a h ypothc.\1 <lC'k demands for equal rights. rt.illentioo to studics or African Am e rica n busifM'YI t'xecuUVe8 and pro f~ i onal s.Sharon Collins l'cviewe... mh'c positions. Eve n wh e n ~tudy­ IlIg a particular g roup of people.i gllls) might have o n corpom te hiring a nd promotio n po lic ies. and gendc.t.'sis l>I'esclltc d abovc.ewmv the Literature rf\CI"J. prejudice.. According 10 the hY POlhcsi.'ll1y confinncd. it is ncces.they must develo p wo rkable oUItI \'alid opennional definilions.Kk tnlJ and promo tio n policies.lliull alilcd Ibj. ubjecl tu challgt..tblcs in a Sllld)" In til t: hypo tllt...!'.dent v ariable. Ullti l rathc l' rc\fll tl~.teme llls tha t hick the ki nd of precisio n that socio logists n eed in orde r 10 col1ccl suita ble da t<l.-e guess about the !'(:htl.. ~chers 'M' fo~~~s. curporate hiri ng a nd prumotio n politics pl. !f)\'('. ~ u ality.-. The llt:."ligio n . "Young people haw more fun" a nd M rida is oicer tha n CalifOl'llia M rt' Flo a . M Black dt.!:h.' ca n a ll be vari.. ~ is the d('.s.O. tha t is.tlt' M 35 (JI!tYrEH 1 • MFI'I{()IJS OF 'iCCl0/ ()(. to lilo df bow the group will be d isting uished . o r n:vlscd .c t.s IdW and Illcd i\1IIl: m in the govcrnment sector. Wc mere ly suggest tha t iI is ". 1993) neede d to Ik\l"lop an operatio na l de linilion o f MlO P e xcel!' uln" She d a~ifi cd pri\'3te-st:clo r posilio ns as beI71If"high. . il must be capahle uf being evalua tcd.. In dc\'cloping hypotheses..:lck de ma nds ro r cqual .·q ual right. there ar(: rwo \I'.

. "" oq.11111\ ('I.."\·cr.. Porentl' income ~. A<.OCJ(. 1iJ. Such a S<illlplc would ha\'!' been esscTllial.. he d irectly rdat ed tu 0 1 pi od llce a greate r Iikeli· hood 0 1 gClling a high SCOIc on Ihe quiz.. Selecting the Sample In most studics. lhey mig ht contae! evc ry tc llIh or fifti eth o r hund l'(. unlike lhe lelcphont director)'. . al tht same lime. the dcgr(..u c an indica lion that Qlu./I Black c x(.lusOII link Oct\\'ccn variables: dl. Collin5 chosc ins tead to focus o n a sl113!ld or .' ma rc likely 10 have ddinquc nt children than at! mOlhers who do no t work o utside the ho me.. rcpo rt(.(' of ilH(.. A correlatiOll ('x is. thcy m ust e m ploy onc oftht researc h d esigns descl'ibed I.'(1 t'flle of d l. the lime stude nLS spe nd r~vi ewing mate ria l fo r a q uiz ilia)..'1II1 .. By using ~ JX'Ci'lli led ampling 1t.) art morr bled)' tu nm..'eate r ' likelihood or sllidde (re rer back to Our khcim's study of suicide in Chapler I). Oopo <lo.. ide nt iry the c.. a" tolv" froM df'fmbrd /11 stlldi~ of nlmuiy Of" Intlboolr. _ _""'~ likelihood of children'~ enrolling in college 1111 11II1I1Jr1JlIrlll."K'IfIIItI I" IM symbol 'IO} on (I r/rpf'IIdlll l Vllnnb/r tgt1Im111J y) UY/I'Tl x IlUlb to)'. JlnfmO who al/. \\'hile h:wing a mo ther who "." whc lI a change in o ne variable coincid cs with .nGURE 2· 1 CUlIsall... change in 11\(."of_ into societ)' ."(lto e 'lO a lninc the opinions o r pe ople lisled 11 . alYljng data. SI» o log-ists do no t need to quc'itioll e\'eryone in a pop uI..uio n in Older to gcne mlil. TIll' r esearch design guides tJlelll in collecti ng and.~. for quiz TIIM spent prepc.' o lhcl'.~. Fo r 36 " IHTO.Af . ---t LloIhoodof ..J 'I(mflb/.'''' • rllJ: SOCiOI.. of .g. hiring a nd p romotion polici('"5..V'f:'r.'s. since the rlilTIcully or qUeslioRiRl..1I.~. sho wl1 in Figu re 2· 1. social $Co emis ts IIl USI Qlrcfully ~e k'Ct \\ hat is known as a so. Jf Sharon Co ll ins had decided to condlh:t a ~ur vcy o r !\lacks ..:Ui l y IIlfl:W be present. C\rery member o r an e nt ir(.. data indica te that wo rking m Ol he rs ar~ .~.n c a full 'lime ."ith OTl(' e\'('I1\ leading to the Qlhel". 8Iod< domand.ogic --+.'Cuti\'t.~~~.:R./11If'lIr.\ilril) indiQlte CAuS<lIio n ..i!o causal link is gene rally adv' lI1ct. Fo r it random santpk.. llUl correl"liOIl is aCluall y a ltTsed by a third V''driable family income. Under ca usa l logic. Thus. For nwllllll. Si milal'l)'.-dth name listed 111is wou ld co nstitut e a mndom ~ a m pl e . thc) d o nnt ne("c<.:od u ng mo the r.'r (hildfM whu a" 'Tlkrr (h llrchflNfl rtn/f(Jllllffl (/. crI/ISo /logic il1\ o !\'C'i lhc I'c l a tio n ~ hip oclween a condit ion o r variable aucl a panicular conse(llIc nce.u/n'IIII.1 city directo r}' (a hoo k thai .. """""'" 1 "". populatio n being studk d has tlle smne c halice o f being selected.. larger popUlatio n that is st:llislicall).m.llion into so' ' ciety may ht>dirC<'tly re!:l led 10 01 prod uce a g.o rb o u tside the ho me is correlated with delinquency •• does no t cti tist d elinq ue ncy... h 1t)'1llilhfSiurf 10 ( (Ill" cXl mplc. Correlalio ns . (oj/". resc:lI'chc rs nced to colle(! info r ma ljo n . lio ns across lhe nill'd Slates.uJqxtuJ nll (11 dt1Jr..:linq uc ncy :lit highc r in this class . gr. Socio logists seel r..clvi ng as to p c'IOcc ulivcs in co rpora. (lIIot"" . piI'.. To do so..trchen ill their hypo lhcsc!S. _ In o rd er LO test a hypo thesis and determine ir it ~ su pport ed 0 " rertTI cd ."mub//' /I" rf/I'tl 01 (I ll i .~~~.'CI by . ..·csc:.~~~~~.t(ll llJglf '·lIvo/l'f'.uer in the chapl.. .I ())...!right."S wo uld have bee n lo nnidablt Ilowt.'Chniques.~.IId lhurch "/:.. The t'e a rc ma n)' kinds sampl(.~. A repruentative sa mple is a seleclion from.. she would have faced th e proble m o r ho w to develop a ll llpproprialC: plc or Black cxecUl h'e'i. Notlif' Ihlll Ihi' fin' /wo /NIin 1/(UUlu..~ Performance Ofl qui%.el'. ..wriom Mlmph is frequent!t lISed by social 'iciCllt ists.~..'Cono mic ICl' Conseque ntly.hiUl in o the r t. hich the r. Lowcr<lass ho useho lds arc nlOft likely 10 h.~~r....wlng • _ _"'. fou nd to bel\'P' icaJ o r that populatio n. list'i a ll ho use holds)..".c. ir researchm wantt. Cnu.. illriabl./l'w b/loJ.

u I'x('(ut... .uiolls and the \\'<1)' in which certain e mployment gains by Blac ks might Icsscn the pn'ssu re for rurther initiauws 10 assist minorities. including those conchibed by SOCiologists. Validity refers 10 the degree to which j IIItJSure or scale Inll)' reflects the phenomenon .... Sociolog ic"l studics do not "lwa)'5 genera le data that support the original hypothesis.. \H86 and January 1987 she w.". I\'ho qualified as lOp executives. .1I. The Chicago study provides c1et:tiled inlilnn:lliull wnccming tbe rc:st:at'ch met. In m:rny instances. She lhe n asked people familiar with the lil\\ torporale community lO name African Amer.'lllll can develop a scale to measure citi zens' J . behavior.". k. lmd also ..ring VaJidity and Reliability The scientific 1l1l'lh~xI requires that research rcstJlt~ be hoth \"dlid J.'e\'er.iveii in Ihese firms...Ifea.'nl la which a measllre provides consistent l't:5uits.. For exam ple.se ries 01" (luesUIII\\ ScielJliJic sllldie§.i~O...'ClS. A reliable measu re of wo rkers' productivity would lead 10 thc s. Col1ins spoke 10 illinllllolllb ill these compan-ies to sce which BlaC'k under study... demands for' eq ual riglus. In the surely disc ussed aoo\'e..i "ecl imlx)I'lnnl <llIcstioll'i both about job ~egreg: iti o n in corpor. Supporting Hypotheses to measure attitudes. Sociologists create S(..atiollS and govt'l'luncm agencies-or with African American!> .. do not :urn lO answer all the questions that C<lll be raised abollt a particu l:.' 37 (.. _•• . Si milarly.. _.••• _. fUled ... The refore . might M ull to learn nOt o nly whether responritnt} f:wor a constitutional amendment allowiug .l.her research "... and !tMt-r. or bchavior.tll)(ll'ul:ilion: African Ameri{..lul r~li"ble. " '!faIe or index typically uses a .~t·~ produced over a specified period of lime. Gene rally.o:c' \\110 mct her operational ddinitjon of Mtop nn:IUI\t'..'ould lad.. \\'h ich t~ . S....ork...(JC/CJ1 1. Collins idelllified ~7 I\l... respect. Objects.IIH{~ I . Develooinp' th c Conclusion Ctndng Scales and Indices It is relati\'ely simple lull\l'J:mrt certain c haracterislics slatistically.....el's' producti\'ity ""ould accu l":ltcly indicate how much lht. mrm read by a teacher.nl'r in public schools but abo how knowledge"hie' Iht'Y are about dilTerelll al!enmti\'es suc h a_ a 'i ·\t!cnt time" for prayer or Cl daily ecumenical slnu:.. _ .. A \-.H 2 · MIiI'llO().. Ihe rd))' allowing other social sdelllislS 10 test the conclusions in o ther locale~ (or to repeat the ~ l\Id ~ in C hicago at a later date).u'c h study r'c presctl\s buth :m end and a beginning.xccmh'cs in Ih e region.. Unexpccted resullS may also lead sociologists to reexamine their methodology . re-tc'itr(hel'S are u nable to inlet'vicw as high a pt'oI"lflttltl ura mrgel population as Collins did.. 1:': ... had qon'Cd as lOp cxccutivC!I. Slill. in the stud y of' Rlac k excclltives...." ..l\ lel\'1 of education.-.lllltudn arId belieJ:'i such as 1>''1triotisn1... ' vlIlidityas an examination of corponHc bchavior.. slIch .. She fOllnd that almost uQl·.110 0\\... ami ch. 1\!.. •.uU'('...&... Collins used genera lly accepted bll.ts able to inter¥lMI 7ti of these men and women .. The sca le a nd ilUlfX .. and size of:l communit~_ IlowC\·er.~in c~~ standards to identify tn:UIII' corpomtions.a.lDClCristics of people or o'1... income.II: k manage rs... ~"1'1l1~...un c resulL~ cven when used by different researc/wrs..:mrl make c hanges in th e research design.L~kcd in her study to refe r her la other inlpurL.did ILl casure of . the data supponed Ihe hypothesis: in I'esponsc to Black... it is far morc difficu lt to measure ...... In this type of situatio n . (ullill~ (1989:!H8-319) !ilUdied cOlporate listm~ oUld identified 52 of the largesl fil'n15 in C... 111is is lrue of the research on Black executives cond uCled by $hal'On Collins.. Iulowlcdge of facts. the conclllsiun of a rese. Reliability rerers to the eXU. a nd resc:trchcrs lUus t refonllulate their ('011c1usions.lIc!> in o rder to :u\C1II Il'ptrts or social behavior that I'ecluirc jtldgrtItU~ "1 subject ive cV"<ilumions.· Nevertheless. ...' Of SUCJOI.... 11:..hods that Collins used .. sht: had to lind a \\~dy of idcl1l-i"1nK ht'1 \ll l~(..)... soClOII'I).-:."('Whit" W1. 101 there W nu readily ava ilable '.alions... H£SJ.iS btlllll\LIl It c. bllt il shou ld also generate ideas for rutllre study (sce Figure 2-2 on page 38). ho".. socio loKU. __ .ni7.. panl(ipallt~ nu..li e indicators of attitudes. " tcrrninlllcs a 51'('" cific phase of' the invcstigation .lI1d promOlion policies in Lhe Chicago area had indeed p"lced Black execlItive~ primarily in highly visible personnel and public relatio ns pos ts... corpo rate hiring .1I11J" ""...11 small busineSSt. Between M~.. r...r ~lIbjt:cl.4W' .. Ilad she included interviews \\'il.. :t hypothesis is 1'(.t!Jlnl or the 52 linlls lacked even 011e Black CIIlpin.'anS serving as top en Wl1ite-0\~nt:d corporations in tht'! UUC".h Blac k executivcs in charitable orgalli7.hll._.I!'\'ness of the debate over K hool pt7l)'c r.

ives into mcially linktd jobs in such areas as affinnativc actjon and urbaa affairs may reduce the likelihood of their advanc.." In her view. one executive.crfYF. Shamn Collins difilled a problem (ule relatiomhJp between Black civil rights protests and corporal( . ing into mainstream lOp management posts.~.m Review !he literolure Formulate the hypothesis ~ Select meorch desisn Collod . PI-:/lSn.ltcs." CoUiru found support far U1C view that corporate hiringand pl"Omotion policies were signifi canuy influenced by Blacks' demands for eq ual lights. ~.!:. 1989:3 19-324). This U11I lead UJ jurthn ithas for socifJiogical research. the ~ time at which Black execu tives entered the labor force... . As Figure 2-~ i~ luslr.he hiring of Black managen began 10 decline in response to the civil rights mO\tmeOl of the 19605 (Collins. observcd: When they would send me 1 some of those confer0 ences about affirmati ve action .~.~~..~. the researchers would compile separate sr.OCICIII. "<illctio ns< Coilins found that 66 pe rcent of lhe African American executives she interviewed had been u-acked imo corporate j obs focusing on the hand ling of ~ Bl ack problems" or on dealings with a specifically Black consumer markct.. tllC vast majoriry (70 percent) ti African American executives who entered the labor fo rce after 1965 10und in itial employment in the private secto r.. in an era of growing economic lIn certain~ and widespread corporate mergers and takCQ\<m African American 1~13nage rs in personnel and public relations areas may find themselves the victim! of staff r<. 38 PART ON1-.~. It was a Icrrible misuse al that time of some black ta.. These data suggest that traditional COf' porate resistance to t... . The vaSt ma· jorily of these execulives held jobs involved with al'· finnalivc action and urban affairs. Consequently.. .._ Let us b riefly su mmarize the process of t. ~ ~ I OoIiM Iho probl. Moll' over.he scientific method through a review of the examplr.atistics o n haw smakers and nonsmokers feel abaul. By use of a control vaJiable.. By contrast. .~~~.or.~. antismaking reb>"lliations. 1989:329). restrictions o n smok· ing in public places. · 'filE SOC/OI.j ~ dolo 5uMoy I I Observation Experiment I I ~ The scientific meth(J(/ allollls sociologiJ/s to ol1itaiwly and logimlly (VaIU(lle the faclS coUtctd. Coilins ( 1989:3 17) concludes U13t Blacks' demand! for civil rights created a Black managerial elitc {}u( was highly visible.: ~. and they are known as am· trol variables. A control variable is a factor held conSlant \.!:. they would probably altemp! [Q use a respondent's smoking behavior as a con1J'0 1 variable. who had a mastcr's degree and fo ur years o f experience in engineedng when he was shifted to an affirmative action POSt. Controlling for Other Factors The characteristiC'! of Black executives are considered additional \'aria bies used in lhe study. respondents who e ntered the labor fom before 1965 (tile high point of the Black civil righu movement) were about equally likely to have found their fi rst jobs in government or in lhe private sect.lem . In discussing the limilatio ns o n Black managers. (Colli ns.~ r._~~.~.F1G URE 2-2 Th e Scie1ltific Method r------.0 test the relative impact of the inde pendent variable. . If researchers wanted to know how adulu in the United States fee l about. yet was "administratively mar· ginal " and ~eco nami cally vulnerable. you'd walk in and Lhere would be a roo m full of blacks . the tracking of Black execut. . .

ed applic-nion of < the scientifi c method."... i1M(Jr auuhll£J IQ Imw jfllmd 111 the C/tirogrJ arM u.4% eov.0 ttjtW rights.e p ro r sociologist...ltTf1ot1Iesis (M response 1 Black demands ror In .. ..ed lhe data.r::!. While such imcrviews can be 39 .......... 0l'gani7.. she tll'1N. S...QAIA.....Q!J...'gularly usc sUlv eys... .. generally in the fo rm of an iruelv iew o r questionnaire.. Collins identified a largel pop.. you may remember many "person o n the street" imer.'Cono mically vulnerable) Black managerial elilc. A surv ey is a study.NIlIt .5.. Amo ng o ur natio n's bcstkno wn surveys of opinion are the Gallup poll and lhe HalTis poll."..... Ihis researchcr sllldied a contemporary sociaJ issue and ge.. -.~"'~Y..ivef ncUIE 2·J /"j.Cutives..cy research.ner...i ClII research is deciding how data sho uld be collected . A "esearch " des.. When you think of survcys... This cho ice will directly inOuence both the cost o r Ihe p roj ect and the amo unt o f time need ed to collcct the resul ts of the research... exrjs perimenl.. busint. Finally.. ...e".....'SS ext. which provides sociologists wilh info rmation concerning how peo ple think and acl..fort 196. and govcrnmclU policy' makcl'!l.1 sl....... I'Xf'(!l/iva II. In her sludy o f Black executives. obscr'V"dtio n. and existing sources to generatc d ata fo r their research.. or what o ur favorile television program is. corpoml...... which are a co mmo n rOiTn o r s ur.. After 1965 Black bu.gr."If. -46$ ible personnel and publ ic relatio ns posu")... ... 'L An imporlant aspect of !lod olo~. Sek'Clio n o f a research d esign is a critic. We ma)' have been asked what kind of detergent we lIse. these polls have become an impon aru pari o r political life. Socio l ~ l...ic"'5 on locallelevision news shows..... eo. is a d et.l~ tJ amdusion: Black ac" tivis m did inOue nce corporale decision nmkingand lead to the creation or:1 highly visible (and yt!l t...d ueta.iMli8S . gvtJt711"....5 Ql!mlllielm i ngty bI'grl n l li rir (tlrtt:rS in tile CIJY'fXJr'fI~ world . Th us..'i rt..... ..'rl to sunleys o f one kind o r anothe r..I}W nlln'ttII Ju Inbor /(Jm: ajlt/' 196.:!... which presidentiaJ candidate we intend to V Ole fo r...ploy".. mplo)'mcnt po licies)... As anyone who W'd l Cht.... a-<I on So CulUm. I98'J SJO..n ed meaningful findin gs of interest to sociologists.....'! and requires cre-Ali\'· ity and ingenuity.... ~.... RESEARCH DESIGNS .e hiring and pro mo tio n policies placed Black ex(:c utives primarily in highly vis- Almost alJ o r us hll\'e rc~pond l..fQ~'. Shal'o n Coll ins relied o n in lclvie~'s.nll fir IN 1/01lJellI'r..'s lhe news during presidential cmnpaigns knows. liled plan o r method ror ob taining data scientifically..TING.re a/JotJ' tquaUJ lilrHy 'IIiir firs' jobs i'l 1111' JlrilHlI'....ulatio n or Black executives in Chicago firms and then roil«1td and (ltUlly-._ . thro ugh the systematic.jol E".. .S«Wr..... She mnt:wi'd the litl'ralun (other studies or Black executives) and fo rmulalM. civil righ l'i leaders...

sociologisu muSI exercise b'Tt. . middk '··dass sho ppers. First. or fa ctory worke rs.en al'o'a) others who may feel intimidated by a camcrd. In additio n.reet or area the newspeoplc select. Second.I ! I al a certain location . lClVicwcr can obtain a high response I'~H C because people find it more difficult to lurn down a per· sonal n.'>t1CI()I. .cml haw fHl 011 5U~ ill/pt/ct Ilm". they a re not necessarily an aC'cur. Each of these fornu of survey research has its own advantages.. "nUls.·qucst for an imclvicw than La Ih row a\\<l1 a wriuen questio nnaire. Even qucHions IJmt arc less structured (What do you think of programming on cducatiorml Icle\'~ sio n?) must be c<ln'full y phrased in o rde r 10 solicit the ITpe of informatio n d esire d . 1111!rC are two main fo rms 01 surveys: the inttr· vitw and the questiomwire.'iJ'I£TII "'. In prepruing to conduct a SlIlVCy. a skillrul if}tcrviewer ca n go beyo nd WTinen questions and Sllldi~ hr/V/! !JilQum Ihat I/M gelldf'f (or rau) ()f tIlL tn/(lrrhn. hig hl y clllcnaining. A sur· vey must be b ased 0 11 precise. such samples call he biased in fa\'ol" of commuters. but o nl y if the sampling is done properly and the questions art worded accu rately. A .ICAL ''''.JI. An in.11 effective survey question musl be simple a nd clear enough for people to un· d ersumd iI. Surveys can be indispensable sources of infonn a tion. television illte rviews lC lld la a u raet o lltgoing people who art willing to appear on the air. rcPI"CScllIa ti\'c 5a1llpHng if it is to ge nuinely n:nect a broad range of the populalion . depending o n which st. they refl ect lhe opinions of only those people who a ppear Doonesbury BY GARRY TRUDEAU 1 J 1 1 40 1'''' liT ON} • Till:.JX. 11 musl also be specific enough '>0 Ihal there a re no problems in inu~'1) re Lin g the resul(!.u. while they fright.e indication of public opi nion."31 care in the wording of qu~ lio ns (see Table 2-1).

M. leads people toward a particular respan$8 Would you ICy thot you hove great deal of wn~dence.ulioll . marijual1Cl? le.. in behaviors and conlllllmi· . Whyte movt.h ..yeor.' Do you Iovor making it legol for 1s. he was a me mber of the social cir· cle of Mcom er boys" ..posiLions when questio n ed by a woman the issu e of abo rtio n . For exampl e.re used. wnlklence In !he preu'l Sotiologul. WilIiam F... in :l d :assic example of parlicip'U11 o bservatio n . Uy con .. esp ecially whe n large 'lJmpl~'S a. aboUI ""~I. legal for 1 Q.(. /w .-d by a man look lhe same positio n. 111is is calk. lies lhal could n ot be investigaled lhrollgh o lher research lechniques. On the olher' hand . may 1'101 question. Men's responses ~llIcd unaITected by the gender o f the resca rch e l'.l "/I..yeoroOlds 10 smoke morl[uono'l Don't you rhrnk rhot the p"n b sIonled ond thot we should ""nnt whatever it soys'l 6io ~ question.. The findings of lhe E:lgletoll Instilute sllldy unmore the careful all e ntioll tha t sociologists Il l1lSt Kilt' IQ all cJe m ents o f the research d esib'll (Morill.J1 2 • MJo~rIlO/)S (Jp SOCIOl.."d"l/(mdmg 11/1 111t~ ptJl1 1 Ill/ 1) I} a ql. only 64 percent of women inlc l'Vlc.. WhYle revca lc. Wlote of Po liLics a l RUlgcrs U niversilY con firmed that \\omen were mo rt' likely 10 take Slrong ~ pro­ choitc.'Ci's unde rlying feelings and rea· (fUrfi'({1 ~fI 11101 .on...old~ 10 drink liquor? Do you fovor making I.clty housing' Did your Il'IOIher ever work for pay outside the home' ° S/Qdd ~ be possible for woman 10 obtoin a legal ° Too general ..lld' U~1f ft~POIUI/'''IJ'.).. or community under study.. lhe E.o num to deride without government intervention . under~lond the Mi~leoding Do you Fovor SaYernment program which er.. Dllrin g the late I 930s..'i to examine cert.. or very littl. For nearly fo ur years..~ 1111 \Om. Observation Wht. 84 percnll of women interviewed hy anolhe l' woman agrrtd that the d ecisio n 10 have a n abortion is a pm"Jlc matter that should be le n to lhe ... The gender (or race) of tJle researcher can have m impacl on SUI'VC)' d:ua. h e d escribes in Slrttt OJrner Society..Peopl.-\HClI .. This me thod allows .>d h is ide ntity to lhese men 41 OIAn"'. IlIe rl!. . In 1990. ° 'probe~ for a subj(.!11 an investigator collects info rmalio n lhro ugh direcl pal'rjc ipation in . 50tne confidence.m/lrtlpflly w()rdtli (m' maY/I).cauras. 10 phmv q"tsIW". gleton 111.>(1 ilUo a 10l'o'-income Italian Ilcighborhood in Bosl.. Ir..llld obscn 'alion of a g roup.. qucsuonnaircs have Lhe J. \lmilady.. people's res po nses 10 questions abou l IMllHing discri m inalion may be influenced by the r. he o r she is CIlg.>(1 /mrliri/)(mf ohSf:nl(lliOIl. the sociologist aeLUally Mjoins~ :21 groul> ror a period of time 10 gCI an accul1It e sense o f ho\\' it o pe ra tes. In some cases.J I.lgcd in observatiml .. 1 'l9O).ociologisl.kolnragc of being ciIClIPCr. tribe.(){UCAI ftESI::..s families la Improve inner.or-olds to drink liquor M." Should it be poulble for woman 10 abtoin legal abortion If there is a strong chonce of $8riovs defect in her baby' If Jhe become p'I!gnont ° ° os Do ~ favor making it legal for Double-borreled [two que$lionl in ° rewh 01 rope' orJ Ynak.J.I fire IIMkJS fill' tll/' r/!Sfflrchn).ltul and e thnic background of the il1lc l'\~ewer.

. since. that ulesc men had established. the gcnder of U1C rcsearcher o m be 3 factor i. trained sociologisl lO win . It requires iI great deal of patie nce ami a ll acccpting. The initial challenge that WhylC faced-and that each obscl""cr must encounter if he or she acwall) panicip"lcS in the group under st udy-W"dS 10 gain acceptance imo an unfami li:u' ~r. many people resent the feeling or being MSlLldied. ~ WhylC's "'o rk was especially \'al uable.I992). Vll' 1$ lri/N.rlcclge of Ill(' pOOl' and tended 1..0 s tl' lllgel1!.II' IO the o bst'lyc r on I)' afler month> 42 . LII(: academic world had linle dircct kno". 01' skid row residents."'I. tht deeper meaning" ora seemingly Irivial imeracuoo Illay becomc c1C. It is no si mplc malleI' for a collegc. Moreo\cr.'cr-rather than as a mcmber or the group-its members may feel UIIC:lsy alld hide many thuughts and emolions. a rOll th w<mg...{ the researcil('r as :111 ~olltsider' and an o bscl. Observcrs immedi<ttely lace: another qucstion which has bolh pnlclical and clhical illlpliclltion'! 10 whom (if anyone) should they reveal lhe ultimatC' purpose ollheir obselvJ. a moSL lirne<ol\' suming I'IlcLlwd of reseal"c h . to gain dS gre:ller insight into U1C communit). the leader of the groul}.u r not simply M drop b( the bowling alley 01' str«t COl'IIer c\'ery few wt:cks.Jf 1\6fl'l7t SlItlWfl. nOlllhreatcn ing type of person.lin Lhis l)1lc ur lI'Ia.~ Wh)'tt: ( 1981 :303) listcncd to Doe. S/WIIIII m'l' fI p"otfJj<mnlf. it poor Appalachian curnmunity.e ll ciistOl'I the group prnccss./. Ihe n th~ group has added a p:I\'lidpanl (and observer) "ho is being somewhal dishonesl. in addition.cs thal fcmale sociologislS swdying predominantly lI1ale environmcnts can find il difficult 10 dcvelop the coopcration and trllst l1ec c· . the rescilrcher rnal havc lO wail patiently for a particularly nOleworthl or dramalic e\'cnl..." Thu...:if n group. Ln slcad .. buwling.1J1Qfi'b't' lnllngm If' and joined ill their conversations.uup.l"ahi (1986: 185) nOI..>senmions arc essenlial.ation .1\11n1 (11/ 11lvtSilgfl/OI wlkds /II/~ through dttr'Cf p(lItlnpaflOIl ill a"d Msmlflfj(fll . hl' or "'1. In her view. Systematic and thoro ough oi.crv.nion.. 011 lhc other hand... Sociologist Te rry Mil. And in some instances. A..'f'fi m obselv. he ~ l eal1led the an~WCr.1l th e success of an obsef"\'ation study. This may . Intercstingly... hospitals. fir wmmlllllf). and courts (Adler elal. it i.11 for cfTcClh'c ob. more attention mUSI be given 10 the impact of genclel of the datlgath('I'ing process ilsdf.. at Ihe time. His goal ' ..sC:llIcrddc ror weeks 01' months while attcmpting 1 get to knOll .I to questions I would Iltll cven have had the se nse to ask if I had been get ling my iJllonnauon solcly till an intclvicwing basis.ics. flI/1II.0 I'd)' for information on the records of social service agencies. 1I0l cas}' to maim.. the sociologist C'.. and olher leiSlIre-ti me activil. Observation is... the trust of a religious cult. as we saw earlicr (once-ming SUf"\·C)'S.lions? In our societ)·. iflh~ rc:searcller disguises his 1)1" hcr identity or purpo'\{:.1. ir a group fi'f!.

clerllCTlI . fhe ~oelo l ogist mllSI re tain a ("cl"tain lewd of de ladllncl1l 11'0111 Ihe group undel ~Iudy.. ) to maintain dis.1 JCII 'It'fOnm.UH! rlu more....l\iof!l.l\ior mall y blacks find 01: Icusi\·c. nge~ to QI("I r. An· """. a bch. 10 a le~sel l'xtcnt.un :lWHre uf' your pn·!.I ". whites of lile Village "I"tell sco . for lhis method to be cncctivc.(I'rp'. I ". 1\1"/6 mam/aill (lis· /JIodu through . :15. )·~ greet I)(:opk )011 iot'e :11 . and II()()ked at hllll ."" rW.·: . -sOllle blacks . In a "·I1'IC..h(tSe who sce I. I" 't..lCks a~ a coping Slralt'g)'. "" "'I Ihr ltrHt. j" I/IU fo<"'" t-.Ind 'llIik'{l AJ ld he said ~ Ue ll (l . This I~. . and suclt overco.. bl.Ire \"(:1 impn\ed 10 1 lind . and lhell to al·e n their J('IIt ahnlpll).heir lilfCS 10 "~tr(1 ofT oth.hi~ nlonlin~. lhe '. 43 ..'1 1 bc able IU 1011\ ulldct'5land what they arc observing.· complex c ha lIt'ugt"lIOl the iu\'cstig-oI l. flllStrollin.ti Ihf ([(l'y·l(H/.01' ~Good morn ing" o r '>Olnethillg I ) Illile d a.) IJooh Slfeelwise.IW.lCt in\·i te~ 1/II"'$11l:'d . ing.« bt.. I.ll I'ye Ulnt. as s urpli~ing..'Oplc.~\1 El/ft. Scowling by whi/{'S may he COIl1parl'!! TO grinning b) bl.III~ o.l( nmu)' :IUcmpLS at '>I)()ntancoll~ human communication.{Jds' ~"'11l1''I.. Soc i ologi~lS 11\\1.l(h'alln·s.. .r ic~ to unc!ct-"l. 111""/1(1 '111 thl ffr«1 III If!Cially mlU(i om(ilI~01I".\Irk t\ .ay /11ItII'fl'mlH III OOsnlrM "' adjoining I'~.. Andmon (19YO: UtJ-12/J tI')mlx.. ther ma y planl Ihis luok on t. in ol'(\cr 1. numicallr prhilcged Ihlln olheN in tltc commltnllY.1)("0011 . e\ocn .I [bl:ll k) )\uy wllcu I \\'1:11 1 o\'el" to Mr.l· than is l1orln'll oILcord· il lS to Ihe rul~ o f the public sphere. c. Consi~len.1fnfllrf AmmCalfS (IIfd II'hit. In gcneml..1! /11 hI..aged "'hilt' female ft'sidellt COrlHlICIllCd: eyt~ 101l~er TIIC\ pal allc..IS 11I0re eco. feCI.1I they inlend. Wt)1llcn C~pl:' 1~. wil. bu t sonle whill' '''~T' 1r\"llh~ same .. Just (". Chuw's [(j gel sollle milk:ll 7:15. At linh!S nwmbcN of either grou p make such 1 :lcC<l wi th liltle regard ror cirnUlhtanCl'S.hile pel'Mlll who holds Ihe.lIS rcpd Iltt· sUllshine as well 'IS the I'.1 to kCI'1l } ·outtg hlacks at . ~IQrcO\'er. BUI on lile Village SHects it does not al"~I~s SlOrm.l. ~TI/nIIfIlj((llly rtrordrd soOlIl !Jr.lS he or .UIL.· ". As one middle. •. I'll/oK" anti Nortit/oll.l " .m<! wanl 10 be '~JI ~hnUl "h.and how !l1I'mb!' !':.nliOIl 10 vi 11t' the al110Unl contilCI gil·cn.llil olher's e}·l'S for onl} .n oLhing~ seelll!> to be h:t l>- prmng.pin.e-y loorir. "I .. .. comp re hend tilt' evcn ts taking place around tJ ICIll.ltultlp"'" tltiplm·hoods Ihal he Tt/1nl/I.·ho migh t mean them hanu..11 ht· ~. This raiseS:l dc li<"llt' qucstion regardi n g the clTeet or tlte g roup UIl the obscn'cl'-:mcl lhe obser\'cl on the g rou p.the eyes of a It is more common Ill. DiJah A I1dmml. researchers such as Willi:llll F Wh ylC or £Iijah AlIder'otl ()ce Box 2~1 ) l1lust Icarn 10 sec thc world as Ihe !{roup sees it in order 10 full).'hile males.lLk and "hiLe Slr. SUlh !J.RAelAL "EYE WORK" ON THE STREET 1/. Whites I~nd not 10 "hold. t:rs . As llwy \'emurc OUI (Ill Ihe strcl'IS of Ihe Village :lnd.liol) fOl' .ur. {lb"c"'alion rescllrch poses Olhe ..h thh.. It 1\'a~ clear Ih. or They look right at the m withuILt speak.~ timc ill this Ir(oIfrl than do .safet) and social pwpt. ASlhcy walk down tJ1C street they pretl'nd not to see other pcdL'lIll'ianj.~ 1. Vuu alw .. art' carcful nOI IU let the ir eyes Slmr..hem~hcs .0 In'oid :1lI 111lcomfoTttb1c SiW:tUOll.I'" MlIny jX. Ihen.eJ. k mald gel far I cs.. ht' IIN Jww 1"'111. r~llCl· ol..hi..id:s percl:il'(" whites as \lr h~ti l c to them in public. bl. C\'C11 \\'hen .IS if rhey wefe drl'ss\l1~ for in.ll1d phrsical di~llIl1 cc.cllil)llIgist must kcep del<lilcd records of c\'enb and brll.)r hcr. of Northton.rltll.\ social . d ItllUoU: IMt<. Finally. particularlv I..e lmviol seems lu ~\.. 1111t\Jdy.Iw t.lh kel Ih.

. 1 11e UllcOilc.. Similarly.. l1le !"e is all :ltl· ditional problem in using a lahor:"\LO I)' setting: tflr responses of'subjects in such se llin g~ may he dH· fe re nt from theil' responscs in lc.."a ti o n ind ic.S arc the ll assigned by researchers to o n c uftwQ g ro ups .u..hey would ndminisler injections of that drug to an exper illle nta l g ro up blU no t 10 a conlrol brrouP. the Illethodolob~ of p<lrticipant obS('lvallon p roved usel ullll soh'ing practical problelllS. I-I owel"cr.. Wh yte ( 1989).~~..~u rc 10 confonn in group situalinll\ can hal'c i\ powc rful im pact o n saci:11 hchal'io r.\ walll 10 stud y 11 possible causeand-eifect relationship.Ihe pcOplt who wc-rc Ihe rcal l. th ey lIlay conduct experiments.... Whytc notes tha l when Nom"... if scientists were testing a new type of a nti biotic drug.... as in observa tion research.ty's shipping indusu)' was fa ced with ... the partici pant observer mU51 main tain some degree of d ct:clchm e nl.:s alld introduce con trol v<lriables.. e ndo rses the use o f o bsenoation as a Iype:: o f appl ied sociolo gy.. Ansoll Shupe and David Bro mic)' (1980).\um to confo rm ... In eitch ca. ill th e fie ld tllan in a h'bol':. the observer 0 111not a llow lhe dosc associa tions o r even fricndsh ips thal inevitably develop tQ inHuc nce thc conclusio ns of the stud).~ Despitc working so hard 10 gain acceptance fro m the g ro up being studied ... Lt ! an cxperiment..1..~. t. How many orus wi ll Rstick to our conviclions Rregardless o f the feelings of others? Sodal psychologist Solo mo n A.. a ramous social science experiment exam ine d how people arc affec ted by prcs.0affec t lhc l>c1l<t\"lOl' ofth e p('oplc bei ng studk-d.o r of the (del iherately incon'ecl) majority... 01 AscI! 's 123 stude nts put to this tcst. While man )' expcl'imc nlS by medical researchers test tl lC impact of'dnr. ~~P. !l' that th e pres.. Th e results of hi s il1\'csti ~...:11ions.u..111t rccog ni l.' in basic researc h.. WiJlialn F. and had hcen coached ill adva nce to seh:cl wro ng answers 10 so me of tlt e c huitc'o. \1 0H!0\·CI".\'ldence of lheir own ~cnses-a diffen:n l answer . In addi tio n to iL~ liSt.LS interested in lhe enccts of g ro up pressure on pcople 's opin· ions and tcsted this question in an expe rimental setting on a college ca mpus.tion. ~t 44 .. thc rcsC't1 rc. All studcnl\ werc askcd to Stale puhlicly which litlc 0 11 tllt'SI.ion e mployed a research tcalll to pr()posc cOst-<:ul1ing mcasures to managers . nizatio n (lnd c fli ciency or Nonvay's tlC('t. lhe stude nts cuached Il\ Asch all g..Lp·o wing competition in the p ho tocopying indllsu).'r to lIlaniplli. pe rimen t with control s ul:ticc\. The s u~jecl. as in Ihe experime nt described above. and the refore more costly.. obscn'<l. rge ts oflh e sludy-were plaetd a lleat' lhe e nd o f each grou p... When sociologisl.~ mayor m:ly not be I"cpresent :Hj"c of !llf larger public or lhl' United Stales..... a ll !Jilt o ne wer(' aClllal1). A. tlM' prest!lIce 01 a socia l sciell tist or other observer 111."l". mo rc than onrthird fo llowed lh(' lead of lhe group a nd c h o~e thr wrong answer evell without any explicit prcs. Concl llc L ing sociological research is mort' diff" u ti t.If the resea rch is LO be successful .. have like ned this chall e nge 10 that of "walking a tight ro pe.. Such par· licipan\.llory setting (oflcn on a college campml Conseque n tly. researchers m ust some ti mes rely o n sa lllplt~ com posed cnti rely of coll ege sludents.~eve re c utuacks....~ no! under any group pressure....'183) I\".uc m ria ble.. Re m:ul· a bly..... In the classic me lhud (If conducting an experiment . a te am of researc he rs I\'orkcd aboard a me rchanl ship as pan of:m cfT01"l 10 improve the social oq~. when laced wilh .hcr in lh e study o f Boston corne r boys described abovc..lc ristics such as age o r education.ll res to confo rm to Ihe I'iews of olhe rs. in league wllh the researcher!....~ s strucl"Ured... On a designat ed trial....'lI1d union leade]'~..the experimenta l o r con lrol group. Thus.~~~...~c h broughl groups of sevcn lO nin e male wl· lege students in to a da'isroum and asked them to look at two white cards.tion studies Ill a)' also be used lO improve the po li· cies and strU ctUres of o rgani7... T he ex-perilllelllal grOlIP is exposed to a n independent v...-(ond card most dosely corl"csponded in le ngth !o the line 0 11 the first card .ion of tit is phe no menon gr c\\' out o f al1l~ pelimcnt co nducl('d during Ih e 1920s and 1930. AsciI pre lcsted this C). in c ac h group o f stude n ts. many uncoachcd st ude nts ignored the t.. two sociologists who have used participant obsen'<l. real· life SitUalio lls. the CO li troT grollp is 1 101.l\'{' the Mmlt' incorrect a nswer... onc Wilh a single line and o ne with tJlrec lines o f l'aryi ng leng ths...1 clearly th e correct onc-and conforllled to the I)fha\"..lIinble. Xerox Corpor.hcd stude nts .sch ( 1952:452.gNon human or animal subjec ts. two g ro ups o r people arc selected a nd ma tched for similar c:ha r. An experiment is an artificially created situatio n wh ich allows the researc ht.....

Cenerally..lrc under ob-cnritiOIL (S...tllllCI diHcrel11 fmm their typical Ix.S? . 1992..:11U:lhlc fur marketil1K ~ peci:llisL~ in locating e\'cl}'thin... pcriodic.·ctlllda IY .Irces.ie nti!>ls stud)ring family violence can use st. m.."OSit) or light ali(I mri:uiOlh in worki ng 1to~1I" To lheir "IIVri.1I11cllIn t (It ligh ting in thr pLlIlt. [I'e n Ifrbllfd th..1I nl...\ group ofreseardtcl's Il t'adt'c l by [lIon Mayo ....... rrolll bicycle s torc~ 10 nursing home:. III cxamining these source!>.1...·rimcl1t.. and leg-. "ince pcop!e's bchavior is 1I0t influe nced.-dS innucllced by tht: ~1t:dtCI a llclllion bt.llLse the)' rcalil.H HlV UlfJI . and political documents.-ltlJl"S exJllu!Wfllhc impact 011 produc lh'it y or \...·1Il problem. researchers employ a technique known as conte"t (walysis.'1l 111l411'1 leg r. call innuencc their bch:l\'ior-lhis is nOllhc case whell 'k!colld. whic h is the systcmatic coding 45 f HtI'O... IVrowlllio/l of Ihu phmQl""uJ1I gmu filII of 1111 nrl.sciCllti'l.e n aware thotl the). U!lt of ••.. The term secondary analysis rcrers to a 1"'1("1\ or n:SC.cful to study cultural.."uflt:J11 rQlIIllu~1 durillg IM 192th 111111 19J(h at Ih~ I-/mutllqnlL pllllll (If Ill' Wlllml f.d pa' pcrs. songs.tiSlic.. tht.als.searchcl'lt can avoid the HawlJlome effecl by employing .. Whl did the pl. t "lIIlO dcu: nl1im: hO\\' the productivity or workt'r-. Sociologi ..'Strucuon. economic.~ from police and social service agencies on ft'/J1JI1f'1l cases of spouse :abuse :md c hild ... ~u(h as rcdtllillg the ..llc use or pu~ hd'\: ......PLS. Ilwes1ig.oGJ( ..en' h onc in lll~ rt.......Jone~.ent's e mployec!> \\'ork harder CVt. folklore . busc . "~!I.' :. fC!>Cilrchcl"S milil.. S!nu: ulal time... 11... Whereas subjects oran expt:riment or observation fCSCllI'ch . arc beillg " r.Ill expt..st:(luently."OdUCliviIY. CoII..carc h anel test hyl~~hl")('$. in relying 011 data collected by ~mcone c lse: the researcher ma)' not find exactly what is needed...dJ In ~KI<~OKi.l.uJ in ways IInilllended by tht: illili.SorlologulJ (I" u'(lI aUla" tllat IM 1'f"fVna of all ~ rlUlJ alftcl Ill' btlwl'ltlr of lilt fJI'OP~ ""'/lg JludUd...IH' u~cd Ill(" tenn H'wthome effect whcn ~LlI~ccts III fe!l('ilrch pert"rn> Ill . tep~ Ihr"! wuk seemed 10 inc rease pn. theY IOllnd th.c..ccolld:uy anal)'sis to be lIonf(. For cxample.\\lurbet.t. . to nallle 01 rew examplcs. SCI. re...lwthurnc pl:mt 0 1 t/l e We~I('rt1 Ekelrie CompJn".IILI{.tt (/Il ..tnal)".c that tilc). ...wur.l.ud tJlem in the course..R 1 • MITIIWS ()f-SOCJOI.duc tivity.'. Yet such guvernlllent bodies hllVC no prccl~c dam on till cases of abuse. diaries.ts camide.sLS do l10t order tu illronnatiOIl .IlY analysis is uscd .c rt.II the plant could be improved .11lons in 11" IIUt.s find it u-. I ...(lctilN..'colldary analysis. led to highcl· p. S0cial l'(..~ible inromlatiol1 :md da!. A~:III cKample.tl collectors or 4i....ltrfnr CmnprlllJ.. sociologistS h.u scelllerl lil-cl} tu haH' tile o pposite dint.lrl . but arc V.. in \uudlK"ling 'iC. CcllS lIS daw arc COI11piled for specific IIses by lhe fc::dcr:tl government.lrC'h techni<luC8 Ih. Exislinv Sources _ lu'cc'lS:lIily ha\t' tll collect new conduct !"(". .lhk cOllditio llS? Their bch:n'ior ap~lntl\' "..llched-all awarencss that .is........ h. TI... radio and television tapes.lrc oft..... howt'ver.••. Emile Durkhcim's $latistical analysis o f suicide lleithcr increased nor decreased human sclr·dt..' or Iht: n~!>carch and by I" north)' of being subjccl!t in .. I ml~)...... including IIcwspapen. Many social ....

5 Acknowledge resea rch collaboration a nd assj~ \.! IUfW5COS/er.f.OCICAI I'l-JI. g1lided b)' some rationale. mcm bers h:IVl' a responsibility to monitor nu! on ly their own behavior hut also that of othtf sociologists. t he AJll~r· iean Sociological Association (ASA) . Both th e ASA and the SPA have e mphasized thar. COli ten t analysis neverth eless allows researc hers to systematically il nalflt' tc1evision coverage and assess possible biases (Kolbert. During t. Th ese examples llndersco re the 1. Barkey could hardly have rel ied on sUlveys. To d\.HT ONE' 11ft: . SociologisLS must also abide by certain speci fi c Starldartls in conduCling research-a code uf ethicJ.he ge nel. On the surface. or his p1'Opasals-t. researche rs anil lyzed Lelevision networks' coverage ut the 19!J2 presidenti<ll elect ion in their evening news broadCal. 1989). his record. nel.U. more specifically.1 election c<lmp<lign . socio logist Karell Barkey ( 1991 ) exami ned village CO urt records from the seven teenth-century Ottoman Empire (cclltercd in modern-day Turkey) 10 assess the extent of peasant rebellions ag<tinst the empire a nd .· ' .he primari es.luc of using ex isting sources in studying contempor.erial. 6 Disclose all sources of fina ncial support (AmN' ican Sociological A<. obserV"". the conve nti ons...L~ . like othe r scholars studying ea rli er civilizations.umdle1"."flW.. re.han they did conccrn ingchallcngcrs Bill Clinto n a nd Rass Perot.lry mal.~illg conlnll anal)'Sil" DJ lelevision ni!tworks' cOw:Yage of the 1992 presulenlial ~/J'clion in lIuir evrning Itroadwsls.l mad~ they did about challnl~ Uill Qill/(JII and RoSI Pernl. The professional societ)' of the discipl irte. first publish~ thc Cm/. or experimen ts to sWdy tJl e Ouoman Empire. which put forth the following basic plinopies: ] Maint.sociation .tlions. and objective recording of data. The slUdy of sexual stereotyping discussed at the beginning or the chapter is an exa mpl e of content analysis. 1992). in additjOIl.'.. h mal' 46 I'A.. and r. Researchers have learned. 2 Respect the subjcCl's righl to privacy and di~· flily.. For example. 3 Protect subjccLS from personal harm. 4 Preserve confide ntial ity.y ill research.. otherwise would be bOlh unethical and illegal.l/mwd 1//(1} mQre 11tgalive ml'lOrkl aJllcr. iL'i tax pol icies. in 1982 the Sociological Practice M sociation (SPA) introduced ethical sta ndards fOI sociological practitioners in the ir clinical work \\ith dienL'i.millg Pre$idenJ Grorgt! 8ush thl/I! IU'W.he distaJll past. In addition. In another use or content analysis. oIE/hies in 1971 (most recently rCI'ised In 1989). While politica l partisans might insist that Bush eamed these cri ticisms.~ probably secm quite dcar-<:ut. the basic prin ci ples of the ASA'i f:ode of Elhic.I't.ain objectivi ty and integrit.iOCJOI.o:scaSlers made more negative remarks concern ing President Ccorge Bus h -whel he r in te rms of hi s ability to govern. she tUll1cd lO secondary a nalysis. A hiochemist can not iruecl a serum into a human bei ng unless it has been thoroughly tesled."1llce. that such a nalysis can be essential in helping LIS to ullderstand social behavior front t.

47 r:flAl"nH:1 • Mt :IHrJl)..'I"a rH or COIltilluC lhe protections of anollYlllity. of /J~ Dl's a '11/ filii.(It.ITY ..oj1mlll. police spy.ilt! palllion: FiI'5(.'. book.. I continuc to haw . that the}' had a ll}' SC I.V' rtfiWtI 10 Im!al/.:kraker.PRESERVING CONFlDENTW.ONE SOCIOLOGISTS VIEW In hd book Doomsday Cult... of course. despite the fact that somc tl. IM OPs luul /ltcome whlt'f:.'" 1'r'rrf'lJ. and althoug h the fame of the group now ma kes il diffi cult 1 cOlltinue th i:.rtUU!l$." 1971...11' "D.." Cmwqllf1aly..! iuilial If(j/ Nllllfll$ of m'mlymilJ 11/1// ff'11{!1I1 tll. $oriolrr f.\fllll. Ali/rlu·li.'(l the pluralis m or I\mcrican society. "JUdl h~ "Jm 10 fU' /liP "Diu.f . /-/.tJ .. . to mlctl.~p'l1Id /".nn.i of Doomsday Cult 1>tI/l"IM 1/1111 Ihe DP. Tlu:1 rf.. That is. [ made such an agreemcnt with the group reponed in l.:ulililtion and social life.. hi.ll' him jrol1l his J962 agrt'f'IIlI'1l1 ".• mucknrkc r or o ther nmnJisr. N(Jl. I must 0 11)'. that had (0 IN rorll1lf'rrd.fnJm l.Iml(/(io/IIII/y jalflmu 197()s.. • is /J!(/ by 11 Korea/! ""''' u'/w omwd . .1' the Vlli/ed Slutp.ojlrwd's firm 'if(JIu tQ !. .s .ltiol1 on Illcmbers to do so. 1I 1. '-oc:iQ\QbtisLS must agree to pro1nl Iht' people they stud y in ex' change for perm ission to be privy 10 the secrcts of~ocial org.. (I~- 510111:(/-(11111 t:Un1 jltlfly a. J)!'f I/""-f lIuiml l\'lOOIl:r UllijiCIJ/iQII dllll'dl. .. whistleblower..121) filln//)' colleluded tlwl "Ihl' 'sfcYfl' had b.:io[ogisls arc mcrcl}' onc more breed of Illut.ht'y could ) and the society lhal makes tha t discipline pos~i hlc . 1993). and use personally idclllifi ed il1fo l"l11.COlllt ab~lmiry obvi(JI/li.1' it/flllilia 'if Ill" 1'11/1 IIIl'1nlN'I'~ 11'110111 ht 1111'1 tllfring Ms J(II/5 of mm'YlJaliOlI rt5l't1rrh ($a (IWJ If. in fact.. A prime OilC is if I belie\'ed th ~lr the Ill's serio usl)' threar.e n(."Sti!f<llivc jourtUbSl .1/ th. llt». (I'(IIIIT... III ..~II'" (/111.lSl'I1tt/ ill prilll 11)' (lilt.mltel tilt 1III0llymiry of lIu Dl's rllJd tludr Il'fIda.iJ (111 HI/Cleslillg 1!05til~riPtlO this 11(1)'. /lnm'lld SlIn MyulIg MQlm:1 UnifimII"~ rlwrrh (w Cha/J/1!f 14).I per- . .1fU.oflolld (J 977:xi) Il/wlyuJ lb.... o r worse. In Ill}' judgmelll.ch qllfst wa.W/ fl.I. absolUlC. "fm' five )'ea'~ hI Amen'm C 19!9-19(4) of an ob.\Od pli vatc o blig:ll ioll to the membcrs 1\-11h who m I ~ pcnr many nJtlUdt!. I am determ ined lhlll they "Ill not sulTer infamy on my a crrmnt.' "fl.IJ.I (I "pmu".. J)e.lfJilf /. undcrco\'e r agent.Al.uIClI . I would nOI stand by and allow them 10 destroy Illy discipline (which Ih ey \\'ould do ifl. bl.. There are a few circumslances in whic h I wou ld not f. United StalCs go\'enlment.''' joJII/ /.ojlOIlJ add5 Ih(1I If)' the 197111.tadl'r. 5dlolars-llwl Il..flll alilf mjm1Q11S S~ (TnI Jq. lllc pu~ilion 1 olTcrabo\'c is nOl.~ wryI'. .illills (1/lI1 IlJis I'!J.oflh~ ..illt clluT ufficia6.l\~ ilcluC'o'cd infamy by Iheir' own . • /.lll.OUS chancc of taking (H'cr the Tllm.l'Ii. protcction.. they do not now 1101' arc thc)' ever likely 10 pose such it lhl'Cill.. AnYlhiug less e ndangcrs thc f\llUre nf ~ociol nb'Y itself.'. I am a sociologist r"rher than an inv(. rUIl/IllIlt5 to ImJ/I'(/II. <I plura listic a nd mo re or \cM free society is o nc ind ispensable conditio n of [lmc ticing sociology itself. ill J983. 50 o/JviO(H iJlIlI wlltillUillg lilt 'WIN:T ' 5~l'ml'tl l)lJilltlf-$.1(15 (OlllllU)II/).his book. /. /"ujlmlll (1977: UJ-H6) txjJ/nins why hI! mainlflillnl . tf)' to 1.ll il !J!(1lJ agretfl Ihal ollly Ill" (Ilg(lIIiurtiml alld its fmllldfTlIIflllld /)f /jIJIIII!d /Jy LoJlaml. ~ .· fir a:/. lhrcal~'n in g 10 bring il into cvtOn more disrepu le by giving credence 1 the charge 0 that .'('[JIT.lcuYr md. I would SlOp them .~ Of SOCIOU)(:I(.01I that Wt!111 011 to buOI/U! . By Ihe tllrly 1980s uiflmui (1985: 120. Ill' IjJllI~d the presidellt ()f lire U"i'ttl Slall'( brandl of Iltl' UI/pml/o" dWl'd.( !rImlled.Ps..u I'Q/WIIIIlIy IUIII . &:(O nd. al'l1 Win of OOsf!t'valillll /"I'Sfflrrh.

.'Sl· rO(Jm~ in pa rks. Scllrcc maintaine d his silcllce.hical qucstions cannot ~ ~'ol. Such re~lromns . 1987: Shupe and Bromky.) regard all inlormation provided b) intcl'\iew su bjccts as confidcntial. Scarce Imd declined 10 tell :1 federd l grand jury ".~!!9.tin slIc h infornut ill1l? SecrcC) a nd silencc wCI-e l.cw('cI. il1tl'n'\cws .lIt'ci hi!> rcscarch grant .IIt.ln tl'cing that persunal information discluscd will re main c()nn· denti..lIel· 5o'!w as il violalion u ! p rofessional ethics.!1 candidate in sociology at Washington SIOIIt· Ulli\'ersiIY.11 sllldy of ho moscxllal he havior in which h e rlt.. (.~" As a r('sult.here I hlllll}h rl1~ W. At the Limc.('Iler. ~.~ln' ror hi~ .~~_ Most sociolOf:.lI1d1c:cI by :t!o~IU. 1 <.. socio logi..l!·OQtl! patrOlls." ... Il ow{'vcr. mally deliclle ct...ual enCOII[lIl'rS bc:lwten 11lalc ~ IIl ct' linK in public rt. is irrq:).' extent tn "hich S(')Ciologis15 could thre.\ . although c has tised In' a rcdcral judge..\(' tl'd :1$ a paniri- Scarcc's position as he appealed pallt obst'ncl by senr\ng as ..be difficllh to imagine how they could Icad to . in 1(':II'OOlIlS.~j. wai ted a )<.~ III:tming pat1'011~ wht.h(' norm" of 'hit scxu..liled for contcmpt of COllrl. 1970b. For cXlllnplt·.Ibout who they .l llv.UlcellOf of the ulli\'t'rsily \.Il1luh IIl1tll-nnillcd. I he ch.OCHi\'l' rClIc... and thc)..:liscd important qut:stions abolLt llll. ami then ill1cl' \'iewed them in their hOllle.e men. III ordel' tu ~Iud) the lif~t~k uf ItCllllOsc:':xuai millt'.Ire so mctimt~ calle d Immmll..'M .\ hy homosexual mell.. f-IO\\'c\'t: r .1.. Tht.hing .11'S m. Ihf'i l agrecment rei 48 I'tNI 0'" • nl~ SOCJOI11('J('AI 1'f. In May 1993. which ~ays thal sch o lars II1USt main tain confidcll liality even when th e inlu nlla tio n ilwoh'c d clUoys IIU leg••1 ]lIntel" tion.R. Curiously. 1993:A8). Whcll journali~u "lid 'IoC:hol.' of Ilumphrc}"5's idcntilY. Whi le h e was prim:ui l)' in tercsted in tht behaviol of lllc-.1S R"SJ>OndclILS to sun'c)' qUelilior~ l>3rticip. or ~1I1~cC IS of ob!n..''<oCribcd th e colsllal hnmOS{')l. "'e considrr th is se nsitive issue by cxa mining the views of' . and Scarce was relcased aftt'r serving 159 days in jail..lIId !It-hen. . In :11\ GL\CS. e rt' ami why thcy tOO~ such I.11-.. . T h c Am erican Socio logical ASl>Oc:iatinn Sllppol'tcd hi ~ \(·lIIenc(:.~L~~~!!. could he.)' of .u'!lo can 110 longer offer confidemialit} 10 lht'ir 'ltlUrcc' in gocxl rahh -and Ih(" ".lgcd in une th ical a nd pus. a doctor.cI tll .'hOlI Ill' knewor even whe th er he knt'w :lnY1.~n~4...~..llell peoplc's rightt" pri\>..'C1 f'rom fellow I)lison inmates who regarded him as a man who ""uulcln 't !>nitch (Monaghan. While sociologists and other Khol. 1975 ) puhlished a pionec ring and (11 1111\1\'('1'51.. 1-1 tllll ll ltl").·ould be g'dincd by furtJler incarc~ration. ScU'cc s [.lIcged ly CI1G. \\'ould nOt ha\'c consent(·" to ~tandaJ'd MKiologicl l inlc ."'Cd 15imply rn' rcading the six points above..".. J'ftTII1 \ .1 activit ies? In Uox 2-2.. this is h..tC'l' T~aroom Trade Sociologisl La ud Ilumphrt'1' (1970..ng IheM 111\1)I\'e<l nr .ricl1 research uses proP" as SOllrtM \4 infol1n:uioll-. In press illlCrviews. couns do not ah''a). III Scarce'.1t police 01' otlll'r ~ tl':1ngNs :Jp' IlI'oaciJ cd. should <& sociologist cng:lged in panicipalll-oh!>Crv.h)(.1 research techniquc tha t some social sde llli ~1S I. \~uioll.. in cxpcrimclllS.lllt. .lrch.'nvironl1lcnL NOllc (Jf the /lIcn under Sl~ klll·V. .~. I lumplll't}"i decided on .lli. need to bc crltlin that Ihey:lre nOt im"<lding th e pri\':IC) or their 5U~ j e(Lo.. fllr Ihe roundation or modem . ( 1993:38) \icw: Promismg confidentiality b [1 norm III SOfial-sde:ncl:' 1(" researc h.'as j. Rik Scarce.... mdke it clear that the}' cannot-then ~il:'t) \Unl'n.15 IItt· c. ubjects? What irthc l5l1 l~CCLS are me m he~ ofa rt·ligiolls CUll ..5 uphold this p0sition. (' h1 1111-:('d his <tppt:araIlCl'. soc i olo~isl wh o studied a highl)' controversial religious group (sec all50 S. HlIlllphl l')'s ..-in..!~~.ihly ilIcb". a swdy hy L:llIci I I 1Irnphre't~ r.. Il c rt:cor<lcd the I~ ccnse plate lHunbe rs of' lel.<.... lI eller. 1980 ). the judge nllcd that nothing ..IS em l)l~ tcnnin. Scarce: was ulIldllcling research for a book :thalli c lwironmcllta l l) )"Otc:SlOrs and knf'w a l least onc suspect in Ihe hre"Io.~~. Vct ha .obt.social-M:icnce rl'M:an.my disagreement 0 1' controversy. :lIld a c:rlldal lool III reporc:lgc. h e relt bollnd by th e j\SA's code of clllic5.lings in Ill}' CASe .. While f-IlImphrc~'i's ~ubj«ts conscnll'd In be inlcn.:abOlIl :1 1991 mid OIL a u niversity rcsearch lahnt~\ltJr)' hy animal rights activists.ll .Sk. As o lle COlL~ C']lIellLe of Ihi!> IJro\.lIId tc.o rk.uion research (/1l/JaJ~ prou:ctlhe cOllfidenti. Scarce won I"CSpt..er(' condllcwd as pan or a la rgel ~ III'\'(')" bllt thl did ')' provide information that 1 -lulI1pI1l c)"1I fdt . Ultimatcly...c hing elM" U'aCl .knlll .lIlull)'lll it)' :md by gllar.. h...0 wOIntee! III lelll'l1 1I10rl' .

. a nd none were child ren (sce alsoJ Grny. Pau'ons ult/!I:' t~a roo m were no t aware of I-Iulllph rcys's pllrpt)"'"~ ./{. on ly three \.u'Cher'll judgmen t.. Sociologist Wil li ::un Ze lln cr ( 1978) wished to lea rn if ra tal car c['.s believed tha t by de.'cre teenagers U\\oofwhom lI'ere part ici pating intearoolll SCl( 10- 199 1).t:4fch was 1I0 t HUlll phrcys's choice of subjeCl ftWtl'r. 1 97~: 175-232) . For this reason (as the).ln hcl' misled abOllt Ihe real rca~1Il) rur the househo ld illlcrvicws.'. Do these gains in o ur k... Accident or Suicide? A simi lar e thical issuc-wi th th e right to know posed abF.vaC 111e re is no casy }'. Humphrc). since they '. I he valllc of h i:. Il_ //f~'iI':MI(.. .yo rity o f Ca nadian pJrtidpants \\'C I'C married . l l'lllut! of his findings? As iu the study o f tea rOOI11 trade.!(/ conSCllL. Zcll ner sought La i1llcrview the frie nds. A rece nl SUlcly or Gmadia ll poli'i' u. he "Quid be able to dispel the myth tha t ch ild mQlcsL1tion is a freq ue nt p ractice in restroo ms. IS conducted.pes.han the sexual behavio r of I-I um phre)'li's s u bjects. No men tion wa~ m.lIld friends (a nd perhaps to co ll ect OI he rwise lI nn:deemable insll nl1l ce ben e fi ts) . Zelllle r wished to learn abou t thl:' emotio nal c haraclerisl its of accidellt victims. lIumphreys learned thal mOSI o f his subj eclS ~~ ~hon gethcr). Humph rcys ( I970b: 167-173. People approac hed fo r interviews were told that Zcllner's goal was 10 contribute to a reduction of future accidents. W:L~ h is deception j ustified b)' the soci . \\'ithotlt the fu llow-u p in tcr\'iew~ .."CI'C u ml\'~ l rc IIIf [rue purpose o f the st. ju~ t i­ lird the questio n able means bwoh·ed. n o \\'lcd ge a nd understanding offset Humph reys's actions of e ncroaching o n people's p riva te Ji ves and dcet:.o..ellting adu lls.tk-deposit box.urn/Oil. we \I'llltld know liuJe about the kincL~ of i11 en wllu engage in tearoom sex and wo u ld be left with false IltrCOI). Fa mi Iy rnelllbcr..J/AV/Nf:! ' .k ~ t rooms fo r cas u ~1 ho mosexual e ncoun lCrs.ica lly inju red innocent bys tande rs in lite proC t~ SS ofta kin~ their own lives. c\'cn morc so t. and fmui ly members of the deceased . Zcll ne r ('l'ctHua lly concluded th at a l least 12 perce nl of all fa ta l singlc-(JcCt lPil ll l cras hes are sll icides.. T heir real idc nrint"lll'crc recorded only o n a master list ke pt in a \.ul iriff)17IU. "'~ lawyers have used the study [0 establish Ih:1I 'Ill h heh:lI'ior is no t llll llslIa\ a nd typically involves rnll.l.!(JI1. He exen ed great care in main winillg tll~ f(lI1fidentia lity of his subject.1~'fragc of t\'lO c hildre n and te nded 10 have a l ki)1some years of college educa tio n. but rather lhe deception inl'uh·ed.. T h ese acts of ~ a mo­ cidc arc by Ililtu re co\'e n . lI'e are Icft with a conflict be twee n the right to know and the right to pl. Yct the CU1ical questions still must be faced. Howeve r. · r'II'SOt /0/ or. coworkers.. for wcial sciem ists. Ihe a nswers lwe ri 49 C.'!.ivi n g the m d u ri n g in lClVit. and many of th e m h"d children.linst tile riglll to pri· vacy-beaune a ppa re lll in researc h o n a tllo mobile accidents in whic h fa tali ties occur.ud). appeared to be IIn:m'are or the Illt.I\'.Il1? 0 . rcsoll1lion to this clash of p ri n ciples.U ' .15 deslmycd by IImnphrq'S afte r the researc h " ". HUlllphrc}'l> hdl{'\(:d that.:tibing such sexual in te rac ti o n s accll r.:ltely.um\.. The m.tdc ofl hc illt en~ewer's suspicions o f at1l. T h is informa tio n could be valuable for society. ali I of fe ar Ihat potcnt ial respondc ll ts would refuse t.c) meet wi lh him.. stu d).ocide. O ne unintended conseque nce of the research was tha t 11 h:'l:! bee n in creasingly cited hy a tto rneys see ki ng ilcquittal for cliellls a rresled in public b:lIJlI'oo m ~.lI's? Essem ially.:n 's \rjs i L~ 1 0 ". h't'TI before lhe publi c Olllcl)' over his resea rc h ht. the ethical proble m in th is rcr. T hl:' list ' ' '.\rc of the e th ical questions that his study "unlel raise.lhel'c was no in dication tha t they recognized him.u'c h lllle thical because he m isre presen ted ule motives of his sludy a nd fa iled to o btain sll l~ecLS' informed cQnSI.!Shes a re som e times suicides t ha t hil \'~ been disg u ised as accide n ts in o rde r to pl'otcet ramily . 1It'I'C ill lhcir middlc th irties a nd ma rried ..:cords by sociologist Frederid: Dcsroches (1000) supports J-Iu m phrc}'s's earlier nn d illg. H e hoped to obtain infon mu1011 tha t would allow him 10 ascerlain whether the deaths were acc idental or purposefu l.lIld were fl.~ . in lhe Tt''f. In addition. in re fl cCling 0 11 \he ' study. \hhough the researc h e r recognized c::ach o f the mell imcrvie\'led from his observations in lhe rcs t~ I . Yet we can certa inl yask tha t sociologists be full )' awa re of the clh· ica! implica tions o f a ny such rcscMch tecll1li(llIes. particularly since some of Ihe pro bable suicides aelll· a lly ki ll ed or crit. or 190 males studied wh o \\'ere involved in such sexual activi ties. were fa lse I)' info rmed ). Was Zell ncr's I'C$C.~ rcl(:Iuling tearoom sex. In h is erforts to assess the freq uency of such suicides. T hey had our .

but in the wa).r/\1' . wou ld be influenced by thcir own personal \'. rm 'II)("JOI..iom of the researcher? PCl"hap)'. Zellner's Mud ). ~1 :u. rn .:H. but under no cond ition! could a rc<.'cre.<.Jy " pparent. Name)' of suspected s lli dde~ were nOI revealed to imu t":l nce companie~.l. In Weber"s phr-dSc.. • whirh mtlid .c:ll'chc r alia . wrialogical ~/mlJ of /KnQbiI' "CWJondl'l.~.IUb in selecting questions rO I· rcseal"<:h. As parr o f lhis ncmraHl).v'tx. 1-49. Zcll· ·l Iler appe:tred to havc admirabk llIotive'! and look greal carc in p ro ll"cling conficlt·mialiIY. Cou ld th ese questions have led people to gucS$ Ill(' true intc""llI. subjccts or inquiry.udy ha\'t" eau "I'd the be· I·c.ll(IlIi.wcd la sttspecl suicide-whc'.__ . More seriously. Ourkhcim counte red IXlp ttlar conceptions when he n'pon ed that sociJl (1<111u.~.m ('IIlieal obligation lO accept research findings I!VtII when the data ru n cou nter to their own persoRa/ viel"s....ensiti\'c boundarics for cthiClI scielllific in\·cSligalion.itKll deci~ions ...igators hnl'e .\("'" IIHJI"I' Ij. Il be fore the Mlrvc)' me)' had accepted the d(:!:Hh~ as .~..~ue: the possibi lilY of harm 10 thow who were imcr\·iewed.~ ~~~. mi ~ht the st.i llmt sociologi.. wa. Given om· un ccrt . sociologists and o eht'r iOl'otig-.ice thl' per. who makes the critic. wc ha\'C no e vidence 10 sugge~t this. that rt' suhs .S the light to knnw o ut weigh lhe righl tQ pli\''iu:)' ill Ihis Iypt· of ~illl:llion? And who has the tight to m:tkc Sllch:l judgment? In pmc-- lice. though Zell ncr did recom mend that me inliur:mce indusu·\' drop dOllble inrlcmni t} (paymen l orn.'Olsecl had ~ ta lk ed about suicide" aori ir they had ~pokell or how "bad o r uselc'Ss" ther \.1 et. ~.~.idd y :u:ccpu:.i.Ilio n or data. Ihe re'ie:lrch justified? Was 7..cll ncI· I:ll:ing toO large (I risk in asking the rricmls and ramiliC'S of th e deceased \'icti ms if they had spo ke n or suicidc· he-fore their dealh? DOt. Like 1 ulllphn·y:. in his vic\\'.? ~...~~..Arr . thod l"'-dS perfectly acceptable. r(".~~. invest. but wc cannot be surc.' his 01' he r pe rsonal fl'tlings to in flu e nce the interprel:.'11 deat h) in lh(' rutllt"c.~.. inty "00111 Ihi" laSI qut'stinn.. hUI according to Zellner.-lion. sociologists must practice 1J(J/u t II e lltral i ty in their research. Webc r ( 1949... .~.~ .. Similarl). original edilion t9(4 ) recogn ize<.lnn ·s benefits in Ihe t·VPn! orilccidcnt. as in ZclIncl"'S slUd)" it is Ihe r~rrller.. nOI immediatc.uI). to lhL'OrcliC'.r MIlrt'miMt t/ll' riglrt 10 Imow (md Ilrl' righ/to .uors bear the responsibilit). The e th ical considenltions or sociologists lic noI o nly in Ihe me t. Humphrcys chaJ..tcddenl:tl? Ag-. none orthe inlonmtnts voiced snch suspi cio ns.. ro r establishing dear and :.u.-d bc lic rs. or I( ".(~/CM '. basL"d c)(planations..'rll'TI'.\hl':5 flrlUnl1J \IIj·nrln~ D.. in.~r. rai"l·d :lI1 add itional et hieal i .i. mf{lr{ oauplllll alllOJllobIk Ct{j.~~.~~~. 50 j'Mrrow· .~. -n lel'ciore.hods lISt--d. nouhc . ~~~.lriII(1(1. r Umn supernatural) forces were an impor " tan I raclor in suicide.! re in lcrpretc<. SubjeclS were asked H the den..rlmll'lllhat /1/ {m{1 12 /II'T'I'''I of Jrlt/r arridl'''I1J/(III'U havt ill (arl rom'ml/i'd srl/rI/iI'..sling t!llrimlqrm.

. Furthermore. Yet. that wcio l ogiSl~ m ar liSt" o~jcc ti \'1~..IIudr« sociology has beell CI.Il. These olI'J.s tha t such applied research is exciting to do and can make imponant long-term comdbutiolls lO o ur understa nd ing of roeial problems.ml' ~io l ogi~ts hclic\"e that il is impossible roJ' ". In 199 1.s.$ rrll'f/lIlly l'N#'urrhl:ll f'.hj((lJ."."-yeal'.l- 51 .llucs with the social r('alit" under ~ULdy Ifkmth:.1\'e $Cen . ag<'in dr. we h. Having been throug h similar controversies before. S 18 milli o n national SLL IVCy oft.he Unilcd Stales.. Sociol(){l. however.U( her<.H in line with Webe r's view ofv:lluc l1l~ utralily .'k\credjt1stilication for remaining UllC1itica l "I tXi~ling instiwtions and cel l ters or power. Rossi ( 1987:79) concludes that "in rhe short term.n.l fivt..rwlr I>/Ih.Ili. a challe nge t.crsy.. ! Il ey lUllS not c:ollfi l ~e ! Ilwlf own Vi." ROllI 1I!fi$ flllllriu!tf b)' (hi C. .IU'~ of !.:d t.~e .l$( P.~-W ) has suggesle d . Al"in GOllldncl' ( 1970: I N. .ltl Rossi ( 1987:73) admit'> that '" in my proles.hat he was C<lJlcciing fu nding for. when Rossi and a team of r'esearc hers Glrcrlllly attempted to mea"u re tire exte nt o f homelessness in Ch icago in the mid.ccnage life in t.runJI work as a s(JCiologist. rily \ '''m~/I'$1 IHJf". they anived al estimat es of the cit"'~ homeless population far belml' those o rrered ( .he (OnOiCI pcrspccti\l'-amollg them \lmJn American and femilll . 1968:49:1) ." But he insist.ith Hlrl e fir'lll docu mc nt.\1.mIlOllo{'l.ation ) hy rh e Ch icago Coa lition fort. a result.t schu lars-on the ~wlI!lds that it leads the publ ic 10 accept socinlngiral rlmdusions wil hout exploring the bia. Even the decision La conduct a study can spark partisan de ba te.. my libcml incli na tions h~n' led me to UndCrlllke 'l pplied social researc h JIIlhc: hope tha t . atLackf'd hy coalition member.:'lntt'IlIS arc attacks not so much on Weber hil1l\('11 0\' on how his goals have bc('n incon'Cctlv illtl'rrllctcd.ltllioll UVI$ Jar bt/ow l/utl offm'd (11. IIu(oo/llion .hulill'" to preve n t their personal \"::lllles fl'orn inlluI'IH'ing their wnrk.'1. As a result .sness.o a m~or rt'search eO n W11".ShQWII II fI hmm"l'. pm'tially fo ug ht o fT after the seco relat)' of Health and Human Scrvkes . \Vc bc (s call ror a \".. ..he l-I o me1c .. In his view.ll UlfmWIl who (1111'1· /11 Cilia/go.licil.t'd b\ ma'lYad\!~. Rossi's commit ment to rigorous research Inethods and objCCli\'c interpretation u rda ta has sometimes led him i to controversial findings not n{:cess..nng lis rfforn fit If/rm/ /w rr/arm /JI'(I/IIJI /'.. rt.!. I!'n~t'd Imditional ~u~piciuns \\'hcn he found that IN't' 11f tt!arOOlll~ W('t e not preying 011 adolcsccnl~ "r munger boY!.'o Coolillflll (hi Hfillu:inJ f()f (lfHrf/w.. of the U''>!'.. my researc h might contribute ultht' J:cnerallioc l'a lllim orsoc ial rciorm".ld strong backing (rom Ihe N.~ n g on UIl' COIlnkl prrspeclivc.. A!. .111 lllt/~ finn IlonllllnllnriQII) ". Rossi was hitt e rl).1980s. good social resenrrh will oftcn be greeted as a bct l'<lyal or Olle or anothe r side rn a parliculru' conu'O\. TIlt: sLllvey h. ~.1 ly supportive 0 1 hi~ uwn libe l'a l values. For exa mple.. Weber was quile cll'<lr thot! '<O{iologists Illay brillg va lues to uleir su l~eC: l IIldUer. for hampering social I'cfonn crrorts by minimi7ing the exte nt o f homcie.

oazines In from othcr libmrie~ "hich can be secured t.LiC for tht: ke}'""Ord M Mhomclcss. "they haIr relil1quis hed to a large exte nt Ih e rreedom III (hoose their OWll problems.u Refrllbllc. re- searchers ilwcstigathtg a pdso n riOl must be I'm 10 cXilminc objectively not only tile beha\'ior ofinmates but ..'1I and t he pri\~llc ..ish to slIIdy. specl. for lhat 111:11tcr.uc'ate IIscn d articles lhat havc "ppcared in pcliodicals."... ho . Coser.0 g()\t:rrtnU'nt or. 2 Use IJIl' libml)' cntalog..duc nelltmlity.leCe". L.1 the conduct or prison officials be$0 fore and during the umbrcak.·c of go\. the issue orvalue neutrality becomes especially delicate when o ne considers the relatio nship o f sociolo... IQ PmIHilrnl Ulmllll" indexes mall)' popular lIlaga1i ncs.\oectQr.hethcr sociologists ..(' computerized ~)'steIllS which . ill which supporters of the research spoke ohhe need to beller umlcrst:md beha\'ior in light or the prevale nce of teenage pregnancy ami sexually tr. in the Uuited Sl.nior call generate serious con1. 110 uul IOI)l'l't to bt.'lrrh..ill be hel pl'lll : Check lhis texlb(lok :md other textbooks umt YOII own. Iso hooks and maf.mes. Three rcsearch guide~ fo und in mostlihr. hand.sllcsS whirh rtl:.IIII SIlf'1J(('$ /1I(11'. the fedeml government has become the major sourc.rO\crsy (COSSA.1 support ror n~ R' st. 3 l.: which might ha"e l!~ tcrested l.h'e on what needs 10 be swdied..fi ~ ill1ilar 10 those lIsed bv sociolQo gislS in conduct. 1992) .trr's collcct . Thus.. illdudin~ Nnl/SlLri.IS sociologists in t/l{ United St:ltes h""e increasingly turne d rrom bN' sociologic' l! research to applied rescarch fOl' po Cf'Illllent agcncil..."" not o nly the college 11br.msmiued diseases (includi ng AIDS) .ewis Costr ( 1956:27) has argued tlmt .a1Jto pie.. substilll1ing the pro!. 1991 .....r li ~L~ ~Irlicles in pro- 52 .. As this example illustrates. Title searches CclIl be used la 1 {)CI!t. Although the Amcric. l~boIJ). Lyon. These !I)'s tcms a llow)ou tosearth ror books by amhol or litlt::. Eventually. booh by subject as well..ilion to kill the study.:llt Sociological lion's UNk of Etllla cxpt. to gO\'Crnmclll. This may be mm diOicult il sociologists fC:lr that findings critical j~ go\. NE'ar lIlt'SI' books \\'ill he other works 011 hmnclc.~ of Ilcalth. The S()(. Yet Max Webe r urged tha t s()o dolog}' r(!main an alllOll011l0U S discipline and llot becol11e unduly inlhtelH'ed by allY 0111: segment or society. WRITING A LIBRARY RESEARCH REPORT order to wrile..'·arch projects.'gin with the materials closest al. researchers scaled down the sample size :md slIccdSfully obtained pri'~d. students must rol1ow pI'OC~durc. the importanct' orgo\'crmm:nl funding for sociological sluciic-s mise§" IroublinK <luClitions 1'01' those who cllt'ri~h We ber's ideal (j value I1clltr.1)I1 hilt .ll. !ems oftltcir clienls It)!' thus!.tional 111!ilitutc. ir you search the litle U. For cx. 1977:2 19-222: Cnllldncl" 19('12) ..Iccep' rl1nd~ from a particular agency Illa) also accept their ptt.'o t define the problems that yOIl . Where can yO ll linrl inlurm:llion? The following stcps l. the code does nOl address Ihr issue of . The Ilbidd't Gllid.cnunclltal institulions will jeop. Once a topic has been selectcd. Many lilmuies have a lX1l1dOllcd (fml l':ltalog~ and no" u. rrassing 1.y 1101 happen to h:l\'c that word in the titit' .hem 011 pUl'ely 1I1cl)l'etical grounds.crnmcllI imtitut ions (L..! or funding ror sociolugical rc)!e. is supporti. sociologists 1lI11 ~ t remain " 'cc to rcvcal infOlmation thal is e mb. you will leam where books with that word somewhel'c in the litlc :lrc lucated in the 6· b/'.t reM!al'ch rcport..tlil\ in rc~arch ..jng o rigi nal research.tries will be c~pccia ll )' ". Imellsc de~LC lollowed.Iable...' Viewed inlhis light . Indeed . According to his ideal of \" ... The~ developments undl'rscored the ract U1al studying social beh. you II1l1.treli:te Lht'l'l c hancC5 or obtaining redcl..I ry's hook ~tads ..te funding ror the study. lUll conse rvatives were troubled by the inclusion uf questions on sexual behavior and prC!SSlII'cd thc Bush administr. A Ic\'iew or tht' !itCnllllre will gencmlly re<luit e library n·scal'ch . and the Nr."Cts sociologists to disckaalt funding sources.hrougll illterlibrary loa ns.

N . Even ifyoll rc \\'orked someone elsc's idca~. ings within Ihe paper if Ih t. f IIhkh conce nt r. Some pro fessors may requ ir~ 111:11 studenL5 use footno tes in rescllfch reporL5. which follow5the fonnat ohhe Amc r· iean Sociological A. or libmriitll . .~ I:LSt six months. and org-dni:t...11.0. bsh articles from appro priate journals and also pro\1des brief summa lies. orga ni 7ations. I~l it sit fo r a few days.. you must indicate ule source of these ideas. • If possible. and so r"nh) for the mosl rcr.'l publish infonnalinn 011 virtually c\'ery sub . • Dcvelop an outline for your l'cl)Ort. rC. Oncc all researc h has been completed .. ) 5) r. 1994. 4 Im'(!Sligatc lIsing compllterized periodical in· d~es ifavailablc in rOllr Iibr.ioll which you have obtaincd from other sources mw' be cited . cnn.hey be placed in quotation mal'b.mge c)f ~"''trnment rc poJ'LS.('11. Con ~ uh lhe librarian for asvstancc in localing such IllOtu!rial$... the task o f writing th e rcport can begin.J l. :and thc United ~. 7 U"C newsp:ll>crs..·ith hibliugr.swu:... pos."ion1l1 joumals such as the AlIlI!1irtm SonoWgirtll Iltvitll'. ~ Consult the E"l)'dofJ~fifl o .1('44 1 RI-:1iU . ~~"1llapcr Abstracl. and th c n takc a fresh look before IlCginning rC\1sions.. These rkctronic S):stcms lI1a)' Ix! connected 10 a printer. tim('$ (:"en abstrdcL~ of lIrtides. tcaching assistant.\SOCjatio n.try. Bc sure thal YOll ha\'~ an introd uctio n and :t conclusion thal relate 1 each Olhcr-and lh:lllhe discussion p~ 0 ceeds logic lly throughout thc paper. You must be able tu cover it adequately in a reasonable amollnt of time and a reasonable number of pages.Itt$go\'e rnlllenL M:ltes .. Expanded ."S refc rellccs for fllrther ini'ormation .()Ci• scie nce resea rchers. Rcmember lhat <Ill informat.ld your paper (lfmu!. If an auIhor's exact words are uscd . HCl'c arc a fcw tips: • Ik sure the to pic you havc c hosen is not loo broad . and SociI/I Prnbkms..lphir infommlion and SOIllt..'l. (Sce a lso Richlin-Klonsky and Strenski. If ). thereby "Uowing rOil 10 produce yOllr own plinlOut romplNc .tlll.listed afier a state mcnt o r paragraph... and agt'llcics conIt'mtd ..i lh the lopic for info rmal ion and assi. Majol' newspape rs publish indt-'IIC' annually or e\'en weekly Ihal are usefu l in 10C'oItJllg infonnalio n aooul "llCcific C\'CI1IS or issues. Othcrs will allow studcnts to employ the foml of rcferencing used in this textboo k.db1e in making requcsls.Il('JI .clll four yeaN: il also indexes ~ Nnl/ )'OI'k Timl'\ lor UIC. "'l[h coverage begi nning in 1985. It is best to wri le a rough dmf!." Ms. S ExiUninc go\'cl'lunclIl d ocumenl. • Aik people.. jccl of imere!lt 10 <. it means thal Ihe mate rial has been adaptcd from page 27 ofa wad. The United ~. published by Mcrton in 1968 and lisled in the re fe re nce sectio n at the back of this tcxtboo k. ult the insu'Uctor.'s~IPCrs in the Unil ed States.uion.c is a compute rized inliex 10 eight lIl~or nc". Many . Use head.ou mn into difficulties.~.nillg St:clions or phrases tha t do n O l make M: IISC..'l Ondi<. alo ng ~lh material from o lher periodicals./ll'. Bc as specifi c a.lIe" on mau·rial ofilllerCSI 10 soci:ll 'l(iclltislS.radcmic Index CO\'l'l1i geneml·intcrcsl pcliodicals l1i. Atlatltir Motlthly.. entitlt:d SixiologimlAbstmcb.WClOI 0('.l.'Y will impJ'O\'C c1a rit). 1968:27).lttioll . Social Sdetlw. A third index. Nll tiotlaI Un'. it is esse ntial that !.tlld citil'.'17/00. • Do 1I01Ic:t\'c all thc writing ullIillhe last minute. If you sce -(Mcrton.t\ univcrsity libraries ha\'e access [0 a wide t.. Sociofilc cO\'ers all material in Soriologimf Abstmcts since 1974. Doing so may be helpful in 1 0C'.. the tlmmrull jOlIF'T1fI1 oJ Sorifii()gy. Each :II'tide includt.WI'F 2 ' ).

'.092 Pictorial grtlphJ. Ihrdea :. Nw JI:fll!'J Spt:1uL5 1lIOII'.H.les the relationship between two or 1110 re chardcteristics.219 $3. this gntph relies on a visual misreprese ntation .:.UNDERSTANDING TABLES AND GRAPHS Di rect Exptnditures p er Student Jor Elementa ry and Secondary Edll calion. can be q uile usefu l for sociologists. ""'"' $50.999 $20.000-$49. PEOPtf TOO PAYING "" 'ESI'ONDENT . 771.." rolO slam' CtJm/KIrnhtlt kttds offundmg for Muca/Um. AttIbIdIa OD 0I.the gra ph irillalCs the size of Ule expenditure level for Ne .abulation prcselllcd in the accom panying table. Each responde nt was inlerviel'o'cd and asked: "Do you thin k.000 cnd over $30..000 50 AO 59 59 6A 30 26 26 9 6 9 7 54 PART ONE ' 711£ SOCIOI.te of NewJersey spent more than th ree times as much per stude nt on ele me ntary and seconda ry education as Utah did. Il doc llmenlS that in 1992 the st.999 Under $20.000-$29. lOW·INCOME ARE PAYING THEIR FAIfI SHARE. witho ut some type o f SUIllmary.. Graphs.f INCOME Of LOW·lNCo. we can qu ickly see tha t.v.1 of I".E PEOf'lE ARE PAYING TOO MUCH. ages 18 and ove r . s/wwJi hl"n'. T he accompa nying illustratjo n shows it type of pictorial gr. a nalysIS in the Gallup o rg-dn ization could exa mine hund reds of in dividual responses a nd reach film conclusio ns. IICIUOU. that low inco me people a rc paying their fair sha re in federal taxes.. I'tIISI'F. A croSl·labulat io ll is it type of table th:u iIIUSlr.mi!S (J$ /n/l(h fN!r st udenl. such as fM on.~.Ie ngul a nd width . monq ~ JOT NroJ Jetv. are paying too much.tlu.1.CTtve .oGIO. or arc payi ng too littler There is no way that.he more affiuelll (and especial ly people wi th incomes of $50.000 a yeal' a nd over) arc less like ly th a n those in lowerinCf. Th rough use of twO dimellsiolls ..(upil!5 aboll/ nine lifws t/~ tlrM on IM IHlp as IM hag fur Utah.!. lhro ugh usc of the cros. IhertbJ gilling rttUkrs a fOUt j"'frrl!5Sio. t._ _ LOW·INCOME PfOf'I.lph thoU ofte n appears in newspapers a nd mag-dzines.)lIlC groups to believe lhat lowe r-income people arc payi ng 100 much in taxes. However. J 992 T ables allow social scientislS la summarize dU 1l1 and make it easier for them to develop conclusions..!n thrtl t. can be mukading.. During 1992. the Gallup organization polled 1004 people in U1C United Stales..cENT PERCENT lIITIf.Iribud0n 01 Fedeni Tu New_ $10. However.' J ersey. like tables. regardi ng the issue of whethe r lhe federal lax burden is d isu'ibllled fai rly./.y o(.

hat tables and pIPIts ('. songs. group that he or ~hl:' til ld~ repuj(1I3111 (for clwmpic·. 111 ulis chapter..... how would YOll e.:. j"" allows sociologists to stud y ccrmin be· ~nd corn m un i ti~ Jq..Jria ble by the !'t..n American exct:ttu\'etl to con ti llue re!M!:arching the isslles ~hc rAises? 2 Suppo~t· th:...R 2 • M£I'IIOOS O I'WClOU)GlC\ / Hf~ 'it::AJl{:JI ..... • In ~T"mining c ultu ral.I.. (45) COIll rol group Subjects in .t your wciology illlilnlctor has asked }'Ou 10 (to a ! tlIdy of homelessness ill th e area where yn \ll' co l· lege is IOX:I.... • ""hl'D AOdologiSL~ wish to stud )' a cause--....~nCS!.lft! fiv~ bdsir 5lC p~ in the lcir ntijic mrth fJd: the problem.ari abl('~ .. ch eck lO scc if the visual representations seem to re fl ect accurate ly the statistics being itlustr'aled ( H u n'.? Hm. 11 Tbr Code 0/ Ethic.... use of exislin. eful in studying ho mdC'\. (lr :t 1ol1'OUP of p riso n iU1TI <ltCS f(uwincd of mpe )? it . ..... I """olhflsis usually S... re!>IJCcI for t he 5u~icCl's rig ht _pnv... econo mic."Cti\'it)' .. veloped hyand for me:lIlbt!l's of a profession...allltegrity in rese:trch .to th e ql4l:$lio ullaire. may conduct a n uperimrn'.:uinll . 11 \lu Wtbcr urged 5Ociolo!.blc8...1tauic cult .. I Then· .. Wl(JUS lechniquCl uscd by sociologisL~ in con- JoaoIo«iqs ~~rch ..<: imp..lo: sourcc!) would you find mOSt tl. the).ed ....· would }'O\' I"~ Ih<..x1 ). In complete )'fIIlr assignment? :$ C:m :t suciologist genui nely maintain value ncutrnlity while studying:.. "Kit as intelhgencc or prejudice:..md-cffect 1'1: - IMiotuIIIP... and developing the tlt&u.ul Sociological AllIIItRbIIII IIlcltldes among its basic principles objt. IL~IM¥ ..::rI':BM~ ......md any footnotes .act COil ' ..all be easily m isunderstood and can even he deceptivc. t Ih U5ULI!: . scarch t' r. guided by so me mtion:ll~ .ue id(:as for future study.hange in the other.... lilt graph misleads read ers al>otll the compar':luve tpending levels or the twO slrltes.'WO 1 AHooling to the scientific method.... . but s...... .tey. (44) COlltrol lIoriabie A factor hdd constant 1 tCSt lltc rei0 ati\.. (page 36) Codt oir' hies The stallll:mls ofacccpuabtc Ix' h"viMdt... sociol{)o the nccessity of IC. be sure lO stud y carcruUy the title... 1954:69. Allbwgh it should 3ppear about lhree li mes as the New Jcm=y moncy bag IIdDaUv "ppears about nine limes as large..sc 1'\':lli()II~ .. 1 01111ubIItIa the hnXlthesis. With tllis in mi nd .. (54) 55 QIliP11-:...lct of an independe n t \~AI'iablc... of th e Americ.l t t('(:hn iejlll.l. and folk"".uc h as nc"'Spapcrs... Which research rechn i(ltlc (surw}'li.."ll trd ~ other research mClhods..m experiment who .'.... Lcw:lndo wsky a nd Spence.. "1\1~d 5pt:dalizccl sampli ng LCchn iques. n:· IIIrfhn'l IIJt a technique c:t]lcfl tO ll'ell' a nol.hat th eir pcrso nal ~ do not infl uc nce rhe imerpl'erat..... IIIIIf'IIt'l CaTua l logie T tI(' relationship hc tweCIt " condition or \'1u..ll'e 1I0t introduced to Ihe independcnt \'.... ob.hou ld 11150 gener.... Thus.... the labels ro r V''dIiablcs.........iIr&t .. tIllkt:lmg and analYli l1g data. selectin g the rc~arch d esigu and .. we exthl' lwic principlC$ of the sciclIlific method and _ .'i lO practice value 111111_ ~ In rhC'ir research by ensuri ng l... t ~lwllt\'l:r J'CK'3J'chel'll "1sh W sllIdy ai)5tr.:HCS a possible rel:n... .. at~ comrnillcd to the u~c of the scicmific IIrIhrd lA thdr research e fforl!i . researc h rcsul L~ _P'1Ik)5 bmh validl'ty :lIId rllliability..D~ QlDllulu'l!t..:Y..... . (36) CrOSl·'olw la t jo /l A table that shows thl' relationshi p between t WO or more \'. that ca nnOl be irt YcstiJ.. they must (h" wilpwrLablc opllrotionol dsfi"i tiomr..lt'Vo .... th e concltlsioll of researc h study Icnniuales :l specific phase of UJC inVe5tiffouion.. (46) COlltr. ... a 5... expe riments... Ir yo u :uc readi ng a table. )'$)... • Tht two prillcipal fonns of sflrvllY r~ca l'ch arc the idmoihlla.$.U1d on ShafOn Collins's stud y of Afric'.~ting cYcf)'onc in a IXlpula· Accm-ding lU the scien tific method.. 1990)... 1 l».. ... fl White stlprCnmcisl oI'Klmi7.' a"a lysis Thl:' S)'Stemllli( coding :lIld objecti\'l! recording o f data.... (58) Correlatioll A rela tio nshi p between 1\"0 \~Atiabk"S whe reby a Change in o nc com cides wit h a c. ..il h o n c c\'cnt It'ad ing tQ the other... and preservation of co nfidentiality.. relliewiug Llae literalUl'~·. and political floc(....1I1:....lithe Utah level...iol1~hip IIftwtI1IWO or more ...ble :mcl a pa rticula r COlIse(tU Cllcc .... Thilrxample u ndersco res the racl t.. If you arc examinin g a pictorial graph .......'isl. .ion of dal:\.

.I. organized selies or Sl.iunship which i~ subject 10 the illnU C ll CC or anolher V.lw upon the feminist perspcclive. Ill. hchavior.lt1 I'1:RSN.! into written fl)rm . (:n) III/ e rl.c variables tUld introduce c(ll1tro l variables.oll'cl11el11 with and ohsenlatiQn ofa group. (33) Serolldory allaly~·i5 A vUI. A collet:tion ofct s. Hili o ffers guid. FeminislII (Iml Jl.M . Gilber!.ew. Lincoln (eds.ing an o r~11 preselllalioll. Lee . (35) '"d ex An indical0 r of auit. Ncwbury Pad.' CI/idr IQ Wntmg a/HIUI Sodal .':trch t..: Sage. R..lf. 1\ Slw.. fV.m ilwestiHalO r co ll~cls infnrrn ation through dircrt in\.earch DeSign 111111 &aM 56 1'lIIrr O.!niing.OGlC .~~ti(c. Serge. (:l7) Represelltative sample A seleClion rmm a larger populalion lita t is statisticall y round to I. : Se(JII. An indiQllOr of a tti tudes.llc slIccesstillly stlldy religious cults.ain desired informat. B1OOllu~ LOn: lndi<ln:.~ ucs racing ff'o searchers.yQllulil(ll i!'t: f/. //Ofjk . child a busc. alld documcll1 !"L'\o. fllJ'bJ. with s llgge~t ioll s o n . 1954.1 second v.lI1izations. (4 1 ) Opera/iollal defi"itioll An l'xphm<llioll of an absl. (45) SIIrvt'y A sllldr. DCl11jn .' or the types of social cnce literatu1"e.Depe"delll variable TIle variable in a causal n:lal. or characteriSlics uf people or org. in n :scarchin/ol a problem. The 36 .lnd graphs and ~ hIes. (44) Experimental grOllp Subjects in an ex pc rimc1l1 . Kll own 1'01' his st udies of populal' cultUIt Denisolf cm ploys the sociological perspecti ve to !:t' ami ne <I profitable 24-110111" cable OllUC1.ftrY"h 0// Sr1lIilil~ Toflics.). New bur) Park. g<>HI~ IIlCll t policics. L·sing ac tual studies. or community. RaY11l0 nd . Callf. (37) Vallle Ilell trolity Max Webcr's term for o bjccthil) ~ sociolobrisrs in the interpretalion of data. (34) QflestitllHlaire t\ p r im ed research instrumelll e mployed to o bwin d~i red infonl1<1tinn fro m a rcspond el11 . :md OUlce topics. (~5) El'perimfmt An artilidally c./l'lhooolofrj. Hmu 10 Ut with St(llislir:.. (37) Sdelllific me/hod A systema tic.... H:. C I1~u rcs maxilllum ot!ieClh'it)' and cousistenc}. Drawing Oil a '~\riejf!ll research techniques. generally in the 1'01"111 0 1 i nlerl'i ew~ or fJuc~li0i1l1aire~. (39) Scal. I V8H. q ll t:slio nn:til'~ df' sigil. Hull Dan·ell. (36) Reliability The eXlCllI 10 . (44) I/(lw/hurne eJJecl TIle unintended innuenu: thal oh~crvcrs or experime nts can hal'e on u1t:ir s ubjects_ (45) lIypolhesis A specu latiw sl alemenT :tbolll the rellldonship between two or more variables..l1ed in \li tislics as to how to beller und crsl.s. 1 au thor cOllside rs how OIlCIlII . 1993.::dmiqu(: in which.! Unh'ersity Press.. the conttlbto tors co\'er intcl·vicwing tl'chnif)lIcs. (r1 0) Variable A measural)le lrnit or dmracterist.ed1l1iqllcs Ihilt makc use of publicly accessihle illf01"l1IatiO I1 and d:tta. (36) Research desigJ' A det ailed plan or lIle thod fOl obtai ning data scientifically.ew A I:ICe-lO-face or telephone question ing o fa rcsponde nt to o bt.lrS which exa mine the W.lmrdli1lg Soci(ll Life.abl e.J.\'Jo • nIESOCIOl.·C l"Il'l:: . and Yvonna S. Lee . cial scientific reseitrch fails LO consider gender Md dr.""TiLing:l reSC:'Md! p:lper and orb'<llli/.Oli"ch r.). 111OuSol nd Oa ks. Sue (cd. (40) Ralldom sa mple A sample:: for which every member of lhe e l1li1"c POP111.~1t::J1l re s lllL~. HlI/uI6(J(Jk uf /Y.. tribe. as well as ethical is.!ge.ude~ . bilt liars do figure" is all act. hich a measure provid es col1si. ForeslIlan. Miller.ic thalis~ ject to ch'lIlge under diO'('re!H conditions.etr or rest. causes or in Lluences a Ch.\I. "Figures don·t lie..ep s dIal.l'lmrch. Del ber! C. t hink a nd act. (35) ADDITIONAL READINGS Cuba.ll klll has Ille slime chance ofbl'illg selected .IitU'llif G lell\'iew. and e\'en disruss hOIl I'" put collected da!:.: Traru.w lhat poims to Lhe way that statislics can he abused. which provides sociologists and other researchers wilh infOiTl1atkm concerning how prop. No rm<lll K..Jrticle~ in this anthology co\·cr I1(I\'I:f techniques used in conuucling obscn'3tio n and h n b'l"aphical researc h. Nig'Cl (cd.~itll' M7V. or chamClCt~ istics of I>cople or organi~ations.lriable.Jew York: NOI'IIIl. 11I. Cflli t.: S:.mce to Ih t: reade r unsop histic. behitvior. l\ concise \It{! page) but thoro ugh summa. (35) brdepellde"t varioble The variable in a O:l\lsal relatio nshi p whidl_ when altered. lJoi/Jg HI'.!ys in which c01l1'enrional ~.!.n lCl concept iliat is specific cnoug h 10 allow a researcher tn ijleaSUrc the concep t.Ire exposed to an independe nt vari"blc imroduced hy a researcher. ho . Rut ge . 1988..ion. 1987... Dcnisolf. 1993.UlgC in . Calif. (39) Validity llle degree 10 which a scale or meiiSIJ!'e truil rellccls tht:: phenomenon under s\l1d )'. (40) ObservotiOIl A res(. ). N .~ lypiral of tha l poplllmion. :-.n :':aled siluation which allows tlie researcher lO rnanipubl.: Sagr 1!J!J4.

bltlllllllrt-._ _ _ . .lrI.sociological Sludies. J. comem anal)"Sis.... A feminist -=hllbr offcn a critiquc of ~ tablishcd research Icch.). (tt1( llIlr J\lt(UllrtS in Illr S()("wl &irous (2d ed. :md mr..11 S«j(j( Ilr9(lrrh.... Slh'aIll..TII0I)S()f·SOC101.. ... Also includes ~ to Jibrnl) r~rch ... indexes.. 19'.. f.... observations.social scient ific research are the following: fro: A Rn.. Richard D..U1d oth er. Uoslon: l-Iougluo n Miffiin.."....'bJnlllWarrn (founded in 1979).~~~~~..... '!lIe authors identity UIlObtrusive methods of obtaining 50cial science dat:! other than (lueslio nnilirC! or imcrvleWll.... writing of relwrls.. A veritable enc).~..... Don..... Lee Scchre5t....."Im'tnll (5th ed...OC1'~1 HfY~RQl .. _ . Ncv.\...scales..11.. journa( of Conlntf/lOffl? Etllllogrophy (197 1). N01l- / 57 CIIM'lllll Mt._ .JI M~lhods . Ikitth.asurC' u~ in .-quo ".)... ami Sori%glml M lIllot/l aud &t{/rrn ( 1972)..r Sodo/ogJ ( 1977)....~ of lIumml ...: S.. Nrw \'01\: Oxford Univcnil y Pros. 1981. and J<mcl Bclcw Gro\·c. and gram fundll1g..... Campbcll. frmill .clopt.-dia of . Shulami t.....·hill! examining allcmati\'e ways of conducti ng npmments. Calif. SoclfIl Scif'tlu IWorm ( 1972).....tgc. and oral _'II'lIll~iews.... fOCll5 on methods of sociological . Amo ng the journals tha..tld T.'riIh.·bury Park..... lugene j. 1992...


.. ... "sociologist is (I pt:rs011 jJltefisivtl)~ e1ldl...... .. wt bqJin our stud)' of the orgtmizaliotl oJ sociallifr within Inanml comlnlmilies arid societies...... .. ....... ........... TOUtS................. .......... ...................... Chapll!T 7 txamill!'s attempts 10 I!1Ijo"Cl! (lrCl'/Jtonct of sodlll norms..... ........... .. .. 59 .....xamines tht basic el.......... ... ........rlleracti01I and thl! majqr aspects of social SI''1ul lI re: slat'llJf!S.....nlrotiucM 10 social slrucllll'l!.ssIy..... shmn.... and variations among euiWm... ............. ......... cultural Ilniversals. .. Clw/ltrr 4 pranlts llle lifelong socialiullioll proass through whirh TIll! acquiT!' cullure and are .......or............... . ...... Sociologist PPler J JerIP ( J963: 18-/ 9) ona observt!d that tll...... ... ami institutions.......... OUlP'IT 3 . bl Pari Two....... groups. Chapler 6 J()CtI. PART TWO ORGANIZING SOCIAL LIFE .. ......enl of any soritty: its cullurt...... .....lessly inll!ftsltd" in Iht doings of ptoph...... It collsidm tht dl!Vt/opmnll oJ cuuu.. ... . .. ......... .YS on llle impacl oj groups ami organizations on sorifll INh(lv...... CJwPtlT 5 txa "... ......illts social ...... .. as well as INhavior Ih(1I violales norms. ..


...Whorf H)..poth esis 11u: Bilingualism Ddxt1e :-Iorms Typcs of No rms Acccpt:.English a nd J apanese 3--2 Around the: World: The Skinhc. 'C:=====::::~i'==::==:J.'S toward Cultural Variation Ethnocemrism Cultu ral Rdath-ism CULTURE AND THE DOMINANT IDEOLOGV SOCIAL POLlC\' AND CULTURE: MULTICULTURALlSM BOXES 3.1 Around the World: Sexism in Langullges.....ullUrC...\{1 Coumcrcul lurc 61 .. ValUe! CULTURAL INTEGRATION CULTURAL VARIATION Nipt.......... CULTURE CULTURE AND SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE Cultural L:nivcrsals In novation ])iffusion ELEMENTS OF CULTURE L'1l1guagc Language as th e Fo undation of Cultmc Sapir...........'C1S of Cuhu ml Variation Subcultures CoUntcn....lllcc of Nonns Sanction....s Culture Shock Alti\lIdt.....

. a 0-""". cn tercd a co"" .. so a knowledge of one other culture should shmpel1 our ability to scrutinise mm-e steadily.o4 gath e rings at people's ho mes at lI'hich an of lood preced es o the r social intc .. Esber ultimately was successful in d.if}.ork with Apaches in Arizona and a group ofarchitecl... thc). and no nwestc rn cultures? Wlile a gradua tc studclll in anth ropology.. (including observdtion resea rch a nd inte rvie ws)_ Like ma n)' researchers. and worktllbles) tha t we re near d ining a reas a nd living rooms.tditiOIlS in mind.hat each pe rson can obscn 'c tJlC havio r of all Othe rs and act appro prhue1y illg 1..'icwccl by soc iologist." 62 PANT "/11'0 • (}/l(.. our own_ Morgllrrt M('{ld C'A mirlg of Ags i.:~~~. T o do so.e nlly. othe r racial and e thni c minori ties... 19)9 LOOKING AHEAD • How do aspecu of a culture cle\'clop? How do th ey sprcad from one socielY lO a nOlh c"? • Why is language ..lctions_ q ue mly. T he Apac hes a rc also accusto med 10 nutio". George Esher.'.. lil'ing space..sbcr was hired to obtain relevanl info rmation concel'lling tJ1 C Apaches' ho usin g needs and prefere nces.l Samoa..~. In these a nd o the rs. tcenagers.unples o f subcultures? • Should schools a nd collegt." h..'uVllJNG S(K' A1.0 Apache norms a nd "'lIlies).& the traveller wlw has been once from home is wiser than he who has never kJt his own door step. boards. the pla nne rs of lhis new co" """'''.io n o f ('very culture? • In I. asking personal quesljollS. " llues" ~~d~~ toms (as \>" ell as the sailboats.ha t wa ys arc norms and sanctio ns used to rC\\" drd a nd pe nalize behavior? • Why arc test pilots. based on Esher's findin!..~.. been designed witJl tJlcir participa tio n and their specifi c lr-. [or the Apac hes_ Th e a rchitects wcre expected to accomm odate IJ1 C distjnCtive traditjons and custom s of this Native Ame ri can tri be: as a result . architects sign ed large kitche ns (with extra-la rge sinks.ly tJ.. Jr.hat all pa nici pa n ts in a sodal situa tion j full view. to aptJreciate mort linJingly. compute r hackers. The culture or the Apaches I... Cultllre is the to tality of leamoo .. \'. obselving day-lO·d ay in te ractions.lll)' lcd bchavior_ IL includes the ideas.s lO d e-sign a new communi t).'ome n.-i.~ po rta nt issues wilh the Apaches and 4 r in g tu 4he archjt ect. q t. Esbe r had 10 overcome the Apad les' concel1ls a bout a n outsider coming the ir commun ity. and Appalachians all considered ex:. soci:. cOlllic books.'''<1 speclcd and look into aCCOllnt the unique traditions o f tJl e Apaches. J J...'s ill the United Slat es contin ue to focus o n the tradi tions o f weste rn c ulwres? O r sho uld the)' revise the ir c urricu la 10 give greateT e mph asis to African Ame ri can s. wh e n the Apaches moved into their ho mes in 198 1.'as hired to .( 198i) \'. so t. E..s as lhe fo unda t. esse ntial tha t each new ho use have it large..'> those features o f Apache tha t sho uld guide community d c~i gl\ .fS. he reviewed wri1te n records o r the Apacbes (tJlc!'('by e ngaging in use of ex isting sources) a nd conduCted fieldwo. For example.

are relati\'e1y independent ~ pt'uJllt' outside the il' rl rea." or course. If it ""ere 1101 1 the social 01' lJ:In\lIUS~I()n of culture . J\ fai rly large Illllnber of propll'. por(. Snmctimes people refer 10 a particu la r 1)(:rso l1 ill> ~\'t'" I ulwrcd" 01' to a cit). \VC C". HOI\lcw:r.u·c store clerk for a fl ashlight.tu. All th ese a. CI'e n wilhin the sa me socicty.. In the I gODs.. dw poetry or Emil)' l)ickinsol1 . !lonns. al ninc the development of culture fro m its rooLS ill the p. T he h u man species has prod uced ~uch :1chiel·eme lll" .LS the rng tilllc com l>osiliolls of SeOl! joplil1 ./".w a picture of lht" instrume nt.lILd a portra it by a b illbOilrd pamler 1 be as pects ofa cul ture. In sociological terms. t rnealCr ill the U n itl'd SlfltcS .. Wc will COn tl'"i:LSI lhe ways in which functiona list and cf)llllict thcQr1st$ I'iell' c u lt u re. open Ihing spaces wh e re eyer)'ollC can sce onc.lIc the gwup t() ~'hic h we belong. viII be cltrcfu l when cro:lSiug the streel with you ng ch ildren. F(u' exam p le. and prolong lives th rough hCO'Irt tmnsp l:Ul t".IPIU' J • eu Telll .met an illloxic. hUlIla n he inb'S h ave COmc a long Mty from o u r preh i"lonc hClit.oll'.\ p lam eaten by grazing anim:lls .e rnl can hl.\(. each people has a distinctive culture "'<i lll lb (1"-11 ('hamclc ristjc \'~ ' YS of gat ll ("ring ~ll ld p re parU hlOd. ). Therefore.\ III expression.lgc. spli t th~ iHom . th ere arc man y small (as W "U:t' more importa. T he mcial I>olicy scclion wi ll look at th e conflicts in CUh 1l1~1 1 va lues wh ich u l\derlie t l1 1 '1'CIlI d c hmcs oye" Ihe lIse o f rnulticultlll'a l cUlTicula ill ~hools and collegl. il IS seen as part o f. m. This c ha pler I\il l ex. J USI <1$ you aM u me tha t thea teN """I. :\lld c ustoms 01 Ih e cul ture of Ihe United Stntl'S. Shoaring a similar cultu re hel ps tu dcl.w.Th'l\ use of Ih e tenn cllltllrr is d ifTe.u t. (OllslrUcling home!>.:1 c ulture . In the United S l al C~. as h aving " lots of cuitUft'. illlt! o ther .. Wh e n toil aft' parI of a .lI1 d need ed this item.~Sul1lpli ons l'cflcc t the b<tsic \'illues.CI sodulUltbbllo notcoJlsider it a society in ilS O\Y'n ligh L Ibthl·r.nd ards of righl and wrong.. DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE T h rough ad\~ln ces in cu lturc. A tribe th a t 0 cull(\-atl ~()iI b)' ha nd h asjusl as mllch of. l: ller}'-OpenHcd. T he discussion "" iII focus hoth 0 11 ge nera l cultural practices fo u n d in a ll societit-s and on the wide \~ Iri.-eh isloric hU111an experience.'cd (0 touc h their q ueen in puulic. Me mbers or il socict) gCllcr.icaJ \1'UI'k.: .I1lit it fro lll onc generatio n to the 1Jl"I. people that relics on diescl-operated machint'n" n\ll~.""OIlier o r the tradition in TIlailand tha! no IHlt· hc . including ice c l'ea rn cones.1.e con fi dent ia l information. A weirl)' ~ the ]. h consists of illl o l!ieCL<.: sounc territory.and d ependent 011Ibr ~ct 50CielY of the United SUHCS. th e paimings of Vi lice li t V:tn Cogh . .lble light. cl//II'"du•·. you do n ot need 10 d".lml devices) of groups of people.. ). Socio logistS consider IXllh 01 pnnmlt b)' Rell1 br:'lIldt .I rdmenl telc\1sioll. vid eo recu rdings.u'gesl loJ"11I 01 hU llIan group.nt) cu ltural 1)3UemS that rOil IlUlur gr:1lllcd. jtllrlll'<. T he city 1)1 Los Angeles is more P"P" NIU th an mall}' mtti o n ~ of the world."lti n g drug.. 5OI I IClioll". not to menlio n the wiil provide seaLS for the iludie llce.aUy sh are a common I:mb"-mge.lnd the films of Aki'd KllrOS<\I.l\'e a nu mber of di lfc re n t mcani ng. ).i. rhcI C\'cn Ilreser\'c their distincti\'e culture &hmI/X" Il ler-lt ure. each gnleration wou ld haw. aUl"I ••\IId slang "'ords..lrr said (0 consljtlltc a society wh ell t. . you would hal'e tu ask for an ~e l cctr1c lorch. WC OH1 CI'I'n lt'ling a COlllmon cult u re a lso si mplifies ma ny d.Oll kn ow I!IaI to\lto.\J signifies both . th:u banks will protect the money you deposit. It ~. T he lIl:yor :ispeCLS of culture-including langu age. slnlclu ring th e fant\I . aucl partici p:llC in a UJffinlUI1 culture. and v<llues-will be defined and e:<plol'ed. Lallgtl:tgc is a critical elemcnt o f c ult ure t.l ffit)\.he).lI"(! the sa1l1 e cuhur. and Ih al pare n ts .'c ll t from 0111' It\( in th is lexlboo~.. Wh en )'011 ask a har<!. soc i olo~.t 11 send aStronalllS 10 til t: mOOl I. !'Od:.. ciClY.-an.. ir m )"0 11 were in En gland .-:t.iJ tcrlll fo r a sma ll. palnlltu. 11nd th is fac t also radl il:lICS d ay-to'day c:<clm ngcs with m heD..l)' internctions. and ideas kitllUl " WCict)'.(o-d. not refer sole ly to the fin e ans a nd re fin ed .~.'lSte. ur people who sh a re a C0111111011 he riwge IDd (ultu. till' novels or Leo Tolsto). :m.. if)'o l1 p lal1 to plO.011 also ilssumc th al physicia.. a lions thal can distinguish I1l1e society imm ~1Il ­ oth er. The stud y or cul lll n' i<i an important pan of contemponu). c..i lln OI need to bring :llong:1 dmi. beliefs. gm.11111 promOling st.'S in tI ll' U n ited S I~Il('S.utarbmclll to the Ullit ed Sta leS fl ag is an as-pn:1 of I uhure. a . YOu sh.'..h at scts h u ma ns :lpart fro nt other species.Ill()l.. as is the Apaches' pl'efcrencc for I.ns will nOI disclo:. hn'intht. Members 01" tJ1C ~odet)' learn this culturr dud tmnS. 63 CI/.

. and clothing. gift giving. a nd m c ls or a high--speed tmin in Fnncc. The proCt:s. T he fi rst archcological evidcnce or hurnanlike primatcs placcs our :mcestol'S back many millions of years..~~. gOl'ernmelll..y.~~!~.. ... Thus.'40ing clouds wi th dry ice panicles 10 bring llbout AnOl h c l' culture l11ay oITer sacrifi ces to tIll' god~ ..~... Th e finding ofl 64 PMO' -"l 'U • ()lIr ·/lJ"'r.. a nd dancing Lh e expression of any cultura l UIl il'ersal ill a soc' ilia)...~g. all socie ties have a tte mpted to mee t ba~ic human needs by develo ping c\lhuml unil'crsals.... T hroughout history.. Archeologists camlot "dig up" wedding:o... rreque ntly use sticks a nd o lhe r n:Hural objects in \1"1).. while it has expanded to intcmational l kcLS around th e world ..I. but the).... learned rrom OIbcr members or the g roup...~Q.. 1985). nlcre two forms o r ill novation : di scovery lIn d imTn~ A discovery invokcs making known or sharing t cxjsle n ce of a n aspect o r reality...>!iC') of novation a nd din·usion.... the ite ms could be reused and refill ed into 1110 re e ffcct ive implements. shelte r...... the ma nne r in which they a rc ex pres~d \\ \'ary rrom culture lO c ulture... . deaths ( Havilal1d ... jell'clry. As a resu li..... SUfJAI I.. From 35... 1:1W or S.. such as peop~'1 need ror rood . Q UI' early a ncesto rs were p l'ima tes that had c haraCLc ri ~ tics or human beings.... }{ ~ Us sells poree dolls in Japan .!! in Ge rmany. o rde r to end a long pc riod or d roughL Likt' J:... F OI' example. Mill e r..JF1o .. births. . cha nge dramatically over time. gCIlCI'Hli oll ..-...... \-Vhile all c ultures share certain general p d ces-~ \J ch as cooki ng. we are remarkably differcnt from (Jlh e r species or the animal kingdom . Th ese cmin llS and communicative creaUlres m:lde importall1 :Idva nces in th e use of tools........rames....ly (A...~y... Some o f Ihe cxam ples ide ntilied by tI-IUI'dock include: ALhletic sports Bodily adOl'lll11Cnl Cale ndars Cool-jng Coul'tship Dancing Decorative ilrt Dream inl l'rprelalion Family Fulklore Food habits Food taboos Fun eral cere monies Man)' clLiluralunivenmb arc. In all Ihese ways. Howel'er... are gCllerdl practices found in eve!)' c uh\ll'c.. oor O ciety may a ttelllpt L influen ce i L~ wea1.. _ _ The process of intruducing an idca or object tl is new 10 c ulture is k.analyzc o ur inncnllost reelings LhroLlKh the insiglHs or Sib>1111llld Freud and othe r pioneers or rJsyc!.Y~..... To)'lI .. unlike c him· pan zecs. but lhei r o ther toy prefe re nces n differ sib'llificant.. most human CUltlU c hange and expand lhrough the procc...ology. However.. in rac t.. 1\'()Q<le n to). Some 2.k 11111)' be Ut versal.. adapta~ 10 mect cssclllial human needs. Ye t althou th e cultll l-...... as nOled abol'e. Ga mes Gestures Gift giving Hai nu)'les HOllsi ng Language Laws ~1 alTiagc Mcd icine Music Myths Nume rals l~eJ'SO llal nalnes Property rights Relig io n Sexual restrictiom Surge ry Toolmaking Trade Visitil1 g ~.... the popular styles uf dancing in lh c United SLaI('S d ing t... Cultura l univ~r$als1 such as language. Recent studies or chimpanlces in the wild bave revealcd That th e). a nd statues....Iu:: 1990s fire Sllre to be dinc rc lll frolllthe SI) that "'e re do minanl in th e 1950s o r the 1970".000 years ago wc have evidence or paintings..s or expanding cuhUl'C h a'> a lrcad)' been under w:... .... C hild ren thCSL' countries may all wa nt electronic g'd mes sluJTcci animals..5 million years ago people used tools and had eontaincl'S for storage.. the manner wh ich cuitul"al uni\'c r mls are expressed will I Th us.her by lit"\. and eac h rcar... By that time. 1992)..s ill novation.. human be ings hal'e made drnmalic c ultuml advances.....llown a... toys ca n be viewed as a cultural I versal. Tracing the dcvc[o pmelH of culture is not easy.....:II practin:s li ~Led by Murdoc... elaborn tc cerelllo nies had already been developed for ma rriages.. Amhropo logist CCOI'gc MlII'doc k (194 5: 124 ) compiled a lisl Or CUllllral univcrsals.. Despite Ih eir di fferences.. our a ncestors gradually made lools rrom increasingly durable materials.\ .1)' for thousands or years and will conlinue in the rUlUre . are able to loca te items that point to the e me rgence or cuhul'al u<ldi tioll S.

1\!. Urcakfa.. candy from rhe Nethe rlands. (md frolll III /Jail Aborigfllt:S ll~. !'l"SUll\ when existing c ultural Ih'ml ar~ combin ed into a lorlll th. an i"vtmtiot. A signifICant facial' in tht.'\!UnI arc both a C I.J /I cultural uniwT. c hewing gum from Me)(ico."S not h:we \0 sample gounnet food lO cat ~ro l'cign . which was popularized 65 CJIAI'fI:H J • a 'l Tt 'Ill' . Residents ofm'Ill)· nalions el~oy pi7. 111(' automobile." procc'is ofdisco\'cl) ' is thc sha l'ilK uf nt\\found knowledge with others. By con1r.romtilN' art I.. k. .foods.I"(. Tho United StalCS has also ~c::)(pon(~dM our foods 10 o ther lands. In A'l5tmlio (OOIlom).7a. as an~ l'rnrnwlllism and dClllocracy.st cereal comes originally fmlll Germa ny.ioll of a new 11Ioon of s.l). Jrom G. Diffusion Onc dot.J{d.U'-O\\ . ShoUln flrr nrtwo'*s from the ISland of IndOlltS.WIf'lIIala (111/1 rigllt).\ molecule ancl the id c milic"..md '! tdnisiou arc all examplcs of in' ·cnliOlu. TIlt" bow :md .lI did not exist ' .a (top Irfl). alld the pouno chip fmlll the America o f the Indian'i.~ of disc()\·cIY.

Illissionary work. inve ntions becam e possi ble. a nd CUSIOIllS from other c ultures. Th~ grJl!trrilllilj/:~ ()1d~ was mII with Imb/ie ridiC llle (//Ullll(l. .lf<lCIt!rs ilH"ClHeci by the a nc ient Scm ilCS. p ri nted by a Thf lut of slog{lll$ 11"11 T sl/irts 10 ""'" poiilf((ll s/lIleJlleJ!u origiwllttl i1l Iht Uniled SII/Us during Ihe J960s. DilTusioll may take place over extremely 10ngdi!tances.arly in huma n history. 1936:326-327) . in Japan they add squid . in 1987 I'" &lII~ Africa/! govmWletl/ brmnfd such mts.mgt. military conquest. Thus. /-fOlJ'f'wr. we loo k al Ch. whe re it grew wild.V{• .f»i!.ifm'cffl stgrtgallfJfl (a/Jarlhrid) Ihm had lxislid allhal fimf.r 510\\'ly through discove ry.ure c hanged rathe. (htl a period of hundreds of years. it llIay also adop l ideas. whe n people in the United Sta les read a newspaper. but WlII)" scJlOols "1 Sol/lit Afrim cantinued /ojormd -1I1111r. E.J SOWI "-scil/did. Tht! more inventions thcre wel·c.in the United States. technology. the more mpidly funher inven tions could be c reated . In addition . most of wllirh tegistrml IJ/J/. they could each take advantage of the othe r 's illnovalio ns.\ /I'j. It. and in England people like ke rnels of corn with the cheese. tobacco was acquir«l and cultivated by OI1C neighbori ng tribe after an- 66 Nlll nro • OIlG/i. B:.f. among the m exploratio n. I-I owe\'er. Ihis Imlcliet! 1/1111 spmuI acro. Thc use ofslTlokin g tobacco began when Indiall tribes in the Ca ribbcall invented the habit d smoking IJle tobacco plant. A~ the number of discO\'cries ill a culture in creased . process invented in Germany.\(j("" 11 1 IJFf·.u lite lW/M thl'oug" till JIroCm ~ diffUSion. DilTusio n can occur through a \'<1. and LOuriSnl. JUSI as a c uhure does 11 0 1 always discove r or invcm its foods . in Australia it is eaten with pin eapple.1IMblr" Jlogtllls. the in nuence of the mass media.r. as diverse cullllres came into contact with Olle another. lalt 1980l'.riety of means. Sociologists lIse lhe te rm diffllsion to refer 10 the process by which a culLUral ilem is spread from group 10 group or society LO society. c ult.QlI 10 /lIe ". on a material invCllLed in China (Limon.

Material culture "1"...... .1Il1 in lhis culture. incl uding food ilenu:.'.' commiue d .. rlte'l~.~ rI()(:.un.-allce..elec thc1) .(' \lhiclt arc perceived a~ lhrealelllng to Ibtir "".' cxampll-s show lha l din IlsiC)!1 is com_ "llhlll tht" Uniled Stale.0 change lhan Lht' nHllerial i~ 'nlcrcforc.....wmasu (the Jall<II1c''ie te rm for ~Chrbtmas -) i5 ne\~ rt11cless a major holiday. _ ..I(h dinusioll . . no nweSlCI'l1 c.-.. a n:"luh...11(' ph)'!iiC""dl o r lec hnologic-oIl . 11.Ibso rb~ from com~ ~llIl!ures.w..m smill. to ...JMF1l. Ccncr.I\(."!Y._ . t. diffusion OCClII'S as i nIlO\~d­ .1/ :tnd ]""g. 1923:2 11 -2 14 ).. In UIC contemporary culture of llle UllIted St..1111111 a 50del). and gunpowder rrom Lhe Chinl'St: the teachings of Confucill' alo an idl " tIIap.lt ."...M.ed hi describe one anim.BUl. Ihl' pr...lClirt Ira\clcd 8IruuJch (-('Imal America and aero. Ogburn ( 1922:202-203) . UJ{' lerms ffmvn1iblt'.. -... 01 \l\('!ul diSlinnioll be l\u"ell dcments 01 maMIiaI .. \'Vhile Japall has o nly 800.·csidcnts or Bue nos Aires " 'ill reel the s. alld other .'ltes. llll'eign idt'<ls ariftlo. mm. Kun..Il<\\.. . nOI occur automatically..L"'~ through s ton~s fill e d \"ilh lin'IClecl Christmas trecs and tJll' ~wecl sounds or Bing CI'O~by singing ~ Whilt· CIII. Sfflfll4.lIId smul were :lll u<.II-lhe hOI"'iC ....icc uf~rnp~ wa!> e\"Wm!.. Each c ulLUl'c lend~ to lIf'lllOIl~h.cst. vOII....... we could conclude from IJle list or tcnns I.. whereas lirel ong .. .Il lhan 250 diOt:re nt kinds or fish . \\'hilt Iht'Y. but rew h.al cu llllre refe"..('(1 Each c.ttillll . and panerm of ~tuIlC. piebald.'1 hcli('fs and values...UU(C' ..\sb .~ lllla.. -.. me thods or education.~..cd Lhl"Ough hllln:1n imeractions within spedlic societies.. :lIId frolU ("uhure to caIrun-. Thc Sld\'C Indian5 or lIonhe rn C mada .tIld belids Iro m Chllm :md o ther _ w"". Although Ku risll1lUUIl is not a reii· gious obsc.. lhe Chinl'sc pracIIu III pUlltlunng lhe body with needlo to c ure !lair nr l"I~ h f:\e p. l lfllllfm..1 ~tlXIIII a culture.11 cIIIIaR' l'o mort rCsiSt:l lll 1. pr. CIl':lrly.. renening o bvious influe nces from lhe Uni ted Stales. Elu'ope acce pted silk..-. Il lc nortlll:lleri. \UII! I~ple in the United Slale) luu c ac~ ....rit.~ mlhe Lniled Slale~ were a..!Qu r-wh"' d..:!J:M~§ . l 'llenlls lo de. .\specu or culLUrc arc lcarned and Ir.sc~...... .tsPCClS of our ~ IM.t.nt.. (llIr SOciety h...ll)..e I'c~idellts ollhe o ld west.. TheJ:tp:mese art: encourdgcd 10 buy girLS as they p..lI degree or linguisljc allenlion . "atcs.lc l.'. IH"lj tu the philo'lOph) behind aCllpunc ture.Qf .cribe ice.... I...l1 hut opposite ro rces c:tllcd )'..... Ihis Pr..: nillg t t) :1 C'1 t1U1n~ lIwn """ I)(xhlcts arc.. f.ulture considers its OWll di~tin cti\'e wa)'lI of handling basic ~ociclal l..io tg'u 1atIIIIIllballlc311l helped 10 l)Clpulari1e .. gove rnme nts... PcrImps tlte ca r is all imponal" lO us as Ihe ho rse was to IJ..t'd a~ morc tlm. who li\c in a raUll'r frigid climate .. .. .~gu. For example.... ~ IIllllg material objecLS anti 1 Clls lom~ . A IY85 music video by Ihe C I. Croups • •(l0t'11 .wt! nQllIllalcria l culture. Life long residents or Naplt. Sirnilarly..C.nging. elective in what it . This is lJ"llC both fOl residents Iflbr lnil(:d StatClj and for tJlJlcr p('oples or lltc ... lid rollo mall~riitI5.ll to speak Iwlian ...md income..H J • r:t:I-1"I III .·a p.. • .LS -natural.-s wi ll comider it natur...tclories.000 pmclicing Cluistians in its pol}ulalion o f 120 millio n people.:au.. _h IIl\oIH?S the idea lhat the human body conlIn"1u.ulturl'S.~~. resist ideas which seem lOO roreign as WI OD I!tOo.. A.. "''''''I(ist \\~1Ii3m F. I1IIUII...\·. Lhey recci\'ed a n unustJ..h(' Idea or un... dllllt' buggy.omme rcial occ.une way about Spanish.. it i5 a highly c.It)rwhom Ii~h are:a main source of bulh rood . 1985) ..asion ..Pt "... words suc h :t!> K"Mi"g. In lhe old . . religious clOC1I'in t:s. NOllmater... a rId l/a/IOII wflgrm arc all employed tu describe the sallle rnccltanical rorl11 or transportation .. Even ir wc knew litlle of tJlis period or hislOI) . brn ... the Sarnal people oltht' soUthern Philippincs ... Wlllillcnl ( Kroeber. the cilizel1!l o f each counll) havc bct:n shaped by IIIl" c ulture in ""hieh the) Ihc. bl.. m..I"t' Language lells U~ a g reat d(...tl cert·monies. lI"It.C. .~.c tenus for IlU C than 70 types of fishing and morc . h o u.."('dfC 1II0re "ilIillg 10 1I ~ lcchnologiC:11 inlIIallmhlhat make o urli\'es easie r than we are ide!lwl dmngc o ur '\~d) 01 St:~i ng lhe "'orld.punew... 0 " Wt..:ll. ~O lOO have th ese cultures been on th e receiving Clld or cullllrnl diffusion... pllllf»ophies.. It "HlSt be e lllphasized Ih:1I dilTusio ll of cul. pan.-LS c.... *.." c llf Ihis _or ~... in racl..!y •• mult. as w(· haw SCt' n .he North .un inncl"-cil) BhlCks Il)l1g be fore _pl'upl.Ibsol bed ccr.. _ . mp smgi llg groups like Ruu-n .&OItlug tert.. . till': lIIagl1l~ li c CIJIIIPiU.~" (R. . beoutside ce nlral citit's.-d~o\t'rics and iJwl'l1lions-Kain l\idt!1" acIIf*DCr....hat hofSCJ "ere quilc impo n .. including dg ht 67 f.

~ ami R floaling ict· . it is impossible tra n ~mil compl ex legal and religious sySICI1Uto !IJ next gc ne ration by watching to sec h ow lhl.' d all linguistic pl"inri ples. l-!o\\'cver. ·1.lI!mj( Thll S'b"" /(lllgtUlgrJ IISrd (1/1 l'JfJirlll um/ . For example. cu ltures.nd liulc childre n sign u thcmsek es" (Wolkomir. such lIS cooking or carpe ntry. of f'QInIlUHllral iml lu. SlOkoe's work undcrscorc§ th ~ fan t11:n ASL users com bine '~driOUS hand and hody movcnu. 1956).sl". an lish--spcaking person from the Un ited State~ who visiting London may be pll7. C'lrro ll.· perfonned. The role of la nguage in inte rpre ting lhe l'I for us ha~ been advanced in t. the priorities o f it culLurc arc rcllccted in itS I:tIlb"-mge (Basso. animals operate with eSSClllialh· fi xed set o f signs wilh fi xed meanings.Zled the first tim~ English rriend says she "~ II M ring yo u up~ : s h e I she will ca ll you o n the telephone.lIlzces have been a ble la use Split. Wh ile language is a cultural universal. pcopk variably depcnd upon language fo r the lIse tra nsmissio n o f thc r(. 40. we may be somewhat likely to notice slIch di fferences.:lles commo nl} use a ncl attach positive mean la lh e M lhllmbs up" gesture .L~t.nnlly yj"id ~{j/n"l.he Sapir-WIJ 68 .: nts to produce recognizablc words and an understood languagt·.ing wa)'s. can Sign L<lnb"tlage biLS<. this gesture has vl llgar conn otations in Greece (Ekman etal. 101 rldTcren t kinds of -solid i cc~ and o thers for "seamed i ce. see al!(10. people in Un ited StaleS can no t easily make the \'e ~ uu cli on aboUl ice that arc possible in the Slaw dian culturc.'rh.. ~ym bols . arc incdpablc of 1111111» speech .1It of a c ultu re. L.'lnguage includes speech .(HId t)/III'n 0" ">' (/Iof P«4)/1! tlJw. Wh e reas rcsicl e nL~ of the llll SI. (. nick. J. a piont!crin g ASL researcher 3t r Salk Institutc. In deed.'S of nonverbal commun ication.f co urse. 1992:32. nume rals. Certain tu rn1 skills.• I Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Language doc1l rnl than simply describe realit)'. · to commun icatc. though pank ular l anb"tJage~ differ ill strik. ASL was no t accepterl <IS a la ngunge.lc tcrs. The sign h111 6 "tmges lIsed by deaf people a nd othe rs arc an especially vivid e xample o f communication \\·ithollt typical o ra l speech . By COntm. dilTert' ill th e LISt' of lan guage are t!\~ d ent around ~ world . 1993: 1 Lane. Language is an abst ract systcm of word meanings a nd symbo ls fo r a ll aspects 0 1 c ultu re... Lang uage .~ Clearly. c h imp. il also se rves LO the reaJity of a culture. As a result. In con trast to some other eleme nts of cui language pe nneales al l pal'ts o r ~oci e ty.. For cxample. and gcstun. Thercfore. In th e p. Howcvcr. hmmll1s can manipula te symbols in orde r to exprtt abstmct co nccpts and rules and to ex pand hum. contends th at lhe "deaf IIIill1l ill ~lp! They (iream in signs. is not an excl usively hun attribute. 1972:35. Similarly. Alt. 1992).hough the). AI least 50 nati\'e sign languages arc lLsed in variolls cllltu res a rou nd th e world.~ Rcrackcd ice .. but in 1965 educmor Bill Stokoe publ ished Lhe first dictionary of Amcl. Ursula 8ellllbri. A. You could bang a g:lvel as a judge c\I but yo u wo uld never be a ble to understand ~ rcason ing wilhout lan guage. This is the case even whe n two cOllntrio the same spo ke n language. meanings of nonverbal gcswrcs v<ul' from one lllre 10 a nother. Language as the Foundation of Culture Language is the fo undation o f e\'ery cultu re. amOllg the m American Sign L:lIlguagc (ASL). written char. can 1 IClu'ncd with o u t the use o f langu age t1l1'ough process o f imitation . eve n lit lheir rooM vanced lc\'el.

t' the ""orld only lhmugh language. ~ Rather. A c ullUre's mOSt important nonns.llll that reprinled by the Stale DeparullclJ l. of co llJl' 1iIru1cIHIII~.mgullgc o rg:lIl i. l. while .. it O.I lie lhat wc think of tL~ somewhat acceptllble is called :1 whill! Iif'.. anti jirejig"'''''s-~ fac t th:1I is ~ Inucasiugly recogll izcd ." among the meanings of tilt: :I<ljecti\'c whitr. the l'c .md l egi'-i mh~ctl ~ the use of nOnscxist l an~.:ie ti cs-a. m. K.utd Kay ( 199 1) han' noted that hum:m!! ~thc ph)s.:s also list "pure" and "innocen . 11 is 1 1' these rc.unmg programs 10 scnsiti1e forcib'll service 01: &rm. try Jocusing our atlelHioll on certain pheQOIIk'tIil. il is not surprising thal a list \vhich pre\'ents pcople from working in a profession is called a bhlthli!it.~rt il..t1agf' (Manyna.se in the THllltbt-r of people in thc Un iled Slalcs who speak :1 fo reign 1. then' arc unit n." "atrocious. t\ccordinX III Sapir and \\.tSQltS that the int rod uction of Ilt'W 0 l'lllguagCs into . I~{)lir. 111/"'1 OffiCrrt.thulLt onc 0111 of C\'cry seven pcople-spe. JiI't <i' 1'lIIguage ".1( Kc".~ize U1f: important role of I<lnguage in IIni/}ing members of a '\O('icl}..'a.IfM'{f) 1 J . 1929).sians havc tenns for ligh t b lue IDdd.ical ability to make millions. conflict theorists foc us on the use ul la ng uage to perpetuate" didsio ns between groups and s()c.71'Ht . Tbi\ hypothesis is consid ered sn import. 1 ·lowc\'cr. in lItlr." "th rea te n· illg. in a literal scnse.'S are each spokcn by a t leasl 30.ll1l(l. gloomy or fOI'bidding.'1 and exp"C-.~ By COlltl'.II1guage (Usdansky. and sallction'l arc comlllunicated to people th roug h language:. 11l1IS.t) color how . and hear.~ in the subtle and nOl-so-subllc sexis m and radsm cxpl'csscd itl communication.'.llivc aSS<lcia· lion with "hull. (jrndfl·rclated language can refl ect-alt hough 11 ilJl'll ~I ". tho ug h...md objects. ft.' in many parts of tht' world ..nn· of men a nd women in (C)'Iain occupatIOIb." Ihat an: recognil.H ~dcs'itutc of lIIora l lig ht o r goodl1(:ss.ed. it i~ culturnlly tlt'1mUtJk'f1 . 1 1ItI).." DiCliullaric. ret la nguages d ifTc1' in Ih(' Illllu bcl' o f ~wh.lch time we list! a te rm like III(/illllall. Rw. 19&3:46.ay ellcouragc gcnd er-rdatcd le"" hctn slen.lr~ blue. It ltlSO influences the way we think abollt lhe people.gc 70..IagCll do not.lf)lht'~ubtl e uses oflanguage. A. among lhe meaning'> of thc a<ljcc1 Mark: "dishc mal.000 residents or this COUlllty.sts stud)' ho .'e see lhe wodd. society is such a sensitive issllI. Therefure. Diclion:lrie~ publi.ISt.<. while Hu ngarians ha"e t. we arc impl)~lIg (cspcciall)' 10 J'lUIII chil(lren) tha t Ihese occupat io ns can be I1rd ')111). l.. h'flCllhesis h:L~ been moderated somc\\'hat to ~tthatlangu age llIay inj7U1'11n ( ralher than d~ trrnllnt) Ix-ha\o1ol' and in terpretations of S()c ial .~ a 38 p~l'(: e nt i llcr~a. By conll':'lst... CI/T." Guinea's W(!Sl I-l ighlands.. ~xist biase~ of the Eng-lish and J apanese ~~ are examined in Box 3-1 o n p:..?nsmit stereotypes related to race.tk a langll:lge: other than Engli~ h .. Russian ami r IUllgarian..s ic te rms III Ertf!:11~l t .\Ck.y a nd K. list. 8rtlin .~ a rcsult .m not de terminc-Ihe traditio nal ac.lle. IIg lla l ism is lhe lIse of tl>. 1984. Language is of in IC I'est 10 all tJl rce sociologit-al 1)t:1sJ>Cctives..tnd leads to different illterprCL"ltions o f lab". whicll is named for 1. 50 di rrerent languag(. Over thc period 19RO to 1990. T he Bilingualism Debate Accord ing 10 a report 1 '('leased b)' the Bureau of the Census in 1993.. people rcl)' upon slllll"ed defini tions of p h rasc.1. ~ (If jirtnlllll.""..ttcs Iw('r bi lingualism. Language call ~hapc how wc set. many IDC1aI 'oI\t'nl ists ch<lJlcngc the Sapir·Whorf h )'po lheIII . 0 linguists."Ot)tpCs. . In the Dugum Dani lanpiIl'. The English la nguage 6lillgukhc! between yellow and orange. Funclionalbas empha.'O or mDl'c J:U1g'U<lgCIi in workpktces o r in ed ucational fac ililit.. ." ~clou ded with anger.. <tll d the tr('allllCIIl of cach language as equally 69 f.ad Kl'3tnmar of:1 I.-~­ . . I)r males. CM Sdpir-Whorf h)1>Olhesi!i also holds lha t la llIUI«t i~ not " ·gi\·en .ugue that language does nOI deLC rminc Mrnalt thought alld beha\'ior panl. ideas.. I993b) . a l IHO~ 1 32 mi llion residcn L~ of the Un iter! SHlIes.ge.01' . 1 1lIVC 1200101 terms. The!oe data a re frequcntl y cited as pa rt of the pal'sion:lle dcbau: under MI)' in the United St. sme ll .arroll. Intcraclioni.. Through such pallcrn~ oflangll:.LIIII . there an: I t ba.:.:cI.. around us..a. T h us. l. Aknnld 1~~!34 . lanPRt' prl·cc. tll(' word symbols .o hasic colo r terms-lIIodt" for ~w h il('~ a nd _ful -hl. but somc Olbt." "cvil .cmpton .shcd in lhe: Uni tcd St. . IJ. Indeed . values. Sapil'. lall' ..crms fOr two "mmt ~hades of red.'des though!.(' the world fo r Ill.hol'f. our c ulturc rcinfOI'CCs positive associations with the Icnn (:t l.'rn~ .t! skin color) II'hiJl! a nd a neg. tast(. sinc(" people c::m conctpUUIi/... .siOIl~ in bOth furmal speech and e\'e11'd<l)' conversa tiOIl.lll also t. \'~t ma ny womcn work as 'rUn' . Bil .

'5:1s l>OMe!!siol ls ha lso evide n t in Ihe pmni.me! m ascu lilll...lage arc: a pplied o. The o nicial "''Ome n . while ch ild re n ge ner. is rcprcst'l1Ied b) dmrncLC:n whtch li terally m('all 1II:lle person clll'f).ted with the femin ine ending "I!Q' o r -rl~: Ihu!.Ldition- ernm c nl d oculIle n ts as ':~:~~~:I ryil1g b rooms... OHI NIXG In I.he!tC gendel' codes a rt' told 1/lIlwJrll n(l rlO 1/i..." to m:llc rial posscssiolls ~lIch as car<i..• stili in Llu: English I.ecl 10 use ..c:. helmingly 10 .'SS .. ~ ICNORING Eng lish ig n ores fc:mak-s by favoti !l ~ the f1\.t.ulll ) and no rmalil~ . usage of lhe w he o r \ lIc· lonn (M Each c nlr..lIund ch ildren 10 UM' anI) fonns o f ~pc::cC'h d eem ed :It C for lheir sex.sexually promiscllou5 .''''''''~..m hU I o nl y 22 fo r " sexually pro miscuous m.bril1 ia nl.'lC rt he r cxisle llClf' IdcnLity Iha l boldly alld east lt~ must inSle:td reler to Ihe pro noun Ulll/lU iti... pr.III )' take the n:U Ue3 o fl) leir faIhers :lIld not their mothers.. In d dC"dr mallift'!lta lio n or ~isllL .lIl1 in Ihe compt. ••" C UI c nd a M:1tItllce asserm~ ~ 1 . The expre. Nancy all}' lose their 01'0'11 lIamcs and 1. don't forget: ""'1>""" - 70 .. a nd shi ps" m.'lIlle around Iht' world " Indeed.111<1 he:r · pl:H. ll1cn Rudolph ( 199 1:8)...... fllptl.:I woman's Qt:cllpatioll or profession is tri\iaJ i:. ~ In ma ny w instances.er d lct.·ere viC\\t. ' nIt: \'icwof fcm a lt..\'..~. These tradiuons ofnallling reneet we~ten1 legal tradi tio ns under which c h il· d te)! .1 as Ihe prop4'ft}' of their fathers ami married \\'Omcn as th e property of lhdr husbands.lIld Call IbCfl by ei lhel' sex...'-Cia ll r signilicant in this process. J apan's lal)()r ministtr lenged tha t SOClcl}"S " . One researcher fou nd 220 LCnll~ fot' a .'M The powe r 10 d efi n e Ih roug h naming is cspe.uher I... s. o men. Wh lk th e Eng lish I:mguagc: ignorc:. worl...·ome n Ir.. •md firt1ll'W Dllwn ID reprC'!ie nl IJW mt'1l .11 i . Thi5 term ~'i cwed as m o re polite .".e of mill~ fema le ua nH-"S lIlId pronOlllls 10 refc..Lctic(' of (kpicting WOIIICr! the .mgl.. do n'..IllCt' 10 Ihe use of tenllS like m(li/mllll. il defines. seconda ry s t:ltll~ in o ur !iOCICI)'.lke tllc ir husban ds'.. S.. Myl.1I1:ir heSt. and depl'CC"lte~ fe. 1993. terms of sc:xu. thillk?~) " for girls. by defining hc. il is incu .lpa ne llC parenlll" "d as M\igilanl linguistic poliClf'" r(.. For this reason. NC\·t·!'I. whic h means M _ Blu a I. a~ in the !I(' lHc ncc: M Eadl en· [nun ill tIll.. Mamed .. d efine5. m:u:hi ut'5.'lilion sho uld du his or h cr hc~n i~ ollel1 amKkecl 'L~ being cl ulllsy. ho perfor m th ese occupations. .. ARO UN D THE WORLD SEXl M IN LANGUAGES-ENGLISH AND JAPANESE IlenlC').. G irls wh o t.llues llre Ihe standard for hum.lumil1:tnt POSL1IOl1 in Ellgli~h ­ spcal.. A c ret CI' to h ilmelf hy usi ng Iht bokZl .uculme fo rm for a ll gcuelic uses.-~iorls commonl) b) girls :Uld boys in J a pall stnre ge nder tlm" rcllces.or M nicc.hc \.md W .: cOillpcLiLion sh ould d" his bell_· According 10 the nl lc~ o f Eng lish grnm m.phe r from Ihe L:n ited who lives in Tokyo.l'W of H cnky :md her colleagt' Cli ( 1985: 170).I rlistil1gllis hl"t:1 wti ter lIlay be ghe n second.w whereas men' work i~ more o f«: n honorcd as ITI1LSterfur or .h t:ldS. prup. . makes \\'O!llen and J(irb imislblr a nd implicitly sUAAt:S15 thal IImlcnc. M Ol't"on~ . il dc prec:u es. II togr.1Il (SI<llllcy. DEPRECATING Thet'c a rc clear d il1hc nccs in Ihe ..tn :I slrong lio n .li n women'.. G Um!)! as.LlId female Ihi ngM whic h Tenet"1 men's . rie T llonlC ( 1985: 169) "Ir suggesl Ihal lhe sexi!l bias of Ihe English lallgllagr l .. k('5 1I11~ pnncipal form5: ~h iguort'$..as Ihe ~illRu l ar fonn in Ihe previ o\l~ ~e IllCIll:e .. poJUt:lII'". "-or es:tlllpk.u.ing soci eti~... f(:m ini \ ts imiSI th at Culllmun use of male ronns :I~ gencnc..h .:1' ..om('n·. the're has l)e(-n rCSiS!.. 1977).er..1tCll cn ding \\ith a genu(' lio n r. J."""!.lle~. and U. e\cn .lass SlalUS as a /#U31 o r a ll (1ll1hOf'Jl5J.ol II:unillOll . ~ which "You' re 01 gi rl.'Onls that a l'e applicd 10 male! . ng broom" fb lY.rn".. .. m:!} be patro ni1ed as w prt'tly.·om.BOX '-I . 19tJ3a).lILng "Sal/tul JO~ (M It 's sayn _ BUI a Ki rl is c xpt'Cted MSaHlIII WI'J~ (~ h 's cold.....huI gu age bolh re n ectll :lIld h cl p~ lIlai lH.

Bilin+ ~1\Jn Ius been a IJankularly sensiti\'e mallCI' fo r 1111111<11\\ or immigl'ants from Spanish-speaking nabons. 1990). de· AJI societies ha\'e . Olher sollrl~ t).~is lin g mi ll ions of people who do n'lt ~I)t'ak./I1 11 hllg I»' fI klls.icotlly welcomed in all countries.S.'" ernment oniCt. In :m educational scn5C.S in English (Crosscltc. HlslJauic leaders sce the U.l mpaign as ~ wile-It t'lIp"cssinn of racism (Pe rez.Put on some clean clothes for dinncr~ and . Iyapll m/l)' grn't ~(l(h other 7IIllh 11 h(ltul$hflJu 1Jf'.~uc . the application of this nuon can \'. .llion of ot her 1 :lIIguagt. For ella1l1pie. ' hI tilt' bst decade.1111 to lMm English in order 10 rUtlCI.:I1"Y. an ushcr can u:lI a member of lhe audience 1 nop talking so loudly.. we typically expeet lhat people "'ill be quicl while lhe film is showing. . English. JUSt as r('spect for o lder people i!>" lIelrrn ofJ apanese culture.In~u~l'. ill (0"11' f"llYl.. Fo r exam+ pII' . English c. Of 0 course. i I must be wide ly sha red a nd understood . But lhe English language is not being ellllmsiast.d i s.OI forer behind the proposed constituLional U1M'nrlmenl and other efforts IQ reuriCI bilingualN'II I' loS. bi ling ualism has become an ll'utt'a!linp.h. but "hu might "'. I'f'$ld~1J grm tarh (lOin' fIJ Ixtnldmg thnr umgun and n(mds. In 1990. ProllOSed cOnStilutional amc ndrnc lll \\'a.holl ~hah 1I0tlill~ :Ire clmmples ofnol1l1S found in th~ ('ullure of the Unitl"d Stales...md:u'ds of bchavior maintained hya society. \\he re English is used to IlcgoLiate Norms ""a>'S of encollr. JlfJlj~. 1/1 kll1gdom of 8hlll(lll. IIIllr( dJicientlywithin the United SId l e!>.tging and enforcing what thl-Y "iew :L" appropri:uc bch:. sever.~ \ nlot. lL.'. a nationwide organization .ed States./ It rrrmlil'g /0 Ihl: ill/lJl17lf1lllflT7lU rif /1111 U"iI~d Statf"...:nglish as their lim language.~ inInllitl(cd in the Scmlle in the mid-19808 10 desiglULl" lngh h as the "officiallangllage or the llaLion .h \1e"''' the English language as the ~soc ial RhlC.'S by lllRll\h ~1t:I1lS from such fac tors as the demanrls of wntid trade. in mode lhealers in the Uni t.~!fdeals.niOI· "'hile discouraging and punishing what they consider to be improper conduc t. I'" mOlml(llnlml AS/1lI1 71 CJIA~R 3 • CL'/ n~' .perience the p('lvasiveness of the English 1.ly controversial politic..!1 oflndia':s largeM states ordered th:.IrI(inmatt'. Recause of this norm. \\1111(' Ihe United States remaim resist:mt 10 ofhrul uw of languages o ther than Ell gli~ h . Norm' are establ ished st.U1~wered if wrinen 10 go. 111 orcler for a Il orm to become sigrlific:lI1l.{hat kl't:pS the nation lOgelher. I ~18 ti 1989).t all gO\emmcl1l work be conducted in Hindi-lhe domi nanl langu'lge of non he m India and that le Hc l'S not be . The domi n. 11y COlHrast. many intemalional bllsine. bilingualism 1l'nllH1 011C way or as.

In.c sleeping fan lrJ.lises compa r.. }: w ally. blll Ihe Mo roccans could nOl dcrst. T hus.'\ckcd by the pm"'cr of the St. Li ke mores. Stone. 1993:49 1). .cvi nc.. Laws arc a n example o f fann al norms. rcpl'Cse nt cuhurally I . 1987:4). they arc known as mort!f umJ fQlkways.. ncal'ly 100 l hers of a religio us cu ll :lSsucia ted Wi tll the B Davidia ns roIlO\"'ed the dinates of tilt' cuh\ ItD:wid Ko resh .. UH.:i1e do mina nce: wome n 's auire is hung lo .. fl oor.e behavior.'tr tha t of men (Bullc. a nd delled govcnune nt a rfitu a bandon their com pound near Waca. In hospila ls in whic h men li f e ho used 011 II rst. Types of Norms SociologisLS distinguish between nonns in two . Nevertheless. .Igers to d rin k alcohol ic beverages.ay. Similarl)'.11 offi cials. some: cult do nOt ~ h a re the weslern conce m Iv\ lh kccl)inK po inUll e nts precisely.pe ndi ng on the pa . lhe Uni lCd States has Slrong mores ~'g-d.~. folkwaysdit. In cases. aftC'f a cl g Ull baule wilh fe d er. a lthough not Ul C o nly lype. Iccnage alcoholism is one o r o u r ('OU mos t serio us socill l pro blem s.. Society is mon: likely In fo rmalize 11101'eS tha n it is fol kwdYs. C .)'8. Sta ndards o f proper dress a rc a commo n example o rinro rmal nonns. In 1 . m. 1977) ...W .. the Dep.. are not fo llowed in a ll sit ua tionll. Norms <l1 violaLCcI ill so me installcC!l 'C 72 I'M{/" nUl • OHGAN/~J.uy to th e welfare of a society.'l llc tion for a pe rson who comes to school 01' l O college dressed quite d ifferently from cvcl)'one else. wome n patie llls will not be placed 00 second nool'..a in 's Q ueen El il<tbel. a fte r a 51 -day lIiL"'l ndolT. interpre ted by the COUI'IS. whelh cr m o r~ fo lkways.ritten d own a nd in volve stricl rules for p unishmelll of viola tors. 10 w is tlle "body o f rules. nanns a rc dassilied as either fonn al or info n n al. u'CasOTl . King Hassa n 11 of MorO<'t no torious for alTiving la le al mecli llg8.()UAI. T he requiremenlS for :1 college maj or a nd the rules of II card g-ame a re also conside red formal norms.Ilking up a " dO\m~ escalator in a depa rtme nt store c halle nges our standa rds of a pprop ri:u. w. h is illegal in many stall') tCC lll.sed .:I LC~ (Cummi ll ~ and Wise. Eac h sociely dema nds obedie nce IQ its moreS. Mores (pronu ull ced "/>10R-ays") arc no rms deemed highly nccess. AI.C I' group... often becausc they e m body the most c helished principles o r a people.. <. fo lkways play a n important role in shaping th e daily behavior of Ille mbers o f :l c ultme.t political se nse..:lIld why she and lhe Bri tish pulll ic wcre:w set. 1964. . In the Unhed Sl<t tcs.~ no specific p UllishmcllI 01' s.. Whe ll classified in this v. made by govcmmc nl fa r society.ins. folk ex iSl 10 reinfo rce paue nls of male domina Men '" hierarchical position above women \'01 the lradi tional Bud dhist areas o f Soulheasl /W.·he ll Brit.. In tJ. Tcx. Follt· way s arc Jl 0 I111 S govc ming cvcl)'d ay bc havior wh ose vio la tion r. Mak ing fUll of nOllco nfo rrning slmlt:llts for th ei r unusual c hoice of clOl hing is the must likely rcsponsc (E.I revealed in various fo lkways. "The ki ng could never have kep t th e quct'Q a nybody else . inS I mu rder.~ a Morocca n late r rcmat "because the king ca nnOl be latc" (l. behavior tha l appears to kw: socie ty's norms may actually represent 11 ellce to the norllls o f one's particular g Teenage d ri nkers often b reak the laws of it govern me nt in o rder la confonll to the slall or a I)(. Norms arc also classilicd by their rd ~ li \'e importance to society. Gross a nd Stone. For example. fo lk. king ke pt her wai ting for 15 minutes... )CI iug by min OI1l is com mo n throughout the nO!· ( In fac t.ai li ng. women d o nul slcep in upper hel't h ~ a men. 19t17· In ma ny soc ieties around the world. Even fo lkw:tys ccmcernillg tillle::lrt univcl1la l1y sll<ll'ed.Iys pattems or bc havior alld can \'al)' fl'o l1l a ne 5()t 10 tlllother.. people evade a norm because they kn()\\ il weakly e nfo rced .ic ular lilm a nd type o f a udie nce... violal iOIl ca n lead tu SC'\'e re penalties.. :md ch ild a bu5C Iha t have been inslitutio nalized into fo rmal no rms.. an example.."formol norms arc generally u nderstood but a rc nOI precise ly recorded ...<1..h 11 paid a call.. People atte nd ing a seriolls a rtistic 01' political film will be mo re likely to insist o n the noml of silence tha n those a ttend ing a slapstick comedy or horror movie. but il will not result in a line o r a j ail sente nce. Formal norms have gen· e ra lly been . Fi rst. By contrast. O ur socicty h a.) In ~o m c ins ta nces. in 1993.trU11 C!lI J ustice ordered an assault on tllt! compound 86 cull me m bers (in cl ud ing Koresh ) died. a nd b.. The q was 1101 a mu. Even 0 11 clOlhcsli nes. hi ch must be ve ry p recise in definin g prope r a nd imp roper behavior. Acceptance of Nonns No nns..llivcly liltle conce rn . we o fte n forma lize norms illla laws.

.r lhe ..IU\C {. ..... lInIkr different cirt.. The same action. tconomic. A go\'crn mc lIl agcm \\'ho uses !(Ich methods 10 convict :111 org:lI1i lcd crime baron 1IU)'1x' praised ....''' UnilM S/(lla Iha' il mm.ll rorce lhem ....cd........ CAll cause onc to be \w.. it can be dnne '!Ihh a court o rder to obl~lin \-alid c\'idc nce vr a criminal trial. TI1l'Y are implichl\ t. as the i-"~itK""'. and remain :11 home d h~r husho ('ould lIllppo n tIle r. Jessyl ...CCptiOIlS la allY 1l0 1"ln. nt" norm conflicts wilh <tllollwl"..HlClions for doing ~o . In Table :1.. "i011lC' JOCia l no rm s arc so widely accepted that rhf'\ rnrdy need lO be \·c r·baJi~cd .'iII receive sa llc Lions if his or her behavior is dCleClc d . How(..'lnd./lfml is included in lhi ~ dclillilion. people will 'trI frtt 10 violate the-m mon° fl'eqllc lllly and Itflfnlvand will be less like ly la receivc seriolls Ileg... IHI F.. a word 0 1 gralilllde.xJI'=llffl to marl)'.... SaIIctio...RIIDI By GARY LARSON "You're sick. Sick..lli\'c sa n clio n ~ illcllldc fines . at the ":lme Lime . III e...... 'e r. E::1 \'e~I)'()Jr plll~ on telephone cOll\'er!:uions is nomHtlly con'lidtlOO illegal and abhorrent... -\Cceprance of no nn..while.. As )Ol\ r:1II scc in tJlis (. in JKln :t. ~luJ happen.l).. there 'Ire al"U\1o.lt is ~u l~ ect 10 change.ld tu positive sa nClio n .I VICJo . sUJr pe~ that )uulive in an apartmcnt building :Hld onc night h('. \I"in ...lmily withuut II('r Uld oMhlOlIlCt...1 foOl ball roI(~ ~nds a twd flh pl... In o ur cuhl!!'c...olcncc.age 74..tch of' tlICS(' situations.I"''' .ltnlJ tt.1 culllV\' :art lransfonncd . lernplll":u y feminis t mm" eme llt (sce Cha l)lcr 11 ) _A..'! \\'hcn people \'iol:uc a wielely sh:lI'c d mol WldCl's tood not"lU? SIIPPOSt· dml . re:u.1 on p... the sanc tio ns thal arc associalt:d wi lh formal no nns (those wriuclI down awl t'txlified ) Icm\ 10 be lonnali.lllk. IUpport for trnditiona l nonm weake ns.. II medal.cr 01\10 Ihe field .. If)! III r«ent decades.l dllalt~ showing lip in ClI10l fs fo r a job interview at " IMgc b:.".~ slIch as a pay raise. S(Ulcliorls arc pcnahic~ and rew:lI'ds 1 conduct 01" cOllcemi ng a social nOnl l_ NUll' Iha t Ihe concept of r.. sick!" all Thr Imlll/btll/III ugfJi...111pr.. hnag· Inr d tOIJege gr. and MXi..ou nOllO eal huma n nesh..... as nl('nlix-n ofth€' cul ture of the Ulli led Slales. i~ bc:ing beaten by hc r hush.~ 10 put any money ill a parkin ~ me te r.. Conformity lO a nonn can le.UI ralll/ibalism is nmmplr of a Sl)tial nol'l" 1/1 witkly a("plld 1/1 ..uch a nonn is un.. 01 conside r a dri\'er who IIcgl ecl.. Jr you decide '" Ullt'r-...tJ conditions of.. c\cn killing-ano ther Iwmiln being is lolcrmcd as :'\ fo nll of scJf-defcnsc IIld ~ actually rewarded in warrare. thl'e:tls... rou a rc vi%titlC lhe no rlll or ~ mindin g your husincn... Nt!\'c l"lhc lcss..... hcolI '!I'he n nonus do not conllict....' prohibitio n agai n'l canQlll. the pe rson .~. ami even stares or cOlllcmpl.umSlance5....screanUi: o f the \\om01Il Ilt'X I door • • h..ih'm.._. undel' II":tdilnul nonns in the United Slales. _... Fo r example. h is unlikely tlt:!1 )'l)1I call recall an)'one Irlling.. (I result ofl lle CO II ..SO Il1l1CnI . Ihese no rms havc bec n dm ng.l\u\1 ne\'C~r conside r doing so.:ed as well . 11 a coach scnds lOO 7J ('J IAI.. An examJ"" 01 .ll'i.. we al.l h(' relationship bc l"" c(:' n no rm s and sanctions is Sllllllll.'td either as a hero or as :t \.. bt 1't'rlxllv~tI. sick.ble. fol/owing the I')(IIlll of assisting a vic tim of \. a woman was e. Ho weve r.c hildre n . Neg... or a paL 011 lhe bac k.eoe by ringi ng the il' doorlx:1I o r calling the pulilt.R J • Cl 'I. ught by :J society to its members.. for example. :md the re 1Il_~ be \'tl")' little need 10 (-.

"\'Cl11c nt. equality... socio logisl Set11101.Iue!l should be properlt \'iewed as but a starting l)Dint in defining tht na tional char....hey Illa )..t given culture prefer as wdt as what ~ find imr.. which. Thcrcfol'c..L'i health ..s... All)' such effon to dcscl'ibe our n. SallfIIO'U .. His lisl included achit. undesirable. 1972:185) . and democmcy.tf!' a cu lture \'tcws pm-air property as " basic value.!.~.. Tht... people in the Uniled Stales arc 11\ religioul! tha n Calmdians and t.!' 011 tile olher h..a naclialll! show grcalt'rCOl1Cem for aj. m. Ob\~ous l y. a revicw of 21 dinerell! 'luemplli to d(:scribc lhc MAmerican \w S)'S ICIll.. T he referee 111")..". bUI mml rtmain relatively stable durin g all Yline persun's liftlime.iolls in a culture rcncCb 111:\1 ( uIUlre's \~llll CS and priorities..sociologist TalcOIl Panom.dual develops his 0 1 her 0 . Nt...... SOCIAI.:lkc mo re mQralisfl: altit lldes toward sex.prohibil the aCI of "d uhc!. then' "'ill be no pe nahy.. ~ :1 culture highly v. The mosl cherished vo\ lucs will be most heavily sanctioned . ci Ul. eOicicncy..uns ( De'~ lI e..ull l)ivid.... If the police do nOI sec lhc car which is illcg:llly parked . 74 ""Kr nm . a nd irnpro per-in a culture. :md ll1arria~ Wherca..ionalism."\·c rthclcss... For ex. revealed .hat there is an extra playe r on the fi eld ..!. un ... TIU=R is oft e n a dircct relationship between the \<ilue:\ norm!l. material comfort. sociologist Robin Wi1lia ms (1970:452-500) a uenl!> led to oITer a list of hasic \'< lluc\ in lhe United Stall'\.. be more general. IIOt a ll 0 1 the 250 million people in thie.. Furthermore... Th e e ntire fabric of nOl"lllS and sancl.f.l11d.cI1S of Ihe United SQ show greatcr concern for libeny and are mo~ pon i\'C o f limi ts on go\cnllue11l 1)O\\'c r .rds..anno t be penalizcd o r u:warded unless someone \\'ith t. suc h . The dlivcl' who fa... il will pmbably ba\'C 1aW\ aWlinst then a net vandalism. many pl:l}'t:I'!i OntO the fi eld. Acco"ding to sUl'\'ey dOlta from many polls...."Imple. will ca n)' light and infonnal sanctions. Yaiuuaft' these collective coneepLions 01 what is cOllsidered good .!'!... In fucl..... the l(:"m will be penalized 15 y..lIId expccted l O pay ....lues o f a culture ilIay c hange. A person c. lovc.M: nomlS (a nd st~t 5Otnctions).b. Soc ially shared . malic.. \'~ UL"S lI!.ICler. Each indi\.·rs and le"y a n undeserved penalty 0 11 one team for ~ t OO man)' pla)'M e l's o n lhe ficld . coul1lry agree 011 onc set of goals.... or t..anctio ns is the dctccdng of nonn \. Il11plicil in Ihe a pplication or.R including the: work of 311lhropolog. and S.. In h is book umlinn. there will be no line o r Licket .\ke "u error in counting the numhe r of tootba U pla)... M:lrg:lrcl Mead and ....1W...ho comes lO th e bank interview in eutoffblu c jC:U1 S will probably be lre:\led with contcmpt by bank ofndals and will allllost ce rminly lose any chance of gelli ng Ihe j o b.he po....lIjOI1 's \.lnctio ns of a culture.all game rcali/ell t........ Howe\'t'f... Valucs inlluellce people's bch:l\'iOl' a nd SCM Z cri teria lor a-.ils 10 pUI mo ney in lhe parking mele r \\... dcrly society and a rc morc likely 10 favor a role for go\'cm mel1l... pontogmphy..\...'l C.er LO provide sanctions is aware of the person 's "ctions.ducs the imlituliol1 01 marriagr il may h..Iy be sJ>ccilic.11' Martin Lipset ( 1990) contrasted th e vaJues ol IWO su pe rficially sim ilar neighbol's: the United SUit es and Canada . y.')' indicate "....11 be givcn a tickcl . The college gmdu:u.'t It.. and the supreman of science and reason ol'er faith .. and propcr-or bold.. illlc nscJy felt volllles are a fill1dame nml pan o f our liv(:. ill the Ull itcd SUllCS. desir.e I. yet each culture pro\'ides a general set ofobjecth'es for iu mem bers.. re~lrdcd as less c ritic.. lhere can be imfrrOfH'" "pplication of sancLiol1!1 in certain situat io ns... QH(oA.. if none of the offici" ls in lhe footb.u peopk ill.'0 personal ' goals and ambitions. rritif(JJ'C' boIh j()nft(ll ulld wfomllil 'iocJ(lI nQml.. n:tt...)'.formal Salary bonus testimonio! dinntlr Medal Diploma F~" Firlng from a iob Jail sentence Expulsion Humilialion ~i"" Informal Smile Compliment Ch_...tnt and mornlly riglll (or wro ng).w'J1.lblc .. 10 the '~dlues ideolt lied by Wil1i. Ill m'eraU similarit)..tOn... The ..olation or obedience.......lluating the aClions of Olhers..1 lille. such 'L~ hOlluring onc's parenl) a nd owning a ho me.W7.

..""fll IIlrmlJt' III /Iv.!\ or vcry importallt gO<I! increased sharply to :1 record high of 42 percent (tip from 34 perccnt in 19tJ I). . 11) contrast. There is 110 Mowner'" ill our terms: onc PCl"5UIl mal hold ceremonial M R 8 75 tJIIonw J ' CUI1"(!HI..1t • ing . Mnrco\"cr. it had fallcllto cilth pLlCf. A Danish air forn' general Wa5 pllzllcd O\'CI' ltu.toge who idctntily 9001 Ol '*Y fmportant or euentiol 80 70 60 50 'OIY"'-~~ 30 20 10 ~~.Yr:o."\S the ID!. It is important 10 l'l1lph:lSi"lc Ih"t .. I!J87:97. ' "lriking dedinc LnCmionc111crH hy liIudcllb is ~dc\(:lo pillg a rncanlIlatul philf)SOph) or lifc.."tl)l:lpuJar in the IHG7 sun'cy. 1\1117.IIH! . 1 Liff' Cools of Fi".m Re"Wntial or a R\.97. t~ lJ>'UI"'~.IY of issues.tutudCJ ofmor!! than ::! 10.\llIe as Me. such as language and !loa'IIlS. In IlapllOl ."Iuc s)'Stcrns call be C]lIitc differellt Irom tlml of our own ("u lture..-.I/-tJiffinllnrinlfJ· nllll b rOIl«rnM Wllh dt'l!dopinf ·0 InHINIIlgful pllJ/~..ro. ....lI1d four1'(·.hit" or Mbcillg won IfItlk>lT financi.IIIIC differc/lct:5 in supcrlicially tinliLlrcultures.' .llues of" tbr linit~1 Slates i~ all annual que~liollrmire Sllr"e ) ul.tIld life goOlI:..t1·ear tj~lt-Kc ~tudenL'i . ColI£gr Stud£wts i" thfl U"itrd Statrs.. of l'. ~Ol eX~lInple.. .III. C\\' CuinC:l... tllc n: \\'<1. 1992: 14).llId Illlnlisll1 ..rsed by murt..{ support for . According 10 11 rC\'iew of 17 major ai11f"'I1>I the United Srau'!s b) Ihe Gcncml AccotllHIng OUite.hl~ n I'rcsidcmBiII Oinhili ..llI) has sho\>o"II the strung~1 Jl*1I In popularit)'.hc same land . CleOlrly.LL~19~n~~19~8~.\"lIue that has .. The issuc or g:1)'S in thl' mililarv rc\'eals anodle/' rumple of the '. clltlt. ".hll\\'11 the mu . "" tlit !lame lime.~t!uC!S~ \\~LS . like Other aspects or culture..t-y~ar col. tugal) cxplidlly ban brays frOIll their lllilit'IIY 1011 e..".$ " decline in suppon 1nl' rrrt.I/llng kJ frrom{J/~ nlClol cif u"tInT/mu/i...soci:tl . . PIonlllltly cures abuw il U.ft. P(I\\'cr.. One cOll1l11onl)' dted bar'oll1cter of" the \'. belI("h . ProfK1rltall $lull.: on the 1'''1 by 1993 and "'~IS endorser! bv onh iSl>crcent or .Hu\\'l'I'l1.l e l . only llm:c (Great Ildtllin.1991 100 90 P8It*.lI "'innuencR M pit 1_- flCURE 1 . /967. . the ploponiull of lir.i. ""• .rr hlu bw1I U (. tht· . Unllttl S/(l(1'1 "'ur~ Iw1Jf' tJ.H 40·1 two-year .\11 ..Jle properly is shared ..u·r.lr ~Iude rlls slated th. DurulK thc IURO~...000 eltlering lin.tl. IC!'>hians and gtly llIeJl from sen'" UIR in the United SlaleS arrllcd forces. Diffcrent peoplc may actually hold dinerent rights on t............1V C(J1I(f'lTltri ".tr col\rK~ Thi5 5U .15 ('\<idence Ihal collegc lIudrnbwere onc(' agailllunring LUw~lnl social conmtn. Wat \tudclIl$ I\ho endo r~ this \.: college (Nun rt.. ueh :\8 Mhclping OIhers.11I00hOll KnoW"r h A_tin "1:01 .tO . In 1993. much or what people: in the United States wou lcl considcr priv.cl1uaIM ut'\ 11' importallt ~ rose from 44 percent in 1967 "'i:'I~rcrnt in 1993 (~~ Figun' :~l) .Cf)' impOnallt go'I!.. R 17v..lfelINo .polldcnlS an.11 bmJming "IN'rJ U!.. and ". nllmllKfipjl(1I11tgt' slut/nIb HI 11.ulllounccd his intentIOn 10 hh lhe long-s13nd11'11': I>an prohibitinJ.colHrO\en)' in Ihe Ullil ed States..·d I" W'm thln' llu' hot 2' )nUl...Iuc ...:II"C pe . 1"l':.tdi. there W:IS unlllg opposition both inside :\IId ouuide the mil/Yn Yet.' dwl1«1 pc-rcelH of the respondellt!'>. Ilrere was gruwi nJ.unally important to Ihnn Q\cr the last 25 )'can... ' _I·t! ir \-arious value!! .. tUdcnLS c lltel"in.md stalus.the prllponjon or~ludenu for whom ~ hclping to promote r..d1lM h......L.ln the J99tls therc W.ill the United States art: more suspiciOlIS of Rbig_ than Can:. .1S an cSSt"nt..er.\\ing 10 do \\'ith murrer..~7LL~19~7~.. 19tJ2:25) . . a ll11liOI) 's "alllcs a rc nOI neccssari ly fixed (I)ey Cl al.·C) focuscs 011 . I9tJ3). only a rear cou·lier. notillg: " I don'tundcntant! \\hy yuu haH: .Jcial underst::tndingR \\'i. 43 pml'lIt of firsl-lc..: L(JA rtillht1 . dk..lIls-whcther in lenns or big KIJ\'tnlll\(1lI or plivil(C l'COIlOll1ic l)tl"".lin '~d lue! h:willg ' 0 do with -roci:tl OI\\'". C:mada had ended a IImlbr ban.1 rvho VI"Ut' "h.1 eft-bale 011 it . Grcece.. 1.LL~19~8~7LL~I~3 .\ccording to lhl' 199'lualiollwide surwy. \\1tile Ihis .

'rtis.IIIII. pp ".A.. .. thosc with greate r \\'calll! or 111(cl!anical abilit)' havc hccll able to keep their IfII. c ulLUrc (lWis (lm\ Ellis. (Ill/II'({ ~(1/1'.'lpps togcther and i the 1~II'gC I' roci:.1 world.. A.w.~. in the early I960s.-d ruJ.Uld cohesi\'c whole. Thwi...11 Ihl military ollti gay IIrlCTt/llJ ril'.. lure. Tllf'se me n were \~ewcd as being too in dh~dualisti c and a.11 now drlw across the counuy with a second sno"'lno bile r.. and for mechanical sc . q. 11\. since they made tOO muc h noise and frightened aWAy d eer.Il\ar lead 10 a d eath selllCHee in II dim' I'en..11 011< .. of the ir cultul'C . n. of their herds a nd Hlf'Il 10 govenllllclII assislan« At the sallie timc...\!' .. chines opelolling efficicIlII)' .. 10 sOll\e C)(ICm. In 1983..lpP c ulturc .\J(J. \"hile the com ing of IhI Sllowmobik has bro ug ht L...md. mc.sc of lhe neecl for [uti ror spare parts. IIt". Where as he rding was lr. it has nno crlhclcss tramfunncd their culture in certain 111\1 Social r.ms of hulltillK a nd herding deer.l\ bccomc much more dcp('n<lellt on their ncighbor.dcspilc the long..tnk h:L'i become lIIore impilnant . righ ts. 198Y) ."iJlu l rall:tl i" I/"'f rm ID o . and so rOrlh.. the case of lr..:h more trrquc mly." from vrt1iug. tio nally a lIolita ry occupat ion. cold.I lhe firs t Sllowmobilc breaks down.lm~J '/'/J(IINill'htlJu'r fII/ijI UI( Iflllg'JIlIIUfillg ban IwoJuinlhll( th. the La pp pcople 0 1 Finland \l'lc:d lhe dogslccl as a basic "d liclc fo r ll'a nsporlation ill wdl as :.I./1 anntd IOff~. a nd ClLstoms wlU support onc :mO/he r a nd lit togc ther well." .. While the UIPPS have successfull)' illlcgrated lhi sno\\lllobilc in to the rcs."((/r.ses rn r their own persona l profit ..sulting in :t hamlOo nious . fHU/l!ay Ill..llIed in onc socicl). 'oIM ca n drivc him o r he r back (0 wannlh a nd 5iUC(~ . These machines were nOltlSCfuI in hunting. ({j 1111'11' ( (f/llllry... Nevertheless.. II~ r.1/1 / 99J. :lI1othcr d\\'c lling rights. In» di tion.. yQurl!... 76 I'IIN" H I'f} • OICf. it has sintllltrtnco usl)' CIt aled ne'''' social boundaries within the Lap!> Cultlll ( Pelto.... causcd SOllle Ix)()r familic~ to lose m<:. the dogskd quickly became a Ihing ofthe past."h o the r nuu. allQllWr hUnling rights... me n ill OIlC 1" lpu:1Il village were killed afu:~r dc\'clopillg export busine:.<. This change in onc clement of mllterial cuilure-the introduc tion of new lec hno logy-I!» had rar~reachillg conscque nces 0 11 both maltrUI and nonnmtc lial culture.f $ml.y.. v:.!N.!Y..'.lInong lbr Lapps than il "'~AS in the d'l)'S "" hen almost' c\'cl)'oIII owned reindeer he rds or "pproxim:llel)..V .~ o bile hiL~ c reated a m uc h wider network or friend'iltips and fami ly rela tionships among the LaPfl'I)cople e'lIl IIOW visit co. SlIowmohik"S became ink'graled inlo 1 ". 1973) .. If' s haped the culture. the milLl's :Uld 1I0rl1lS of evcl)' cui· llLre sometimes conOic t with each o tJler. L. H (M' e\·c r. ga)1 tum'lIlly . Tr:ulitiu nalty. a L.'!:T.!~I"9.~ci l1 g..Im. :lIIo the .'i no longer cOIlIribUling 10 the COITlInon good . SIlOwy wimers.. In a well·inlcgr..llues. The Lapps have quick.~. S:..u·e! aH rded b)' lite s nov.' fishing "iglus..l /(l/)jtm... Cultuml jnlegralloll rcrcrs lO till' hringing together or co n ~ fli cting cuhllral clcm(·n lS. !i(III. cqual ~ The need for money 10 buy :md maintain SIlIIlo mobilcs ha. Ne"" lines d wm'" have eln ~ I'gcd bcc:tlI..s extrcme example reminds liS that what is ".'i wc have seC II.PPS lIscd thrir ne\\' snowmohiles 10 haul goods and to CSCOl1 tOlll'ists IIH'o ugh the CCIIlllt rysidc.. and the o llL~ idc wodd.-Mbe ing \'cr)' wel l-oIT finan ciall)'" .Hld la subst :Ullial~·tI large their h(....Jrinlls lIo rms...

lsonal lta- ditij)lh . horc oil rig.. ..'chnuloh'Y.thin a ~ inglt.c~.llaugu.101 This a(\.IS courL<....iru·s 11 IHld lHuI 'In..':lt dh'cl"\il). :tfJ(lIl' that 'iubculturcs often emerge Ix. a t the populace \\..I:I . ..'x. .~.~~~. MICh as c1ior tl. . and geugr:l1. The exiSll.S join in l'i lllals cclebraliug thc willlt.11111 uni"Cl"$lls such .all(.... C\t'!1 .· shock of rlwnKt· whlc:h might Ihfl'atCII sot ial ('u llIiIlUily....d cdebmtion of the Christmas holido -. nlj(IJ . I~""I 'u lurel !opccirk sel..~. 196150-51) ....1 into ~CP<U'IIC parts for . III~.1 \Jlu~ of .0 "lluIt (At(... cel"I ..tr rrd romlt'lIrlOPlI. .. a )'!'o Ihl' rcsull (. __ _ _ _ ...11.lillll . . EI'cry aspect of luhllre ill inl4.. MOICQ\'t'I".. 1X"lpClLl<Ill'd arc those 1<lI'OI... . mno ng the \\orld's m. I"'llern or IIIOr1..lIio . COllfJin thl'oriJI~ cllIphasilc that whilc ClIlllll~ .11 ~Illl'nt. In a Sl.trt~ p.rrrllr /'I/(j'l IIwgm... (""au~ the do minant societ) has 1I1l511CCCSS fllll) attempted 1 i>lIpprcss :\ pr:tcticc Icgardcd as im0 proper. a nd ". 1'0<1 I) .uiull I. thcJcwish slIbcu ltUfl' o bscnc'l I-Ianukkah .. 19(2) .......' llCe o f many subnllwres is dmracu:rinic of COIllplex socic t. \<11..~. Dcccmber is do minated 1» the rcligious a nd commcrci..mc! tlt'l! rdati\'cl) mill()l' .I. g.1 . rhl' Smt' Tre k.. 1' solslice ( K.1'(.'5. including nnrlll'\. ... .I..~~.IIHI bl' trul).. 1 in legration nl..u .II4. circus pc rfol'l"ilers -all "re l.ulllll~. Oftcn this I'fllU"'\ is enfol'ced from the lOp: Ic~s I>OWClful iIlcml)Cr'" of society have little chnict· IllU 10 accepl tilt' 'hc IdleS and v.Uld Ncihorr.ll"t:s 3 dininc. ll('tcfSOn . nOI al ....~"!!~I!.(pl. s uc h a5 the United Slates..lge.Iunique (:II.. The impact o f !iuhc u1t.~~. nf dr('umst. ccrc m o nil'~ such as \\00dlOjC'I." h (\lhur~ h......ltinm..S refer to as lll/JroIWrn... fOU.hought ul as a cu lture existing within a larger. uncu cndinJ( . 1.It ioll. ·nHls.·ill! rather r\ldw 11 ·~nsM . Culture'S adapl !hJ!t'.:.I ·r n IUi ....t ~'glIll'lIt of SOCiety . IllU'ltI' rhymes uuclouhlCdl) rClIIloru' lhc lIo mlll )u. wurkcl""5 ill an un .lm~ 101 Ill''' ..lI':. .~~~.~.lI1d con(inn.P1l-..ic. puplIl.UIJL~ .. and somc athcisl... u ocu1ture can be t. \ubru!tures Olde r peopl(· IhinK in hUllsing for I~t ddcrly. A subcul· I.hl'l/lJlllldllN' fill'" of dmt /m'tlflll' St. 511Ch a ~ use of illegal dnlW'. dominant c\tltut·c.."'I/IN". .f J~'ltll\t:nl b) all mcmhcr'i of:t c1l11111'l'.'nwinc cI "..111 e\'('1II "cll~nll'cnched in thc domina nt n cu!tml' or Ollr ~ icl ).Ipprnpria ll' .l...IIOICI('I".ul"e. ~lC1OlogislS :1[1.<Ul !>t' 1 0gic'"<\lIy III\Jdn..'duce Ill\... ditcs and Ihr pUI\'ctful (lI« also M... I>eC L~ ofa ("Ullll!'(' (...Y."'h ic h sl).I )'~i .~ "d. I..R J • ("..~ .. c\ide'llI in dine n ' nccs in:lll rl"flIt-nlS or l'uiture.' pauc m of the largl'1' socil'ty. I\'S.Iho\ll . III .Iuc which SJIIJIIII/ 111"1' ".\1 dcvelop cultural 'i f>l[ll'fUS "hkh dilTl'r frolll thu!tC uf the dmninalll I' ""eI "1("11'1\'. t\rc ht' l" 1988) ...... .Hld inapprop!LlI~ lM=haviur. st in cCI'lain sucieties.~\..hip religion.y'~~~..":I i'l cvidc tII ill thc ccle brntio n 0 1 SC.'c\'CI'. 77 U/A....llllt'S uf 1111'S(' in COlll r(.IXlfl/lll? 1II"1'5~II" KIIIIJ{OI/5 .u·tid1J. dt"S]>iu' liI(· presence of . Similarly.. Il o\.. Cultural illll'gralion i .heoristJ.m. IlI'C P..'(' that IIU Lulturc c. dHfl'I'S Imlll till.II" r. till' 11()[ 1iI~ and \~ lllI cS .... . "H'" ~1I11 gn..t.('k r hrH"llttf'TI.9..ln y "lliul\'S.rtl~.. III&..lh uthr-I'S a nd conll.. Arrica n Americans ha\'e beb"lll to ob~l' I"\'c Ihl' relatively IlCW ho liday or 1{1\'aI1l.bl(· 10 lht.1 culture.bult:s 1 lht· culturc as :t .1 IIHCj._~_. Childrl'I1'.~! ..~ . Aspe~~..""" allt.unple'i of IOI'Jt «iologisl.s \vithin the United SI.l"lSberg ..'I1SC . Connicl I...{mUltI III ....1t~ '7'rrU"" ~ aUn/(f SI.social ro]('S and f\.In play .. ullol'1'tood.. /I'I/f'f\ J/~lll"tl all St::ll' Trek.. lunr-mls. ~a n ctiom..

l.Iill Other subcultures.1 tests of lhc il' nying skills. a study of 1002 communities across tlte Uniletl States n :\'caled lhat III diJrcrent It. Eng land smte!)}. In most ca.II I. Ilulll Cl al. a subcuhure will develop an argot.'d the woly fOI United States eXplOl"ollioll of space. 1978). (. Occupations Ill:!)' a lso r0I111 subcultures.a .'" the ce nt ral nonns and v'allles of the pr~ vai ling culture. a snitch dcvelo ps a Mjuicc: ('. Frequcn tJy. "hCI'()M (New York Cit). colllposcd or)'otlllg IX!opic. . such as lhat of computer " hllckers.i:1l1y J>OI)ular.'Ulbcrl' o f lhe subculture. IIcnli!y of ICSI pilots who p. or beliefs /1 militalll po litical group).'e. This COulltCl'culturc primarily inclllded ~ ic.liau.and 'ewJersey) . or SIX. ~jccl~d the pressure If) .. while.understood by "oul$idcl'5. Just as u·ud. Six namcs rOJ Lhis sal)d\'t~c h were cspec. CounlCTCUllul1$ Some subcultures conspicuolI.Ikillg pktlll'ClI" means fhat IlOlice arc lIsing:l r<ldar g llll to mo niwl' cld\'ing speeds. In hit book 'J1le !light SfllJf. 1993:40 1-402). depending on the argot of regional subcultures. 1982).tll lCS :m d parIS of Cotlifornja).'IlUS <Ire used 10 describe a type of sandwich in an unusually lo ng bun that con."lt.(Pcn nsylvani.crwin subculuu·cs.. Thus .ICCUIlIU)auo c h ~llI cnge Or 78 ..M lhe Ulf. Su bcu ltures may be based 011 cOlUmon ~ (I.ures deve lop in a number of ways.'c that Ihl'l ""ere the ~elCClcd :mc! a nui llled o n(!s who had lilt rig/lt st. Argot ~l1ows ~i nsidcrs.wc 311 UIIWillal latlb'1Jage for describing high".I lUre. \\'olfe..Members of :1 suhcu lture parlicip:IIC in the domina nt culture. Torn Wo lfc cxamiJI CcI !h e rcdusiw fl. Oflen a sUOClllt. couragr. A study of me n 's prisons in C.linSlream sodal instilllliom.) IL'IC of a shared interest .. Yinger. M hoagie. :I fonn of o'cdit with Ihe guard. region (Appal:tchiam)J eth nic hedmge (Cuban America ns). A CO ll llterf'uit"re is :1 subculture lhJt I'cjects societ:t l norms ami v. "grinder" (Conncc6cut and o lher Ne .....~(:lr (Cassidy.Oi special meaning for truc k dd\'cl'S :Uld Others who liSlen to citizens' band r... while :u lhe s:unc lime e ngagi ng in uniquc and distin ctivc foml!! of llchavior.'( meanS Ihat the officer ill giving out tickets.' "t:. T he phrd. They were ex.ludcd from 110 nn:ll socie ly and MC forced la dc\'c!o p :Ilternativc ways of li\ting.llu es and SCt'1ts nitet' lIa live lifes tyles U." Socio l ogist. According to Wolfc."Cial mcanin&'S. dl'h'C I'S h.n iIUtes. " OagwOOlI ~ (Iowd.l in i1. Often g ua rds obuti n this infOnllalioll aOOllt inmates th rough confide nlial informants (01' Msnhc hcs"). which the b'1tard will C::"elllually h:l\'(: to repay with some Iype of Hwor (C. thetef6fr. Suhcult. It indica tes that a patrol onicer is a head o n the road in (\n unmarked car. Minnesota.. y police.~ :15SOC iaICd with Ihe intemClio ni51 pers pecti"e e mphasize that lan g uage and symbo ls offer a powerful \'t~d)' ror ~1 sllhc ulture 10 main tai n its ic\e lllit)'. 1960.ecllagers 01' I)ld I)cople) .ne! MCllban ~andwichM (Florida ). III :. some wri le rs claim~ Ulal an c).. a nd pans of soulhcnJ California). pl'OvidC1l a feding o f cohesion for lIIembers alld conlrihules to the dc\'elopment of a WOu» idt=ntiff (J-Ialliday.1 lIIea. a person who is 20 t'cars old crUl acljust 10 new cultural st:u~dards more t=a~ th:1II someone who has spt'nt 60 )'C01I'5 following the p:uterns ofth~ dominanl cullu. H)S5).ure c lllcrg:t:s because a SCb"lIent of sodet1 faces p l'oblems or even privileges unique 10 its i» sition. Even Ihe names thal people ~ivc lO everyday o lr jecls and c\'cnLS mOly '':'I I}'. Coumrrcultures are Iypically ~) plllar aml)llg the YOUI" \\'ho ha\c the leasl ill\'eslll1ell ! in tht: existing cuilure. subsc(llIcnuy made illlo.. :I subculture of pdson in mates ma)' create ilS own cola lfn l argot.. me mbers have been cxc.1 lifornia re ve aled lh:u the len ll jadulliflg i~ IIst:d 10 refer 11) a b'1.Ioods ghting (IlIt grecn SCUlI p.. Uy lhe e nd o f the 1960s. 10 understand words wilh s)x.SC "be:lr ill lilt' . It a lso CSI:lhlishc:o 1><11tCI'11S o f conunll n ic~llion which ClUnot l>t.l I l ull ywood fillIl.. IH80: 19)."$ continua.Slern Sl. dalizcd langual:tc. hobby.pectedllf p".. who repm. For c).wl. the ph r<4Se MSmokcy in a plain wrappc r~ h:..tes.g" (T . These young mt'fl :111(\ wome n .and N(!\\'.'S.:amplc. ane! M riglllcous quality" in o rde r 10 pru.~ develop be('.'\I·d M_ thlll is. the techno logical onclluu.1. T he p:tr6cular a rgO! Ill' a gi\'cn subculture.... Mpoor boy" (primarily in lhe:: svutheastern :.ho had M droppcd OIU~ 1Il..r mid· we.iofl QfouroU'1. such as that d I)risoll inrnalcs.ldios (CBs).1cI1It!)'). ot he.Hlicals and "hippies" \..tanl's om ciall)· no ting in an inmate's fi l(' Ihal he is II SIISpcc t('d gang mcmber. By suppl)'ing slIch infonn:ujon lO guards.:lcnsl\'c co ulHc rc:u\t'ure had emerged 1_ the United Stalcs. members of this subculture !oha red d istinc· live:: no rms and \~II\l C5 governi ng their bchaviorin lhe lIir and o n the groun d. which distinguishes it frOll1 the wider socie ty.

cr.. Wh ile lhq dUll" an aJlcgi:lUce 10 hisluf')' and 1 Iheir (While) cultural hcr0 ic'gc.i 1~llions-thi~ countCl'c uhure lIe\'crthe!CM is f!om . t:-"" 8' ..sI ~. Mnst !J(!ri(HI. .t!l. h ill difficult 10 n~urc prcdsel) Ihe .~ .uul 1:'01:0 racism.i:1 :md cthnic lIIi· 1 norilit.dmosl all th e countries I\'hefe Skillhe.. nf 1\lit'1..lrly t'e:ln.\ I}rimill'~ Skrl'wdrh'cr.:ar'!! Ihal Ski. l. according 10 une olinmlc ..UIOOI. I . nadian ci l)' o f Ed- 79 ClIM'1J:H. a more rece nt coulltcrculturt: with VCI)' ddJmlll political \'. Instead ..· hea{l ~ aIUlC L. In .-cc India n herit:lgc..00 beCOIIU:' IMgel!! o r Skinhcad :IICII-b. ' -hl"5e llIWIg people geller-Illy c:l. .unstream MJoCic l)'../IlI.llIy JU!!I ut iud·blow.s. So il 1\~.ld was 'I(J ~Irirt wi lh CI'crylh i"K. c::. m C)S1 seem to csl>OtI~ While .'-man wo rler: . on a rcse"..u-i~1 and antiSrmftic idclIlogit"5 .'iic .ible for III lea51 28 killings (Wt'r Ihe pcrifK\ 19$7 1 IH!13. I dilln'l kn o w what t. 1IIl(1 lllC l~lIIl00 SllUCl' T"lo..80X S·I • THE SKlNH£. COImc l ~ common largel or Skill helld . .lIg.. I hl') hC.\-NaJ.ltger ..l~cd as \'OC:I I lmd 'UIIlc'tirno violent slIPIK.\IId l·Ug. i ndud illg Jcw~. 1\1'.'fl bt'rHII"t: lily d.ured.llly spread from Britain to E.""u." 1 .!n. I had n('\'Cr e\'Cr §lIW : 1 pho ne berore in my lire.his 1111111$ll'milY\\"dS. muft .. Mnte SkiTlhc..i ()rw.. ..11 Comhat. I~'l'hidru.~ coumercuhure.rcdy proud ot her C.:abooll1!..-.~..1 in l'IIfHWism..urope. I! "ppl. $(lmt' Sklnhclld j(fOOp5 championcd r.ld~ do nOI hcloll]ol 10 II lIa· lion31 or inlerJlalio na\ o'branil. Norlh America. ~ Sh ock IIIQnton .. . slIch as sharing.. who 0(Itn ~ncd sU!lpendcrs."tking-class b. . ) WCft' cxplic- ha\'c cOlllmillcd aCL~ ur n:cklc~ \1nlcllcr ag:linsl mc. J • U 'Ln!Hl' . In the 199IA. H17 1: ROS/':l k .~()ciall-d wil h Ihi! COtllllc rculturc. lkf~" .. T he)' Ihle' lf-cI 11' l"tI~ic thal c."iltll(ll)Ill.S ~ix la'n . IlolIm. gay mcn. I lough..h. but at tilt' ~ o( 16 moved to the C..IUd nf larger S4. II new ((JumcrcultuH: lIu rfdccd in Grcal BOIailL The Skillht'ad~ wel'c )'Oung JI"'OPk .Idi liO Il~ or p. mhl'r couIII. is fir..101>.inht' ad groups tolt'I':IIt' CCI'm.llIcht«-l-lOCd !lluxs.'IlIUcrs of Wh ite slIpn:macbl and tl~'i. l>cr(l1l111Cd by -lIuch 1(t'I)\Ip! ll.lk. ' .t5 n'. Skinlu:ads conSlitlllC a )'ollthful c(lulltI:rcullurc which c1mJlcng~'S thc . .. lheyell!P~:I dt.lnd la rger homes.-gC:llcrally 1I\t.. lu\'e .td~..mued by young males who pl'OjcCl .l ia ..olcna. .~i \.. _.xlo l1ed \'Io lenct' .lgt.lli(..u.~:all a push-bulIOll wurld. T h e !IlJnhe.1(1 hal'e . i lll sh:l\~1 head.e rcullurc grd<lu. lmd l"len murdc.U. bUl . tk (I'IUmercultul'C upposed the U nited Smtes' infOh<:ment ill lhe war in Vie tHam and cncour:lged d'&II't.ul grouP!! exist.m. A.'cnt lhrough cullural shod li). Shr -pent her e. older adult.!.1 (6).md more ca." ls in tile Uniu:d St!UCli in IUCJ3.uion ." lI'". 199 1. .11 ((ood~ . horll in 19 'Hi or mixed an- (Nn'.oll.-e\inu~ gencnHio lls.iil~ nr lhi. :1I1d p(:o ple I\ith dL bihliM . lhd l' d f"C'ss alld music f"C'prt'sellt llllo'rmbolic rejl't.' I hardl) i!V~r \\-elll to !l1I'.10 bolster their 0""1 redings o( 'N[M:riOril)·. 0 While some Skinheltd$ around Ihe 1I'0rld lldul)! u nly Ih e dislincti\'r' dro.-..'\'c r llCen II I~u~ utun d c'III('r before in Ill)' lire:'.: w 't're 3500 Skinhc.(" you ". Un. IhOllC \it'lI'cd as "wt'''''er.LllIes...~lra.'Uuldn ' l behc\'C I\h("'J1 I ClIII(: 10 ~ city (ShHl1cn.!! (OUIIII) were rcspnn . I remember lhal li ~l linll~ w 'he n ht' pluNSt.·c her ullcle cxp(IS('(1 her lO the ~whitt..1/lMad group's thllt M ..... I!I'Y. werc.I11t1 Ih(' \\'C:SI I l1dic~ l.lckg l'o n n<b a nd had Imle Cxpt-'<UHI(JII o r "making it" in ThrnughoUllhe 19i1ls.I "'".. the Stin-- m. . howe~..liirc 10 live in :t culture based 011 more ' huounistic \'.. Skin· had group5 e m(. .~upfcllmcy and r"cild h. lr.. Maggie. and cotUtence wilh the cm. . Although Sk. ' 111l' pho ne ..\. Ihe home1 d:S. Nc\'crthclCS5. 19(19) . arc profile d in Box 3-2.'S.AD COUNTERCULTURE B tglnllill(l: io aboUl 1968. PakNm. Ihet!. and thcit number'!! appearcd to IJc w·o.'i. I W"d.l~ oMl M:iln~d . I. lIllu: hn image. :!IId I\u.nN. Immlb~ nlS rrom India. tiull or lhe U".'Sista nce (Fl ack.L.cietics. FrJJ1cc'. il wit.UU: rrOIll . I ilL'1 bacL. Skiuhcad b'mups in tll." a political force.cd up in a corucr hcc:au5C I had nt. . ".lI1d mtndlcss army of mat c ri. n.llllCS. 1!I'J1.s.l BooI Bo)'ll. In 1 ):lrl.. 'I I'..roullwllt. .. '<QI ..I<b_ (The"..'t1 in the \~lnHUII cleancr :md il wt'1Il . lllc.lnCD o( (ntun British lIOCCcr lcams.

1I sociologists ('all cultllre shQck. As :t result .L~ia .. Japanese poetS wrOle fo r centul'ies :loout tbr .sing as acccpL. .lIion~ that he or sh e may be cxpcliclldn. unhealthy.her lIQCielics. Simii. Culture ~ hock O\'cr conilicling I.. and the Thong::.liu..mghl wtll exllmn. th!'y laught'rl and I'cllmd"cd : ~Look al titel11! They COli each olil· er's :. :1 re"idclIL of the Un ited Slatt. mkc for grallted the cuhural prac lice!> of OU I sociely. evcn fearful..1 . gi\cn traditional 01) Lions abOll! gl'ndcr I'o\t...'l. SOIllCont' from a strict Is lam ic cu lturt· may be shocked upon first scciug the compar. Among Iht-t peoples.trri ..alil':l . Ticfrt 1978). 11. of Africa. cllhure~ When immcl"M!d in an Unt'U1lili"r culture.l a rei gion ." III CIIIII/I (mllll! al'ff1S HI nndlmm$ IhtJI n /oM1 j/Jm1l11J iJ dog m". \Ve a li'I experiencc culture lIhotJ. and primililJt to nfer to ot. 195 1.105 of Lilt' .Jnlr the lel1n kml/. me mber':! or ccrtain cultures might experience cu lture s hock. in our own socicty.lrt' superior 1.hnoccntric pt'1lOI1 secs his or her own group as Ihe cenler o rdefinlll( 80 1'''/1f nil} • ()HC.lha lll Sumner (l906:15-ljl coined the tcml elh"oc"-. 1980:28). tlue 5}'slem~ 1\ nOI limited 10 cnnt::lCb bC III'ccn traditional and model1l sodelic~.ft' "Ill It'~ l/l(Jr/t. do not follow Llle "Amelican W'dy of life. unlit the :.: \\'h.L'I~Ulnc lhat o n c's cultu rc and ~-::Iy of her . \VIt:1I "wc" belic\'e i.. INlclwxml.1 permay feci strangcly disoriel'lled. is very tempting 10 c . the mOUlh-lo.. CIIS l u lll ~ Lllal !I('CIl'l 'Itrdngc lO lIS Me con side red 1I0rmal and pn)per ill other cultures. Similarly.orld.A torln31 jrrJlII IN L'fII/. These arc all indic. Unlil recently. nl'lcen.lble on ly belween mother and c hild....tI of Ift'lol erncrs (amllilcir motiun pictures).-s in our c ulture.lin. ..I punk rock concert.. \Vhen Ihr ' Thol1b>"3 first ~<lW EUl'Opeall~ kissing.lII 0Ulh "-iss 11~15 cOllSidertd dangerous. In many 1 ).'S who \isilS (enain areas in hilla and wants local mcat lor dinner may IX! SlllllllCd 10 leam that the specially is dog lI1 eal. the u"pchl or Eur. All of liS . Similarly. The I'l. borrowed from English to (. theJallanesc \-le\1rd ld:..' ).\L UN.!! ciJ!! with a rcmalc instnICIOI·.ni\'dy provocative dress styles and opeu displ. kissing is cornpll'ldyab!oclll.. ~h~ b lIlay sce Ollr mOfl"S alld rolkways as odd..l)'ll uf allenion th:n are com1I10n iJl lhe United Slatc~ and ":'lriOUS E1Iropean cu ltures.1 .nn to refer to the It'1ldency 10 ."'Ord fOr kissing IIntil 11It. A consc . le LllC practicb \~ a other cul tures o n lhe basis of our own pCl'5petlil"o' Sociologist William Gr. chul'Ch-goin~ o lder perwn migln fee l bcv. sim l>ly by seeing peopl( kiS.Illure of Ihe back of LllC lIec k... tll some eXIl'lII .0 all others.tr. it can be surpri~ing and dislUrbing 10 rc:tli'lt' th:1I othcr SO il ELlmoccntrism Many everyday Slatemen ts reflttl om· atLitudc Ihal our cuhure is bcsL Wc use ICl'l1ll such as IIl/dmll'Vrlopttl. man)' ~ Illiglu he ~hocked by a wOll'lel1's martial art.. 'ilK. ki5Sing was un· known among the ilalincM!' of OCl'an ia. For example.lrly. what "l ll e( bclit!I'c is lIupel"sLiLion and IlltthrA ogy (Spnull cy and McCurdy. 0 1 disgusLing.ildcrcd or horrilied .lu fact.ANUJ\t • .. thc Japancsc had no . Oll l ufplacc .1 Slnlo wlio gnn ovllD din. In facl.md din l~ (Ford :llUllkach. IllIe resLingl)'.}.-::tuve. bUI were si lcnt abool the malllh .

. ""h:u 's the kind or lnisl lndcnwndi ng that COlt..~J- map~ ill . tNLlW_ SOU.J/I(III111 lit III.wior points OIIIltw elhnocentric mluc judgmc nts SC IVC 10 d e.. yct ma n)' R AngloM(no nHitpmKI le2.. a stlldml III Ih. . (aJ ... otic rt.lIilln lnW Chllln tu mlltnJ.".flm/lnll stud"'l pul Alu/mlia nl 1ht'lap. Psycho logist \Vallc l' Slcph a n no tes a typtr.---- wl ....LS denMions from what is R nonnal. /Iow Ilc 011' (JIIIII u..... FIIIlCI. IA·hi/'. " .'lI_ \li51tOI'S rrom 111"11)' M 81 (JI.. Of course. Bolh Hispan ic a nd Nath'c Amcdc:tn cullam Itach childrcn 10 look dowlI .'HIJ - u '..'t IJltw tI..mircst...-ont'in Ihe c)e whcn YOll arc beiug cliticiLed_ ~'lrachcJ'S can rl....l!'it)' by p l'otnOli ng gr o up plide.)I Ill' 5 oe.' Mexico's dwJub.. R As one lll. 0/ tli t.'eling" and belicr th...'S a ll o thcr culturcs l.'ellhat these students .. workl7 ()o wr.1 of cqual op-ponunitit'\. c\'olve into stereOlype and p!'cjudi cc ~ (Golc ntan . ...1 heh. map exe rcises rcveal that IIIdmU in many nalions draw .ll t. clhnocclllrism is hardly limited to ci tizens of IIU' United Slatt. hen thc)....'umplc o r ClhnocClIlli!:lm in Nc\.. Yet this t)'lX! of social stabilil )' is establishe d at the CXpCI1'>C or o thcr peoples.J Jiprr) nil A. Jl:mu p~ and contribut c to dcni:...w u_"" O'N •• &""NIT.r-.' be- illg disl'C')pcctiu l.hich their hamtbnds are in the center or the world (sce Fig- homtfmltl ill Ih(' (~I/f'f" ' " a lIIap f'Xf'f'riy.u our W") or lire is ~upt:. 19IlM!.'" rJ ~HTHT'tAp.. ca n en ha ncc our own p:uri.0 maintain a !:lenS«! of solid. rior.. 'flit' conflict approach to suei..chers belic\'C IImt you should look .J."'lilI J. 1Y0rl d /Ww.iona lisl$ nOl e Illa t cl h noce nlrism scn 'cs 1. l« pomt of ruhure and \.. 199 1:C8)..1I.c .2 Mentol Mop. /Jmpk's /Vpllbllf of C.. .../IWIJI 0 1/S '" (J .. are brine rriticized by adults... nOtes Steplmn. ~...n'RI."1I11III of t'thnocem rism...m. Denigrating olher nalions .lIld cuhure .

For example.n practice.he particular Call' tex t<. W is the "rig ht " answc r: Wh a t is "pro pe r" st:xu. Hm. In 1989. deca' dent. and f(Jrbidden ill 41 though sexual n OI'IIl:. SUU. C. or are people unduly charmed by the hUT goods from exotic places? Such fascination BI'iti.s beforc ma rriage.. and mo narch y are exam in ed with in t. ncse e lectronic devices arc supe rior la ourowo.ed . arc sup(. Similarly.J the bcliefthat. While CUhltr. approved of in 4S.. the a ppl ica tion of c ultural relativism C(lJ1 raise de lica te qucNtio ns. people in the Un' Su-lIes oft en assllme that French fashi ons or. and \-..l" study o f 158 socie ties revC'lled tha t pl'c mal illll W" l~ fu lly approvcd o f in 65 societies. XellQcelltr. a Chinese immig rant man was convicted in a New York co ur! o f h lu d geoll in g his wife la death with a hammer. the judge declared thal tJu' de rendant ~ t (M) k . Consu in dC\'doping nalion .~ frequently turn their on locall)' produced goods and instead puTtI items im po n cd fro m EltTopc or North America. Oregon). Some co nies h<lve responded by creating produru I SQIH Id European like Haagen-Dazs ice cream (11 in T l"aneck.unc househo ld with d ogs <l nd cats. he n Lhejudge ruled lhat r ultural conside ratio ns waITantc:-d lenie nt}'.Ire fo und.. Anyone who comes to th is count!) m be pre pare d la live by and o bey the 1a\\'S of coun ur" ( Rosario a nd Marca no.lffl ·. it dops require a setioLls a nd unbiased effon to c \Paluate norms.~ Un like (. All these peop le: may feel comfortt:d by me mbershi p in c ultures thalo in the ir vicw. o rit)' Oil 1wdm((lIufillg o Lhe r cuhures. condi1 iut . New J ersey) or Nik(! shoes (produ in l\ca\'cnon.sh c hina o r Dauish glassware Gill be dam to competi tors in the Uni tcd Stales. I. 11 places a pri. ~tylc s.{I. . :m d the judge revealed that he had bet! tl innucll ced by the tcstimony of an cxpen on Chinese c ulture that husbands in China ofte n exact severe pun ishment o n thei r wives in su ch situations.'as sente nced o nly to five years' probation..ran ge~ Ot' "(>4XOt.u.u n. and cus· toms in light of the dislinc ti \'l' c ulture Qf which they ilrc a part . Wilson (:1 al.. Cuhm'al rclati\~ sm stresses that diffe re nt social I:ontexts givc risc to difTere lll nOl'ms a nd values.'\sin view the Uni ted St.lC1 xc nocen trism ill the dcveloping world. of the c u ltu res in which th e).'eve r. In postlrial h earin gs.11 Chin ese clI llllr'C \\~lh him to lhe Unit ed Sl<ltt.of cun'eel be havi o t" cultural relativism views people's beha\~or from 1J1c perspective of their own culnwc. 0 1' ideas of society are inferior to 1J1osc Ihat originate cl\e\\ (W .ioo~ li cu l! 10 unde rsta nd.." and Illo re . and d oomed to dcsU'uction. might ncven he1ess lind our pu discouragemen t o f pre marital sexual r'cl at. An CX h .-rior 1 . re fe rred IQ as -"l'mICi'II/n. nI)l f that depends on the cllhural background of tht fentlant.thnocc tlllism.obse rver as a standa rd .'ilh an assllmption tha l . of cOu rSe. tu/' may be pcrpl' by the 65 societjc-s which full)' approve of ~udt havior o r by the . Many Is lamic fund am e n talists in the Arab wodd a nd . in eJl is (0111111)' a re changt ma n)' cullllre:. Whi lc Cl11110CCII LriSlll evaluates foreign CUltll fes tlsing the lam iliar culturc .iC. lhat Max Webe r saw as SO imporlant (see Chapter 2) . m ild l)' disapproved of ill Ii f eludi ng the United States). People from India may be repelled by o ur pF. it de pc uds 011 no rllls and va l u e~ Iha t each individual or (ull accept. IJF/' .'0 1'1(\ a re read ily apparct1l in standards reg-..es as corrupt.AJrican c ullures arc sUI'prised a l the disrespect tha t c::hitdrc n in the United Sta tes show their pal'e nt~. bu llfighting.' there fQre was not fully responsible for his I'illl conduct. .lctice o f living in the s.~ as valid (Ml lrdock. The varia lions in c ultll ra l norms a ro lLnd .0 Cultural Relativism It is nOt necessa ry to view all cultura l variations I'.lhe products. the man was aequined o r llle most serio us cha rges against him .. 82 I'.uu' sexual n :latioll. 1 ~ 11 9: Richal'ds. morc "civili7.).. Prac ti ces such as polygam y.tl duct: In tlti!> CHse a nd o thers. .'Il :ulvism .H-!(.onfliCI theoristS are likely to be troubled by the econom ic irnp. 1972: T h e re is an intercsting exte nsion o f culwr. values. 1976). r~llher tha n dism issing tlt c m as "st. In res po nse to this ruling. In a sense. '.onc's own c ul ture is more humane. The deceased woman had confessed to having had a n ex tramarital a.t(I\"lnced tha n othe rs..1'0 • Qff(~ .1'1 societie" which forbid h. il is lll't\e lhnocenmsm .of the .\'It.11 relativism does not suggest that wc mWH unq ucstionably acc(~ pt every form ofbcha\~or characteristic of a culture. . Brookl)'1 trict atto rney Elizabe th Ho lt zman < Illgrily i n ~i MThc«: should be one stmldard Of j uslicc. they.fiair.. cul tu ral relativism e mploys th e kind of valuc n eutrality in scientific stud)..ours. 1989:2).

and Iht' powerful..oriclyare in hannonywith eac h o ther.Artordi"g 10 IIf! r. there are strong CC Ilu~l ~'3lucsand common nonns. \t t... nOled in Chaptc r 1.tn( popular in sociolOb.'S tha l he lp 10 mainta in powerful social.Q!'9.ul/lt ..iUl functionalisLS that a commo n c ulture lIIay c xisl..o maintain th e privileges of somc g ro ups while keeping o the rs in a subsclv ic nl position . members. bUI they argue that it serves t. since it cmbracL"S all lc-oIm(d and shared bchavio r. or why womcn can be expected to e arn less than m e n (the United States and elsc~"hcrc) .c Icame d in Cha l>d tcr J. \!milMh .n lhe IlVl"lns and ~:.:c pl "'as firslllscd by J-Iullj:.)..To\\'cd frorn n'itish arllJ1rQpulOf.ll smbllin rtquires a consensus a nd the Sllpport of 5oci1'1'\'.c r privileges than C... This view of culture hl'cJ. jllt/lldillg m(l/l1 rll{llIftl wh~ Islmn IS lilt do".. consequently.. h"\~lIg been oo. This com.. As .. FI'OIll a fun ctio nalist perspective..lblc lO the clitcs . (k. Wt! h ave \trothat func tion:tlislS c mpha~ i 'l. why the separat. a society's cuilure may scek lO explain why PrOlestan LS e. Fun ctionalists main lain th.ons.. ptrpetuated arc those f:wol'..tt' divisions between groups a nd societieS..."lnl differences in the ......e economic developmcnt of 1lIacks is hehind that o f Whites (South Africa). bUI fo .m!.c the rolc of lan!tll...ihtt'. A c lllLUrc.y'.....ukacs ( 1923) a nd Italian Mal'Xisl 83 . easons~ (justifications) for unequal social arrange me n ts.lI.... A. Kolrl Ma rx ide ntified V'.. econom ic. may o fTc r ~ .~oy g rc...rarian Mal'X ist Ceorg l.. beginning in the 19*....' dl/ft'rent rea.. TIle te rm dorniTlaTlt ideology is uscd lO describe a SCt of cuitunll beliers . a CI IIIllI'allrail or pract ice will persist if it pcrfo l'lllS fun ctio ns that society secms to necd or contributes 10 overall social tabilil)' a nd consensus.nificant concept.. flUlctionali slS stress that cultural integration ren('ClS agreement among nlt~ mbcrs o f a socit'I): conflict theorists COllnte r th .<.. Ne\'crthclcss.tlucs in the culHIre o f c<tpitalist socie ties that justified lhe cxploitation of UlC working class. the refore.Il.ulOlics (Northern Ireland )....'lW cultural trai ts as all working to"rMd n"bilizing a culture....xJrtJUiIITIf' study of 158 S(I(Id il'....'a)'S in which funetllll\Jh~t and can nict theorist" view culture...eJigioll.f.~nlfll ~ is forbiddc! jll 44.."l~I. ".. ft'"dil) apparent...th sociological perspec tives agree tha t culture Jfllj. and political imcrcslS. Today.. sociologists rcg:ud culture as hlghl)' ~i~.... Connict theorisLS concur ... the func ljo nalisl view of cuhure can bc llsed 10 explain why . I l...... there ~If UUj>llrt.ielely condemne d social practices s uch as prostitution conti nuc 10 survive.RE AND THE 11' 11f1).md prac ticc.ll!:t' in unifying me mbers of a SOCiCl)' while conHII\ throrists fOCWl on the uSt: of language L pcrO JII'!u.'1m who s.

Func tionalist a nd conflict t h coris L~ ag ree.es (Abercl'OllIbie el ilL 1980. Ne\'enhclest therc are cul tura l practices in o ur rodery a nd aliiers tha t benefil some to the dClrime nl of mOlm-.fH.leidoscopt he o r she sees what a p pea r to be an infi nite variet\" o f colo r fu l images./dlutual rOl'cc (BOlwl1lorc.I. a ca pitalist so ciety has a do minan t ideology . th e n ... • How migh t fu nc tiona list a nd conflict theorists view the controversy ovcr m ulticult llralism ? LIC c ulture of the United Slates can be COlIIpa rcd to <1 kaleidoscope-the rumi tiar optica l device whose colors and pau. 1990: 1'\'1. th ey control thc m eans of producing beliefs aboll t reality th rough rel igion . th is d o mi na n t ideology wilt help 10 con tro l \\'omcn a nd keep th e m in a subo rdi na te positio n (Abe rc ro mbic c t a l..W . I. Ye t the re is no W"d' uj den)'ing that ce rtain expressions of values halt grea ter influ e nce than o th ers even ill so complt'l a society as the Uni ted Sta l. and the changing vi... As l~ vie \\'cl' LUrn s a set o f m irrors in t. ed uca tio n .. hich serves the imcrests of the r uling class. that va li atioTl exists within a cullllre. if a ll of a socie ly's most imporL Ilt in'1 stilLltions Icll wome n that they sho uld be subsClVielll to me n ... Ma rx a nd Engels wrOtC in 1845: Thc ideas or the ruli ng class a rc in cve')' age the ruliug ideas: i.. and d L~ability status. Robertson.~i\'e l y III he ex pla in a ll as peCL~ of a cultu re. a nd the media..' S3m(' lime ils dominanl i. In K. especially wilh moo: than o ne mill io n legal im mi gr. the challe nge to d Oll1i llAllI social norm..d Marx's view.be United Sta tes is ha rd ly sla t. the fcm in isl movem e nt. Similar ly.ulTl c llling tbese c hanges and au~ Iyzi ng tlleir socia l signi fi cance. co n nin theorists suggest Ihat variation oft en refl ects th e inequali ty of socia l wi thin a society. 1988. ag.~ by AfriGII1 Am er~can activists.m L~ per year and l substantia l numbe r of illeg:11 im migrants COlI' I. The re is litt le do ubt tha t the ra cial a nd ethnit. 1988).. tha t ne ilher the rll nctio nalist nOl L conflict perspcctive can be used excl ll.J values.erns are formed by pieces o f colorcd glass refl ectcd from min ·ors.Antonio Gramsci ( 1929).53)_ Wc see. .ewsol youn g people (refe r back 10 Fig ure ~ I ) all are dtd in sup port of this viewpoint.~ ~ c h:lllbring sig niliGllltly. A g rowin g n um be r of social scientists belien: . For example.I\iII a ~corc c ul ture~ can not be easily ide ntified il1 ilK nited Sta tes. t11e entet' 84 1\\11'1' '/1\"() • OIlC ..ributing 10 c ultu ral diversity (&haefcr . ~()CJiII.. Soc i ol ogi sL~ have oft en be(tT involved in d o(. gende r.he ka.he United SlaleS unt il [he:: ea rly 1970s. the divC/'\i(l of o ur many subCl lllUres. In 1990. lIla keup of the nation's schools a nd collt'gt. 19R3:43 1). lilt custom of tossing rice at a bride a nd groom carl hI' traced back la the wish l O have c hildren a nd to tilt view of ri ce as a symbol of fe rtili ty. the diITusion of cul wral traits... Wuthnow a nd Wilteo.. and the disability rig hts 1I10VCm etll can be seen as a refl ection of inequali ty based 1111 r'a ce. lhe social sig nificance of the domina nt ideo logy is dml a society's most powerful g rou ps and insti tlllio ns not only contro l wea lth and property: even more importa lll. bu{ it d id not gai n a n all(lienee in t. 1980. the class .. Fo r example.·hidl is the dom inan t material r{)I·. Fu nctio na lists view subcultu res a. Ho\\'('ve r. Conscq ucntl)\ frim a co nf1ic t perspective.. T hey may indeed p romo te social stabiliry and consellsus-but a t whose expense? arra ll ge m enL~ SOCIAL POLICY AND CULTU RE MU LTICULTURAUSM • How have c hanges in the population of the United St<Hes anected the debate over sc hool a nd un iversity c urricula? • Wha t d o scho la rs mean whe n the}' refer to the "ca n o n ~? \-Vh at ro le shou ld the can on play in the edllcatio n o f ullderb d uatc stucients? ."NII. The lack of consensus 0 11 nation. From :t conOic t pcrspcCLi\'c. of sOCicl}' is at Ih <.~ variatio ns of pa nicula r social e nviro nme nts a nd as evidence tha t d ifferences can exist within a comm on cultu re. rather than I~ the powedessncss of the proletari at.. 1988:52. the cult ure of .lin for d ilfcrelll reasons..e. 1992).ic.. Arche r. 1990: R..

'CraJ ''aluable bill dininc! racial and ethnic groups..itMCtmus.. AI Slilll' ford l'ltIwl1i'Y.. including famolls . By CQnIrast.. According to proj(.:t)'. there has been incrc:l. \mc-riaul backgrounds. 1993b: Stimpson...1I Ih""!d be lI\td in school and college c!a.'Ction~.:cnt ••md 7 percenl Arric<U1 Amcrican. and consensus by he-tl)ing to define lhc comll1on .lllKC'pitl)Ul." connicl thcorislS might vie ...ilr OH'r the proper curriculum 1l1:lIerials th. 11 is ~ Ih(lt bJ IIv ytor 20' 0. l and ethnic profile of student popuI-.ms treating society as the home of sc..d(l" pofm/mlorlJ of IIv Utlili..'s Ihc hllt:. 30 pcrccnt or Asilln nenl. Asi.lphy and to providc :1 culturnl heril:lgc Ih'H all of us share.. and geog..'Inguage .1 alld eth[Ill: I. howc... ern ca non as cc nll~11 1 <l dominant ideology that 0 sCO't.\ssocialion..ltion trcnds. 1992:52). N:lli\'c \ul<'OC..lues oflhe Uni loo S(.~ 10 introduce or protCSI mlllticul· 85 O IAI'n'........~ changcd.\Srooms.ltiOlls Oflhc Unit(.. or ~'l exiC' n . social solidarity.. M c"~ l1c. hlll~l1('r .. racc.ing dt.li/lllion.. h)' \lUkC\jlC.·orld . lhc .tu 01'" Latin American ctn. lr.. a former president or the Modern L. the mO"C lnent in SllPP0 1'I of l1Iulticultt. and llniw:= rsilies regarding clTo l·t. and lIon ..Thnr u III. INd«d.lle :l1l1hors rrom United Statcs or Eunr plAn b.. tion ·s 1>OI)lIl:tlion (BUI'eau . marc than '10 pcrcCIll of clHcli ng UIWklRlollltldtes . 1IlIIu1P! S Mltools IIml lol~ is rnlJPIgi"K jIKlllfillJ"'i].mlllU ha. lIuJlllNll.. 11I1!M'h"aT 2050 lhe combi ncd Black. other r:.lid to speak across barriers or gender.-d St.. 111CSC "grcat books.d SIIIIf.. and ~Il pt)pul. race.d. Intense dcb.lt~ lr~ not t.. advocates of multicu/lu J'o/is m m..'cSts or society's mosl powerful groups and institut ions..tcial and ethnic minoritit:s. Hawthol1lc.u.. From a conn ict l>Crspcc· live. illlt lil\l. Viewed rrom a fUIlClionalist PC~ I)Cc th·e..ue from Arrican Americall. suggests that multiclIlturalisnl .t th~1 K:hool and college curricula should be revised to givc grc:t tc.ltcs will account Kw 11 pt'reclu of the n .IJI.'CSlCI'll culture promoles stabil· ity.nilltHtolli~IS belicve lhat it is csselllia llo rocus 0 11 ..ItC$. women.tl('\' "''at 3'1 percent White. By contrast.5 rmlllJuCltiNI jrw 47 pncf'rll of 11" IlflliQlI J popull/llDtI...'S.·cst· ern peoplcs.m or Asian Amcrican.cw. idcnl al :111 schools a nd co1kgC5 .II' class at lhc Unh'c rsity o r Ca lirl)rnill at Ikrt.most often . I-Ic llling.l(lgrounris. :lI1d clhnicilY.rcen t or Mexico.('. In...· cmphasis to the contribu· tions and ex periences of Africall Amelicans. the traditional canon of .. hJI I~ ntlC1 1 c lllcd ti le C1I1I0l/ of t he hest books of Ilro. h.. 2'1 I>t'. thcy have long argued agaillsl any type or clhnOC:CllIric . Il ispanic. me. XII'" lhe country.·ork.J.ne has eOlptoo across the United Statcs in school systcms.. Cat lml'ine Slimp$Oll ( 1992:43-·14 ).arc s.II t'. dQtlbi lhal In.. and others. IM {OlflbilU'tl BI(llj..lmlism I'CI)rCSCllts ~I c haJlc ngc to l ong~Ul nding inequilies based on gcnder.While sociologists hMe not uniromlly cndorsed lIlulticululrnlism . collegt...... While these ". \~ tht rad .elltcr. and A. lhey nevertheless rc fl t.l('m cjl.. u'o llblcd by lhc brl that thi5 canon overwhelmingly consists or "hUt.'Ct lo ngt. ' . mClIII {HId rlnmc rrwlvtlP of In.11 J • cun'RI' . religion.

ofprivilegt'd White f:u ropc-.s. De re nrlers or the pro posal a rgued mal Sludent.. The new lIlulLicultural requirclllcnl wa. a long battle re.. cc nu'icit)' would place the African and American cxperiences . 1993:26) . . :t n':(luired one-rear course 011 WCS t t'nl culture for incoming students focused on the tradllional wCSlem canon.. lhe canon rna~tcll)ieces. of gender.u'ling (th ro ugh required rt:adings) abOllt cultural divcrsity.tur:. At the Unh crsity of Tex:t5 in AU<....~ Critics of the (". eac h stlld e nt IUUSt salisf).tn scho lars. 1IIInter Collegc-a p:U't of till' City Uni· .~ adopted by the I hmte r College Sena te :aner two ). 1992).."'1<11«. gani"'<llio n has 2500 members. o ne of the nation 's IIlOSI gUilihed Arrican AmeriC'. of gender and ~x 1l 3 1 o rie nta tion ..s wilhin the Unitcfl St:lles.<lOrs a nd many or them political Like otJlcr critics of muhiculturalism. and cla. When cl. Will .$.:a ~p lu­ l'alism and dh'crsity rCflllire llle n C by complcting a lhree-cred il co u ~ in e. he taught ill sc hools and the United S tatc~ bccausc Ihis lI-:tdilion shaped the dcvelopmcnt o r Oll r c ullure.. 1 992:R8." This e xaminatio n of the state's histOlY .omcn's studies and issuc.7.'i :u gucd that lIo n-Europe:1II works should be added to th l' reading list and that suI).'mlted..1 rel)Orl emiLled "A Curric ulum or Inclusio n.l""'" or study. and Nalive America ns b. some critia of traditional curricula have gone beyond a broad mul- tk ullural focus t. Smith. discH\Sion. Founded in 1987. tJlt less. biucrly allacke(1.lin . Wdling about Dincrcnce. hed tage in . most of them fes. and the in tc llect llaltraditions of Europe. I94-.u\lial attclllion should be given to i~ucs of gender.. Sociologist Tro)' Duster (1991:82) suggesu M 86 .l1>5ic western I tradi tion must.e a bac helo r 's dcgn'l'. 1992a:265-266). To recei . the ~rel l1rn of 'the' canon.'orks by Pla to. 'c\'> York Statc has heel! ont< of the ce nt".s would sharpen their writing s\tills while le. a laSk force apl)Ointcd by the stale commissioner of education released" cOlltrOvcNir..'c the ~\lbjllg-.tcial :11111 e thnic mino rilje.108.pal)(:r!l (Ill Cillnpuses) imiSI Ihat tJ1C d. n. and debate ( M.~: lecuml inquiry a nd acadcmic freedom ing ~politically COI'l'ect curriCU\. a nd working people.o ad\'OC3IC A/roce Pltrici". Sc:t rle.1 ballJegrou nds concerning lllulticulturalisl1l. "... At Sm nford University.'<Le.. !hr ( 1992) arguC$ th..'Tllan... od social 'itudies cuniculum insiut-od that ~Mric<IIl-AlIl e l. (1992: 197).tditional canon eluding conscrvativc studcnl new:. YI)rk and elsewhere. r:.cd the culture and institutions of tht. T hose opposed to the l)roposal derided it as ~Opp res.'iS. hOol levels. the invisible . Defendel"l of mul!icultur'lli<l1l\ counter I). to dersmnd hllnmn bchaviors past a nd presc"nt.:~:::l~:..m clIlIlII·C$.I. Puerto Rica ns/ L:.t led ..lc h o r fou r designa ted :trcas: non·Euro pc. 1992: 106. S hakespeare. An impon4\lI t \'Oice opposi llg and Afrocentricity has been the National lion of Schola l'5 (NAS) . R. r:ICC. In 1989. $earle.t tr:tditional Cl llon reflects the interests and spC<:ti\'c:.1 preemi ncnt position represenl$ ample of ethnocentrism alld nlcistll.... J r.md illlcll«twJ al tory (Rothe nbcrg. 1 ~'3). In their a genuinely lIIulliculLUral lIpproach to \\'iI\ help 10 e mpower remale and non-White de llls while broadening o ur appreciation \If manity's multiface led cult\ll" .~io l1 English~ and insisted that it bro ug ht a loaded political agenda into thc classroom (Ro tJl cn bcrg. t the hean of cuhural (Asanle. I 9lJ2) . I lclII). term refen.: Uni ted Stales and tJ IC European \\'orld Ii)l' ce nlllrie<l~ ( R:l\'itch . 01· ethni city (Kimball . 1002) . 0 than solely tJu!' European cxperience.tt r.11 culTicula.ersity of New York-adop ted a dctailed and fa r· reac hing muilic uilu l-:II c urriculum . ".tdic tls art: ll.anon tha t placing the w(. cSllCdally as it pertai ns 10 issues of race and gender. ..:. c:lII. Nt· .m largely igllorin~ the cOlllributions o f calor. rnce.)2a..lliIlO$. Me mbers a nd othcr defenders of the ll'... . st. 1992:29 1: Smoler. At tJle c le mentary :Uld M'condar).tic... 1 the lIse or Africa n cuhures. M.we all been the viclims o f an illlelleclUal :lIld eclucational oppression that has c h:II':tClc l.'Stern c uhural a nd . a proposal for a requircd wrid ng course. . Asian-Amcric:ms. In Ne". In 1993. represents the ret urn of a n wh ich my people \\'e .. and o thers are or such high intelleclllal and artistic quahl\ the) wi ll have mcaning for all stut!ell l.

lilh . fll"Ifulltne people ~ thclr own culture as supt'no. 10 bCller unde r~"lI1d huntan bt'h:I\~or~ pa~1 :lIId prC~C lIl. emntflq. "OClologu:al :lnalr~i!i 10 Ollt' 5uocultun: wllh . whercas m:tllenlO regarded :1. tlw-¥ ~ cb.atKnlJ rrOIll whOll Select IhreC' ( 1I1t\l!'.l1ed CUltll rc. (f09) Ajroc.tbt' wnt(M'e.\ Ic!!.". 1101 1..1 un i\'e l-:"'lls liolll Gl..I I~ (.cial 0111(1 t:thuic minorities. \'aluo. olIICl \l"~ all olher cllhllrl~ as dc\. Ii In a "..'T1\S? KEVTERMS -nIl..me! .. \'ilriOlIS elcmcnts or cui· Iwt "'Ill 'UPI)()n onC' allol11el' :lIld III togcthe l' well _ t (~m(." . _I"" J !:M"'I'*'glsU di!til1KlUsh OCI..inQllt ideology i~ lh.Hlt o\'er who gelS lO dcfinc the idea or AmerIU. the social sigmliclllce of the cou cept of Ihe do". .s:UllC lime cngaging In IIn"l"C :md distincthc ronl11 of hcha\'ior...lIlcli.. and ~nturej :111(1 other fonll~ of uon- ItTbd wt'nnIUJli("oIlion.) mbl'. rcligiHll • ...br.' . 13 Ad\flClllt~ or mullicu/tl/rQlis". whilc :11 Ihe . cOlllpill-d a lisl or II"N'r.11 curricub of sch()ol~ :md ('ollege's ill the CUlled SI.UlHc· or ·exotic.0' ur jnjo""'(l/nonm _oru or jol"w(I. or Ihe United St.t.1I a !IOC:iet) '~ most pOl'. ". aboul reality through religion. dmpter c)(:lInin e~ Ihe lxlSic elcmcnts I'.." ILW nr Arrican culturcs. I \l1Ihml)<)logist Grol'Hc Mmdod. "PI>I).nlbols. I. Wh)' "rc tht. n. !ootJ(H'11d req" ideml which lIt.:mbCl'll or " group or !luhc ulLure..ricity I. Kif~l Robin Willialll~ hou ulfe1'l'd:.and beliefs.a ruiturc.'<"m lOO rordgu .. equaJi ly. mcm hel's nf :1 . idem in Ihc nalion's li ll... ."SW IllUJI adapt? Or is Ihis a land ill which Clh- nicit}' and d ifTerC'nce arc:1II . h.ilh a common-oral leillit d.IIfllher.'hich aW.... tllUl'V or xiellcc and rraron O\'CI f.. I':C'IU(:llioll."1IMt\...I"ollly.t IIp. :mrt .mOllt chcrishc-d v(l ll4n ur a cultun" w111 n .. .llnil).'cl'ful groupl~ .(.· I}llurr asks! ""'''"'~nti. omcn. a..lIxeplt. I 111\ were nOl for the. "t:11 "OP"'"III IWO w:ws. 1..richllt. • 87 (J1." . would h:l\'e 10 1 'c1I11't:1I1 Lt'lt'\'i!oiulI.t1l1 idoolob'Y of Ihe Uniled SC...-cd\'e dIr ht"\lt51 .sncillllrnn~llli!i3'ioll 01 culturc.Ih" 11 the IOtality of learned.l"l..ui(lllalill1l. 1110\11. social p~c lict.·11 tJCh~lIr'nllion 1I Culturcrl rel(ltivi. t)~n bc Ih(' I\.. (p.) rr1ilrictions..rgue dlat the t!'.U "'Ill carry light and illfur lllallO.1'W'Xu.li.o ndilm. 1111fWTll.. and Ihl': .00d III l'. (78) Bilingualism The ll'IC of twO or more lanl-Cll4Iges in wQrkplac<'5 0 1 e ducation:11 fanliut. a 1....Ul:ltpC 1111'111 fnml :l fllllCliol1dlist perspecun'. ..12 From a [t)unkl l X'r~ l}Ccti\'e.. Ihi.0 flltf\MII the whcel..uld "fl1i- IIUritit. argOt.lge 86) Argot SIK'ci:din-d lanf"ru:Igc \bed b) lIu. alld ~U1('tions c\idenl in Ihat 5ui>culturt" • 3 111 .'urgc \IurdClCk's list . including (UIoIfbInp. -and YJriatioll~ which rliuing\luh onc cullurc &om ...11Ich )'()LI arc ramiliar.:emCIII aOOm b.I1l'S should be l'e\'i~t'( l to includc mO l'. !IIUSIC... includillg achit:\('lu<! nl .dlya n.IIIKu:IKc..... :md Ih(" lIIedt. mlwr ".rsy over 11lulticuJturali. c? 1 Ilrnl'.tI1ding o dwr cultures mtJu:r than ciismilllinF: them 'L~ ·str. maltnal comfort..uinl1l'.' work.'cIHntc-gr.tsic values 10 guide public and social policy? l'!t\IARV t:. ca n~ .lCC') priorit}' 011 \lnticBI. 7 "w. I~uhcl' Ihall solely the l-: umpe. 3'u cilliJv II~m!lliucd be-ba-..)nns.. mcdicine.tdiliol1..md imuwUons cOlllml Ihe mC. and ~po rtinK C\1.IIl' of producing bellcr."SS of our diffcrcncc~ a nd simultaneousl) 11) 10 lorge agn.uo in Ihr d'1InlnaUl cuilure... 1i~1 ur basic .nmUlJnI-cu!lurc 10 which immigrdna . • l1It. b)' :md aUc)llt Aftic.hr I'. pl.bCl/lIl/ re IKII'ticip:."S which :lre CUll1l1l011 to III cultures.u"JoJl J ' C/ ILJ"'Hf ..li practices found in l'\'Cl1' whu1"C.ms."!Ie pl~l c lin'~ found in CH'TV culHlre? Whal rUnclions d o Ihcy )C .'hole.(! wdl ao !hllllt' "'hich are pel-cc1\1X1 lb Ihrealt' ning lu their " .m t\me'.1tt'..ay~ is the 1I01l1ll1.rruJI.'5.I1.. .. g-dmes. tl'lc\'isioll PfORral1ls...Wfied al c1ther 10.-d pan ofl. wriueu e h:""clt'l"1.u ll')(lx'riC I1Ct'. • lA1If'l1J8( include~ 'pl'c<h.'mg on Lite: theo.' r""'re." dnd cnncept! prl'M!ntcd III lhe cha pter..'luch wc affirm Ihr.sm is actually a ".'S and thc trealment ' or cadl l:lngu.tge as C(1"all~ lcgilimalc.

GCfJl'j.illlcl)' :lI u holog}' (':r<piores mlllly .'eSlcrn peoples.. (67) Mor..m " .. /.. and hacked by the l)Ower of lilt' SI. {h:sirahll'. and nOnl. (liil No r"" E.'1 m\llli cu l wntll~m aucl IIId lld~ N'kro r io n ~ by I lcn ry Loll is G'I[ l·~..Of maintllrwD by if. GloboJ Cult"... (76) Cullurol rdoliuis m 1111. r. !inN .ds (or cOlltlll~1 conr~ ing a scei:11 lI unll..s) Sor. J r .ondon: Sage.Ssocicl:llnorInJ :Uld seeks an a ltc rnalh'c lifcstylc. Va lu er Collecli\'.ml1111I11ml In J\JIIlf'I("~ ' ....G.oU General pr. (71) Son cliolls Pe nalties :lIId fewOt.ss cuhural practices difTert'lu from their OWII..tllJtrf1Lwt] Dlitt" I. Pilll1 (1.lIt· 0\'1.3. M& Un""11l H). (78) Culturol i n/ef"ol io n TIle bringlllg togcther of conflicting cultural C'lenlents. \'Iomell. ill1d '1\'3)'5 of 1l$lng I1l. lntlll <lnthology. (61) Culture 111(" to la lit}' of lcaructl.~pcct. arc rcl. (72) In/o.~.). 1990. llIdl invnh'l' s.:onrcptiom of .can.. (H2) 11\" ADDITIONAL READI NGS Abcrcrombie.l1l Il Turner (t'ds.sm T he lcndt·nq 10 as~u m c Ih:11 OIlC'S n tlIU rc a nd WIly of life are ~l1pe rillr to otlwn. Iknnan.ll .. . (HO) Ful ltw ays Nnnn.. (6~) Dominonl id llo /&gJ A SCI 0 1 clll u m.s. (8:\) ElhIl OC f'n/ r. and Slt'vclI M. r('sulting in a hal'lllonious ami cohesh'e whole.lIre.mc lenilory. A h\l)Qlhesi~ conc~nli nfit la I" mic of lallglmgC' III ~h.md ~~'(5 It) in/lll. (n.1 Q. C.. :md \'a luC. Hlunicalion.. "puJo'._ o u r mode of Ihought.·iolls!y exist.. rary p hili)l\(.m" ..'Ci:wl)' n. TIle feclill~ of ~urprise and diwric n t3Lion th"t ~ experienced when people wilI1e...&t LIlt guage is cllllurall).\sP«It lh e d eb. It a lliO I1lcludc~ gesIlI re~ and Olher nonve rhat l·o llllllUnicalion. .Iikt· (cd.1 . Catha Slirnpson .Imbndgt'.. (7'1) Material cultur~ The ph}'sicJI 0" tech nological .: NfII .. 1985. (68) Lll w In a political sellSC.A ~ubcuhu re 111<11 rc::jcct./Imf Co'T(t"I"f'jJ (jll ('.tctices found in l.llll im proper-i n a culture . which sharti a . Stylt'\.)1' a 5ocit'IY (72) M.1lcrial OI~l'CU.t. St ('ph~' n Il ill. (80) Diffusion T he process by whidl a cul tu r.O\'erning c'\'I'I)day social Iw h.s.. FelnheDLOIlc.. I. IHha{I"R I'. Nn rrllS dcc merJ h igh ly neCC!I. (74 ) . and polil ical irllereSIS.del "Ilcs fUl' pun bhnlcn l of viola lOTS.: Till C.lOings :lIld ')'lI1 bol ~ for a ll aspt'cl. 5O(ia ll y UllllJooI1lIH('d beha\'ior.tJl no. 11 hold. illS! Sllb cll ltu f'fi' A li4:gment of socicl).d item is ~prcad from gmup 10 g roup (lr rociCly 1 wcielY.. GllI6ahUllw". .. th. o lher ~cial and e lhnic ll1inoriti('s.lf(l~ of bcha\. This t. (64) /" vlm ti on TIle combi nation of cxisli ng ru ltu ml itcm.. Roht·rt N .1J 4Iflr Iltfll1: ImlwlfIU(j/i.uh'dy indcpendelll of pC'IlJ*' oUl5ide h.. sociel)'..lIiforuia Pn:M.ul.~Ulhli~hcd sllil1d.c of an a~lx'ct of rea lilY.bOlly of" I h:~ Inadc by gO\·Cl'Ilment for MKi('IY.ll1crn of morC!l. social Kiell1isu Imm man)' nation! 411 ..md MorVnu/V. and panicipale ill J common CIlItU!'.) .1 be l ief~ a nd pm('tires tha! h t' lp 10 mai n l<l in powe rful M)(i. (66) 0 Discovery TIlt' p rocess ofmakillg kl10wn or8hari n g the ('xblcl\(. hal i8 COIl'I(\rrr( g()()(1.ui7. Moldl As:t mc.. pallern! of cc. tincti'ic p.) J)O/I/'lIfml Id~t':J.'Col'd(~d. bdlcf~.. thr. I) i l w~h 1) '50111.uly 1)I.lph)' of !.m Thl" belief IIUlI the p rodurl.he peoplc of the Unlled SWtt . ).. (72) In novolio" T he p roce~ of Inlrodunlli! IJew elements lOin 11 cuhure thro ugh d iscO\'('I)' 01 illvt' min n.. '~I·on(l mic.('~ compamlh'1!lv lilllc' rUl\ccm ..1I1 icuUurll/ism r ile dTo rt 10 I'Clolsr school and college curricula 10 Kll'C gre.lIlan.\.w:oplc \<o'ho li\~ Q.. ill10 i& foml Ihal did nOI prt. such as custom.uel cmpha~iJ 10 lhc comrii)utions and expc. l1plOlI.'(1. idl'as of OIU"S 1I0dCI)' :Irc inferior lU l110se l hou N1!II' mile c1scwllcn·. In 'iuK Il owe. (73) Sapir. land values wh-t d iffers from the pallern 0 1 1111' largcr society. 1~{l wanl Said.S o f ollr dai ly li\'(. the ~:r<l~O\ 10 whkh wc aa' wl1ne~ing a glob:llit:\lllll of CIIIIIU'('."S conditions. a nd 1) i:1JI~ Ib\'iu:h.)1I1111l1. undc~irnhk...te Will .lpillg I:uhurcs.:ric lICt'lI of Afrk'lIl Aml'l. folk'l\~"')s.l Hr flltJ • OHC"w/7JW: S (XIM. !'IlIlIh~UI ..'~ n writIt'll down . lkrkclly. :1\1(1 propt'r-or h. Wh orJ " yp& "i. A criliqllt:' of Ihl' \olew thllll~ lI)llI! cuhurt:'~ cn1('l'gc a~ irlt'flIOJI1l-al 5}~lelll! ..'(enocftnlri.'kH to the wel fhre )' . interprl'lcd by thc cou ns. Bellah.o/ltgr r. ). (82) Cu" urol "niV.'J) umguoge An abstrJcl s~lem of WQrd tnc-. NidllJhlll. (f..~ of cuh..IIC.e the cqnl""".. clc' lcrminccl .i f' Iy A fairly large nu mber 01 r.s NonllS "Inch "n' gellerJUv Ill1ciel"'ilOOd bUI whICh are II0t pn. 88 l'..' \1Cwmg of people's hella\10r from the ~npct:Li\'c of tll6r OWIl culture. (72) Fo rmal norm" Nnnns whic h haw ge ncr..' c... 1990. (G. (62) Cllllll re sll od.my of C.\'ei) culture. Uni\'t~ .wior "'hose liolauon \'ai!... New Y m orl Od 199'.social scielltisL~ 'cam up 10 .• Richanl Ma(bdcn./ereu llur. 1I(Ji. .1.. renecled ill slIch '~II IICS a~ indh'ltlllalislIl and COlD" menl. (85) NonmQ'~rial cllllure Cullu rnl <I(lju~lnte n L~ 10 m:tlcrial CO /H. and ISrr. Anllt' S\o'ldI&f William ).!.

alLd Thl'Ol)" CII/IUrf.utt'I') the human body.Cllllllml lVSMrth (199·1).1ny: Smte t.. and Adormnnlf: J.h all . Tn.. """".: l'r.... UlldlnlfHltlillK tmmll).. C. 1992.~ .l rd..j/ht &11)111 C. C./fnmm.flll..l"an..... Yannomh .:n iI'tnil\ HI New York I' ress... _ ".tin and the dedine of the United SIl'tlCS· dUlIlimuu:c... ..• and Patricia Sltarpc (<-. 19911 T. A sociologist cxalllir1c~ the suo..... New York: LcxinglOll ..}.Lcc(Jmpatl)'ing ~g !()Cullllrc.sll Cll/lllrt'..d/I.. 1 ~}92.. New Bnll~id•• N:I..). Illeml" music and effons lO curtail thi$ ~ U lx:lIlt IlI'C.....)... 1mbi1l.....1c lioll .-" tll/fJ.. SfJrifJb'lrI of L(IIrgrlage ( 1974 )....ml SlInln'fll QuaM/)" (1977). .s.. NttWJ M twl: tI Cldillml Soriology. . T"'o professou o f anlhlllpulogy :u1(1 wom t:n'~ studies consid er the manflC'I' in "hieh '<lrio us cultures and subcuhtu'cs d eal with land .'o"/ . te and those who a rc c ri tical 6f b il i n ~\I ~1 1 cdUl..<I "'it h "hea.\'lrd T.mljmmml of I/'. tlll.. . l!}l1tl". flhll fl{ogy ( 1962).. 1'J'")"l on IIv Changi'lg lI'orld S....illi..... Tal..Hl..... ·dlic a pplic-d' UQh' 01 how corpor. Dcella. ll:lhimort:: )oIIM U t>pkin~ University Press. Gcnn..~~~~~~. Wallerstcin argul'$ Ihat in ligh t o f the coll. Wcinslcin .. c ul uu·c :lssl)Cialt...u!ll)C". 1990.lS on issllcs of cul ture and language are A'IItriaHl AlIlliropologiJ/ (fOllllded in 1988 ).. Crrm...1>I111..l<fo. T h is COIlt.4.. ""''bill '\«u to darif)' how Llle Amish cOllli nue 10 ~ d~rite their resismnce to tC'dlllologic-.lpsc of the h'On curr... Eng.: In tc rCllltuml l' rcss. ( 1982).....l1ioUJli operate in Frnnce.. !'c nns). Me. 1989.: Cambridge Universit)' I>re"..1ny. /HII(I/rlfn/- . r. Li(lmillg iF! TW(} Ul1Iglltlgd.. F'r.aI)' (cd...... 1991."c lio n of tMaW hrillJrltogcther the research findinWl of those nl • .l.lIItl1 ropologists review their lifelong \o\'Ork 111:11 UhUf~ll h ff('!rcnces and focus 1)11 spc.. WallCfStcin...II1'\.mpoii/lCf "rid ~dll"l'.Cambridgc. Among Ihejournals that rocl. a lIew . lInd Mildred Reed I-Iall.<!. is emerging a lo ng "'il.. ... _ . Mu/i /Ill/oll. f) rall'ing on ot>1fI'\7IIl1tlll rcst'an:h in Lancastcr County.lllure (md Tal.}/l'In .t1 u.ci..... (/lul Sarir. (.... "bull.. Imm:U\uel.'Oriel cconorn). . AIb...mi.l1tl lt '/'ht' RIl14le oj... BId Ih" l 'nih:d Statcs._. 89 r'JIAI'ICR J • ClJUl'HE.lIlris E.

. • . • .

....I)'d 'l)' 91 ..::::::::::~:::::::::::::::I ..lId: StagCl' of lhe ~ Ir Workpl:ace The Srate SOClAL I'OUCY AND SQClAUlATION: T HE NEED FOR CHI LD CARE Colfman: Prcscn tation of lhe Self I'wchological Appro..\'(..... .llilA11ion Anticipatory Sociali..riobiology AGENTS OF SOCIAUZATION Family School Peer Group M<U5 Mt:diu TIlE SW AND SaCIALlZATION ~Kioll>gical Approach~ In the Self Cooley. SOCIALIZATION 1HE ROLE OF SOCIAUZATlON t:n\ironmcm: The Impact of Isolation ntt: Innuenct: of I lcredit) St.OI': Imprcssioll Management by SludcrHlI a(II.lliz:uioll in Mexican American Families 4-1 £.....-tche! 1.....· Exam~ 4-2 t:\'crym..... . l.ooki ng-GI...y Bch. Soci........0 Ihe Self SOClAUZATION AND T HE LIFE CYCLE "yges of Soci......:nioll and Re!JOCi:tl iLOltion 80XES Ik ha\..1\'10r....L"'~ Sdf 'l('...

But he will be fo rbidden to dme onc o utside his own Amish community and man')' o nly with the consent of his deacon. may bting a d.. the).. His parell l!i learned of h is ad\. J list as domiu'Ul I cu lture of the United Stales are ized to accept use of eiecuici ty.w through during th e Iifc cycle? • HO\'I' clo the fa mily. cLions appropriate to ... the mass media."l>.(. shun sllch convenie nces as e1cc· Lricit)'.. there is no of Illusical instruments or playing of recorded.ation and cOlltempOI'3J)' technology. and .' hel'e he will meet young Amish sing songs.I acob ''I'ill attend tlle conn.lcter which shapes ues and behavior or iLS members.." PtTISin.'ho oppose all fonn s of ""~.ever.. and the state conuibllle to the socialization process? • What are lhe social implic ltions of placing young children in child care centers? • acob .. They reject Illost aspects o f modemi:r. leenlh<c nulIY ancestors..'elkm"are of the rather differem life oftlle ~ English ~ (the Amish term for Inon'.) When he is a bil ol"«.Olure.. consequently...'. more than 80 percent of children choose the Amish way of life as Give n such data. O nc summer.me! his family are part of the Amish com· mUlliLY in Lancaster County. hc will become a fu ll· timc ""'orker on his fami ly's fann . J acob is ". J acoh is in the final year of his schooling. it is likely Ihat Jacob will gl'O\ll creasing]).lle lO a singing in his f3mB)"s drnl"'1l buggy. A~ onc example. and teie. The Amis h li._" the pl'Oces. ho ... he and his frie nds hiked late at night 1.W'. the peel' group. do we cOllle to deve lop sclf·identity? • What stages of sodalization do we p. S"oI'. uncomfortable with his ~Et1glish" hors and will acccpt the Am ish view of the and evils of tlle outside world (Kephal1 and 1994:28-3 1).. eac. they arc lXu:ilisLS I.. The Amish mainrnin their own ~c hools and clo not want tlleir children socialized into many nOI'lTlS and values o f the domiuanl o l llUl'C or the United St'\tes.h culture and culture Ilas a unique char. taking breaks only for the three-ho ur reli· J gious scnrices held each morn ing.. As was seen in Chapter 3.iltion.0 a nearby town and movie. 1771 LOOKING A HEAD • \v11. like most Am ish they are confident that " ".:. lies. Uf'!!.. and enjoy refreshments. sic al these singings." whercb)' people leam lite allitud~.icular cult ure .lAJ.Children have l1wre need of models than of critics..'e in a manner quile sim ilar to their nint. ~ J aco b and other n". and intelligence if • real'cd apart? • HO\.. automobiles.""..''''kI people).~~' :~~.. radio. aUlomobill. television as M nonllal. .11 would happe n if a child was I'ca l'cd in t01<l1 isolation from other people? • Will identical rwin s show similarities in personality lIaits. behavior.. .lf under any conditions.nl. U.:3 bers of a pa n. lhe school. ( Accordi~ the norms of Ihe Amish .."~~. Indeed . Ovcr the next fcw years..:~~. the "."orkplace. As a I+)'ear-old Amish )'ollth. .' 92 ". Pennsyh'ania.."..J .IH'I' lWO • OHCANIU. JOHf>" Joo.w: . On nights."" Msi llgi n b~'" I. •• ""'ill choose to continue living in the Amish munit)'.

. For rulhpl.uion process.'tion process if we finll examine si tuations in which o ue factor operatcs almost cmirciy ". the social policy ~ction ". hea\'( 01 100 5hort dOes 1101 COIlIIlJI 1111111' idf'.. among Lhelll Ihe famil)" schools. of COUI'SC. ahom themselvcs.l\~ ~propcrly" and .. bavc 1I10ved h('yo nd Ihi ~ debate. IIfIklo. III the Uni tcd Sll.ill focll. as well as imponanl agents of socializ..ron- mental f:IClOnl intcr. • The dmpler will explo re the lifelong nalure of lhc soci:llil. This c hapter will exa min e Ihe role or sociali~.' 1I105t impOft:lnt in our li \'c~-inlllll. beSt friellcb .111111\ member.·~ leelll .1 IU .Amuh JII/mllt'!> III IJ"'III~v/lJ(lnw l't'fl PIlt)$l mprr-b v/llloon'niUl/IOtl arul (Olllnnpomry 1"lInolog)'. ctors. Today.lI\d lIlagaJ'jne~. 50dalization provides for the p:t~illg ilIl'~. on group child care for . TtulilJ. and belief..("lnnIJ..lping of people's personali ties.... .. ami lI·adlcrs.I?:~T~Q. 11 will begin by ana" ip.ltion helps us dnt'I'\'('1 hIJ" 10 beh.lljlJll occurs through human inlCmcbill \.II~luJ ~1'5pec:li\'c.·. Panicular allentioll will be givell 10 how people develop pcrceptions.\' . In 1"/UVI1..<. and the mediar Finall}. \tuh ((/IIVt'l/ln/{..ruS nur/Ifri' (or hm_ ' llily 11/'7'$115 f7lvironI/lNII) debatc. Bu. 11"'1111".\. we C'dll beuer . the ("valuatiun Cim M M .h \uh{llhurcs art' socializcd 10 accept hol'scdnYtn hw. 1979). 93 (JH /'llIll • 'tOCJAUlATI().II t<.... h.Ippl'cciatc how hcrcdital)' and ell\.I("'dm from people wc see on lhe streel.ltt..llion. leant a great deal frum UwN' I'mpl. "... In "l('ialiaHioll cxperil'nces ca n 11.~QG.hure and thcreb) for thl' long-term COIlhIlUJ1I11" 01 a \Odet}'. the terlll persrmalily i<.UtIIl Researc he rs have traditionally dashed over the rela live importance of biological inheri tance and ellvirollmenlal faclOfs in human dc\·clopmclIt. til)fl affects Ihe rn'cI. CC"YfJIII'fIIIy.. used to .'" ~I" 1..... This conllicl has hccn called thc . TI:!.. I m...tl cnhural stMldard. :. r "ft Ihr ~h.m Illnu~nce the 1)C~on '5 sclf-t.. 1110... n ec d~. ~Q!d>. bun Ami -'IIIj. twrJ' Il"n.cr.l>I .lrll-••lIld it also shapes Ollr scif-images. and r. and bchavio. """11'" "".f'. feclillgs.\''ilIIl. ~1I\Jht..'S.'Oung children .. mdonwb!ln.. IInn!" and valucs.1\(' an im· . a persun who is nt""A'tII •• \ "ilK.1· tion in human developme nt..d I\l\UUmellb as a familiar c uhural C\-'CIlI.'11 s0cial scienlisl..I~. !IO('iali7.'!" JI.md in lihm . From a nmcrosociologicai prfllX't ltH'.ltion cxpctiellce.as a sociali/..I .. acknowledging inSlcaci the ju/e11lr/io7! of these \':IdabIes in sllOlping human de\'elopmenl.krll\ltl/I ""Ir. From a 1IIIff(N..~ltr.. \h' "'ill.efrr IOJ pt'NIIi'S tvpica] pallCI1IS of a Uilmlcs...<..1I 'perch.l/lsporU\. "N.11I c ultural practice)' .'.UPt~ as 0\ COllllllon mcans of \l'..I . l-I m·:c\. If he or she is Mlllnl!' judged umttlraClive.u(~. QE .wIllri' lllT.ing the debalc cOllcellling Ihe interaction of heredity :Uld t"lwlrOllll1enla l f.ithoUL the IIther (1I omam.riIlWt without recorded IIHI"jc 01' 11111' .lct and influence the socialil..r\l.1I to nprtl hUII1 (\thcl'!i if wc follow (01' c hall(' ng(' ) \0~I\'..

.JCle. she ~orcd ...seen few people.lbc llc could not speak.lbcllc's mothcr c!!Capcd fro m her pare nts' home.......... laking her daughter with he r..M 94 PANr '... had been so deeply al).. Ohio authorities finally discovered lhe c hild in 1938 whe n 1s.. doing .. He r il1tlbility 10 a l the lime of he r disc01'cry-dcspi lc her and cogniuve potc ntial to Icarn-. By her fOllrLCemh year...el 0/'''11 infanl rdther than a 6-}'C'oU'-old. She lIlad(..tngers a nd reacted a hnos! li ke a wild ani mal when confromcd with an IlIlfamiliar person.. Nine lIIomllli later. . l.. On te.....<" ""e ..i. 194 7:4~5-437)....Environment: The lml'act o f Isolation .: the imp<ICl ofsociaJi....lbel\c could merely make I"."'~M the consequences ofsociaJ i50la!.S speakin g in cornplete $('l1tences. . 1940.'lbclle lived in alII10St latal sech~ioll in II darkened room. she made he r first aHempt 10 verbal ize." G SQ("J. Oavis....u l.. .... het' react ion changed to o nc of extreme apathy..Ill-.J('(/lJl'f't ".... Asshe became accl ls!olllcd to seeing cenain individuals. When she was discove red ... in other cases ill which havc been locked away or severe ly ncglcCtI"d. After a few days of tr. 1 !\:lbclle had been largdy deptived of the typical interactions and sociali7...E 4 ·1 Gtm i e'. ut} • 0RGI. IS.~1S of m:uun !)'. GDlII' Ihis piltll~ 18 r..I'11J. Although she stllrted slowly.ation.. For the first six \'can of her life. ' lsabclle had h:lfdly human ill th e social scnse wl...' no auc. Is....'cd that Isabdle . Her on ly communications with her mother had been by sim· plc gc. Since she had actually .aoon expel'iences of c hildhood." . Before lsabellc reached the age of9. wa....ill(l.."'. In "".hamcd of ISllbcllc 's illegitimate birth that they kcpt her hidden away from the world...j 1II(j(1~ i/l 19JJ. Isabcll e q uickly passed through six years of de\'c1opmeI1L In a liul e over tWO months...... who could neither speak nor heaL lsahcllc's mother's p:trcnL<..s..-d our :md lilrokt.. she could identify both words and senlt:ncC$....... bm she soon began to rcacllO nearby sounds. When prcsclllcd with a hall.. she held it ill the Yet. throloo it. babelle's experience is impon:lIlt bec... then rcachc...'lking sounds..u the Ic.-a girlllllUJ h(lll /xwt fqr most afhnfint 14J1f1n wtJj d/..school with other c hildre n. SI>eciaiisIJ developed a :system. or haunce il.UiOIl5 cro.'lIIpl to squeeze it..." :lppal'cmJy unaware of relationsli ips of ally lc..'llion on human cl Unrortunately.lIic tr.-"....tining program lO help lsabelle adapl to human rcl'ltionships and sociali ...'I~.. without an o ppot'tunity to experience ilalioll ill her first six years..md her able )lrob'TCSS o\'cr the next few )'e"rs~:<~. and was cmotionally well adj usted.. P""" t1v kjt) plaJJ tlw pJnrlll WIJj iislm.. (.... .."'...ion h:l\'e be much mo re damaging.." discO\ercd (K. she was in sixth gr. At fi rst... ~peech specialist who worked close ly ""itJl U1C child..( arc relatively few cases of children i real'ed in isolauon. she ""as rcady to attend . Verbally.. Skclch f!~ pOllm of her h:md.....e ll in school.. I" her drlfunPl£ Iter '''...rli.... She had liute conlaCI widl other people with the exception of her mother..-d Illy f"cC' with iL Such hchavior is compamhlc ICI thal of a child of SIX months.. despi te being more than 6 )'Cl\r:s o ld . have not fared so wel l as lsabclle."SLUres.. 1 3-}'e"r~ld Californian named Genie was cred in a room where she had heen confined f'l GUR. it was believed that Isabcllc was deaf.... 'I'Im lit"lch w//.....lining.. aNtIwntto .. Mane Mason ( 1942:299).au<. she initia lly showed a strong fear of !otr.. ~ lt e W"d.. obser.. For example.

she had arwf liblt'Jled (0 the sounds of normal human ~h On~ year aner beginning exte nsive ther· .11ld away from C Olltact with othe r monkeys.lctions with pec rs lIIII. 1982.Io ry or th e University o f Wisconsin . a researc he r al the pl"illliltC lalx>f<l. During he r year.lion on developmellL Ham lIarlOl1' ( 1971) .RJI/!lllS nu:mkep disp/fry (/ 'IMf for sonfl/ illl('7'(1(liOIl Whnl IM)' dillg 10 mO'. isolation had had a damab monkcys. nor could . 1981. ~)I'I up in more no mml e nvirOllmCl11S1 h is IlO\l rn"'WlilCd that it is not e n o ug h lO care fo r an Wlnl'l phV!. Harlow round that the ill effecr.• 'rhl lIl()7lltry hf'7l' is muhjllgfur mjlR on fI "mQ lh" .mflflt of bm-.1I folrl) sociali7 . rcsearch e r~ . In this study. Tht ca~c §!udics of Isabcllc and Genie document Ihr adl'l'~ impact of e xtreme dcplivation .. COIIducterl tcsts with rhc~ lI S monkeys that had bec u r' liscd away from th e ir mother. " dw oIW' 0[20 months. 1993: Rymcr.ation c xpericnces 1 1' human s 0 .o be rearful a nd easily rrigllle ned. 1981 : Riglc r. II!j~ whiil '~III(j itlillg ()7l t/~ rlmh · "wl"~. the infanlm o nkcys de\'cloped greatc r social lluachmCIl r.io n W"dS his use of M artHicial mo the rs.u ..tre diS(. 11ley did not malC. lrrry .. tJlC rh t. A cl'e:lli\'c aspect of Harlow's cxpe rimenwt.tmmar rese mbled that of a typical IlWnuutlH)lrl child .. nn. yet spe nt muc h morc dme clingin g to the more mothcrlikc d oLll model.lt~I09: Pint. Inma. . 1993).. s.Ulylhing othcr than swearing. .. Mo nkey afte r mo nkey we nt 10 the wire m o the r for the Iife-giving milk .a.>s U nlOnkc}'S raised in isolation S wcre fo und t. of isola tio n. A" a result. As was Llle casc with Isabc l1e .s of being raised 95 CJ IM'"r7iR 4 ' .ut criucal in their e motional growth.lrc emphasizing the impol'· tIDIt'..'<mnth . Harlow prese nted monkcys raised in isolalion with two ~l.Kuageabilily (Curliss.. Apparentring ellc ct on the ly. 00 lanuh member had spoken to her. parenLS must also conce rn Ibmtwll(~ ~ith childre n's social d e \'clopmc lltl If dlildtTn." In one suc h e x· pc rim c m .. Sincc the re u:I(:'oU1on or mdio in he r home.cre a rtificiall y in~ e minated became abusive mothe rs. 19L').. (ofoil"s gr.ical needs.iiQCJIoUlATION .-<m e cluthcovc red re plica and Onc covered with wire wh ich had the a bility to o nc I' milk.. comfo rt..jIl)(I\ . artificial moth e rs who provided a cOUllo ning ph ysical sensation (con"cycd by Llle lerry d o Lll ) were m o re highly \" dlued than those who pl'ovid c d food . 1977:274.lbih -JlIl!!o·tiluk mDl~. and the fe males who .. and intimacy than from thcir need fot' milk..oumged from having frie nds.s from their need for I'. 1992b. Srud~ofanimal5 raised in isolati o n also support tbr mlportAZlce of socialiJ.Ibs li'ute rnoth c rs. but was unable to achievc Ww. o 19I1b. they trill hr dtprived of social inlc r. She made furth e r advan ces as hn thrrap) COlltinued . 00 W he.

. invoh-ing pairs 0 1 twins.. ..e n in twillS ""areel apan.. ....llues.iSI:tI ICC.. .'~ in 111t. resullS Irolllthe lwailablc l"in studies indic.. th t: illlcrplay be twee n he reditar}' and c m......... pallems... need to be caUlious 011)£... Ibt' MinnCMIt<l han' tuu ml l11arked silllilati ties in ulc...... .. ..I } J ~ • ! • " J ~ ~ • J in i5Olalioll "'ere often irrt:"\cniblc..til'$ 01 idcnticall\\.) use m O I"t! bchadOI..11\ drawing pa!":llIds bt... r l hamctcrbtics. Il o\\'c\'c.lS..1t both Kt'I1CL '<lCIOI'S alld :'UCi. .ht'} ~ how in perso llaJi... h..lllIIc... . I... I IO\\'C\'cr.: ardu:n. lluman parenb arc not cowl'cd wit h cloth (or fur).r ({" toward iL'. Brown .. I hu ~ r. 1-. hip or dominance.0 been impresos«l si1l1i lal S(.... I-I Owl. u-:UI!.... and drinkill ~ ha bits ....."I mOl\' be linked lO hI: C...l\'t:' .I the idcllliC'dl lwilb regilller VOI('\ 1\" .1II dc\dupmclIl......u-c snad) ing p.... comf.. ir :UI~'....ms u t o..."Ill.. .-it' need lor illlinmcy.<.lrch .tuse~ .....md illu. and nCl"\'ous It"bits ••Ippcar 10 IX' \tIl ~ illlil...r()lllllent-a1 faclol'~ is evident in a i'asciua l' ing stml). In examining c1usttn.... lweC/I .....ation c:xpc i<a rc IIllhlt'lIti:t1 "' hum. h'C .tt ion sw d ics discussed above lHay seem to suSgc1\I that inhcriulIlcc ca ll be dismissed as 11 fa cIOr in the soci~ll dc\'clopmclIl of humans and 'lIIi· mats..u-· nies. lIu:..ull·..'(IUCIlCC'i of isolation cm al>ply to o thcl primates be"idl'~ hurnarls (R...Inlo ng such twin s. 'er.. there ~Ire flu g reater dillc 1>C(\\'CCII iclentil al twins r('ared .II.Ilthuugh in rough I)' similar social Must .ll silllil.lr <-.' O'i IXtrt.-lIigl·lIcc. then'!». but ~ig tlifrer.. Noncthl'lcss.. .. 1965:39) ...milll. t)'pe:..lli/... The Innuencc o f HcredilV..... or it}' L rail'i ..lf.. th e preii.. such :as twi ns' te mpe ramenu.).-..II~ rearcd ap<u' to dClcnnillc "h...lIld human beh •• vior.ho\\'ing affection for their off· spring. ot malCS clu)SCn... Researchers at Ih e Minll csolll Cenlc" fur Twin and Adoption Rese.Ipal'l in u:nm tiwd(. ~I. inl'. W..'S. T he isol. ReS4..-'n(l.. . \ ing that th ~ (1U:llitit. Ilal"lo""s research s lIgg(:5ts that tht' h:muful c OIl-'>t..ores on illlciligcllce I(:S~ or "..

' utal r. Some researc hers insist that intellectual illlcrest in sociobiology "'ill o nly deflect sclious st U(h' o r the morc significant ract. the wciobiological "I>proac h co uld be used as an argumen t against clfo l'l~ t..1 twin rc!!u tl. rt .11"'..m biology bill instcad adjusts con tinually to the anilUde:l and responses or others.11..llc OWl' nature \'ersu~ nurture COIll.:unc time.....o r .t1c numerous l'eplic lI.ltiCstud)' 01 Ihe bi· ... o r Social Issues. After ..' ....!rJled idcmical (wins m ay ha\'e had COli~ . such as schook hildrel1 wh o arc nOI compet ing success-fu lly (A.. used 10 bbmc the poor and . Wilson has argued Ih:lt th e re . fi rm'ss to sU f'\. pi" of thc continuing debate 011 the relal ivc in- lIfocn.llI" th e rC~lIh (If genetic or hiologic". !Ill: "~I". \U(i.ued tribal b.1.alio n .ol heredity and lhcen"iro nm c nt . drb.. argut... tuwlllJ(C'lIc~ tesUl-3 finding that supports lhe tIII. R~'11 C and I'ar.1.m nature i'i affected by lhe gene tic composition or a group or pt..rrammcd by hum.th I'J(h OIher..Imj lIorgan . III tmt\f\1I1g the studies or twin p:'lil"ll and other R. Wilson (I!l75..... .nri:d environments score quitt: differe ntly .llticip...ionis!s) belit.-mx ~~.11 o\'crgcller· tIaDR from the MinneSQt.. 1977.lli1. sociobiologius rocus 0 11 how hum. ror example • could show how socia l bcha"ior is not J>J'Of:. 1 ~)78).IIndinl(" "ere no longe r valid .gi51 Leon Kalllill fcars 01. 1987.. ....lI llaged people. Critics add that fir tllId iN on twin I)ail's ha\le no t. Idenucal twins brought lip in dmmll/....&cteri. r..ve (\'an de n lkrghe.20).001 ":Ird University. Boucha rd.or. iilnat awnt * .. Yet Lois Wladis HorTman ( 1985)... h ould be pa . In ge neral..b... Con Oic t theori.'\"Clopmcllt . ru..\I1d Iha t social ilHe ractin n ~ 1 )lay 111) role in shaping peo p le's conduct..cractionli-cspt·d "lIy if Ihc)' were ~t'-(t)uld call il1lo qucMioll the validity of IIIrnnn'\IIldits ( Kel~ c t al .m5mung genetic links with bchavior..1.lIld ha\'c shown liuJc interest in specula ting about alleged differenCe!! be· tween racial groups o r nationalities.. .l\lIC5. . III iL~ c): trcllle rorm .:ne:d.lh sociobiology a ret:ognition Ih:al human beings do not like to be dOlllin. Sociobiologisu /).67) . onc should proceed wilh a sigdcgrC<' or caution.... change in the study were complc ted.-mAY be. Irllt:rdctionisLS.tthcr tha n by their gene tic 5tnlc tu re. Widely bl'oadca. Conseque ntly... \!)78.ullly " " ... Socio biology d oc~ not seck to describe indi\< idual beh:t"ior o n the level 0 (' ~ Wh y is Fred more ag· grcssh'c th anJilll?~ R... in her p residen tial address lO the Soci('I" rol' the Ps)'cho logical Slud)..sociaIi7.irs) was rreqllently cited ... They assulIl e Ilmt particular fOflllS or bc haviol' become gen e tically lin ked to a species if they contribute to io.. ~ ptcliminal)' a nal}'Sis.. Ct: rminl)' most social scientjSlS would agree lhal there is a biological basis fo r 97 .. lhe in.'Starch.. tr'p. 1993. For example...1993. sociobi· ologlslS have st ressed the bas ic genetic herit. Yet thc ftCIRik'~ had to retract their conclusiollS after • anpW "'015 incr~ased rrom 8 1 to 9 1 cases and _01 tht original 8 1 cases were rcclassilied . Leo.w between JImiIW'! . . 1989) ..lI1ds) .... . Oplc who share cenain " ch ar.o assist disadv.. MallY social scie ll tists have strongly auacked the maill te nets of sociohiology as cxpl'esM!d by Ed wa l'd 0gist at Hal'~ O. provided sat isfIann illlunnJtion conce l'ning the ex te nt to which . o ne _loot inmMng twin p. con fli ct IheorisL~ real' that.. a 1.iud emi romm.S biological dc u.atth drofts to clarity Ihe inlerpl.t. 1993}.th a rocus on both g<"nelic and social C:IlISCS.. .lclors in huma n de1IiopaN'nt (llorgan.. 199 1.. even tho ugh they " 'e re ~r. thel'c ha!! tkft ft"IlntI'f'lt inte rest in sociobiology in recent is OI l! !o'\'S tCIlI:.... yCI there Ih e similarity e ndll.:..11'5 principles . ~Std. I-larlis.'d that sociobio lo&'Y poses" valuable chOlllengc 10 social scic lllj~1.io ll Jllr'..ltioll on human dt.o bette r docume nt Iheir OWI1 resc<lrch.Ile l studies Orhuma ll beha\'ior \\.~-a ll d too much impol1:'U1cc to the impact or """t.II" .... can ft' ltunly :t.·c I.6io/Qg..undckn ror their unrorllllHltc condition.. If'I1t\ naturalist Ch arlt.S t.. Tho: connicl perspccti\'C shares ".an tho~ that \\'o uld be expcc lt~d if lhe __ JX'1'Y1l took a test twice.... bl~ or sociallJeha\.aI \t'I{'Ctjon to tile s tudy or liOCial beJ\a\ior...)II. Capl3n .. h:wior r.~ l! and interact.. 1980:5 14 )...nr i!l lllt. th. 1987: I>lo mill .hal SOci:ll realily is d e fin ed by 1 O ple's Ix >t.1 raCtOI'5 .. M.'nninislII by suggesting Ilmt all ' be ha\..age that is shared by all humans .or influ· e nci ng human bc ha\.. or me ln-bc~ of isol.. At the 'l.suc5 (suc h as men or wome n . ~.~ 0 .ther.~l findflpWOhfll been based on extremely SlImll $am· .t iscd ~: SuI h int.~l~ (like rtlncti on ali. 1978.... wciobiology fesc mblt.

. 11) In at usillg th<.'clati\'cs.111 ol{kr sibling is doing so nCOI ..uching cartoons on television and IIIrt' oouks...ich the self emerges..eptions of ha. 1992) ..dmnccd the belief Lha l we learll .~~... uf s)lnl)l}ls.sc. Fishcr." As pan of the IlOCi..!..t' . feelings. comes nOI on l)' from dire<:t t.c that Ihe self is the product of ollr social int('I-:'lction8 with othe.~i l ) he \'crtcd into a neg:u. HOw:lrd.) dc\'eloped a useful du: proccSlt by Id.·e can de\'elop self·identities based on correct per(. Cha rl <. objects.."~f. MXiobio logists rccognil'c tha t we create our 0 .alion. IS among sociaJi/. the Icacher ruusl think tlrat sllIpid..h·e SC Ii·jf\l"lI il) Ihmugh Ih" lowillg procc$.~ Mead: Stagrs of the Self Gem'gc I-lt:rben ( 19W:706) acknowledgt.~. wC develop some son of feding l al t ollrst:lvcs.. 1987: scc "Iso A.~.~? ._ Cooley: Looking.famih hers with whom the. The Ilfocess of devcloping 1I seU:idell til)' o r se lfconcepti h:l"l llrrcc phases."Ii7.!'.res.. c hHdren become """"..v illuing Cook1"s ration of irHCr-:..1i. c hildre n begin to .. 1-10\\' do ....: ..": .' others.social bch:wlor..11 h:wc \'. OUling tile prt"/lOmtqry 5Ia~.. po\iliw: mean M Me:ld .. con linuaJl)' illter. (3) I pid. Finally.G lass Self In the e:lrl)' 1900s.. grow o lder.Ige? Wc .tctillnisl a pproach.. Our \.~ forlll the basis of humltn 1 tcracling ....c come to devclop these? Do they change as .p'.Lli t. YCI scJf·idcntilic..:: .1 ... and I to bDb are ~Ylllbols conHnUl~. . A crilical bul subtle aspeCt of 'it'll' i!lo lital the sdi results from an M imagin..LS~ M "m ch.'. 1989:249).".. 1992: Lopreotto.... Buildingon the .... c\'e n slI':lngc l's on the stree t. but also from our imprcss i on~ of how othcrs perceive w .~'10 SOCIAUlATIO w~ . shy.h. a!i a re!ill of these impr<..O~:::...~.~....t le:achcr'" criticism and cide (\\'1'(H1gly) Ihal lhe inSI. Then wc il11al.: drc n le..'11 designation: the self. Ill") rt"acl slrongly lO .pccially lIseful in furthering OU I' lII11iel'Stall(ling of Ihcsc importan l iSliUCS (Cccas. rnispc. from cuhul'c 10 culture and evcn bctwttn H.hat ht· wtt'i M prorolLndly il1debtcd~ 10 "insighl and conMructivc tliOllg1 .'rc(.~~~ . ca'l>CIIII)' 01' .~:.llioll~ perceptions.gllUS self to ernpha.<J ~.e slU<lent above received an "AMat the course..u:tio n. ..lo .~.lcli\'c .' people .. and belicls aboul who we arc and what ..".·c arc like..'-". as distinct from others..::c.c. 196<1.c imagine how we present o urst'l\'cs to o tllcnl. or ''..-art: fiB~~:'.o.'OOO wl'..."C'l or shame.tin advocates of ~ iobi olog)' (Gove.· gesturc.e . friend s. ho wc arc 1»' illlcr... he or sill' might no longer feel stupid.~:~~:~~ 98 ..II'1I Ihe symbo ls o f their p I· (Ek rl1<111 ct :. 1982) .au!iC of ~ocill l intcr. has becn eo.ith rc1:tti\'cs and friends..-ssions (Cooley.~~. The sdf represenlS lhe 'iUIn total of peoplc 's conscious perception of their own identit).. "Th um bs lI p Mis not a lw:l)'5 a no dding lhe head up and down does /lflt yes.!:".::tI.ork ofCeorgc Hcrben Mead ( l 964b).~.". II is no t a static phenomenon. Thi. Ljkc spoke n languages. .... THE SEf.. and for hi~ billions to -«)ciologic:t l lI11dCI'St:tllding or tht Mead ( 1934. ... BUI Iherc i~ I cs~ support 101' the more extreme positions taken by cen..lIc how Ol/ICrf C\''dlualc us (attr..• others view him or her.'" as stll l)id ....'C us.tlio n 0 1 hO\. 1902: 152: M.. C51 >cciall).. Sociologisl!I <\l1d ps)'('hologisl:i a like havc expJ'('ssed interest in how the individual develops alld modifies a sense of sclf bc(.'o lllemplation of our 1>C1"i01l:11 qualitiL'lI. Cooley used Ihe plume IDOki1lg...·tJ to Cha rles Horto...'u cIO' view.... .. resuh .:w:.h these understandings.·plioll ca n ea..I!.): ( I ) till' le:lchel' criticized me.:lcling with others. ill tclligelll.such as respc. d<fin'rd~ liuce distinc t st:lges.·y ami Gcorgc I-I erbcrt MC:ld . then.«:L small child will b'lIlg on a piece of . . I-Ionon Cooley. First.. The work of sociologists Chm les I-Iorlon CooI<.M\'\'<" are III u indcbtcd 10 Mead ro. as well w.:.~i?I?~.. 1984). g l .td u:llI)' become mOl'e :n...~ en! is e ngorged in work i ll a ball if.·ere nOl born .'~c-:) .ew of o u rsc h·es. pioneers of the inle. but conti nues lO devclop and Ch:U1g(' lhrollghoUl our li vc~.' cO.-..lclio nisl lhl":o."S arc a lso subjecl 10 tI..il'.. lionship ors)'lnbo l ~ tothe veloJ)skill in commun icating gT'..)..11)o As lhc). c hildren 1Ilerd\tatc the people around them.d~ Icy t.

and a l1mratho n runner a l the same Lime . In \Irad's third stage.." It has become clea..Lbling onc to respond from tJlat imaglord \ic'''''poinL For example . Just as lU1 actor ~bccomcs~ a rlUf. prCp. At this developmental stage.hl'n the parent is more relaxed . 1I young c hild will lJilIltlJIl) It'3nl when it is iJcS I 10 ask a pa re nt fO I' ~ 1'. Simply put. According to ~o{ead ( 1964b). during thc I. Ihrrrlr.. the child o f thout M01 9 years old bcgim to consider several LDb~nd rc1:HioIlSh ips si rnulwn eously.:. Turner.' to the c hild that MI'. the child comes to unclcnll.liory smgc Ikscri/Jt(11Ty GtrJrge HaIxrl M f'{ld. viewpoints. The}' now understand what specific occupations and social positions a l'e and no longer equ01te Mr. a child who reaches this level of development will n OI aCl courteously mere ly to plcase::. Hr IllIp caplain. At this poi nt mdtlclopment.'i of mtntJlh . \11':((1 Iloted lh at an importll nt aspect of tJ1C play 'Ilaj(t' i. a p01rent.\). ell.. Young c hildren picwre th e mselves as lh e focus of evel)'- 99 ..llhahlt'. e:!/JMully family 1Mmbn's with whom they aHlli . he o r she takes into accoun t an e ntire group ofp eo-.~ i~ Ihe final ~tage of developm e nt und e r' ..lI1d that Ms. c/lildlVl imllllr(' I'" fNOIJk MOll/ill then. but also those of others aroUlld tMm I ~lIIs.der a girl or boy of tllis age who is pa n 1'I. but a lso must recQbrn ize the re· 'fuINh\lilies of other scouts (as we ll as th e le'ld· rr.. "lnd !. Thus.hal councsy is a . .111 mood.\tj lh "principal. pl c. Will iams only with the role of "librarian" 0 1' M5. nli. Franks o nly . Williams can be 01 libr. Role tnk ing is the proccs. llnd expectations o f socielY as a whole. and re ligious le01ders.I rhiJd becomcs a doctol" parcnt. the child will wait until ancr d inI1C'f Jl. le achers.lr.l'llUuIlroopout on a weeke nd hike in the 1II0unCIIIl\ nu~ child must ullderst. For eX01 lllple.wlIlIy ill/eruc/. ilhle (0 imiulIe the actions of OtJ1CI'S. children can take a mo re sophistic01led view of people and Ihc socia l environment . the c hild has re01ched a new level of sophistication in his o r her ObselYdtiOI1S of individua ls and insti tutio ns.t particulm· parellL RatJlcr.I (1II1lI'.lttt'l". this concept suggests that whe n 0111 individual acts. Me'ld is beSI knO\\'I1 for this theory of the self. childre n g rasp not only their OW I1 wxUJ ptlSititms.( {'Onfonning to the be havior of others.'d by parents.. for Illulc-xl'nl5 and adul ts role taking is mo re se lective lIIdut'JUn' (R..\rolc taking.1duhs. U the parent usually comes ho m e fro m work n ~ 11.d uses the tenn gerJern li:ed otherj 10 refer to t h t: ch ild 's O1W" dreneSS Of lhc attitudes.. superMtI.'ay stage. the self begins as a prh" ilegcd. the ga"'~ Sillgt'... Mc.. celllrdl posi tion in a person's world .Dlm·/lg /h.:md app'tr.trian .idespre ad social m lue cndonit. "nll\ result. 1962) . Franks is but o nc of many pli ncipals in our society. Me<tci"s model: the child ca n I\ OW respond to nu· merous members of the socia l e nviro nmenl. inJudillg . the child b. mcl what he or she is npnlrd 10 do.L'iSlIllling thc perspective of a no thc r.). Although for children role tak ing llIay I/IltW.

C C.'"! nt othe rs (Giordano Ct aI..hat ' . Pal·ellts.~fy particular aut clIces. the intcr:ictio nist approach.llto C Ol1linlltd dOll intcraction .MIl attention. he r p l·csentalion of the sclf in order to c("(ale un Clive appe.lI.thing around them and find it dim w it to co n ~i d cr the per~pcc ti\'cs or o thers.hdr (m'll van tage po int .. fri ends.s. Waite rs and w:litl"csscS 11).id y to relUnI tcnn papers or examina tio ns and mentions that cer· min students did cxceptionally well . a person may l'ng-. cmph. For example. LSillg r ne r's c ritiflllc. Mead used the letm sig" ifica llt others to refer to those indi viduals who :lI"e moSt imporlan t in the development of tilt' self (Sch len ke r. Coffm an ( 1959) rcfers to this altering nI prescntation of the scl fas impression nla" agnMI Box 4-1 provides an everyday example of lhi.'CI or the selr 10 Comnan (1959) ha~ dr. LV place o urselves at . Earl)' in life. Wlwn . M rea ll)' wasn 't feeling \'itR I W<\( o r ~111 ere isn ' t an interesting person ID e ntire crowd . \\'C often ass ume that we fall il1lo tha t selec t group (Fc nigslein. studies concel"tling signific<llll Others ha\·e gencr. 1.IS resembling perfortn(ft. insightful perspective on everyday life. coaches.lIIm /Lf dmma/urf{J€lIl apjlllJ(lfll. and leache rs are often among those who pia). . and asked 10 dc. it has often bee n argued that Aftican AOlc l·ican adolescents al·e: Illorc "peer· o ricnt ed ~ than th e ir White counte rparts bcGlllSC of presulTled wcak. In examining such everyday social inlerac· CoITma n makes so many explicit parallcl~ /(I theater that his view has been termed the lurgicaJ approach .J11: celltcr of even ts never cntirely di~ppears. Main the J>mper image c:m be essenti. there appcars to be Iittic differcnce in who African Americal1~ and \Vhiles tram sim ilar econom ic backgro unds reg.ncs~e!l in Blac k f~\l ni l ic s. in response In~ jeclion a t a singles' b. 1984).~ Con·man's approach is generally regarded. suggested thal Irlam o ur dail)' aClh~lies involve allell1plS 1 com·('\" 0 prcssions of who wc <tre. laC('-S.SI Ah~ 1I Gou ld ner ( 19.· face--work by saying.. socio logical pe rs peclive is especially 5uilt'd an examination 0 1" ho \". cle rks may try to apJX3r than the)' actually are if a supenisor hapJ>Cm..u deal 10 IXlth Cooley and Mead. For cxample. which/. As people malure. 1993: jllha.. a m.~IIJtnl IIOmc fO lm of rcjec tion. socio lob'.oJl.ml as their sign ific.in SCeS (suc h as a lake o r hikers).yor ro le in shaping a person 's self. th e se lf dc\'e l (l p~. onc might ask if women aJld norilics are ex pec ted to deceive bolh lhem a n d o t.. (I diJtinrtiw rtlntribu /ioll /0 JocioWID Irj popu{an"zmg {/ parlirllitfr t>YH' of inl~mrtllmiJI kll/.0) SCd Iilan ·s \\'ork as implicitly rcaffi mling the status including social class inequalitk-s.1982) rnnd. I~ m~lhod Goffman: Presentation o f the Self As was ~ ChOlptcr l. lite indi.111 o lue rver on the o ppositc side or the mOI/IIl. 1989). In some instances.hers \\'h ile paying homage to 111054' In I In d'" IOU l'Am /11'0 • 0Hr""''''1J\'(: 'tIJ('JAL OH:: . For exa mple. bUI it ~ with o ut its critics. roung c h ild re n nev· ('nh(: l c~s describe on ly objecL~ vi~ ihl c from . Erv".. smdents eng:tge imJftll gio n manageme nt after e xamination gr'''d~~ bce n awarded."ale) level of anal}"$i\' ThII thi . \\'hen ~h own" monn"" '"!in seem. "fH/ (1922.LVing beha\'ior mUM he OIled if the selr suffers because or c m bal"r'o.Hlces and It) sati . ~'mIII CoITmall .c Ihe micro ({)f l)llIall--'l.11 ' sccM:t CIlSlOmer who wanL~ more cof1"ee ifthn o n a break. rece llt i n \"c~tiga ti ons indica te that these hasty CO IIcl usio ns were based 011 limited s tudies focusing o n less amUcnl Blacks. Indced. Writing from a con fli ct pt: live. n. Face -work is another aspt. It) wa tchi ng th el1l . I-I o\\'evel·. 1985:12-13) ."SCrihe \\. coworkcrs. Th is c h ildhood tende nc).. the selr c hanges and bebrl ns to rdlcct greater COll cel"ll about the reactions of oth cl's.~dual leams 10 slant It. . action . /\ cconling to this pcrspt people can be seen .ltcd cono-ovcrsy among re· !lCarc hcl"!i.\ cCpt b)' describing hm".111 instruc lOI· is rC!'. a gre:. T hus. a I'ccenl sociologist associated with intcraction isl pcl1lpcc li\"c.

.. ~.1 ~..'\ Cardncr (1989) ha "'JI)('''tt'(j that GolTmall's view of inter..lroll1l'ool. .ithin the sUel\ of IhC!Se e nCOUn1 e l~.\llxu: and All>.~. IIIYuil. "I" fuf' I. To help BombcNl ~it\'e 1 ..<1 ftlTt'n ""d('nl~ who h[wc :..\' .IS . who " 'ill be .dHuunded fear of Ihe sexual harassmcnI.IIIQII papers ftllUlll'tl .1~ .~. or .iti~ficd Bombers :U1d C\'t'lI r.: pmccss by which we come to creale a st'lr: Mead tocused on ho .ulatory..l. .l'\ln~ GoffRQn'. pily thal Ihe). 11. Psyc h o logisL~ have shan'd Ihe interest of Coo lcy. Aces may cmp ha.1 tcmpl 10 3\'oid ..1939). .~~..tlwo noon uflllodeslv . engage in 5C:apcgo..such cltchango be· cause: ~you .~sl'Q()m k'lIill!(5.1Clions 11 pubht pl. occur ill it ~('I "1'"' ..hc r diss..?~..Idi'l. or 3il1lpl)' an incoml>Clelll leacher. such as ~ I WaliI1'I feeling .lot' whcu 5tattl.~ lit.lce and ill W _'*"'I'f /Jmnh....ICC. l\ombcn ma).'d by sockty's ini'nfmalno1'lns re~fdrd· ing 1II0dcsl)' (11)d ClImidC!'alion for 1('1os ~uccl:lIsht' pt'Ct~.s-among thcIII lhe dl. or al Icast as well...tcd Iht.. or 101 U IlII"n. d .ked ."1! social reality OIlC is nOl 1Iftt'!tSaI'il) cudol'sinK its harsh impact 011 mall)' indhiduah ..1.l. GolTman c mphasi.\ call ~pit} pal'lj ~ .. ~~. relle ning th(' group !'f..and (1988) dfn.w lf lhe gr.irt'(1 :IPI>f:ilr~~ ..o manaR~mclll 10 ~x.and bmg . .) nap..I week..R" • SOCJAI. (... dom: benef .. AS ditCu~ in !lox 1·2 ( rcfcl' bac k to "':!~1.. ' ~I~ Oth('f Act'S.man. Ac("~ ofTer ~)'lTIpalh)' and 5uppnn .... ~I'I'~.us included particularl) low S('oret.u1l 1 w:W" ha\c been ' . ..lld unr. Ulcu'Iu!d lugh KI."t .:y stres~cd Ihe.'> dif· a rt' IllOSI prouounced.tillt.uul rapt' t h o can occur lhere. Y(. ilJ.'r.Jc. of Ihe Cl)urse :I.\ rr-80'''M mroullin3 :u(' often scnslliw _ numbers gencmlly ."'" in lh(' . e you are 1.I ~. W '.(lIkpl.t~l hilt KY'..1lId groups (S. 10 Cr('llf: dc:s.~ile the dimcult)...I.rl\. llumbers work 10 apl>ear gmciolls alld cl)lIgr.\(' who Imw Icccived low nr 1'1'e1l liliUll. Willi~Hns .JZAno. Coole...IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT BY STUDENTS AFTER EXAMS S'II'IC... UPOII •..slS rn USI relIIetulx'r 111.mcntion to WOtnnl\ ".Ndrd and tt"unm.Cl iu ellcuunlers bt·I..:" dwide lhr..m. COlIccpl 01 mlplt.m\ work rcprcsclIlll a logicd progression ci lhe "'1f1"logical cOons begun by Cooley ilnd .I'Sy'~.hall }'Qu. Ihcm'Jf:I\'t. lorl to wall ofT lht" feared disdain of Olhl'~.'ling the prolCMUr.~ \VhclI forced imo imeracliolIS wl lh Acc:s.~ .u-': l1I05t lc:rt:lIlial~ illiell. 01 1II1rcliable.ll grades (Acl'Rllmill'l "IlCOl/l1tcn) .es lor olhcl'l!I.. since. In comidU rrill« imprl's~i(ln nmnagclUelll 0111(1 the o ther con• dndnpcd by GolTmall.~I! . III wrnrol1 in shilring onc's 1rirh nurk "'ilh IIII01h('r 1111(" h IS C'\~II arc~ptable to .llle dilltribulion in a d.11111 hnw personality is aC{lIlil'cd lhrough sonuUf1l1O Jnd how we m:m..a~ Ollt' )Iudenl admitted. Al.. sodolob...uUm.\JbaJ l>'.ng excuses :are dt"\'dopcd fO I Ihe BoU1JxI'S' poor I>c:rforumnccll..'inll"'l5 of IJle ex..des (Bomlx: r·nwubcr rncO'lItnlrl') "'(mm/If.Ult! Ihe Io. \O(lologi I (''... Lhc self dcvc::lol>S as \\'C IC:l1'II 1 illtcrdcl wit.~..ll!~~... ..vt: tor sexual grdLific:ttion-ill channcling Illlln:m bcha\'ior...55ion ..lI.1l).11 n .1lt~'ft 111011 colkoge ~lUdenl.1\ hy dW:l'i/. 1986:357-358).1.1unospherc IK-cau~ tbn .. wa)"i in whic h wc consciously crcale images oursel.«<:d lhc role of inborn drivt.·IJo". . Bomlx-rs ol>C:III} shdre thcir di~ppoiunllelH and en· gage in cx prcssionll of mUlual self- uthe l 1)'lll's 01 !tutU. ~ 1 l'5 much easier lO admil a high mark 10 q)IIICOIIC who ha.her soc iologi~ls in th e development uf the selL I!arly work ill psychology.U1id AII)..'Ccn lhe highIClln"H Ace<.... 1 Ilu.('1I(()tmlel"'l i11l0 Ihree Clle· ROl1n Ihn~ bctW(C'11 5IUden ls who Mt' ..tgc Ihe prc"C lltaLion our self 10 others.-Ilo ns :u h1lPI'(.1lI IIIlcl'.Ulollalil. suc h as thal of Siglllund Freud (11:156.. . tlu:.1t~ gi\'e5 iOSl.~..M' I"Ilfmw/m u~ lId to be closed...c their own ~luck ( high scores..\C IIlCI II ~1 1~l l cgic~ arc conslr.logllIb u . SII'cs.-st:unug Bombcl'll.1\'tdrin'r. ulcs (Ace..Fan"Sl\.lInin(' Ibr t1r. lUanag~l1lenl .l\e n:cci""d high .· r!llUUnlcra).S.fficic ll1 .·cll all wet' k or-I had lour ex>ull) and 1"'0 l)apeD due 11l. emerge looking like tlle dumb Ol1e~ or w feel Iil. As i~ cvidcnt from lhc!IC desclipliOtl5.uous. s lud('tll! ' Inlpn:ssion.. U1d dlu.h 0 others..ua... In rh. Mead. and Ol. MtICt'fl'tl. IhO'lC b('I"'eell "udrllh IIlw h... For lheir parI.

sl:lge.. or j/~ t'Jper(l.~.~. wc do not necessarily move fro m om'" a no the r in U1C dear<lI l \V:I)' Iha .j'~ l ies.ge t (lS96-lgSO) ha'! underscored the importancc of soc ial illleJ'anio n:..S well-::lwan:. As we saw e arlier.hem. sInge. tin daugh te r is ~trolhed to a grown man. Piagel has suggeste d that mor. r u ung c hildre n lIse their senses 10 make discoveries." d efin it e rites fJf passage tha .S..'Ssio n is heard that "there is no such !h' an unmarded wo man ~ (Coodalc.(DUorimolQr._ _. s tages of d cvelopmcm marked by speci fi c ceremo nies.11''' .~. This ma~ 102 PIINT 111'1) • (}RGM'/7.me! that ~peclS of une 's pel'SOnalit)' arc influenced by o the r. such as J ea n Piage t a nd Lawren ce Ko hlberg. Wht'n 0 dre n le arn the rules o f a game such as checkc:n jacks.. 1991) .. and th e re is no (().. Pi:Jget found that 1I('\\'I>orns haw 110 self in th e sense of:'1 loo king-glass image.~~. or [or"lilt ojH'1'(lIimwl. o lder. Newbo rns have nOI yel se para te d themselves from the uni ve rse uJ'which th ey arc a pan ... childrc ll arc g ra dually socialized into social relationships cven withi n u lCi!' mthcr seJ!·cente red worlt!.ellt l Pinget ( 1954) ide ntifi es fOl ll" stages in lhe de\'c!o pment of c hildren's lho ughl processes. we lea rn the expectations of socie ty and the n selec t heha\'io r most appropriatc to o ur own culturc_ (Of course.chc ncr. For example. sharp d ividing line br c hildhood a nd the res po nsibilities of adult hIe. slagc. Dming tJlese fes .~ are rult·s.~.. II :f!ll"lfJ::~y'q. In examining tJ1C socialization in the Unite d Statcs.. They learn that if . e maLUI·e. In his well-known cog1litive th fJ. he suggested that the sclf has co mpo T\t'nts that art' :llways lig hting with each other. they a re learning to obey MK:ietal 1\ Those under ~ rears o ld tli~play a rather ba5l( of mOl~l li ty: nll e.~. her lint. In the firs t. c hildrcn become capable of grr:Jtt'1 IOnomy and begin to cxpc den ce moral dilto as to "'hat constitutes proper behavior. whi le ano thcr part seeks Out ratio nal hchaviOI" By il1lcl'lclingwith o 'h e~.0 anorhcr. or .!. people arc in conSlalH connic t be ..chologistJean Ph. HenCt expft.. adolescents arc capable of sophi~ li ca ted abstract tho ugh t and Ca n deal with ideas a nd va lu es in a logica l manncr.. or (Om:rf!it' operaliotwl.. Ironical ly.Othc r ps)'cho logiSIS. In cultu res 10\ plcx tha n our own.. SOCIALlZATION A!'IQ.wcen their nal1lrnl impulsive instinCI~ a nd sodt' Ial conslraint~ . For exam young Aboriginal woman in Auslralia ""iIl bt' o red a t a cere mon y (11 Ihc time of her firM SU1 lalion . child ren g ive incrcasing attention Iv othe r people 'h ink and \\'hy . wc somctimcs disd to n I'cality and behave irrationally. unlike enorey ami Mead. Dur ing the second.JNC SOCIAl 1. it is still the same clay. As thc). 1971). Accord ing to J ean Piagel.~.. chi ldrcn'~ d menl is based 0 11 social intenlctio n.) Rcsea rch on newborn b:l bi es by the Swiss ch ild ps)... Part o f liS see ks limitless pleasu re."rc! . (especially o nc's parents).~!~. Many societlt. fo rmless lump ofctay is shaped into:\ snake. thc ph ~ Myou a llclll1c" has 110 meani ng: they unde rllland o nly M me . both lsabdle and Cenl. of "cxL nuating c:irctl m ~ l a n ces.~..lIy..~~. hUl eral psych ologlSL~ and sociOloglsl'S h1l\'e nOllet assigned panicular labels to van o us perio(h tI ciali/':'Hio n. Fur Aborigiu e. ory of develop".~. Fin.. have e mphasized the stages thro ugh which humau beinW' prug n::ss as th e se lf devdol>S· Like Charles I-Io n oll Cooley and Ceorge Hc rbcn Mead . as Ihey mature.~.~.~.~.. children begin L use words :md O '!ym bols to distinbtuish o l~i cclS and ideas. _ .. de prived of IJ1(' chance for no rmal social im lions (Kil. tho ugh .. stage is that c hild re n e ngagc in abs lract thinking..... throllgh touc hing uley discover that the ir hands arc actually a part of the mselve." However. in developinga sensc o f sclf.. In order 10 d evelop iI disti nctive per50l each of us ne c d ~ opportunities IQ intc1':Ict "itl! en. Th e mileSlonc ill the third . they :Irc quite sclf-c:cnlel'ed . For th ese babies. we are pro from Oll t:! grade in sc hoo l 1. T h(' socializllLion process CO ntillucS th roughlJUl stages of tJle hUlIlan life cycle. in th e fourth.... According to f rc ud .~ Il owever .li(J1lat.. __ . the re is :. Fre ud believed that the self is a sodal product :. th e} de mand tha t a lt allcmio n be di rected lo\. . Howevcr. This is not the case within o ur culture..'1. it is impomuu lO uncll' Iha . :IS Fre ud W .d dcvelOplUl'l1t comes an impo rta nt par I ofsocia lilalion as chi beco me able 1 think more absu-actly.h ey act in pan ways... dmlllatize awl datc ch:lIlgcs in a person's status...

-caU!tC of thr nem 11) conui bute lO the family income o r tu bt"cufl1t' fil1 ancially self-sup porting. Bt. ..lon.ground may nOI have an y a ltc l'luuivc!t but IQ .society: yet.Iht' hft" cycle of mn.. \\c \..\rics dcpellding o n certain soci.u is of research illm hi ng m:lles in the l nurd >'WII'S.'ill scc in C hOlpl('J's I) and 13. 1~"lJb(ltl \ fo mlula tio n was dc \" eloped 10 detent. Some researcJl('~ m aill lllin Iha t th e midlifc c ri- /03 l'J/Wl'f .OIl ..uhe r early age....Ht's."hihty.. there ~ no onc tt'rnllflll\ th.le\ .. "'bill... "i l'wed as more timeconsumi ng a nd m orc inrport:! l1t th a n I. 1987) .~oul/u 1111/11 "'I' )lI... in the United St.11 cle-MI)' marks the shift from c hild1'1.Rntdi('(.and sta tuses. IU (HI IlrfOml/lIK(llIroll /0 "'If" '''rr "Ill¥' IR{)(/rnl jHUJIIgr "/1111 Afn(Q.lmflr of dllltlJrood \ 'rI1tr."/0 (Il/U{/$. in \\hich they f\'ab/" Ih41 they han: nOt achic\'t'd basic ga<t\s and . arc wc rtukirt'n or adolescents? Al anOlhe r. Brown.o l'ld "bl.nrn-in as the midlife c.d . A key "'11('(\ of Lc\'imoll 'S work is th e n o tiOll Ihal...II'\I>t'rienced tu m u ltuo us m idl ifc conlliCls II1thin Ihl' '\CIf and witll the cx tcrna l \~·o rld ..l !IU/(#' wml'ldllll Inln' (ump""t /11 lift.lO l"fll ymlllg HI(lkt tirnr p"I..Iunnlt men's life time .)lmgiy. I. Yet.hlm illlQ visio n .is. mllllht· lal)(}r fo rce by cO lllinuillg his or he r e du1('1\1": "'"od l..R4 ' '>OCJIIU7/i1·IO.:msit iona l periods tha t ocnil .m mm prtlnld nlll 1f11W'fJg711~ III~ "1J.lOOr fo rce. as VlMllh. O nc o f tileS{: begills at JhulLl "lit' 10.hi\ conclusions an' relevan t for some wnml'lI-e~l)(ci all y those who fo llow the tl':ldibOrIal l dn'l'1 paltcnls of !lie n . /llAl'. IIl!llead.lm/ml 0/ pm:1(I~ mlO (ui!dlhfJfJ(/.in/ fkm~1I'lI bI/~ 10 ITf/'lboIlU' /M . .s...ocieties such as tha l o f th e Aborigines m Ih..hr. a.ll t.\ thret' m:yor Ir. thIJ NHlI nlf'Df (Iln nou.Idulthood. Mo roover.. mCll have a dl'eam of what the adult . \lIost womc lI were . I...wn Jllt'r thc al tain men t of adulthood ..\1 ~ cen '1in age a nd Ic\ d o f ma turity.ttioll I:. has Irad il.he role of M thc r" is fOl' mcn .KIOI"'l.me lo r me n a nd ."111""11 11 978: 199) fou nd tha t BO pe rcent of me n WOl.. a pe rson WlIIIM throug h ..lIf ul.. IlItnr.:yc1 c fo r \. especially socia l class.-'I ' . m ost wOllle n carry Ihr mlt III -mother Ihrm lg ho lll the ir livc. until rece ntly.t.t series of d c\'elo pme nt:11 stages.lI1d child re n I":Ith('1' than achic\'em c n ts in tht ~ l. of the rUlUl'e cent.s. A pe rson fro m a PII')I had.'t'. \\'C go through a pro~I IM'riod of tra nsi tio n known as (ldol. expectatio ns a t d ilTcrCIll stage . this rolc M TI" K/II(I !}('fIJ'" of IM Congo 1'/#'111 /HUt as '''t mi(lf Dj dt(/I". A ~ (l I(m/.:tlio n :l l'e 1I0 t )'CI tIll' s.J 1111" tJ" mll/ rOHlpkll'd 11 "/IUlI /l'tj/lJjorml/I. nu the h. \Vh ile ~uc h pa lle rns a rc c ha ngfa ing."ul l hLlI time a t a r. are we adobrnls or ad ultll? Thl' l 'llIt(:d SliILes does bear some resem blance 10 "mplcr r.ooImg.... Men in the U ni u. 1.Jfl'1lN'. or sociali/.r-A \i~ion tha t crcates t'xc itcl1lcn t a nd a se nse at p.o me n ( Ra m c h e t a I.d States o fkn exprJlf'I)U' a nressful I>criod o f self-e\'alu<ltio n ./m".l! \n: have c"ents mar king th e assumptio n of ""' r. T h us. 1983: sce a lso 1'. such a }ollng pt"'lIl 1I1d) nOl ha\'e the luxury of de layin g c ll1 r). psychologil>t Danie l Lc\'inson ( 197B) .lIy bt.. TIll' lI all ~ ition \'..(. com"RlI>.·Ollle ll ."nUlIlt' illllhiguity and con fusio n as wc dc\'dop o ur. T h e wedding repre~ ntii a "'" "I ')j"'h~e in our .edltg cm IIIIfNKt' . fldobstnll main /N.ltr'lh Jnd ha\'t' liu le time left to do 50..they do not nccesW rdlrn the typ ical lit e f.

. Shcchy's Sludie. LI .'I suggesl thnt midlifc t..J maner of inte nsc pride whelL a boy follo . his grandJrnher.. as we will explore more fully in Chapter 12 . a nd " cli giou~ COl sion scttings. A.. O ld age is furt her complicatcd by the negalive WoI)' ill which the elderly arc viewed and treated in mun)' societies. pdsolls.IlIenl. This has an unimc nde d conseque nce: il leaves a greal dea l or room fOJ'indecision or e\'en failure .'\t) • OH("oANI7J.lintcd wiLl l lhe Ilonns.1 indoctrina tio n camps.IpS betwecn their YOllthful iIIw.·o lllc n is the fact that they typic:tlly OI lIli\'e ma le cunt e mporark'S. me nl.W ••\l)QA1. 1987:64.!H fOUlld tha t wome n in the United St<t tcs experience fear and confusio n in their Illidlife years :IS they C1 1COUlller g'. productive. . Resocia/itation rdt'1\ the process of discarding former bchavlor pall a nd accepting lLew Olles as pan of a Imnsitioll one's life..·iII become familiar lilt! the habits of each species..S.. son of a snakeI' will begin to tOllch the sna):.. Pn'paration fur many :lspecLS o f ad ult life begi ns willl a ll ticipalOl).. Quite litt. The boy will won Iram how to catch !makes . within tlte insli tulio n lire conducted in the I /04 I'M rr.. In snakeI' families. ollen a l aboll lllge B!'.. therapy groups. all aspcclS of 11ft corLduc ted in the same place and arc undcrthcl tl'Ol o f . Second . In ber books P(I¥ sag'. JiVL'S as \~'e prepare fot' new responsibilities. ' Collman ( 196 1) has idclLuficd fou r C (1I1 traiLS o f to tal insti tutions.s the phenomenon of the midlilc clisi5 unique to the United States? In some cuhu res. 19SI:6.:I'''II)'.. IJff: .. However. and "OIrL ma le a ncestors (Skaflc.eli be has observed a U his life.tty.h ipalory sociol. Much 1110 1 so man socia lilation 11 'C general or even anticipaTOry socialil<ilion.uy to ullltalllj our previo us orienta tion.Ih a social ~iti before actually ass\ll1liug that status. mallYolder people contin ue to lead active.auo n and I'esocializa(io n . T . wc find it nccess. Roscnfe ld and Smrk.S. lies. and social rc l atio n s h j~ c ulture can fUIII.Ige uf' S 01'6. nll' hospitals. Th(' tal inSlilLltion is ge nerally c ut off from l.·o types of !K)Ciali7ation occur at ma ny points throughout the . At the .md . life cycle: anticipatory soc iali7.. suc h as prisons.. so all-encom <Ire its activities. an)' :rcfil.. tha t a total institution ofl... A'lScssing o nc 's accumplish. First. fuUiIlc d lives-whether within the p. in the $ lootl'ite ps of his rathe r. SOCi. hich a person Mreheal'lies w for fut pusitiolls.he common ster eotype of th e elde rly as hclpl cs.J and Pailljimin3.a tion is particula rly eHcc tivc whru Lt C lLr~ within a total institution ..~ of a nticipatory sodali7"ltion h dent in LllC fiunilics of snakc rs (a tcrm tht'y prr to wake clwrlllm) in India. Anticipatory SociaJization and Resocializatioll The development uf a social self is liter. as she rcaches rnidlife.. 1983:23824 1.-d States. expClic ncing retireme nt .he r'-"l socie ty ~lIld the refore provides fO I' aJl the llt'tdI . l. Cail Sheehy ( 1976. :lIld COIl\ClIIS.Cn n . the milil. peoplc are glvcn specifi c goals duri ng childhood which they a rc able 10 ach ieve early in life.. a woman faces a fU \III'1: in which she may eventually Ih'c alone and Illay become d epc ndc llI on her children (Baruch et al. the crew ofa nl~'r vessel al sca becomes part of a total institUlion elaborate are its requireme nl.ions and thd l' daY'lo-d ay livcs.scnts a mini:nurc society...<ltion typically invo l ~'$ lOR erdble stress for the individual (Gccas. Conseque nt ly. which regulate aJl :ut ora ]>CIWIl'S life undel' a single authOrity. si ngle authority.S. The p roces. Erving ('. Often resociali:wlion occurs when th is:1II explicit efl"on to transform an individuaLb true in reform schools.. occu patio ns.lil)' a lifelong trallsfonn auon which begins ill lbe clib and conti nues as one prepares for death...auolI in .lliZiltion during childhood and adolescence and continues throughout.y in selecti ng o bjecti\'e$ :md aspi . tiOl1s. 199'.. and fdci ng the incvitability of death may lead to painful adjusl.md. Occasionally. An imIXlrtalll factor in the midlife crises of . Howc\'el'. and bchaviOI' assnci:ued .urmoil may begin som e\~ hal earlier for wome n than for men.. including their husb. litk. coping with declini ng physical abilities.. including the Unitc.. Some or the most difficult socia li :tatioll challenges (and rites o f passage) a re e n counte red in the lalc r years of life. process of resociali/.ilS members. in our society people have unusual ncxi bili. ali wc assume new social and c)((1t': patio na l positions.!: 1 Rcsociali7.u/Tm& ( 196 1) coined the terOl total jrrstitlltionS(1J tu institutions. Older pcopk 's selfimage may weaken if they a re inllue llccd by t.~ and d ependc llt.:lioll more e ffi cienLly a nd SIIlOUI if mc mbc l'S becullle lIcq u..zolitm refers to tJ1(' processes ur cia li/.'lid laOOr forcc or as pan of reun!1ncnt..sis is clearly e\oidcnl in boIh scxcs. (6) . 1979).

·"IJwRl"MnISl'w dixriptlll'... and in-laws (C<.lc Li.. .. in thl' same cil'CIIIIISl.... Inlhi..'1:I in Cha pter 14...q! rules and schedu le .-cas.oug/l.wies.. Since ncwool1'l'l can hear.atioll as they adjust to becoming spouses.. ....ltion in the United StalCS.J1A71O\ .. sce. the culturc or Ihe Unite d StalCS is "'hllnl Il't ralher g11I(\l1al 1ll0VcmCIIL" from one r nl «ialil.. the workl}lace. Human be- AG~ ~S OF SOCIAUZATlON :\..lSSOCiated with 1l1e process of wciali/"llioll . From this point u n .111\ ul ullle"...cn.tlucs of both lhe family and lhe larger rociety..111 liuJe or 110 room lor pe rsonal inilulll(' I ht" instillllion is ex pel'ienced as all ovcrhl"M111~ iltlli.cnce the humiliatio n .... IlJ Inll n lull/llm/illlllml Ill/urn ''f'g«UI/'~ (Ill ruJWrlJ J tifo.. upon c lltclin)( pri<."lIlLS..lflidClll adul t'!!. to· t'Ulllple.... parents... Thl' family i the institlllion most closely .../lI". adults Ihclllsch'cs experience sociali1. all a..for ex· .!tion £intl :L'i babies :md infants living in fami lies: il is hL' re thllt we develop an in itial sellS<. Famil .' compe tent ado lescenL'i :tnd sc lf'-sl......lIld values will be explol't. "/JooI ramp.'lJX'Cts fir hI! IIlthin a lotal insliWlion art! designed to ful fin lilt purpose of the organi:r:ltioll... sme ll . . The con tin uing 0 105 UIIf"1}...arfinkd.. and OLlwr pcrsonal posscssions III t .tnnrLm ..... iI.ing young people into society'S noml . Most IXlrents set:k 10 help their clli lcl l'ell bec(lnl(.LI cnvirol1TllCIlI: the individllal bC(tIlIIC:S ."(1 5 . Ros(. all <lChlUII" III a 1ll0n3SICI) arc centered on pr. The famil)' is lhe mOSI imponam agem of soci:lli/./or jirJ/-JIIIV n ffrmlm ill CtlltfOfflI(l. Finally...I /In)OII "/JooI mmp· /J % P'NOII U'l t'KU"''''.. and pain . Third... and the state.tlil) is often lo!>! within total inSli lutio ns..md rea ring of chil{h'ell.JH ' 'iOClA/. The role of religion in 'W>Cial il. taste. and li fclon g socia liz:ltio n process involvcs lIlany different sociOlI forces which illflucnce Ollr Ih'cs and aher our «!1f....llId mthcl' iTl\'isibl('.. " \0 727111..iLics .... fll~ 1I...... the peer group.. I" . huUl ICl/lSulting partid.liul becomes knmm to :lIItho rilie!l :t. lhe mass media.. h..' et OIL.......(m lO begin ~ do­ Ill: IIml' .chy...l)'er and 'Hu:mllnitlll with Cod ( I). ' nlUS. lIIilll(l'1")I)/.alion 1 Ihe ncxt.. 1989: P. EVt'1l the Pt:I'lIOII'1'I self is wken m.. tJw Authorities de\..... mlc cxtent: thc pri~n inmate I~es his 01' ha' rt. Imhlidu.l1IjJlr nOI._ L ... dtgradolion ceremO"Y :1 he or she is strippc...IlJlt' .. pl'OcellS. in a com'e nl or army recruil~ . o nc of its plimary fun ctions is Ihe care .~21-32"l ). 1956) . Obviously.IIlCes......' 'K'('Il. )OIlI1g "'''. Fivc other agents or sociiLIiUllion will be given particular allcntion in this chaple r: U1C school.l>Ch es 10 the surrounding .. . 198 1).. The lifelong p l'OCe'lS of I('. \\'llkh Illeans sodaliling them into IJIC norms and v... .J..n't... cold .j dnthil1J.imagcs. Wc experience social il. alld fccl heal.. Ihey OI'ient thcllI.....l.. 1'J79..w J person ilia) expcl. especially for childre n .' of self.....I .orld..jl-v. ctail) roulines arc "II('1'lul('(1 "..ng begins sho rll)' after binh ....... _ _ .

. In Ih t.ouisc mi develo p selr. the fa mily.lies of malt"S a nd fe males. Depe.'ligiow or inldlcc lual le.ndingoll how they are tre"<llcd . Schedules :'II'e imposed for ('ating and sleeping.ont tcache r considers he!' fascination with asU'OIl ~strnnge" for a girl. and 10 joi n tllC science clair.atio n.ertJlcless. coul1selorand her parents prCS5ure her inlo pn: ing for a C'..51)t. lelf.'I::d as femin ine. A cu ltur~ or subcu lture may rcq uirc I.·eryone·" opposition . As the primary agents of childhood socia li'l.·c l1 in to those gellder roles dee nl('d appropria te in a socicty.mi7C:d . inf<ll1lS can de\'e lop 5trong social . M toughn css" hall been traditionally see n as m asc uline-and desir"ablc un ly in m e n -while "tcnderness has heen viev. howC\'e r..Illachments a nd dependency on o thel'3.) .lIory ".. and aCliv. economic support of till':' family. and t-wi call yc l1te~ ilHo f:.ditiona l gender roles 01 Unitcd States." The gui coullsclor suggests that he atte nd a college ".he social env."onl4 During the ir' cullege YC. By the twillS' high sch ool )'eiD. Even as the behavior of . babies :tre hard ly asocial. Whilt:. infa nts can be "ie""cd a" objt:cts of sociali .mcl Loui ~ arc twins who both shw a n unusua l interest in ~ien cc al an early agc.le..O do . beautirul dr·csst's. As bOlh Charles I-Io rton Cooley and Ceorgc f-I erhen Mead noted . or .atiOIl.ouisr mig ht get college.all of which are designed rrilm. 1969) .HI tro no mer de~pite c.ith stro ng science program in order L achie\'c his O u f becoming :t biologist. Fo r ex· a mplc.II'5.!ICuline norms.lrily for White consumers (J . African Am erica n parents.Ireer ~LS an earl)' chi ldhood te. l. the development of the self is a c ritkal aspect or the early )ears of o ne 's life.· who ".rc heJ'lli...ill1:lges . Ran is known a.mci the c llviro l1l1lt'llt.M noticeable impact on a c hild 's socialil. Louisc is given miniaturt do ll ho uses.'ark. and ltOCiety as a " thole 10 be: telling you umt yOIl :m~ Hu nrnasculirut or" reminine" for doing so. Ro n and l. 3nd Leleo.. Most infants go through II rclath·eJy fomlaJ peliod of 5OCialil. celHancc or new foods. . such social de'o'elopment includes exposure to cuhu.I baby is being modified by interactions wilh pe opl(' . scopes.unpk rI differential II'C01llllcllt of chi ldren "'hich begin!i".Sl itutions also h. or 1'(. especi:tlly family me rnbcrs.'~c and o ther ways. adults is an in nucntia l Ol5J>CCt of gender-role. who . On the other ha nd .. the baby is c:ausing othe l'S to c hange thei r bdlavio r patterns. to)'S.O hdp ~iIk their labor.hat o ne scx o r tJle Other ~kt prim:lry responsibility for SOChl1i1.ion . t.llh'e messages about S hlcks in children 's books. As we wi ll scc in Chall ler 11 . The term ge ndf!r roll!$ refers (0 expectatio ns regarding the proper behavior. teachers t:lkc nou.. in tUn!.lh leaching. People ministe r 10 the baby's nceds by feeding. Without (1IIest. ami dancillg ICSSOUl Wh e n the twins a rc in junior high schoo l. o the r euhures do no t nece5$llrilyassign thesc (lualiLics to each gender in the way that o ur culture does.hcr dc career whit"h they sec as morc suilable for a ". Ye l il can be extremely d ilTIcult pursuc :1 Clreer."Cial projects.. He 0 1' she convcrlS adul ts into mothers a nd f.LS "scientist" :l1ld "tcacher: . w . bUt U.. In the United States. in facl. . and carrying the baby. reI they :tlso fUl1 c tion as sociali7el'5.lS young a!I 2 years old can absorb neg. Louise is given no such e ncour':lgeme nl. Other adults.. the terminatio n of breast or boule rceding.s a "science wh iz.. dcsphc asking for sim ilar gifts.. o lde r siblings.unily.c. .. cleansi ng. Loulsc hall rcalized she would like 1.ntiIlIdes. ROll .atioll into re minine a nd \Il:t. re influe nced bycuhuml messages regarding gender.·en al . for example. Ne\.. .social skills per se..'Wbol'll and othe r careta kers a re not concerned \\.I assllll1ptio lts regarding gende r and race. constitute all imponant pa rL of I. differential socialization hat I)()werl'ul impac t 0 11 tht!' development of fe m. Let us consider a h ypothe tical ex:. They courdge him t.0 become an astronomer.' of Ro n 's lo\'e fo r science.'lI part ofa gcncr<uio n.. /Q6 I'~ H'T I1ItJ • OHGA . Sociali1. Ron is given chemisll)' sets.!'iOCWinuion. and the a c...I M and religious and educational hl. Neilhrt thesc young people is a »:tssh'(' acto. The family or a nl...ation of c hildr~n. $(JCMI IJ~·I .ronment of the ne wbom .uhel'5.·ision sho'" .rdenohip. Child..'! l' sycho logisl Shil'ley We il1 ( 1977:60. switch her majo!"' a nd become ..l:tbly rollow lh e tr-.5pccli\'e ly. have leamed tha t c h ildre n .. Fnr hi~ birthd:l)'S.lilYo tlwr type of life choice onc's parents. and the like. An infanlentcl'$ a n o rg-. parents play a cri tical I'o le in g uiding c hild.atiOI1 within Mexg American r:lllliliel'-including sociaJi1. the Illass media.-. microscopes.atiOIl UtlO tmditio nal gender rok-s-i!l exa mined in 8ox . 1993).!IOCie lY becomt.ings. assist the baby ill p''Ogressi n g imo child· hood (Rht'ingold.ill ' ev.a tion gener-Illy called habittraming.11 0) has ut gested that diffCl'cntiltl treatment of children t.

the gender roInfir. An important rite 'I (4 IJoWagc (or Mexicm Amcricul (In_ to known as the quinremiem. Mexican American YOlllhs will t:xpcrience resentment.jAUZATlON .#1111\ mponsibilities precluded <Lninll. By conlr.md dating. sports. thereby giving lhis aspen of Mexica n c ulture more attention than it desel'\·cs. Machismo may be demo nstr. 1993). 11 1rI. the traditional values of machismo a nd familism arc likely to become more of a historiral fO(llnole with e. pn jud ice.lch p. Neither machismo nor familislll is unique 10 Mexic. San Antonio mayor tlle firsl Hispanic "rl 10 $e11'C as chief cxecuti vc of a UI.' that Mt.lexican American subculture emphasize mochismQ. and assimilatio n. manage.!!] Americans and O<:lIll may be found ill other cultures and subcultures. as a result of industJialization. Pnricia Adlcr and her colleagues ( P. Mexican culture and the r. a Ca tholic bishop often will make an appcal"oI/lcc and a!':ce pt contributions frum lhe girl 's father (GarLa. 1985:96-98). religious activities. i11ld customs. urbanization. 1"'rsflnaJ "·flr'lh. The I'.!ce for governor of Texas. «!Id an elaborate (and 1'~timt'5 verr expensive) dance wtil!ion. 107 CI/Ay/'EH ~ • S(X. o thers may simpl y altemp t 10 be a tlractive to women.( cl1coun lered in early c hildhood are often Uctur III drfini ng a child 's popularity. Wallace. 1984). g irls ga ined popularity owing to their pare nts' economic bac kground and their own physical a ppea rance. 1. accent. te11l] wh ich refers to a ~('n~e nf viril ilY. In socializing male child ren. anI'I<n)ntro tha t he was dropping o ut '~~le r.ued in man y dif~ fering ways. . Ulrt Ml:xiC'oIn Americall subculhas long emphasized tlOld iI ~I~I gender-role soc i alil~'l t ion. and s uccess in relatio ns hips with bri rls. . lhis ceremony-marking Ihr n:ul>iuoo from gi rl to WOlnallIw llrcllffil' mort' popular O\'er lhe *1 :Ill r~ars. Lndeed. and discriminalion because of their appearance." toug h n ess.111<11\' h.m Alllericans will learn how 10 confrOIll. The distinnive socialb:ation experience of Mexican American children also includes a n unfurtunate and sometimes biller aspect.. and cope with the particular difficulties of being part of an iden tifiable minority withill the dominam culture of the United Statt:'s. For some me n . and Cisneros felt thal his 1. Adler ct aI. and a cad e mic success. 1988.'. Like brirls and 1:JO}'s from other racial and eUll1ic minorities.'lI'Y sch ool c hildren and found thal boys typically achieved hig h status on th e basis of thei r athletic ability.Js~ing gel1eration.icipation in school. social skills. Along wi Ul pal1.nown as Chi""'~) pb.'x"-'Ill Anl('licans (also k. m. upward mobility. \\'lull 'IO!IIe traditions of Mexican 1.fdKl'I.·d~ion . new son was ailing from birth . Mexican Ame ricans are :11so believed to be more familistic than other subcultu res.~lIer05. amI pride ill o ne's maleness.Ij..lfdlY in the United States. Many oir 11"('1\ 'laW Ci~neros's d. Sociologist. language.I99:tW3). Like othe r imm igran ts fl'om Europe and A~ia . young Mexic.s.uj')l11 ill Ihe quinceanera. T he femin isl moveme nt in both the Uniled Stales and Latin America has challe nged tntditional genderrole socia lilatioll and has cha nged the wars in which men and womc n intelOlCI. Moore and Pachon.!19'}) obscJ'\'Cd elcm ent. Mexican Americans can be expected to graduall y adopl the no n ns of the dominaJll culture of ule United Slales regarding fami l)' life (I\ecena.'eeke nds bcfo!'c thr tldOC~ are fill ed with prepara- nl~ tory rehearsa ls ill volvillg many family members. GHlO aDdllUln In rhe United States.1987. "coolness.. Duling the dance itself. ll'J!ICillvl the high v. Fomifism refers 10 pride in the eXlended family expressed thro ug h lhe maintcllance of dose ties and stl'Ong obligations 10 killfolk outside Ihe immediate fam ily (5.il ut.. Moreover.he fami ly (SehaeIttll /y Ci. 'il1h ~1 bdllg socialiled to expen !AIk' duminance while girls pre(toIlr 10 focu~ on the needs of their 1II1If't' families. social skills. Femin islli argue ulal Chimale~ havt: fu lsdy glorified mach ismo. Mex0Vl American gi rls typically panicIpllt' ill ~ Ua)'long religious retreat. Research data 1I0W suggest that machismo and fami!ism are ill decline among Mexica n Amcricans.\. AltllOugh there are gn.l\'c been discarded by f hlf'Jnll'l. bold challenges or success in fights ma y eS lahl i~h virility. acthe in politics.. Ih.tst. J.e on !.


.!cr group.tiling out answers willlout mi$ing _hlle reprimanding girls for similar '. fo r example. At home. at school.l\ur ho~'5 O\'er girls. the group may encourage someone t..theless..he other hand . ~ Indeed .tlId to 90 percenl by Ih e c nd or the I 1988)..~~. wi thin the pC.. while females art..'.. I)eer groups serve a valllable function by assisting the u'a nsition to adult responsibili ties. " .:nion process at wOI·k.. peCI" groups increasingly assume U I C role of Ceorge l-l erbcn Mcad 's significan t ot hers. J arc more likely to spend ' c. . and th e like. T Ill:: 111(' funcLion:llist and conniCl l'.. and special-i nterest d ubs. "' . 1994) nOle that ~a l ­ brlit'\'t:' that classroom sexism disapnrh '70s.~ dS 109 . suc h as fli e ndshi p cl iques.t )'OHng prople may !level" recei\'c Ih.i~t ~ that the ~sys tem must chitngc~ AsSIx:-iation or Univt:rs~ty Women ... Tee nagers im it. Boys IlIr tile illlC}lt:cUI:lJ COIlft'11l of ..ml lIIost prestigiolls jobs. in many societies besick>s the Uni ted States (Dornbusch.~ ill a ~choo l dub engaged in \..Je. a.... each member ca n assert himselr or hcrselfin a V. TIl is pauem rcnL'<:L~ differen ces in lel'els of' emotional intimacy: teenage males arc less likely to dC\-elop strong emotional ties Ihan arc remales..e tJle c ulturc 's norms and valucs by driving recklessly..... a re po rl I~ In' the AtneriClIII Association of !I ~::.... youth gangs.1 meaningru l system or rewards ilnd punis}lI1lCIlU.10"" more academic a~$ isl:mce .. . .::~~2..'gher·.. On .Cd 1331 stml· I I f..". ulis figure had lisen lO fill pe r. Tlte group mny ~nCO Il r­ ag<-" a young pcr:o)oll to fo llow pursuits that society COlIsider~ "Id m irable.. 1""i1 ".-" .. ...~~... schools serve soc:ia1ii'.. frcq uel1lly assist ado lesce nts in brain ing some dtgrec o f indepe ndcnce rrom parents and other .ns ........'i o r vandalism. paren ts tend 10 domi nalC. shoplifting.-.~lrd boys for aSS('rtiw'! ness {. . c h ild grows o lder. I)ecr blTouI>S. )'o ung people associa te \\IiU1 others who a re approxima tely the ir own age a nd who oftcn enjoy a simi la r social Sl at US.. 101 ""'"" ":~~.n \\ould qualify them for ollr so. Gender d il1ercncl's arc notewonhy in tilt: social wod d of adoit. Instead.'1te their friends in pan beca use tile IX'f: r gnJ/lp IIJ:1.. Instead.. males arc more indinL'<i to share in group activities...s time in groups of males. __ """/ illtt"lIertual mobility compared m ull ing rrom dilTercmi:u trcau nclll I"eachcl'$ pmisc boys more than 16.o[ulHee r work in hospitals and nursing ho mes. the teenager m ust co ntend with teachers and administrators... As we will sllId y in more detail in Chapte r 7... Within the peer group.'iIl be discussed in more detail Peer GroUD .IIei...1 \Iudenl'l the \~dlues and customs of M-hools in the United SliUt-S have -I children il1lo convcntional Pt(lI~1'$ of cducaLion Myr.."S(enlS. These patterns are evident among adolescellL. tlte r.:n:: that schools in the u IIl1ariI. If all of onc's frie nds have successru lly battled for lhe righ t to stay out until midnigh t all a Saturday nigh l..girlsortcn are flOt expected or enh..l.. Whe reas of school lunch prognurts provided in 1975. traditional nOllllS and I':llues).o violar...-. NC\'cl. it may seem essential to fight fo r the same privi lege..h.. schools were chosen as the 10 r~lIledy the situat ion . almost a ll adolescents in ollr culture remain cconomic<lUy depende nt on As. Pec l' b'l'Oups also p rovide for a ntici pa tory socializatiOIi into new roles tha t thc young person will later assumc..lUthority figures.... M... repon. COIIfomling to pcers' bchavior is an example or tlt e sQCializ.::......lOlily becomes somewhat less imporl'lIl! in his or her social development..~dy thal may nOl be possible elsewhere.aOuting the 1980s..~:I:....' morc likely to inleract with a single othe r remale.1 &J<lkcr SldL-1 (1985:5<1...·c1' mathematics or sciThe I'('porl concludes that gil'is arc dwllk'Y" to reach their' academic polru.) .. Bli t.. e llbrrtging in acl. it hasn ' t.. ~u ccd by spoons and chcescburgeould not use hllShi (chopstick... girls show a disturbing . --~. well .~~~~ morc likely to be pmised for ~ rcv... 1989:248) .nm.. Ipa"""'" and ctlucalors were distressed to lhildren I"ere gradually losing the \\iUl chopsticks (which seemed to to sociali ze a nl::\\1 generation ~" .

.cten. In addition .. since these c hal'actcl'S lIlay be the mosl meaningful for )'Ounger viewers (l·circc. SOOill.. of l~k. 10 . t99.000 li elionallllurdef~ (MUlvilree. 19930..'(l". teIL-visioll progr.m G. and television have become important agents of socializalion..r All PRIME·TIME TElEVISK>N CHAAACTERS Of u.. tclevision has tl':.ldilionally portrayed and promoted conve ntional gender roles.. and most a rc emotionally dependent as well. television 's porlJ"a). is a critica l force in the socializalion of c hildren in the United Stales..1 r... recordt.wilt (hddrefl..IS wel l as adu lts) arc exposed LO a gn~lI dcal of "iolcncc on television..lIld role p l~l yi ng but does 1I0t encourage more complex forms of leaming.a.... 51 Female Children.ears. Rt'markably. Crea tive programming such as &fmllLSI. Like other agcOls of socializ:ttion . 'eioping hasic skills . 63% .000 hours ). 1989). motion pictures.. whereas boys play sporlS. .ri.-vision \.'I'I1JNC. Rchltivc LO other age nts of socialil:tlion discusscd earlier-such as fami ly members. In tenns of socialiZ:llio n . go on excursions. By llge 16. watching lelC\ision is the most time-consuming aaivily of you ng people. encc. " Ihrir aCiIlnl .E t I _ ..••'. read .&/l<r .in of ll'Ic\. istics. (lIId oItkr fJI!&Pk"" IIIUft'r'f'l'fJrtVtlkd... . PROPORTION Of a. onc SiL~ back and wailS to bc e ntc nained . The t-wO sexes arc also s hown as dinering substantially in th e types of actjvi ties in which they panicipate.. the avcrage )'o llng person spends more time watching the "tube" (15. un .1. Cri."./Ire$(!lI/l'ti (1/1 wl... 1991: \Vaters..ewer has witnessed some 200.s 1'OPIJIAn::N Mol..<l1 of child characters is especially significant. tial for schoolin g.. schools."<I music.illlllQlIIl'''. Mass Media In the last 75 ). Young gi d s o n pri lllt'-lilllC television talk on lhe tele phone.•• '''''''''11 a~ ll O /'AHT 'tWO ° (J//r. Even c ritics of the medium gCllcrally conceG' lhat t.Ol ••:f.their parents. A conten t analysis of c hild cimr...riu within 'N! ~ If'" IJOfmflllio" of'hI' Unj.Ir. Television .000 hours) than working in school (13.he United 5tatG leaming about life in "faraway lands: but inl1er<ity c hildren It'arnin g about lhe Jives offa~ c hildren and vice vena.......1)'5 in \"h ich 1e1C\ision misrepresent'i the realit ies of clay-uxlay life in the Uni ted StttG a re explored in Tablc 4-.. ~U>i\ I-/""""hutd Sll"~. .lmm illg lhllt chi ld rei' view as IJwy sit for hOllrs in fronl of:t telcvision set.rirls. such technological innovmio l1s as r-ddio. 7 . The \\'.. ".. Nauon:d ~1..e1evision is. between the ages of 6 and 18. Hi5ptWIG\.lcler:s 011 prime-lime television r·c\'c.1 f1tIIl'm. Ad:ol'l".4 ~lgnifi((Jnl (~"'l1l. genentlly :Igreed d ial c hildren (. 38 17 victims 18 ~l\"ty " " 'i. a nd rational than I.000 to 16..sinn are furth e r alarmed by tile:' JlrtF gr. including 33.ht . Watchin g t...'0" 0"' .000 acts ot television violence..r.. 2 B I. 11 i-..A. It permilS imitation . can assist c hildren in dt._. and help \I'ilh housework.o"'HI NC"pI. ..t1ccl lh:u boys are shown as significantly rnor'c active. chi ldren in our society t)'pical1y watch o\'cr threc hours of television per day..11. .. "'"""'" T.lI11 'lI1d e\'cn cOlltlllercia ls expose young pcoplr III lifestyles and c ultu res of \"hich they arc ut1a"... White "1011../. Many p:lrclHs in essen ce allow the television set 10 become a child's favodle "playmate": conseq ue ntly.• ~'L 'p'''d Ih''' ' I/SA '/lob" Omlnll alltll)'fir p.°oll't This entails not only children in t. 1993) .ogmms Juu"jound diJ""IHllldl's bt/Wel'll 1I1I~"::::"::1 of IJarimu grollPS on 11. a passi\'e expcri. a nd get into mischief.. Apart from sleeping. TAl1l. abovc .td 8111'4 1'" amnpU. ages 60 and over White Hi5ponlc Wear glosses Ate overweighl Drink oleaMlic beverages Smolte cigorelltt' Hove been crime " B.' h. 7' .. in particu lar.m. lOntlltutM'"' Sun. the average tclt. p".elevisio n is not always a negatil'c socializingill' tluence .. aggr·cssivc. ages 37 4 0-12 Older people. anti peers-television has cen ain distinctive c haracte r.

199 1).~. working rll ll time . C uba n television educate viewers abolll (llher cuhures and subcul tures. It) ~=::. of peo ple who m we mee t \"h ile they afC pe rfo rmill g the ir duties (d oclOl's o r fi refi ghtcrs..:I.:~~~ :~ O('I:::o '. 1989 ) • I uU' p O. professional ath lc tes.hcrs RIcans.~ to buy fOtXf :. help to shapc-.I:k::'.~:. :md o f people ponrayed in the ll1edi:.I h:U'50 reality (.. exposed to occupatio .'S and elsewhe There has been 11 the cont(' 1Il of nllL'. a. Rcse.uld Cody. while \\'t l'tf~pk) has promo ted ra m- beillg d.J7AUQN .In(1 pay lhe re lll ') :md the reaJil.. which ilwol\'cs sclection of acadCln ic o r vocOltionaltr. ic.l into the Jives of c hilrlre n and .M.I hm'c to work ill o rder ...llJO>itlliatn 10 Ivl/llllnn iJ.the type o r work we may consider. Mex. \Ve <I n : m ost full ). . :n. The fi rst ph ." BrnwlI . slIch as biolo b a nd /11 CJIAPn. serve as powerfu i for many :~. "'mu lI/aliIlTJ /()t' W Olllt71. Wilbc:l't Moore ( 1968:87 1-880 ) has d ivided occupatio nal sotialization into rour phascs.:~:. T hese fonns of M (/lid"'" dllllglJln'.. j.\ importlulI to no te tha t simila r Ik'('1I rdised l'Cgn ('ding th e com e nt of DUbi! h.m Ame ricans.re.)tatt.ml I·ol c.'crs ' Iprl ot !Ill: 1II(·' 'i. it is a n indicauo n to onr h:t~ l>asse<...ic. 1Il(Jllu~n fl rr£i1I tht Ill/film 100« fMI dmlKhftTl IQ Ih".Inll'di.:"~~~' While minimizing certai n st ll~ ~:.I. . yo ung people inl .f(h{'fI 011' d .:tJl1:11J/c"lJ jn 111..m:.. Th e~e obsen 'lltio ns.. o nc ')' mllst take ccrtain courses. it 1. it may rlUl1Ullelllcc:1 the st rong diffe re nces be~ .!n" . O n e surw :: vie\. culture.j" .~:. fo r exam ple).gt. .o:U::Ie\ision..". Muorc. h...w...ation experiences that occllr du ring c h ildhood a nd ado lescence. • ~:III~.i out o f adolescence. ". (preside nts.lh J'ml Cl!? t'mnpllg l' 'm."!"'''l.<uiol1 o r an :un bitio n (M (" \'e ah\l<lYS \\I<I nted to be an airline pi lot-) (W.~ certain paren ts' o rg<lIl iI religious groups cha lle nge the inl11..sion .>lOpecially rock music and I -dp")...R 4 • SOCJ...'" <I films.."sired job.~ell.'.·••"tgcs we receive with in :. O cct1 pmio llal social iz:llio n cannot be se parated from the sociali1.'.lSC is ra"tercJwiu... 111 a into a n occupation can re prc.tnd other Hispanic peoples.ldult ~talU." .hpect or h uman socia Ji zalion inheh<l\'e appropriately wi lhin all In rht' Llnilcd States. rhangel\ in self-ide n tity.lnd oftcn lim it. If onc hopes lO become a p hysicia n.sometim es le adi ng 10 cc ltoun hatllcs-a.s...ulicsthe'\(! dislhlctions so m ewhat and Ih(: common ide ntity o f these mi- television a ppears to be having II1flllt'I1CC on lhe IllttiOIl 'S g rowin g: I-lisimpact o f tc!c\.'s 1 11 agricul tural practices. Fo r ex• (:Odl Cnno a t DaUJn c ncour:lges \~ l­ ~ •• Mloplt 11l0dl" A II mqUl' /ffll lll jS/ txmnp" 0/ IJUI'/Klliotlnl wnalwll/f)II looN pltlff '" ':::: ::. rl('\'I'\o ping countries have at- . 1968:862). "Honl.lkr (lIlt/lnlmlll till'''' mQlhm' QfrulJ//lw rn lIIul r(lrtm.nd so fo rth).(\I' focused 0 11 television as a n agent All ril I 'i9J.c lful I I IWJ9 by three-fourth s ofaJll-lisp.:::"':O~I (Mydans.liningappropriatc fo r the d4. ..1. . b) ron\("y specific SOddl m essa ges.:nivision and TelClfl undo- nt:l\<lu.orgt!mud Iry Ilu~ Ms. o/H'r(/ll)l' (whll Jrr"ntJ 9/ / mfls) .cI~)('~ iIorh>o. along with the subllc Illes.~ lhro tlgh observing the wOl'k o f Ollr 1 l<II'CIIL\. .. a ll (I "Tllb Dllr lJll llgl!lm III \\'0'* Oay..md motion pi ctures. .:::':~. YCl the or 1\\-1) nationwide Spanish-language t..

." .'iO(' . the 19905 the indhidual as 1I citizen and iUl nomic actor is influe nced by national intercsts. .. In the past..'lIlQl/f rommilmrol. Tec hno lugical advan ces may . Riu.1'5.'IC fIIul rom lllifmr lll-occ urs while onc actually occupies the work-related role. the ellure adolescent period may focus on training for that fUlure . if ajob pro\'cs to be ~tisfaclory.. c mmenl rcgulllliol1s r..uend for a period of ). At this point. il will be useful 10 work as an apprentice for an exper! p'-dctici ng Ihat ( mf...«:.. Slate shapes the sociali1<ltion process by iofll ing our . 1989). adolescence as they observe their p.ould gi\-e il .l.~ .c .. man y people change occupaIjons....l' tasks of an occupalion. nio lt throughout childhood and . Violation of proper conduct becomes unthinkable. The Ihinl phase of occupational soci...c hemistry... Traditionall)'.. .hlL"iasL acceptance of ic pleasurable duues tlmt CO lll es as the recruit idenufies the positi\. H()\o'n'tt.u·c nts a t work..er a fOUI'Lll stage of socializmion ..'iocialions.school.s thro ugho ut a pcrwn 's ye. boor un ions a nd political parties ~M intermediaries be tween lhe individual and Stale.'Orthy impact on life cycle by rcirt. which are I'cquired ofapplicanL'i to medical.icW.V.5UtUlillK lhe riles of pas. Most people find that the novelty of a new daily schedule quickly wears ofT and then re.lmmt lO reI'Cl' to the Clll.ng impact on the lifc cycle.5 view.. Moore USCll the te rm [011/m.uion can be most intense immediately afl..~i n gl y recognized importallce of the sta te-or government at levels-as a n lIgcm o f socializaLion because of' gro\\.~" h......5 .. tal health clinics. ILer the requircments of the position and necessitate some dCb'Tee of re!f()CiaIi1. and relire.llizationconllitinn.self-identity. occupational socializ continuc.e r.mcc com panit!'l ( burn and TibbiL'i.. some pcople tlm(/~ o n occupatio nal gUll!. marry \\'ilhout parcntal permission....H l.' ... Therefore. . LlIC person will cnt..Ii"'III ""nh."""' .. Th... aHe r ye.. A young woman or man lIIay resolve LO become:l dancer at the age of 1I or 12. and imur.sag1! had disappc:a rcd in agricultural societies and III riods or ellrl)' industrialilatjon . .linguishable ()ar! of the pel'5On'...secretaries may find lhcmsckes adjusting to sophisticmed word-pl'Ocessing cquil)melll. in .. " In addition... In addiuon......ill that the sWtc is undcr pressure to becomr prodde r o f child care ...t and direcl role in t11(> sociaJilation of infa nts young child re n. In Moorc·. \'Otl' in tions...lfl: _ J . 112 PtlRT nil') • ORC. _ _ ._ _ Social scie ntists have in c rc:. A person may choose to join professional as. drink alcohol. wc ..flo' f~uuily's pro lccLive fun c tion has steadily been lril ferred to Oll\sidc age ncics sllc h as hospitals.. Cmlllilionillg consists of rclu ctanLly atljusting to the more unpleasant aSI>ccL'i o f one'sjob.... mple..1. which he calls ro"/.. MallY of th agencies arc 11111 hy the govcrnme nt. 1961 .. . e mplo)'ers. or othe r grouJ>!i which re prc~c nl his or her occupation in the la rger society.. rJ in tJlt marke t (Mortimc r a nd Si nullo ns. which may last only a few months or e.....5 of appropri:'llc behavior at partku ages ( Ma)'er and Schocpflin.~§!!:~£. . h" .. .. Some c hildren in the United Slates "inherit" thcir occIII>ations beca usc their parents mn fanllS or~ma and pa" stores. These rcglllatio lls dO!lor c lItiLul e stdCl rites o f passage: most 2 1 -ycar~lds nOl "OlC and most pcople c hoOse UJ(~ ir age of tirement without refe re nce to governme nt di Still. by reb"ul:ui ng thc life cycle 10 some dcgrt't. overti ml'!.. ily members ha\'c sen'c<1 as the prinMT)' car in n . the rest art ccnsed a nd rcglll:Hcrl hy gO\'crlllllcnUlI bodies.. ... The st:lte has had a notc .c r onc makes the o". 1977)..\lizc that paru or the work experience arc r.A..upulatc the ages 'H \\'hich person may drive a car...oT)'.J..778) . I n a sensc...\thc. For exa mple.. these young pcopk are expclicncing antici patory sociali7. The next phaore idcntilicd by Moore is ""tiriP..... o r places o f work during their adull years. Ilt rclntin:lr enrly ugell und nt=vcr W'i l\'cr from tlleir c h oic(:~. which .Iory s()('UliiuJ/um.· tedious. T lllIs. unions. U1C social policy lIcctioll or this chapLe r. but it continues through one's work hist. tion . ex. 1978:440-44 see also Becker e t al..u" of work.:msitiOIl from sc hool lO the job. ". 1934:66 1. Oceupalio nal socializ. th e lifc cycle was influcnced most' lIiricalllly by heads o f households and by I groups such as religiolls org'lIlizalio ns. Ifo nc 's gOOlI is lu become a violin maker. the job become an indi. ing at typewriters.

'i :i to 6 }'c a I'S showed sib "lific:uu ly greate r' la nguage devclo pmcn t and grcon cl' gains ()n achicvcrnell1 tests tha n child ren in the non-nUl'SCIY co n trol gro up did .'I. Ca rber a nd I-J e rbcr. 1986..hat childre n in day care or preschool progl'. 19i7. \\ill take care of the c hild ren 0 1 dllring work ho urs? Fo r tWO-lhirrls o f ~. pe rfonlling ntllt wing and sociali:t.. Agt' . Shel l.l1 t~rur". aboul half of all Da nish ch ildl'c n under the age o f 3 a nd 70 percen t o f chil· d re n ages 3 to 6 a ttcnded publ ic child care pr" 113 . good ( I.. wh )' d oes child [iuJe govcnllne nl suppo rt? (0li!S of d ay care progr::ulIs he paid b)' ""n~'''I..lIion from their pa rCllIs and Icmito h a\'(' m a rc stimulating interactio ns whent" gClhe r..·~ ()r . 1988).CIII of alll1\oth( l's wilh child re n of 6 were fOllnd in the paiel laOOr the number eithe r working o r looking (·XIK'<:II. fi ts child re n . In add ition ....7 pcr(. indicate that childre n pl aced in high- quality chi ld care c:eIllCI'!I arc not adve rsely affected by such expe rie nces: in faCI.:ales I... Ih" Lnltcr! Stale<i' (see Chaptcr 11 ).AND EED FOR CHILD CARE I """.. III..t)' l. In 199 1. il appears fro lll recent stud ies th a t children llIay be bette r o fT in cente rs with we lltrained carcgivers than Ciu'ed fOI' full time by th ose mothers who are de pressed and fnlSlra tcd becausc they wish to work o ll l'iide lhe home (Calinsk)'.hle· nt'ot 111 expose youn g c hildre n to the influl"nce of day care? or ('Onnict theorists.n'l of the n uclear fmnil)'. gr cc to whic h taxpaye rs should subsidizc it.'a re be ne-..~ror who m natio nal dall-l ar c now ' 'IOlulioll has become g roup c hild ca re Oa\' cart' [enlers han! become the fUlle""".m end ing 111 e preschool progmln fro m agc. I!J<JOb).llI­ kee p reschoule l's with a ~ non. mal ar no cost.I~. provide preschool care a l mini. Anum" ber o f Euro pean nations. all propelled 'lIl incrt!asing num.lIl1Sarc m a rc self-sulJicic nL They react \\'c ll to sc par. incl uding Ihe Nedlt!r· lands a nd Swcde n . hy the pl'ivaw !reClOr. The m luc of prcschool programs .'iIS docllllle nted in 11 comparison of full -lime ~'l il w. resea rch cond ucted in th e las t fe w yClt rs ill d ic.o"ngchil dren illlo the paid lahor I I ' I~ )r \\1)ll1cn. Those chi ldre n .>d to reach 70 percc tll by the yea r thell. :....n urse ry" gro up. they JIlust d<'le rmi ne the d e-.."llion functio lls handled only by fa mil y mcm bers (Beck. Eve n if po l icym ake rs decide that publicly fund ed ch ild cart' is desirable. or e ntirely b)' illcrcascdjob o pand the need for :lddition.... fin ally..

commun ities.s or day carc progmllls. Carroll . \'el paren!. .ORGANI?.cd Stales III 1992 was on ly S I5. cult).n:~'::~ h inde rcd by child care di flicullics.lIlGul0l1S rUI IIIUUICIS whu < wish 10 work) outside the home. a nd free after-school care is widely availa ble.. 77 childrcn. But. In 1992 alone. with a cost o f S4000 per yc-.~. even with this increase.. ers (94 pe rcent) are wome n: ma ny fin d the mselves ill low-status. 114 I'AI(I" 1111'") ... Taylor.te c" '''n''.WO act provided for bor. day ca re will wi pe out the additional W"t.'iOf'.. 1987). an d the re are few fringe hellefits.t.. Alth ough pare n l!S may complain of ch ild ca re costs. Fe mi n ists echo the co ncern of co nni ct th eOlists t ha t high-quality child ca re receives li u lc gm'em" mcntal llupport because it is n::g".~:'~ care for {jll r.\l. o nly 13 pe rcent o f maj o r corporations sponsored ch ild c u e centers alar near their job sites. there was an increase o r 50 perce."(Ire<! t.~h m e nt of morc day care scrvices for (comparcd with o nly 56 percen t in 1970). 1993). who already find it hm'd to take or limited job opportunities. In the richest commu nities. 27 pe rcent as much as a si mila rly educated man. In Fra nce..!. ur l.t..-.s of age agreed tha t gove rnme nt has g-tltion to provide chil d care assistance. Consisting of t.gra ms." Nearly all c hild ca re work. two-th irds of paren ts with child ren ~·ea . w.1ff. However.he poores\. subsidizing c hildren's care by working ror low wages. Slu'\'ey. Unless rees a re ke pt to a minimum . Even the p:lid la bor rm'ce.ggerillg COSts (New York Times. bli. Be tween 1984 a nd 1987.rdcd as ~ m e rely a W"d)' to le l wome n work. a nationally financed syslem of child carc could lead 10 st.h grants a nd tax .SS ' c hild ca re morc alTordable fo r low-income "ri. (If fin ding aflordablc ch ild c. cent of these parcnts sta ted t. in elTeCl. tl [ere is one ror evt:!). then.. Rebell . Topo ln icki. p rovidi ng fi rst-I.IAI 1.~e ramily income.Hes is an ythi ng but ' cheap.'it Iwo decades. hood socializatio n to the intelleclual · .\'(: .1 l..ratJ1Cr he tha n govcnunent or L priva te sector-shou ld be solely respo nsible for th e cost.dO "elopmenl of future gener. In 1987. In 1987.'. . Even rewer companies offered d iscou nts or vouchers for c hild cafe (F.hih. lIIe nl officials and leaders of pri \~. it is no r equally avai lable to all e nL\ in \\'cal[hy neight)()I"hoods have all fin di ng dayeart' tha n those in pomo.-.re h:L'i 1 lI ly 5Ct luusl lllj.:~"~~. the:: staiT are.~ the Uniled States. there is h igh lLlrnOyer among child care leachers. In researc hers Bruce Fuller and round wide d isparities in tJlI.ges eam ed. iikel)' to bear U burden of these le l)ubl ic support for child Glre has risen in the Ia.1ll in the ntJlnbel' of compa nies thal a lTe red subsidized child ca re. min imum wage jobs. to date. commun itics.. care costs. A child care teacher with a college degree earns only 45 percen t as m uch as a sirnilal"ly educated woma n working in oth e r occupations and a ni). The a focal point of d iscussion for policymaken nally was app roved in greatly mod ified as tJlC~' Ch ild Care Act. rlc n fod''''''' fa milies. vi nually all c hildre n ages 3 la 5 atlcnd free schooling. the ex penses or . as of ] 990.488.:trt! WorltC1"I1 h I llm Ullil. SIiII .' lin uc to I..>lW. Not surprisingly.t. Si is com monly Viewed as a woman 's (given the persiste nce or traditional " .ltioru in jhe States (Morin. 25 perce nl o f all day C""dre teachers (and more than 40 percent in metropolitan a reas) le n theil' jobs ( D.milies.-. Viewed f!"Om a connict perspccti\'e..r nOl unusual in u rb~1n arca. T his is ironic give n tJle importallce or . 199 1). 1993.le child care in the United St.: cal"e. Wha t abou I the pRivate secto r? Compan ies a rc ill creasi ngly recognizi ng thal ch ild care can be good for busin ess. si nce many e mployees view it as an impo rta n t fringe be nefit.l r responsibility. national showed that.>l\'e low prioRity to tJ1C issue nr.. and 10 increase tile a~~~: :~':~'~. preschool teach er fo r every 45 children ' 5: in t.. Chapman. 1989.h at c "'pl: oy" n~ sil11i].:I~.l ".. Ma ny policymakers be li evc Ih at pa rc nts.t. working mothers rather tha n working cspt:ciall). Moreo\"Cr. I 993b. T he average salllr. 1987: P..w. T hus fa r.'> ofte n rcly on c h ild cart' because they a re a tte m pting to in crea..gc ch ild ca re.. m Olh Cn> lIlay fi nd tllrir peri'onnance and opportuni ties fO"'.d".-.. Parents pay a max imum of 30 pcrcent ofda). rew local commu nities have passed o rdinances to en coll r. 80 perccnt of ad ults fa.t. S.. COSIS arc an especia llyscoous b"". Blau. tbe Act fo r Hetter Ch ild Care the ABC bill) was introduced in Congrt.. 1993). N. T hus.:. As limited as child care is acl'Os.

While this legislation provides much less fin anci. \\.U't.re programs ( Holmes.lIlY in vcs ti g. '-mng the work of our IIIrt'1 Face -war" A lenn usc.s of 5OC. popul"ri1..ions.lcc~ of . !:::: fiRurl~.1)) Dr". college in~tnlcton. . 1 perfn nnel'5. ..ulIalicall).<ltion process by innuend ng our "icw~ of a ppro- ~ .: the proca."o/lIrgicfll approflch A view of social iute nlction.~.I··I~~' .UTaSSITlCflt in p u blic .ion. 12 A!! U lOre aud mort' mothers of young children ha\'c e nte red the labor market of the Un it('d States.1I1c! other .~ autllo- grants lO the Slales over the year~ . 1990).:ls th e overall cullu l':ll Pt.of-poc. the de· nl iUld for child care has increased dr. polilicians? 3 HO\\" "'"i>uld runctionalists and eon nict theorius diO'er in their :lIlal)"iC:' of tht" mass media? KEY laltlll¥ b Ihe most imlKl rtant agclI l of 5OCiali/. This Chapter cX'".. por1Il1yed in tll(' tIledia.. and 'IOCi.1l4 · SOCIAU7AT/OV . occupat. pnmary age. ( 10.ng.m rur IlOIiSl\'e vit"..111 m o.5 bill ion w:t.nt. discuss how the following group! engage in imprell5ion managctnenl : .CI. ili. ofsociali ution in which a pC:f50n ..". af developmen. Charles 1·lorton Coole)' :.ket c hild C3l'e expenses from tlleir income taxes.dua ls .. }). dctritnentallolargc numbcl'5 of l>eople? 2 Dm". 1I1tC'r.LllIted States.ia li ~tion.~ if they were lh catric.uhlelf!5. of IX'"Oplc "'hile lhey are l>erfonning their du ties.jve 'ha.'\renu pia)' . (lOO) I'ride in lhe extended famil y...adw. whereby I~ple It'arn tht' al..""loiId rare:.eh. ha\'e an explici t mandate 10 the Uni ted States-and especially "'..such as socio bio logy be conduc ted C\'cn th ollgh m.'o ple lO:ttUrr.ing on Fnoing Golfman'! dr. and the lifelong naltlre of lhe priate behavior 3t l)articular agC5.~.. in wh le h peo ple arc subjectcd 10 hum iliatin g ril.iciPfI'ory lociolito.lnd actions appropri<alt' to indi \.auon in human d~'el oplllenl: th e: ~~d)' ("Iplt' dC'\~l ol) perception.ion process "'~thill 1of:ll institulions. pote miall).. lhe Sl. fedingl.tmine5 tOCWIJ.1 panic"lar cuimre.. lishes a precedent for direct fe deral subsidies through tll C states for child c-..HIl:uurglcal approach .-:Uut.ion lOdet)'.a. J ean Piaget's theory explaining how children's th o ughl progre5sc:S tllrollgh four Sf:'KC'!\· (102) Degrodo'ian cerll"'tJIIJ An aspc!C! of th e 5ocialil."Ory 11( proposed that as pt..IJ1n It aiM) 5h:lpes tlle illlagc~ that we ho ld of "dIt'rarlv 1900s. I'roces.tcting wilh S i~~~ lIerlxrt Mc:ad is best known for his tlll.. RmTlcr. 1990a."'''' I intQ th O'le gender rolu TER1It~ AlI..IS .. ~nups frequently assist aclole~cc nts in !rAini ng Ioj"""flfindcpendence from parent! . A lotal o f $2.se.~ .5IJruIlr..~ t of this funding inu:ndcd to Iow-iucome families in obtai ning c hild care The new taX credi15 would allow parents oUI-. (page 104) Cogni. ..lIoo belil'\'t' that this lIn:tl)'!iis i.-"""lIle nom\! and .!1 rd:UlolIship!. 11 By regulatinK the life: cycle. uncler which people arc examined It.c(\ by ErvillK Go mnan .llals.lil)' .lle shapes tile sodali/. p. and be~ thtm.tlhe llltempt!i to cnn\'CY distinc t imprcssi{llls Sh o uld soci.for future posit. ph)'Sid:uu. expr~ 115 rJ/AYf1:.reiu:arses..II rcse:lrch in 3re:t. a\"Oid tmb. it nevertheless es!.at..'S of o u r culture. parents.s.dvOInced dl..1I we I~am who wc: are b). t encourages child ren 10 fOt~lk(' hurn.. . their In ITI1«I their concen! about reactions from (~nman hall \ hmm thal lOan)' of o ll r d . In' m051 fully exposed la occnpational roles 11I:a1 been criticized as an age nl of welal. especially lor (' hild reu. (100) parcnl~.] supporl for child care lhan had been proposed years earlier.'(i by Erving Goffman to refer to pec:tpl~'s dTofl'l to maintaih tile p roper image and Fo".tuon ~n'c1.

(Incs 3.><ll' ler n5 ofattirudcli. ( 108) R i l\l.wior. (106) Reverse locioiizotio" The process whcreb) nOl'flJaJly being socialized arc at the ~ me tinll' Ri'es of passage izing their SOCilili.\ part o f a InHlsitioll in o nc's life. (99) Imprnsia" mallag(lme"l A lenn u~ed by Erving ('.lS I friends . c h:u.. ne~ds.illg rh e process of m e n tally :lSI>uming tbfl ~pc.l)uay speech. in which a person realizC!l tJlat he or she ha.b prulJl'Ito lIIilimry.0 self in order 10 create distinctivc :lppeal'.ltiorl Ofl hc .~ ma rkinK Ihe S)'lIi bolk uon [mm o n c socia l posi ljon lO anOlh('r. (1(12) Raltl la. the reby elmbtillK (lIIe IU from Ihal imagincd viewpoint. (10-1) Resocialha. Ulcntal hospitals. (98) Machismo A sense of virility. (99) Self According to Gcorgc i-Icrbcn Mead . pi1~lIiolls "rid Ih:n tim e is rtUl' !l ing OUl. such .'ng Cnlf refer tu in ~litutions whic h regulate all :lspecLSola 1>011" life under:1 single aUlhori lY.\ I'hf<l~" p .:en the :Iges of35 lll1d 50. (97) S}'l/Ibols The gestures.H1ces . (92) SociQbiology TIlt~ s~~Lt!mati r Sllldy of the. (104) 116 I'.U:lc riSlit:s. the SUln of pcup l c'~ conscio us perception of lheir Idtnf dislillct fmlll others.00: man 1 refe r' to th e altering ofllll: IJreSe f\t.trding fo rmer beh:l\. auitudes. ( 107) Midlife crisis A .\UJ. 'tI hu IlI1' m"" por la llt ill the del'elopnwnl of lhe self."SSful period of 'l(' l f-<"~lhmtiol1 . :lI1d teach ers.0011:)' 10 cm phash·. ( 103) Peflollalily In cl't'. (107) Gend(lr roiu Expectauon! T<-1fd fd ing the proper be" h:lVior.'it:d by Gemge I'h:rben Me:ld to refer 10 the child's aW:U'l· IlC. othen A tcml Ilsed b~' ('. and bch.I~ IiIt'lIlbers of:1 panicular cultu re..uc.'C l i\e of another.or IXlllerns :lIld accepti ng ne".o/l The procCSll or diSC". (98) Significan. SlIch.through the ulaimcnancc of dOM: ut.eo~ I \1('nd III tcft'r I!) Ihu~e intii. oftcn nccun'i n g lx·tw.··1 hy '-'1"'1'1'''1 1-i "fI"n (.~ll"(.. and aClions :lppmprillh: 10 ind .l3si~ o f homan CUlILlllUuicntion. \~tlucs. a person's lypic:lI. (98) Total ill$lillltiotu A [cnn coiuc(j by En..'S and slI'ong obtiglH io lls to kinfol k. \icwpoints. pc n.c. :Ulc! COil\'ents. o~jccts.iduul. un· . hir ba~s of ~oc ial hc haviol·.:s of llI.unal \\orlh. and expectations ofsodclYa~ a whole .\G !iOCIM.i l.lles and fe mah:s.vrr /lIV • OIrGA. (93) SOC.'1i~ of the atutudes.lls and .t: thal the 1IClf is the prodl1cl of Ollr social intCnlclio ns willl ol1le rs. a nd acu\.o/iUlliall Thc process where b) I>cople learn lilUdes. and pride in one's malctJes~ . ( 100) G"nllra/i:tld o/hrrs A tenll u. a nd language ji">!"m the \.s HO! <lehic\'cc! cer· taill jlj!T1IOJlal gO.ers.lIld salisfy partic11lar :mdicnces. ( 100) I nnlti "S'flI" " ~" f .

UI expl:lIl.lIIid§On ...~~:~_.15) • 1\Qnnltll'Of1ltJi AnalySiS. 1992..).. 1985... Bar. Conn .. .. .: Yale Uni\'crsity l'n.cw of the 5OCializatioll experiences of women in lhe Unit. alld adlllil\ istr.t"\<I VI)rk I're55. .A1"Io..or. CQffman clel1lotlst r.. . (. .'~I~G:"'~~:'~~d~!Hl'Indcl. 1989.Jfllool m 'I'llrtf' o. New York: B:.yIII much Utc s unc way that : 1 .). Monlcrcy.. (cd.ch(. a nd )'Ollllg Chi/tire" (19.Kicncc 0fI . or f. 1987. ~' /Mn'ltIg IQ 1 .. .H 4 ' SOG!oJJ7.ll/id and Soci~1 (5th cd.Irrw\ nUl a stage role.. primarily p.."uah7~'ltiol\."l't:. D. New York: foo lrGr:Iw. .(Ors..er.."..~_~~~~. _.j()urnal of Pmollflilty 11'1(1 SoriIlI '~y(ho1ogy ( 1965).. Cllmfl.I i)(oh..e d StalC!i...$S.lVid Y..!I!d- .~'''t the Uni\~n.lli\'c look ill formal eady child hood education in threc !lations..IJI'f'.: Brooks/ Cok... Ikm icc.Jo5C'JlhJ ..l{III.... and Dalla H. R.mille5 agenu of soci. lwd 1111' U"it~ Stal~. \Vu.. . J.'01'(1011. ' A coml}.. cIIO:!. drawing upon me views of paren ts.. . Schlenk.S: jflpa. ' 'rf. TA..--..n"" III the United SllIlcS. LY""". New 11:l\'cn..ily of WiJComin . examine the concept of thc sclf:tS ..'' I illustrated book dcscril)d the 1.nlnR rltr Ilrtwr/n/wn of SdI In Ellf'ry(/(l] uft.. _ _...). 1M &If and &ri(ll uf. Ihe wcial... . Tobin .hcalric. Among thejournals tha t d eal "'ith socializa tiOIl i~Ud arc Adol4rnl" (founded in 1966) . Calif.).III:._ ~.ltiOIl bchil.. "IvNew York: Ran· e.~ ~. __.\'. 1959.II:IIII..J\ior conducted :tllhe Primate Re.I. ._. A ixlckgrolllld view of ••" '. Drlxru Of"'" GluUl ea. 117 CJIAVf1-..U"'.':". \). An O\'(:n.I'C$ his ItheoT)' dllU the self is managed in t.V .. leachers. WOmnl j Lulft: 7"hm1n flnd l'nrinliOlU ill Cot'Fltin IA/nung. _ _.HiII..\ogi-l1>. Albany: SGlIC Uni\. Social scicntists.. . ._ _ . I-I.dInd 81"1!S 5pc'cial emphasis to gcndcr-rok llm book ~ic""s Lott.1 r .


....Ic!lIIjI and Q u /lschajl SOCIAL POUCV AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE: THE AIDS CRISIS BOXES 5.........llUSCS T6nnics's GerWil/................. SOCIAL INTERACTION . ........... c:::=5:~::::::I .1 Current ReSearc h.............._ SOCIAL INTERACTION AND REAUTV Drfining :Uld Rcconslrucling RcaliL)' NcgQli:ltcd Order SOCIAL STRUCTURE AN D MODERN SOCIETY Dur khcim' s Mechanical and Organic Solid:l......lSIer Slams Social Roles Wh....Iil)' ElEMENTS OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE Sl..................lI Are Social Roles? Role CollniCI Croups Social inslilutions FunclionaiiSI View ConOict View imcr:lctioniSI View 119 ........... ...... ............ '11C 1 '1'01:<:5$ of Role Exil 5-2 Speaking QU I: Savage Inequalities in Public Educ:ltion As........... AND SOCIAL .....................c:ribed and Achic\'ed Slams M................... STRUCTURE " ........................................

took pleasUl'e in imposing arbr rules. In mock prison experiment.trances. It seenled \11 cal to co nlinue because of the anxiety and d ~ evident amOllg the student prisoners. the p . Haney et.h e o thers as guards. at St:mford Universi ty had a social stnlctu which guards held \~rlually total cOnlrol over oners. IVillinlll SlJaHesflalre As YQTI Uht If. preinduslrial vi llage ditrer from those in a modern urb(l n center? • How has the social structure of the United Stal. /599-1600 LOOKING AHEAD • How clo wc rede fin e reality th rough social intcn\cti on? • '-low do sodologis15 use the tenus s/(ll ll. order.. merely players: They have their exits and their en.ed by the spread of AIDS? S eventy male swdellts at St(lnford Uni.~ and roll!~ • Wh}' are social roles a signifi cant componen t of social strll cture? • How is ~ n e t \\'orkin g~ helpfu l in finding em ployme nt? • How do the family. and discipline. These illlCfal Ileed not be face lO face. By a Ilip of a coi n.. 1973). \.. and u'ca ted th e prisoners like animals. Soon after the ex perimcnt began. . A nd all lhe men and women.)'S many parts. the guards began lO act ~gllardlik c.0 the waYlI in'" people respond 10 one another. In case. Sociologists use tenn social interactiOlllO refer \. The guards were instructed to es· tablish their own rules for maintaining law. The slUde n15 were paid to give up their vacation lime and become part o f a simulated prison experience in the b. siwalion bCC(l me so intolerable that Zimbardo h is colleagues were fo rced to abandon the prison study arter on ly six days.hat college denLS adoptcd predictable pa tt erns of social i action {those expected of guards and priso when placed in a mock prison. and helpless-or rebellious and angry. H third o f the stlldclH guards became cnlel and alii sive in lh eir treatment of prisoners. social intcracliolll tween prisoners and guards were highly im pe Prisoners were not addressed by name !)lIt u by their prison !lumber. .NI7. and government contribut e 1. Guards wore reflcCtOf glasses which made eye comact impossible. .JNG suaM UPI-. Some cried hystcrically. The term social strllcturl! refers \0 thf in which society is organized into prcdinablt a 120 l ~tl/l' 1WO • OR(:A. They shoutd commands.L~e m e nt corridor of a classroom building.All the world's a slage. As in many real-life prisons."crsity were asked to panicip'llC in an experiment designed by socia l psychologisT Philip Zirnbardo ( 1992. half were arhitr<lJ'ily designated as prisoners. reJibrion ..es been affect. apathetic. Some attempted to be tough but fair and held suictly LO th e prison ru les. Zimbardo's study demo nstrated !. Wirh in a shon lime. A nd one man in his lime pla. lhe simulated .0 a society's sunriva l? • '-Iow do socia l i11lcractions in . But about 0 11 (. became depressed. fricnrls talking O\'l'r tclepho ne and coworkcrs communicating computer arc engaged ill social interaction. a guard ordered a prisoner into "solitary finem ent" and rorced him to stay overn ight iI small dose!. al.

..t~ a r('". . The • "Ill (U1Ilr.M III o Uler words.-s fo r comp. :lIId JmfUfll! n"t JpprO<lches to tlte sUldy o f soc ial ill- ~III)I. How do wc defin e o ur social reality? As an CX.... . Two d ill'e rc l1t I II 1 'llIlip li m/xlTt/{) :' jrllrUIII..1 illle raclio n and social cruelllf... ~~~. and de finilions.h'lr. to . Tht (C1U(t'l'l~ of !IOCi..1 .~~.. "" 1 0 K" fmi.Mllfll\\ invo lve ncgolia Lio n.al pan th:ll g ro ups play in a . ring modem socic ties "'ith .d prim n "in the minds of the )IIkn .' 1\ . dlJ! I1 \\-.sociologists Emile Durkhcim and Ferd ina nd T on n ic. AJ 0 t'Xnmpl. h.The 'IOCial stnlCHln: of Zim bardo 's pmun influc:nced the imer:..li·~ the \<loa} \<le vie"' the " 'o rld al'Uund Intrl.:R . the distinc tive charac teristic o f social inte rac tion amollg people is tha t "human be ings interpret or 'defin l" each o the r 's a cLions instead of me rely reacting to eac h OIhcl"s actions. \\'hich results 1Itru't . Socia l instilll.~'!.~. t\ccol'd illK tosociologisl I-l e rbc n Bllllllc r ( 1969:79) . sllId...lS1 the funcuo naliSl. connict. sim pler fo nns o f social Stru CI Ul'C.cd ....or closely lO undc nmmd "lh[uIIJld ~ describe the social intel7lclions ofa UUtt'l ur \!ICielv and the socia l slruClure o f th..b.11. These meani ngs typically rcnecl lht' IlUl"ln s and values 01 the d o minant culLUrc and a liI' sodalizalio ll experie n ces within that culture... le l LIS examine how abortio n clinics a n e lllp' to present lhe lll.o r i~ a P. rh(. hilt/ID IN {/barutmlld {/firr (filly W( days lxm'Uf IrMl llU'7rl of J6~ guard... IOohic" arc closely linked lO eac h OI lter. hIptn \'oil! I"uts 011 the foul' 1 ><lsic demc lllS oLso.'lles. social roles. .. ..lu ati o l1 s... ~ I·lis simulated prison expcmnt"rll \\.I..'S lInd in o the r countries. .. 1 conduCLed 20 years ago blu has l\l'llt~ been re peatcd (with similar findin gs) boch In !Ill' l'nllcd Stalt. \Ullflllrr "i ll be emph:lSiz. \11.ltllst'S. or P~.II*·r lx-gin by conside ring ho w social in III .ml tlWlr ("Iplh es.\oel\'es to thei r clic nlS. religion.mging forllls of social organi7A'l lion .RAr:TIO.. die £amih . g ro ups.. c\~. slimlio ns. a nd governmc nt luon.~~_~~~~. Th.III1 ' plc. o ur rcspo nse to someone's bcha\ior is based o n the mealli'lg y.. ./Ill" Sum/OIll Uni utnllJ tL'"l' MIRlfllnty dl'$lKJI(ll1fi /u pnjQII#'J'l or gtllm/J. ch. RCOIlity is shape d hy o ur Pf'IT f"plion s.. * 'i(IQ .\'OM)(JII \INI ('n 'HJ.j~ 1i1. Sociologi!lLS o bp. 7(} I/m/. h \\ill also e~a min e the \)pologie den'laped 11)' . 1ft m1ll. Jlotl OIl 121 ("JIM"... ..fI/..s ' mitt of pmOllnl.~!li~g.t11l·'I1~ CIf bclm\..~.~.lc liOl1s bc t w~eu FlIi' ilntl prisonen.J rt'I/" /rtd p m tJlIC'l rot_ wllholl i b/m.\ hdIJ\.. Zimbardo ( 1992:576) ."II .socie t)"s ..II III 'o()Ciological slUdy.'C a u:tc h to his o r he r actio ns. .. nw.... The socia l poliC) sectio n will conside r the AIDS c risis and its implica tio ns for Ule social instillUions o f Ihe United St..IlIlC'lIwl aspec:1 social structure . .\'.. . and in11' )inc(' much of o ur behil\ior OCClll1l in .' mlJt'lr l"iwlI t:rf~III'..utKwu': ~1..

[r l>ccanre a ph)'S. howeve r. gays and lesbia ns../gainiltg.bS. Str"auss.. in Philip Zintbardo's IIl OCk.. reality. i ­ h e lY's \':l ltres... For t ample. In Malcolm X (1964:37) words: '* It wa5 then lhal I began 10 change-insrde.. And tJu:y loo~ surprised th at I did... ~whetllllg (md tfeali..... 1967.. I drl'l" away trom wlt t\!" people. I C"olrne In class... M em bens of subordin ate groups begin challenge trad ition al defini tions a nd in stead ~ ceive a nd expc!. Malcolm X redefining social realit). 1984).o stress I... Ye t fX(~ plc also reshape reality by negoliating c1m nge! lt1 pa tt e rn .c r Afri ca n Amclicam (Charo n..icaJ stra in simllll 1 si! in Mr... <. wa nd collwioll (A.ence realilY in a Ilew way. Fo r example.. a bortio n ~ : i ::. a nd e ncoulflbring cliscu$sion o f an)' d o ubL~ or fears.hat they we re olfe ring "pe rsonalized .. .. Hall . His English teacher » vised him tJlal his goal o f becoming a lawyer '!Gl wno realistic goal fo r a nigge r" a nd e ncouraged hill instead to become a carpe nt er.o nalilYof th e ind ividual. including bG. !lIe oth e r in the lalt~ 1970s afte r lhe Supre me Court's landmar k 1973 decision assuring a right LO abortio n under most circumslances (sce Cha pte r 11 ).rOI1Ill e nt fi)r their c1 i c n t.lg. Negotiation does 1I 0t involve COercion : it goes by ma ny namer. M... Fine. T he milita nt gr'Oup Oper'rtlioll Rescue tried to shut dowlJ abortio n c1iniCll lhrough pickcting an d harassmen t of heallh care pro fessio nals a nd patie nts.. However. 198 7:6-7.~ o f social inte l'3ction. hy looking much m~ crilic:. Writi ng from a n intcractio nist pcrspeClive.. prison ex perime nt. O Il C of the most c rucial aspec ts of the re latio nship between domina nt and s ubord ina te groups is tht' abi li ry of L e rlolllinant or m<tiority gro up I Q d efin e a ~c....lIlge a'i" !.... people tan reconstnlct social fto ality thro ugh a process of i. I e re "nigger· 0 Nh II".. stude nt "b'uards~ a nd up rison ers~ accepled Lhe defin itio n o f the siI- mHio n (incl uding the tradi tional roles a nd be ior associa ted wil h being a gm! rd or p risoner) acted < !ccordingly. a nd peo pl e with disabit. trading off. "nd 1answcrf4 when called UI)()lI.. lty:at tJle l'aeiSt thin king a nd terminology Ul a1 restricted him a nd otJ. 1 rights move ment o f the 196(k since Lhe n among such groups as women.l J:fli... Omowski's cI.' 11\..." no nlradilional care.. recalled U m lli t~ IccHii gs !ilii:! pcrsp-eCl. 1990 ).:. whe re\'Cr 1 heard ir now I 5tQPI)C(j and looked al whoever said il. Th e ability lO defin e sodal reality clea rl y re n cc t~ a group 's power within a society.... Zimme nna n. 11 . . saw that the U clefiniti on o f the situ a tion ~ could maid th e thinking a nd ptm.cd to p roject and de fin e a parLicula r social reali ty that would he lp wome n to feel mo rc comformble in se(...lvc cr-i:iiigccl Clrnmallcally while in eighth grade. cli nics atte mpted to reassure wome n by e mphasizing medi cal professio nalism and crea ting an inte ntionally sterile a Ullosphere.800 people we re arrested across Ih(: United Sta les fo r blocking access to clin ics (Hancock. rede finin g or reconstn.. 9. clin ics had begun to deemphasile th is cl inical focus and instead t. an eloqllelll and cOlllwversial advocatt" of Bbd powe r and Black pride in the cad)' 190011.... 122 . In each time pe riocl.... forcxample.. lite cli nics cOlujnued to e mphasize tJlal Ihey offered a supporti\'e (. ""as Viewed from a soc iological perspcCli\'e... ... ri oll re fers to the alternptto reac h agreement \\-ilh others conce rning some objective.......rnllc h like tha t of a d octor's o ffi ce or a hospital..'king o ut t11eir services (Ball. compromising. Lies..llle m al ch.u J l. 1985:'1).~." diatjTl~ t1:chnng.h e m.. 1985:154 : P.sociologisLS examined abortion clinics: o nc in the 19605. Nevotiated Order A5 wc have see n.. Tho mas ( 1923: 4 1--44).. a n early crilic of theo ries ofrrtcial a nd gender di ffe re nces.. T homas obseryed tha t people respond no t ' o nly 10 Ihe objecun _ features of a pc rwn o r situation bUt also 10 the meaJl ing tha t the person or situa tion has fo r t. hy the la te 19705..j sliPI)C(j o rr m)' hack before.. By the 19905..:ln important aspecl of tJle process of'iOCill c ha nge irl\'Olveo. Indeed . Atte lUioll turned to relaxing the clie nt. offe ring her elUo tional support. In 1989.... when abortio n was illegal. Sociologist Willia rn I...l .': ii <.cting . Cha ro n. the do de rly.iy iJ j ( pi Hll llliig SULml ~ Ull t­ LUre-atte mpt...... Ihe Black aCl iviSl M alcolm X (1925-196. 1977:2: see also G....ng.. Before abortion \oJl\S legal.. M.. The tcr'm 1I ego/i.. A5 \Vc Itave seen th roughou l the last 30 yean first in the ch... Des pite the ex plosive atmosphe re O LLtside ma ny a bortio n cl in ics. 0 PI)(m e n ts of abortion were po rtraying clin ics as killing centers. 198 1: 15 1). .het take a diffe re nt vie\'" of evel)'da)' behavior.

From a sociological perspecti\'e. impending marriages of: InIhd to ot'gOljalions between the ramilies or the t. 1973).mework in whic h negotiations take placr concerning legitimate tax deductions. 1977:234-236. Wc can add ncgoliation to our list of cultlll'al universals (scc Chaptcr 3) bcca use alt sociclic.lcture a rc not Static and arc therefore subject to cha nge through bargaining and exchangi ng.....(JIu. in the linking or two clans or fa milies. it rcflecl<. anthropologisl Ray WIm\"n. For example.~ p"occeds of a .~ . roreign nations. there arc social ordcrs involving coercion .. 262) . 1984). the rec urring role of negOliation in social interaction and social struC(lIl'C will be appa rent as we examine stalUSCS. "»'J«cnav A.( . the). Negotiated order refers to a . /23 Cl IAYU.social stnlctul'C tJ13t derives its existence rrom the social interactions through ". Burglars cOlnmonly b.·ire. NOI all behal'iOI' involves negotiated order.guidelincs 01' nOl'lllS in which ncgoli:llions take place.. the en· tire tax code undergoes revision through negotiated ou tcomes involving many competing irllercsl~. hich people define and redefine its character..he lipSICf5 should be fIIid fOf Ihe rnlormation thal Ihey provide-usu• . On a broader levcl. wc have a meeting at )'o ur '\Il hnuwi"). howel'er. 1977:2'12-2+1: 1982:J. Some social sit. In lfifllhlllldl KlCielies... negoliation ca n take muc h mo re e laborate fonns in modern indu<. For e"ample. ('Iell assignmelll or places while W"ditlnJ(llIrt"!ln(Cr1licket. taxpayers will mediate with lIgents or the Internal Revcnllc Service. Consider the tax laW5 orthc Vni l.md sheer' culminates not o nly in a marriage but. Nrplluuon occurs in many ways.St Maloolm X rwf. after all. such bargaining o\'er an exchange of cows . Ihe sum of negotiations for change al any time (Maines. involve no medi.a IlJI 11) lM!rctnl or the g l'Os..lditional c uhures.. While such family-to-fami ly bargaining is commo n in lr. The totX SlnlCIUre of the Uniled States can hardly be viewed as fixed.u '-'111\ (If negotiation ..lrgain lI11h lip'If'1'li . (I)("h as buying groceries.-d through negotiation .. more important.. It is imponant to understand that negotiations arc not merely an a. rather. • 'lO UAI 1.·Iule other situations require signific.''' H1atk n(tilJl..jinnl M1rial rtality by loo/lll. such 1 :1\\'5 arc formal norms (reflected in federal and stale codes) thatconstitllle the rrJ. underlie much of o ur social bchavior.. QlangC5 in the taxpayers' individual situations will occur through such negotiations. groups.mange ror an amount of property to go from the groom's to the bride's family al the time of marriage.ed States.g ""uh ml)U rri/lrally nllhl' mnll Ihmkmg mu' lmItmology Ihlll rtllrir. Ir audited. For this reasoll . Ne\'enhcless.~pect or social interaction.\1) SOCiAl SfHI ICn'H} " . o. including big business.l'inLwJ from a socIowgwd ~pt'r'i"" . In the view or the ubwor.'ith others regarding time (~Whel1 should ~pa('e (~C.-s providc.....tnf hHn ami elM Afo(al! Ammr...lhOUI how much t.lrial socie ties. social roles.. and political action commiuees (sce Chapter 15) .. l~hO\'er.md ". Thomas. Abl'ahams (1968) has described how the Labwor people of Africa . Most cle· ments or social SU1. sociologists use the term 'l~lQ'ed ordUlO underscore the faclthat the social order is continually being construc ted and a hert.tand . \\'e may nepur ". and institutions (Strallss.

the Grn)' I'antiu!rs ho pe 10 l'eStnlClure social r~ll ity by modifying . lhe term usually CO IH'e)'S connotations of innlle nce. ihll" meaning to calling a judge in lhe United SUlI.\cd as mOT'C of:1II in sult than a cd· e bnHjo ll of seniol'ilY a nd wisd om. the ascribed status of ~se l1ior citizel1~ . regard ror th e person 's unique talen lS or characteristics. Ascribed and Achieved Status Some of lhc sta· llL <. cc. Both ~ bank president" and "prison guard· ft /u . . and farnc.!-(J('cup. It is important to emphasize Ihat an ascribed SW IllS does n O I necessarily have the s. a nd 12. In m a ll )' case&. fruit pic ker.l many f'ru. respectively. gender. Gcncnl lly. there b little Lh:n people can do to chan ge an 3SC.'1 fUhit!lN!d (sec Figure 5. Ir they are suc- C..ssrul . social roles. In most cases. an af!hieved slatus is al· llljncd b).'S regard1 ing o lder people (sec Chapter 12). These ch.atioll described in Chapter 4. gro ups.rt Malu..t. The social meanings or r. are categorilt!d .. th e prefix "ol d" will be lI1ied respectfully: calling someonc ~old leache r o r ~o ld pcrson" has a sin. and age will be analylt:d more fu lly in ChaP'" lC"S 10. However.· in torid]. o.. sociologislS ' use $latus lO refer to an} of lhe full range of s0cially defined positions within a large gro up or society-from the lowest to the highest posiLion .ICC and ethnicity. a nd social inuitulions. this <tSsignrnem takcs place at birth .1)." I-Juan s poims olllll1at positive age-seniority distinetion s in language are absent ill th e United Stales. plivc and confining stcrcotyp<. a person largely through his o r her ~tt effort.. a person 's racial background. But wc can auempt 10 change the traditional conslrai nlS associated with such 5I.ill not be as diln clI1t for rnilliOIl~ or olde r people ill the United States. Unlike ascribed sta lllSCS. conseq uently. sociologist Ca'}' Huang ( 1988) cunfirmed thl' lo ng-held view that respect fo r the elderly is an iIllPOI'l:UH cullural norm in China. ge nder.. violinist.\. 11 .s0ciety'S 1l£.FIGURE 5·/ Sociat Statut e.ibcd status. Within our society. Predictable social relaLionsh ips can be examined in te rms of four elemenlS: stalUSCS."'ails.?l~ - Achieved SIotuSM T/u' ~" ill this jigrm. while other.. As an example.p. Md oJ which invoim dul". The ele ments of social struCture arc deve loped through the lifelong process of sociali1. and age are all considered ascribed sll:tluses.w.CS we hold are viewed by sociologlslS as ascribed. In a crosHulUlral s lud~.lractcrislics arc biological in origin but a re signil:icalll mainly becau.. An ascribed status is "assib'llcd" to a person by socie ty without. These elements make lip social structurejusl as a IOund. thus. Con(]ict theorists arc especially inte rested in ascribed SlaIlIse!o. tee nage r. a and ceilings make up a building's slrucLUre."m. or neighbor.se of lhe social meanings that they have in our culture. resident of Minneapolis. Cleari)" a person holds mo re than onc S\.".alllSCS. . de ntal technician .~t~ Mo 20 Y'D'" HiIJlGlic Statuses Whc n wc speak of a person's "status" in c. a person can occu py the stams of president of the Uni ted Stales. son or dllllglncr. th c tenD oM milll is vic\.tSual convcrsation ..tUS simultaneously. since these statuses often conre r privileges or renect i1 person·s membership in a subordinate group.es "you . tion.· honor. wcalth.. m(! social meaning in every society.·I. tiollJ.

an 1I1l".UlI'..1"". . . _.) orten domin.upclvisor will cxpcrlc::nc{' :t serious conflic t bc!\\ccn certain socia l and occu l><'lional role .:ml§CS innucnC'(' achieved St.btther ascribed or acbit.-irt\·thal tilt.' ... The dcm. their ·di~bled" is given undue \wigh t.ctiOlI" .. and th:u poIn oIliccl"S . product "I"fUU\~.lllctiona l by restricting pCOI}le '~ intt:ra.. a_~ she has done .\.lvior and interactiolls of" others. A IIIUI roll I. Wilh each disti n clh~ social SUltII-.. we expect lhat cab drivcrs will .I!' a rnt'ncl or neighbor.' iUCribetl Sl.... 11 po-- .__. Fulfillment or the rnles ".hrnlcned.. [n the quotMiol1 at t..SI) ~JU. A mader stallu i'S it 'SI. We learn hllw 10 rulfill a social rule by observing the bch. se..w of Ihe unit.. OllsiSIt'ncies . iliolls 10Wl'r positions.'Idislic a. and ovcrtht'lr actual ability to pcrronn 'illcct'!<osfully liuch import.'S can alJl(l bc d)·~Ii.. in Philip Zimbardo'li mock prison CXlleriment. hclW 10 gCI around a cilY.l~. bUl Ilthcl''! WCI'C nOL Rtl\t. ..1 will be rliITkllJt In rl'hw' 10 Ihi~ p(·rsnn . . As a rriend. In the example ahow..IS!IUllle cxtcl1~i\c adminisu-. she . I. Actou obvinll.u Ihe end or hl' ftatu5 as . Vie\-. Are Social Roles? 1ft' ¥qlllfntK what sociologists c.. For example.. as a supervisor. ..I 1)('111011 (mly as a -polic:(' omcer~ or a ~supcr"\isor..1Ilt! reMnClion'i or ccn.~ Each person holds many dilrerenl "unt' llIay connote higher social pO."... wlllllt. Rolt.-orkcr.lle onc's lifc·. while another may focus on cleric.lI.met' in . t his po. the newly pl"Omoted "..st:!... Sunilarly.d relationships...firing or an old friend who C"allllQt keep up \\'ith the demands or lhe assemhly hne? Role cQnflict occurs when incompaliblc exp{'cuniuns .tli\c respoll'iihililies.\-nMcnu..."" others and thereb)' determines "it perpo5ition within socielY.u a "Black man (ascribed smtu~) \\'..ami t'or the human expericnce.IIU' thal . bllt . Sll<lfds. ascribed ~t:!­ _06 rare .he beginning nf.. .ssoc iated with onc' sta!tL~ may direCll)' viol.m :1lI"political Activist.11 take action ir tllt. Ilow is Ihi s wuman l'xpcctcd to relate to her [on~lime rriend ...' 10 llll' I)roces" or discnb"'g(!IIlC'llt knol\ II as rofe ~xll (.HI$racton' employee .. .hn ha~ worked ror a dccule on an a.ol·kcd in . .red frum a fllnctionalist perspectivc..!ICC Box 5-1 on page 12G). hr ch:'pt cr.. I-Iow is OIW\ ove".. she shou ld lr) to prOtect her rormcr cov...'crel'II)' may .aJ to . l.lIri!!h..-go to Itarn :I ...U' employmenL Ibrr Vld gender are gi\'Cn ular role ('xpecl.as are ~ Iav.. As wc will sce in Chal>• NUY people with disabilities find that. . Malcolm X foulld tl.... roks contribut e 10 a .. desired prorcs..... 'iOIUC ~lIId('1I1S were brutal and s.\I 'irHl nt lit . recently 1 X'('n namcd sttp(:rvis.md colleilgue? Is il her responsibility 10 re<:01l1111el1d lhe....IIK that certain statuses arc morc illlporl"!Clte". ·ed-come panic.. or inan.. . 101.H . -who dlcd 01 Al U~ III I WJ:i...'social workt'r. Ont' ).<...\oSClll· hly line in an dt'clrical plant and ha ...I.nciety's stabilily by enahling members 10 anticipatc lhe bclmvior of othe rs and tu p'Hlern Ijlcir own actiulls accordingly..u:hie\~ .". In the United States. thal \Ccl"t'larics will .I(}("jrll rofl'..1 !4l'f'ond ~\:lttts. person with AI DS nlol) have o.. Role Conflict InMgine the delicate sitllllljoll ora wUlllan v.. we .__ ~. . :md cnv.S an' a si~nifk:tn t componcllt or .llmOH d"il)' ror YC<lrs? I low ~huuld she deal with the workers' resenlment or an al"Tog<U1l supervisor \\'ho i'l now her equal .~ion:ll and social ~""~""ill'.. • Wc/M 1 ..11 duties." Mad_ and .. establish a rri('lIdshil'. . she should repol'l. rtlublt' in handling phone mcssaftc.d hi\ statuses as a reti rcd III h klc.. hMI a re~~Ik (.." M n~tu'lt'S.tnd gender can runction as masler .. 1nl.. YCI social rolt.cen. If wc \..1""" .lrCt'1 as a tcnnis SUlr. Shakc~pca rc lISl'S lhe lhc. bUl50 do the resl of us. <\Clll. .'.. Om.1I .11C the roles linked tU.. 10 acquire an achie\'cd SI. 1 -lowC\·cr.s 11 set or cxpectatiotlS ror pcopJc who «tUp\' a gh'cn social position ur lltatllS..lluls . ..im.kill." conlliclS call ror imponant cthical chOICes.IS :111 tt) his dream of bccotl1itlg a lawyer "~rI ~tatu~).ocial ~trtlC­ ' lure.~ l y I•• kc on roles...." ....... ..uer a~ at! :ltIalllro' lo r Ihe wodd as .' must ._..Cv.'nrkcrs? Should she sti ll KO Ottl 10 lunch with thelll. ill Ibr rnited Slales.lin rolc~ contribuh. ' h)' (JIhcf'!l in light or lhc~c conf1ictillg Sociologist EverclI Hug hes (19'15) obIio"." ~piallist._.. Thl. wc hii\C :..I l pCl'formallce "'-tries rrolll illdhidllal 10 individual..... Througholit filII' li\"l:s.tI·i~ fromlwu or more socia l positintn held by the same pcr!4on.~" '1{)delie~ deal with such itu':.·."Y sec a citi7CII .(.. mal hJ\c an important impact 011 OIlC 'S 1)0.. 125 UW'fl.11 iCJII~.)'cr.

20 per· cellt of responden ts IilIW their fOItexits as a gradual. c.. social !lC"icmisls ha\'C given less attention 10 lht' .1'! The last ~Iage of role exit ill\'oh'O the creatiOIl of .: ~ I grew up ill 3 ~ mall C.f twO children. Ou r culture tdls us that sllccess is morc importa nL than liicndship.. Eb. III the examplej usl ghell .vC -"<JCJAI uw .... spelll 1I yeaf1i as Sister 1 but while "..r her )'ears in the (011' \'el11.11 to take final aClion and le. until r l'ccull}'. end thcir marriages."s in becoming read)' for Ihal role. ThL 11111l Mugc begins "ilh doubt-:ts the person experiences frust l~ llion .e o f gelli ng 1II.sk her promotion OUl concern for her frie nd .'cre the only educaled rok' Illodeb " 't· h ad.-d p l'otection .... we are told that abandoning o ur fricnds is conte mptible.111 ex-nun.~Uln· 10 preparation and an ticipatory socialiatioll ilial a person url(l~l'g(l(. "hc sec:ond lILlgC i ll\'oh'~ :\ MM.mcrmuious fW'IIIg. Tex:L~.0.'orking 011 her dOClordle at Co\ulIlbi:1 Uni\cnity.'h"l would have been her t\<o'en\Vfirth anni\cl'Sllf')' :.ugh calls .tugh's interest in role e:o. had :!lIt relll. This is Ime if a 1 >el"SOn is aboll l become an altorncy. Ebaugh found that the \'lISt majority o f her respontil'IH.. ill 1\lS8 she <l!tended .trch foraitern.lwi ng o n intc"iew!i with 185 pe<tp!t'-:ullong them exCOIl\.ma)' begin wtlllt th ey sce :t_~ a Icmponu)' M:par:llio n . lIew idcnut\. a ltpouse.uh nlic. ('). the new slIpcrvi'i(lr has to make a dimw it decision abouI how IIIlLch allegiance she owes her fri e nd. she Oclfdll questioning het religious life :md reali ~ed she fe ll:1 slnlllg desirc LO oc married and h:wc chjld ren (ilartlell.. Or.I:SS of \'o iunmrily exiting from sigmficant MlCial roles. a flUII .~he is now a socwIOb"sl.lckground 3!( . o r a parcuL YCI.. we foculi on lh t: \\'~ ora$.1(ljustm CIU$ involved in Ittl1'mg social roles.ltivc" A person 1111h:'pp) "ith his or h('r career mar take a leave of :Ibscnce: :10 unh:lppily married COllplt..ryingto PI'olcCl J ewish fri c nds a nd associa tes and lUrning thcm in to Ihe allthorities. Eh:mgh has nOI blocked OUl 1'\(.'> identified ~ to onc's sclf·idc llIity amI rcc5I:tblishmC!l1 of an identity in a new ro le. 011 lite othe r hand.>d the term role exit 10 de~cri he the process of disengagement from a role 1.lI'o<:d or joining the conven!. 'nll:~ n comes th e t. I1\QlIt!i UI tille exit: the action stage or departure.s view. hu rnout. \life. 'It W. lIlelllories . 01 ciated Wilh t.~ sa)'ll Ehaugh (lbrtlell. II' friends arc holding us back. The SlIPCM$Ot' must decide whether she will I.i1'\l is The IllIllS wcre unwi lling feminists bilek thell ill that they . as.i Germany had to choose be tween t.ined in her rdil.lte. She recall.. or ~jlllpl y ullhappinc~ ""'illl an <lCt'lISwtl1NI status a nd the role." Conscquent. 1 position. In r:ICI. rccol-e.. In Ebaugh'. no wbly its biuer and imllional hatrrd of.:\'ol utionaf» pmc~ I. If German 126 PART 111'0 • UI/GItNI7J. Ebaugh h:LS offered a four-slage cd\."lin contaCt with some proplc in Ihe old rolt-..(} illlportalll to he able to lalk 10 someone about whll onc used to lle!... vio lal c d Ilumanit~rian values.b.1ugh ( 1988) dc\'t·Jnpt.. which was e\idcnt in the COI\\elll ill the hai rsl)'les of /lUllS..!).. lint! trnnSSt:x11:11s-Eb.·h:1I Eb.exi!.. Protecting slIch people "~.lS considered uu.her . whel'c at IH wome n had the choic.. 1!l88:C I).:ious order. whilt.wc their johol.hird stage or rolt: clear turning point which made them feel it Will! esscl1lj. Christians lhin~ in Na7. we sho uld leave them and pursue our ambitions.l c\\'s. Cerman community in Olfell..hat had no si ngle tuntins p. SO il and was dangerous for the person who offcn.1Ug h studi ed the P"O(. IYSS:C I ).lge in olher lypes of mle cxil.~ She ·ldell R~ .. Ehaugh points oul: "11 is importallt to lIlaint. lhose 111111$ who let their hairl{l'Ow longer af'l<i I U1'I1 ('d to fadtiouable hairstyle! were in the initial stage or rok. the policies orl. awl mOl.. Remcmber that thr Third Rt:ich had d e fined J ews as ene mies of lht SI. rclirecs.:it grcw out of he: r own b. h '~ : 11. NaLi regime.. lQ kcep some bridges.o flC n whe n th ink jug a social rule. dh'Qrt('d men and women. However.-flun$. This dOll ln le:trls 10 .. Yet.hi~ roei. Sociologist I-lckn Rose tuch" t:b.. a chef. or During lhe Second World War.-ing alcoholia. or eng:. 101"- cc nu~ll mer doctors.1. at the same time.I~:I wonderful kind of closure ror II\C.l:IS.

«lll t:.. Ulembers or OC'cltp'llion. t)'pe~ or81'Ollps in which people inl. p:lniclpation ill tcpol1s-tradilionaJ as~. ith .'~ ~:'.mpaiglU to discredit and slan. ora hospital's business office. 1992).' considered a group. Croups do not lIlt:rcl) sent: 10 define other elell1enlS or thc social strucwr(' ... the idcnlil). tWO traditionall)' incongrucnt idcntities. decid(.ldy. become 1110:......c:c::k OUI 8!"<}IIP" to establish friendships... u .oC in girls' :U1d ~.kes nlll'l}t'ci:lllIIeallinb~ as individuals intcract wi thin groups dt'signed ror people \..:!..nakll1g brJ..did not act L assist Jewish rric ndsO irutrad decided (0 IlIrn Ihelll in..... .~~no ma~eup is worn during g-..thllut femininity and masculinity remain .. Wc c.uncs. .1>'" in \\hich fcnmle :tlllU ~porlS programs resol\'e Ihe conllicts b..1ff of it large hospital would not bc.i .. relv inter-Acl with onc anOLher at one Lime. .oiclirns of the Na7.!=::. .. In th(' process.. ~i$tt'r. I-Iow(:\'er...ll or social groups may be acquainwllces r:Hher than close rriends..... where .. According to an ~ ~~~~~~""~~~~5...~ till mo re people.:: :'~.1 clearly defined in the context or a group. \~!lUl'S ..ctworks-commonly known as nrtllJorlrillg. "hen dressing honoring collegt."(U)' unfe m inine.ndi\idI1:l1~ (lIuch :t!J Osk'lr Schindler) thl'lr role connict by . iflhe)' .cr.. The expeclations associated .. 1M1Il~t'\\'S turned thcil' hack.we role connict..".-acl wi ll be explored ill d e tail in hapter 6.~~~....lIBunui... For cx- 127 UI... Invoh'ClllCllt in M>Ci:.. or I)f a symphony orchcslrn constitute a group.ice or suc h irnfIIIIion lIlanilgelUl'nl and instead stcn::'I'ypcd the!il' JIIIIIetn .Ihe J ews 1'10 I)( murdcred.e... . including lhose accompan}ing the \I:IIU!>d or bl'Ulhcr.!iion mall- a..cc jiI.. ... This stcreot)'Pi llg Tt'11Iinder that while UIt: I'e ha!> been II siSin the United StOltcsC"Vidt-1I\ III dr. since the staff members . a sclies ofsod:tl rclatiollships Iilallink a person direclly to othe rs :md thcrcrore indirectly \() .~'..::':~.' :1lhlele5. and student... thc entire st. E\'ery 50Ciety is cOIllI)()S('d of man) groups in which daily social intt:r:..~' choices: dley opp(~erl thc N'lli ." non:lews in Gcnllany \yould '~p"lid to assist innocent ...~ foie and Staruses: Ih'-1' <100 arc an illlcrmediate link bet.1 I.ofMathlctc" isdcarl) domkif II~ collegc sludents. .!! may conSll':lin peoplc by li mil illg thc r:..... . The members ora \~'omcn's college b:l.. The \~lriou".. they .. a group i~ any numberol'pco-. the genpopulation look litllc lIo. IItlTlliln and ~ing all :lIhlclC...C~. 8)' COlltr:lSl.. Howe\..\'t' ami r!~:::. Perhaps the on ly point at \\'hich they all come together is the annual winter party.th thal (lOlnicular . cha\lgiug gender roles h... 1I..w..'cd. El"ing Chaptcr the rol(: of . o n the roles ~ wilh being rri end~ and go!)cl ncighoors (:...~ TracC)' W:uson oh~e..sociological hwcstigat iUI1!( of group behavior will also be exa mincd.... plc with similar nonm.ocial inter'a nion takes place within groups :md be innlll'lIccd by the norlllS .". Illost ..~p.md sanctions established by gnu' I>!)' Iking a tecnager or a retired per.'i findin g employment . and tl) rulfill !!QCi:tl roles thal wc have acquirecl..mill".. Cle. : lhe individual "bout coninterested in how a Hitler'sThird Rcich devised ("J.een lhe indhidual and the larger S()('icty_ For exalllple.1n or our cuhurt'...prO\ides a \~tal social re.tunllucnl and I1llikeup...IhN women rcsoned to imprcs. )'(: t these nelworks may empower people by making available vast resources (M'II'Sdcn..source in slIch tasb 3.. con5(.\7) SO(J11 SfH'JCI1 'HI .. 1 feminine image .. SQCIAI 1N1'F1«C1'1O..II'C likely tv COIH1CCl olher members to people in different ~ocial circles. l!)R9) ... . Otark...lko place. :md expcctaulJn$ \~'ho regularly and consciously inlcrl'lcl.ith many sod. Suciologi!>1Tr:lcey Wat1I'1H7) ~tudicd lhe . these Pfl'\('lIl a COIl\'c ntiOIl .... Social nc twork.Chmti:uu sUPlxll'lcd the nation's leaders \ iutads on t: uroperm Jews..'l'IlH j .. Much of 0111' "..... quent l). .. and Olincr...."...lIlge or their ilHCrnctioll~.'OlIlen In soeiologicaltenns. Croups play a vila l pan in a !locicty's !lodal sU'uclure.. such a.lction t. !~~'~(~d~~rihCd byco nm Cl~CofTman in athletes.ished J social roles of fricndship or being nfl~hbor5. De~pitc such propa.. openly ~ In prolCCl :md hide JC\\'lI. T his connection is known as a social t/ etwork-tJl:u is.' bandages :Ire auin-.... In 'lime inst:lI\cc$....... On the b....'\Y (uun. ~ kne~ pads and Ace. .lI1d 10 cncouragc cili7ens to support the 1JI'I'oCCution of ..Ic. .llmtlic incI'C:L'. .. 10 accomplish certain gO:lls...'lL:e(ball team..tl roles.......t1 p.lI' ..'lI....

11'1 .. I~"'KI' "'10 . 128 'iQClA/ 1. gr'OIlfJS /(Ikt nJl forms. U"'ifti SW/t!. OR(. IInd till ~$ulm· 0/ all A/mwl Amniclln """"~.111 th. IflnIIiJns of lM PoI6I Bmr CJllb /al/mg {I Wtrltn" dIp ill IN ig walnl u!lhr A'/(lnflt OCl'MI.t'lll.. mem~ 0/ fI u'Itlmut:r.J' dub..\'{. Slumm m.

According to onc 1989 sur· jl) }K'rCCI11 of rcspondelll~ teamed about elllpkllnll'llt Ilpportllnitics through person:! 1 COl ltacts md v.ork.mt way from the types of mCIlIOI'S and 5OCi.lSy for P!It nl(\j\'jcluals or groups aJ for olhel'S. ~ ulultll in thrtt areas of mcuupolimn Los AnRfit'. I'iJ/lllllrd in 197' by a group of Afrirtm AlMriroll lnlioroffim'$.-on III mfonnation. it is dedicated (0 ll1entoring junior Black officcrs.. 111ese kinds of COlH.J.. an ~tSSOCialion named aflel" Brigadier General Roscoc C.1 networks and facilitating tr.lS "Rock.\lion ofpcrsonal social nCI:""OI'ks Ihat tic people together \'I'. whidl are an \ugm.ltc organi7~. 1991).tw-n Iht' f.. senior Afdcan American anny officers diner in an import. Yct.. Mont- 1IDfDr..os. 1989." was an esteemed role model and mentor for 1ll. ' nt1IlIra a/Id distant contacLS.\D SQrJAJ X/HI C'1t/HI. . iop.1 lit/work to Ix.15 being Mdisorga ni zed~ or cven -pa lhologicll. Al ben Einstein was ~ucccs.uer understand life ill Vri.:h .)klgisl Mclvin O livcr ( 1988) used Ihe COlinf fllttf..' .S..\merirall Ilrban neigll borhoods.. Mcn arc beuer able to utilizc \.C170N A.\11wright.. hal is liter. men lend to have longer job bill IIIt"\. In their political conscl'\misl1l :md discomfort with viewing Blacks as \'ictim5. cOlllmunity in hands of concern :lIId support. ' II'hilt· looking for a job o nc )'car Olfter tinmK w-hl)()l.. a group or African American senior ofliccrs rounded Rocks. 129 rJ I""IU1' • "OC/·H 1\' /ENA.. !lclti.1 in NJbIt'hiuli! 'IOCi:. Oliver intcl'\~cwed .llher of a classmrue PUI him in touch WIItr h. :. . In 1975.Khcnisclllelll'. O li\'c "'s dam COnlradiet the stereotype of such neighborhoods .hieh leads tl) larger net .ms. picture unfolds of an elabor. Rocks and its me mbers lell(l lO distance thcmselves rrom any social agenda thal vie. Cal'lwriglu.th ~n 'old bo)' net.uiled as chaotic.U:LS.cial nc(". If) \lIIdy Iheir rriendship and kinfolk lies.AIl .". networking is nOl so ('..JI1drnts were 1101 found to be socially isolaled: ~nrral~ had liule difficulty identifying mem~ *' bers of their social netwo rks. Carter.. CIIl be cl"uci:.thin and olll~idc lhc Black. RlxJts 1$ an IlJ.ew itself as a pressure gI'OIlP... In comJYf14f1l11l1th WOll1cn. _Ilia".11 nctworks found among Blacks' chi lian leadership (Mosk..can associations o utside the milicu')'. better known .-orks. Unlike Mdca" AmCI..S..h.S6ofill/IOfI d«fua/id '0 ""n'on". j1H/jar mack officm In . iI fact ". who had been killed in an ail'Plane cmsh the year before.~ful only ..ork." Instead. U..1I1)' Black officers who entered the Army during 1111' 19GOs. :15 conflict Iheodsls hl\t" rmph~itcd.""I9CJ2).'!! recognition of past discrimination as cell trallO Black achievement. hile only 1'1 percellt did so 1II'lIIu.twh roll! he used III IULdUlIg mpIO)'lllellt oppor tIIIIItiM. Rocks does n OI \. lullUC employer. Army. (K. A \·cry differcnt Iype of MriCUl American sociaJ netwOI'k is evident in Ihe U.

group that fai led to re place pcJ'SOn ncl.tstmitlg (}'ft/IT... and their numben ha\'e c\'clllually dwindled 10 ani)' a few IIlc ml)C 1'5 today ( Riddle. By conU'"'dSt.. The native people a large island J U somh of Australia. Ikplllnllg J>tncn"I'i._. Abcrle a nd his colleagues ( 1950) and sodologislS R.~.. are St ducl. At firs t.' in atll.l/il ... a naval base. Institulions an: org-<mi7.lllo nd Mac k and O l. take place fonnally with in schools (whe re is a ma nifest fun clio ll ) 0 1' infonnally lemcuon and negotiati o n in pee r gro up" structiOIl.k: 5killtl Religion (socr«:I Producing ond dislributing gooch ond GoYe!nment (regulolions Fomily '_my (food ~ service$ PreMtVing order regording COII'IlMI'c.. llLlCh as rcplaci ng personnel (the family) and preserving order ( the govenllllcnt) . the economy.1I10P art orgrltlnal /S pat/mu of ""Ii~ft (lnd bt~ pnftn'lll fundlOPu nfffWIryp .o.. IMttyJ $u". For eXlample. Churc h ~'o rk has :1 very different mea ning fo r min isters who serve a slid j·oW area..cotion '<OOOm.. The Shakers. rcJati\'ely permanent group or society mUM a nd dislribmc desired goods and .\lccom l)lished through immigrat ion ."SS(:ntial fun ctions. J)uring tJle I BOOs. Amhropologist D:wid F. their recruitment subseque ntJy declined dramatically.....tch society cstnblishcs a set of rult~ the .. 1988).. o r it will ...... 2 Tm(hi"g "tu! rUnlilS. a nd ove rseei ng cultural cveIlL~ . The Shakers' religio us doctrines forbade :l. E'.JFI< . a re a conspicuous example of :1. i. 3 PrOtlrlo"g amI dislIllmJjng goods ami "'''''~ . clergy in affluent suburbs wil l Ix: occ upied wi ll..~. o r no rmal sexual repr&dUClion of members. No group Gl..~J.!9. counseling lhose conside ring marriage and di\'o"ce.tlen Fomlly (child rearing... Religion lmorall' Government (patriolhlllj Religion of pvrpoHl &ri(lllll.. acquisitio n of .1:1 \'es.isk the p di!\Cont e nt and. and Ihe health carc s)'l'itcm are all examples of social jnstitlllio ns found in ollr socie ty... Socia l j nstillltions are o rg<ulized pauerns of beliefs a nd bchavior centered 011 basic social needs.. the Shaken proved quite efl'ccow.md she hcl'... Any 50Ciety 01' group must replace personnel "the n lhey die. By ~Iudying social institutio ns.h'in Bmdford ( J97Q: 12-22) have idc mified five m:yor lasks. or become incapacitated.:~~~. the gl'Oup's su rvival depe n<icd o n recruitin g new rn e lll~ bel'S.Il ....~~J..ool. lc ting members. the Sh:tkers m:lin(.).. lhe govcrn melH. i~ a lale nt fun ction) .. Replacing perllOl'lne! Teoching MW rec... 4 p. a religious sect found in the Uniled SlatC'i...l...'l.§g... annexation of ncighboring grou ps of people. T ilt: mass media . man)' of iu me m bers rejecl the eSla blished ior :lI1d responsibili ties of the group. me family. ult imludy.h ~. unw.. ~"lVe'..] g roup IllUSt satisfy lhe needs o f most "'~:. anallging youth activili es.. S(JCJAI...OIlGM. . disorder.'" 130 I'ANT mu . Functionalist View Onc way to undel1lland social instilUlio ns is 10 sec how they fulfil I l. Fomily (ba.Pl V ... Rcligio lu leaders assigned to :t $kid row lIlissio n "'ill focus on lending la the ill and providing food ..l HlUIIIi t UII . the inst.. Ihal a sociecy or ~Iati\'d)' pennanent group must accomplish if it is to survive (SL"e Table 5-1).\'C.... therefore.Ily physiclll contact bClWCCU lhe sexes._ . This .ruih Fomlly Governmenl (immig'ObOI4 Ed..'. Despite this facl.~!. This is .~'. 01' fun Clio nal prcrequisites. howeve r. regulation of ~ Government Providing and maintaining 0 &en".. and a suburb<m middle<lass community...: least to some eXle nt... lea\'e.E§.. As a finding 0 " producing new me mbers is not cient.sociely.·IlI. they were dcstl'O)'c<1'" q orT.~.o"".. sociologists gain insight into the 5lruclUre ofa .illCd lheir commitment to celibacy. I...llIocation ol'finan cia l and othcr cc...itUlion of religion adapts 10 me scgmelH of U\r.selvices rOt me mhers.cd in response to panicul:tr needs.. The group IIIU~l e ncourage recruilS and acc~pt its values and customs..

hllnong IMnies of EurOpC~U1 conquerors.mrlrlrlJ nr CaIl'nUt/rv... ThL\ I~t of functional prc rc{luisitcs does nOl spechvll." ANb VJClAI.1 SI"'h. he lp to maintain tite privileges of the most l)OwL'rful individuals and groups \\lthin a society. conmC I lheorins object to the implication inherent in the fun ctio nalist view that tJle ou tconu. Pc. while contributing 10 the po\\'crlessne'iS of olhers. I Sh(mlPt IS FMm) iJntha I. c h ildre n.wry in order to fu lfill the prc. While bOlh pt:l"spt.ol1lC' of these mCll mentally madc elaborate ~11"n.. the prese nt organizalioll of social institutions is no acddcll t. r. who 1M'W UpOIl the Ta.. Ccmflic l rJleorists concede the prescnce of:a ncgoti:ucd o rder.ocillicc ..!tites for sUI"\i\'al. national o r tribal kio-uuues are especially mean in gfu l. The beha\lior of United St.11 fu nction of C"C I)' r.ay protect ilself frolll ex ternal attack by IlI. For . Whate. reun ions. If an individual does not 1!."-me POW..a socie ty and iL'i correspo ndi ng $OCial ins tiI ~ \\ilJ perform (Y.o s. the t.. When faced with tht' more dr.lI in world polilics and to promote cooprrJtr. for o lllen.wltIIK and mwnlUillillg (I $f!lIjf! oJ pllrj>osf!. religioul> values 0/' personaJ moral ufln. While in prison c.licitlY nUlS tile lisk of extinction. he or sllc has liule l"e<bOl l Illulllnbute to a society'S sUI"\'ival. suc h a~ ed ucation.'OJIk' nUhf lcel mo tiva ted tu comillue as m embers of ~ • .. any sociery or rruti\t'ly ptnnanent gro llp mllSl attempt t.lble.~ manian s as half-hum a n.. find tMay Ilrtrr or. the disabled.71 'Ht.'i...d"prd I:... By hnltling OH 1 a sense of purpose-their inte n se 0 dnirt' tll return to lheir hOllldand and live no rmal I. \I.md dL'Sir..UII' aspecu of a wcic ty ca n 'l.cre unable to defend theltlS('h'es and . For exam plc... neighbors.. As onc example. rrnIJ(. ¥' '.·(' rehuionsh ips wilh iu.I1lt' d ~n~ of purpose. Fro m a con fli ct perspective.H' ' 'o(XJAL I. UtIIl..u in \lcUlam is a testamen t 10 Ihe importance of ouUllJining a seu§e of purpose.WOOCTlo. in any society there remains one CO Ill $41 illd critical reality.Ssist people in d ektping and maintaining a ~n."rIM Ilmr mnulm"rl.Ire organized 10 meet basic social needs.uk. . q urnnrots. Nrw IIlImplhrrt.' is necessari ly efficient . lous fOllr re. Major insti tutio ns. arr most ( nlcial .-nbre people was wiped o ut.l~l View the fun ctio n a l i~t Connict theo l'isa d o no t conc ur approac h to socia l instilu- lions.iHdstry of 'M Shalt" f'tI"..bUW.."\'cn buill II UUSC~ in tlwir minrl _ I1gh1rlul'.se of purpose. but they add that nmny segments of our wdely-a lllong the III the homcles.unp".'e r and rcso urces. S Pm.-cti\'cs agree that institutions .rllupor Ioociery-prescrving order and prOlecling !Udf fmm auack. 'lit' people. o lle ~1l1I:~ m.A few (.\('h L. because th ey lack sul1idcnt po.Nl.n to the last d oorknoh ur wate " faucet.\ f(n marriage."tt isIY III Iht'\C functional prert-qu i.' tl) It/lMCJ luu 1. No malI~I II'hat iI~ I>anicu la r Slratcgy." .ldl.. a nd people with A1DS-arc nOt in a position to negotiatc effec tively. Mw/un' rotltl1lrmrg rom". and rlt'WClll"cl"S. This allows mo re "lnuent 131 I H . o.I'".uropcan tcchno logy of wufan:.hik another may make determined clfllns to reInJ.. This .Ulluining a frightening anwn al or weaponr)'.Oiaru I'. fnll MaltI'D "ft in IIr..unilulation underscores a critic.ft'orn.. ". public schools in lhc Unil ed SUtlcs J ue finan ccd largely lhrough property taxL".llt:S prison· '''01("01-<11' (POWs) while in confi ne mc nt during the w-. Family. Th.'cr these .'! refuscd lO a llow the agony of con flllMllt'm LO destroy their mental h ealth . as the Tasmanians did .ln neulr. If it 1/11\1111 t\·tn onc condition.

." saVli a cOilllX!ll(aLOI1" re.[:'~~::~.on llles . Chi ldre n fro m prosperous COInll1l. io na l ..ldillg leacher. SCCffi.1Il rlisttiet.. ever.M Silys th e musir LC. becomcs slIikillJ(.[ n". impleme ilY.vi..I. "hOl'o' lhl'SC schoob rdlc~'1 "" ." ~I)'S M lockers.1 Vl7JSC YIf'JAI W '! .lrgu c Ihal social institutions sllc h as cducalion have an inherently con sC I.urr 'n m • 0IlC. h 's \'1:1)' d. a \\11i LS ror 2() minutes.tred lO compete acadc lnicalJy than childre n from im poverisllcc\ commull itics.~c:s.III1J panIlT' •. T.llly /111' /11 Ih. sod:11 change can fun c tional.u.seclions ofl hc stage and back$l"Kc aI'ca.'115 \. h . Nf'ljJJnvy~ puhfir lrhoolJ: in thc'w conditio ns.." Two o lhcr clas.~ Unitrfi Sll'lltS find /QlJluf IIU1/ pl.ol ( 1991.. 10 ..I:. Children portlluilit-s 10 balhe.'crcrowrli ng in NewJcl'scy. in I i:l rlcm :and the Bronx.. a rr.ts in Ww-i".·~~~. I" h)' sho uld ~'C Ih(' cxi.qrlflliry pubil"dIICUlioll..bllr u hoo/." lit· m /lfy juflitlg aptlrl. even have the lUxury of classroo ms. 11 classes in o nc school (lVII '.'lll011.lnilies will therefore be better pre p. o." b"l'1ll is ll ~~' d h)' tip to scven ." tics.tlg e«erfJl.'alh'C" nature. er 16).I( h .jchc r ." she says...Uluuu-r urb.~ fln"I'U. ru.~":~:~~P~~ dllly n flhe for < .m" llrc:LS lO pl"Ovidc the ir childl'CII wi th beucr-eC)uipped schools and beu e r-paid teachers tha n low-incom e arc:\5 can afford. :t.:':~:~r:'~~~ funCtionalist 112 /'... To shnot Onc ba"t~1 1 accorclillg to . school desegregation .~ grm SUl(kn L~ h:wc no . "Oll\~oll'I }'. strcets. The crowtiing of lhe school n"'CL~ the cro"'ding of lIle ....we beeome. ". is h" ..o stud)' ill the Soll!)t: ~ pare . "I Ic. h I. perspectivc. fo r insl:mce.SAVAGE INEQUALITIES IN PUBLIC EDUCATION t"JiJUfI/(}r j 01UIIJlIlfl Kmd Umrtti Ilu ". space and lime 1 0 Cl Se-( re."9} dt!Scriks Ihl! rlmd. .. "ill a JowI'." --" ""'4 Kuw/..... 'n"..."("...d '. Krr. ~ 1 1 's very dimcult. are :l1ld h. is a con· stant rC~Hurc or the SC hOO\5 IlIa r St'f"C the poorest child re n . ho..\ .liOlIS 11/ IQ" 51lul". "8. The slrllclufl' of lht! Ila tion's cducll. Mw h :Wl: COHce rt ft' hcoll'll. thei r 1I':ll. art· ill COlwcn cd cnal bins." ~'W" I1 music teache r.()(icl). Ih.'"~." "1'111 housed in a coal room. \1 1 ti mc.~':".ll'e :i child 0 the bom \0 • • " [ I It. TIl l:)' share an lIudi lorium in wh il:: h Iher occupy .'.l(ljaccI\I .'I working lockers.. sl udents . In Box 5-2.'l TheSIU(d'.he CI>:. ~:~I of thing\ lIml for gmnled i n income Irvinglon... . since it ofl c n I{'ads 10 instability.illg social SlrUClllrc ir it is unrair c nlninmory? Socio logist I).thcther o ppo !'lullnt educatio na l in Ihe "rca U(. "there is a prublern with sound .ige room. Kmo/ mlPhfl~iu$ Ihlll w"il~ 1//(111)' $llldnll.\ Ihal . A guidallce cOltnsdor says she holds hcr parent mcctings in a r l ('l~t:l.. follou."'1)"5 a . $fllQO/ riislf'lrts '"ffl'iL'f' (/ llig" .'. Witho ut question . rrom a connict vic\\'. Conllicl thl"t)risL'I l. "My prohlem.tfdl). Slan lcy Eitzcn nOtes a basil' dox Oritll illSlilllljons: Ihey are absolute ly rCfonns~!.~ iflhc " hool" 1 prcl). where 9-1 percent o f studenu arc nOl1whi lC..~a:...)'Ste m pe rmits a nd eve n pro mo tes su ch 1l1'1 cqu:11 Irea tmen l of schoolch ildre n .lding leacher m anOlher school in Irvinb'1O Il. work III a h'TOW d irt} a nd il likc who the)..l ill (ifJlur". wc arc rc minded that children in unde tiinanccd sch ools arc d cfcnscless againsl the in cqui'ie~ of <. .he choir \~ hile tell Ilther cI :l ~es try t. mm. In low.h disabilit ies (sec Chap. lllC\ O\'e'f ile ms lefl ill lockers the) lock.· Al [rvingLOIl Higll " '''.:~.s acrou Ih ~ (m /jOlt ".llC~ thc ovcrheated 1 that :llso C:IllSCS trouble j (}1)(lllum ".hcl1l say..

."" \<o'c)rk iU·C.'t.......(111 out and illlcr:lcuc)n 1l0urishe d .... our c\'t. M thlllnbs lIj)M .. _..§Q~...n ror h i! daugtller. hould not forpl'OpW (kpelld on institUlion!l fur MSl.I!I .M .-'S..Incl TonnH. .. an uliimatlllll ..11t'1I COlitfasted '<lith carlier 'iOCi:tl arr:mgcmenLS is th(' grcltu.lIld Mthumbs dO\\IIM signs..:'::::~:..." L.lbil~.... ~ sfK....Z~ .lIcnWIll \~hcn ~ I OS5 :11 a luncheon tJlal bc was ('. tnp of an organiz... cuhh..IY . 8111 an innoccllt re-mark.J.tlllpll'.'/Or ( 1933... Thomjl\()\l ( 1983:233) SII~'HCM~ thal Mill a \Citi ng \~hich WlI\lld app:II'CIll!)' clilllinalt· it.. ag-dinsl chaos (I978:5. FOI cxample.... .. b)' OIa' indi\. a task slIch :L....ltioll 10 OIllel' Slll(USCj...lcLioni~t Ilf'npcct i\·c...Ind ollcn Rcl53...tion~ (P..lbl~ lu ltllad .luttnC.ell . 1UG6:7<I-7f1)... of unit). bl'llnfi . sleel t:Jblcs:lIlcl tuhs..I\Lent l)'pically OC("lII'~ in modern sociclics..dual or Gill be di\ldcd ..!>.)~::~~..'fcndanl...~" ofrered I)'pologi('s for cuntrOl._ . 1 his J)/1/.. :md .olllplexil) of contcmlXH. a purchasing agent 10 mkt' 011 the t1(C' .'U:lioni. hi' probably would nOl "..11 Durkhcim . Ihe j ud icial "yste m deril'cs con tinue d Sig-lIi1icIII1(" rl'Onl th e ro le....lIIIlt'iy \tcwct!lIS :111 onler ... plaintin'. tht" WOI kCI~' dl'sire for sodl! illlerac tioll \\.tic!>....IS attorn~.hail1llan 11. not only in tht: li lt:r::11 IRo.\ sol'icly-in othcl wo rds.tI stru(..('n·s I... as tJlt:y alII M·nS<.IS a justificalion ..(.. _.of social problcms.....:I lowcr-le\'t'1 exIt'tl.sodllted wi lh beillg a judge occur wilhin lhe largc l cuntext 01 the c rillliIl::tl juslice S)'StCIIl ...(l' (1983:215) IIOU''! thal "working in • work. Durkheim's Mechanical and Or~anj c Solidaritv ....lggt' I~lIed ge\lurt..·ith 011(' cm the 3.. M ~l.. clisu.' accept.. :tl l' . 011 lhe man lier ill \\'llic lt tasks arc PCI'fomted.uio.1I11nng many people.IS" i:k:dll 01 tullllS . and the danbriltg of knh'cll agolinst lit.11111 i1tiuslicc...Cw.uion and becl' III lhe ligur:ui\'c ~ lI se of pcrfol'lu- ! ~~.. Ihe group.lY CIf . Inter. rJft lhr..".....1I·s ued that sodal ~truc lllrc depends UII the levcl of division 01 labor in ...'lR 11""<1'. "..'" people C::: II'1')' O ltl ill sodal in le rn..IY"~H' ...lslIbllc tJlclll'iCh't... and Ihc inSli llll ions wi thin I\hit.illa! edition I 89!i) ... In ~dirly..... Ikrger and Lucklll:lIl1l .'I)'day social imtilutiollS.!..v11:........""" .M work in this pl:illl i~ IUnl·xhaulIling.. A '0111/11011 fe:llur(' or lIuxleru s()cietics .LS.'II" \<oe arc (hiving dO\<o'11 aITcct OUt' thc Sll'Cel shopping line..i01Cll..I tJf Ill.' and dcmcaningjob.l. :tnd rctitHing of a singl(' rood ite m <Ire pt'rfol1l1cd hy litl'I'<llIy hUlICh'('Cls of people .. wilh perspir.links..111 impulsi\'e I\!UlIcr (197701:36) by a lOp cx"H.as twI he known.n.........111t! JIIIS..-c'lIIbl}' line \\ork('''''' b) cOllductlltR tlwl'\aLion research ill the "'laughof it h("trproccs.. ~':~~:~... 'nlOmpson sUldit.JI(m of U.arch) can 10" ••.inler..'SS.1(1 no ide .·e beluu".. Scx:iolugists Emil(· Durklwim :lIld fcrdiTl. OIl1d the isola".." the family and tlte go\cnl1llcnt.. pl'Oc('ssing. 111e I:tlter 1). shrill whi"..ol ~Llrcr. Thu.. for cx- • .h we fUllction . NC\lcn hcll.'.r (.......'~.\ "'NI) VJ(:J. M b ~ SOCIAL STRUcrURE ~. OntJ()mlit.'ak ....UUliC\ which . providing fOod can be carried Ollt almost totall).U) life... MQJ:)..bulion ..)()d'll ill"Kh ... to which .-t1 Iht: day-tu-d...llioll ..1/A(710.ml in llie lIIill~~I. While thc symbulic ... ~i­ "'M.." nllccc.1t ~1. The strulls 01 ~judge" stands in rel:....<..-'iting modem ScX: lelll" .ttm or 11011vcrbal s)11tbo l ~ . thal this ..Ill cightchollr shift.......... ori).. WO I kt'I'lI .. :'?.~:. including CX.'s hier...1 lhcorisu cllll)hal>ile Ilmt our SOC'ial bcha\~o r is conditioned by tJ1(' roles and St....(·0110 : :~:~':~~~':~~...... We that ~ial institutiollll arc cl>sCllli:tl rqprd penmUlcllcc ...~illg pl.01'1.L ITI// CIlIU' . In Eit1...llel. .. .'.'i(X.. dt.ary anio n by sub' lite vice c hainnarl or 1 communicate through :ut ('xt('mi\'c S)1.. .. Tll!IlI1p50n lInd hi ~ lud to h:lUK.ture.l11 simplL-l fonm of !>nci... b)' SOntt. the "'ocial role .S!iClllbly linc bCC<lIIsc of extht· 1It'~d fof' earplugs..~ ..e .'l'<l. I-le mlds bn.Jf.L$ to the social institulion or gOlcrnmenl .ome lashion.r!l.~...... ttll l'X.ithin At"1 and U'O"'..:::~~":~i':'': i<l~... orJ)Chavior . 1I11(h ... M 133 (II..IWUUrJ Il.).. a nd bag betwcen no!) be~f tongucs in .

'IIJ.A.."" IIlll!>! be pClitJ!'me d by dillcrent individuaIS .m/ barllgrmmdl.dual nct. implying lhat all indi· \'iduals pctfonn tht· same task..ulio (If ~ I O\'t.. E.tl..a lion .r work. Statll!>CS and soc. In Durkhe im·s t l·rm ~.pical of rural lire.'tcll pcrllOll preparcs food . I • I "If r. illdi\~duals lx'Com~ lK:ndcm in muc h 111(~ 50Ime way as org:ms man bod).OIllC less pcrsonal lI111n ill ~ i c t.1... No nne nceds to :I ~k..· lion.· rlll'r.." D .is o i". 134 l'AKr 71\'1) • OR(..II.... . like 10 Ihi..od.. U'I'<'Clio llo.) r.el...i es charaCIc.~tr-ad." a rc few saci. i'j pCLua l nU. 1..III) .ltflsrMft. III gc llt'r.i:ll.s h ofn nity is t). I. no individual c m go Depe nde nce on o thers becomes essential sUI"i\'a l.1 of 10U .. Illa n y dincrC llt tas".":1 !'.orth. the gwup will is the dominating forl'c in society. Isr 11 Gescllschafl . DUI" kheirn Ic nned Ihis mechanical solidarity. lOlling 10 o lllcrs 011 lllc Ixc.I( as lhl' ovenlll ~1Cial struc tul'C of det)' continues 10 change .hcir social positions ( Whu IChc.11 ro les . social in.cd 11)' mcchanic. Uf" .rJ (a tlvr th(m . thcn.o... Durkht'i m c hose the tenn .C\'l'll in lll fulufacludng o nc itcm such :l... organic solidari IJi . greater dh~~ion of l:tbor takes place.III SOCiClic!i in which l)ll~re is minim:\1 di\'ision of )'Ibor. • "I'. 'J'NJII.. With illCfcasing speciali ." to "Imf' ID m~ fHwlh~ ill thnr fOI. 10> '''" vision of 1"lx )!'. '1lc Gemeinscha/t (~gllIH" I"y.. • .io n :\T(~ based on clo~. SO Iherc is little COllcenl fa r indi\.~ M IIIII"iC . ..\ss '>OCiCty known as Cr."lb devclops with an c luphasis on gJ"Oup solidarity. mjob to thi. whirh T6 nnics ( na l edition lSA? ) lermed ermeillsr/l(lfl. The per· son who cutS d O\"'1I limber is nOI the S<UllC person who puts up }aur roof. f'eople have fCh' nl)lioll5 regarding what to do with thei r livcs.·..ew.. ~(. hunts..hc re ..II'iIY Wc lx:gin n... i.. As societies beCOIlU.' more advanced Icchnologi· c:. it'. It i)o a 5111311 in which people ha\ c !>imilar . 'DU .<\..erso"." IIIllrvid. I\o th . in hi5 \. In .. to iml)c 1 1IOnal m. intima le.... In his vi~. :lIld so f.. MWhat do ).". ~f'.! collect ivc COlliCio llslless resting o n the cicty's me mhers h:wt' for one another.... makes clOIhing. . marked a drama tic c hangc frolll thc idcal cklsc-knil comm unity. face-tQ--face so-cilll Co tl1nt: l~ "i.t1 solid.·r.. ".:ll. 1 in teraction a nd nego.hc l· Iha n their di!'tinclh'e hwmU\ qualitics.~ra'''(JOi . lillle ~p(:ci ali . Tonnies's and Socio logisl ferdinand r o nnies ( 1 855.scious lH..ial col" ..W. of .' I. 'Iinec. builds home5.'tIs. a collccti\'e cun..1 9~) palk-d b)' the n5c of all industrial cit)' in his Germany during the late 1800s.OUT' pal"el1L~ dO?M since all arc en· gaged in inli l:... et)' becomes more complcx and I. bu..

more emphasis is placed on slIch ascribed statuses as f. . IIlalively limited.ote.. Self. The !ask being performed is paramount. iIo~:'~.hajl commu nity is ~:::.sclwfl and the Gesellschafl as desclibed by Tannies. more pcrsanal imeraction comes less pd• 1ft know more about evell'one. . the Gesellschaft (~gllh-ZEI. The prejudice and discrimination found within Gemeinschajl ca r.. ore more likely . There is greoter kIIeronc:e of deviance.Vn-:RAC110N ANDSOCJAI. a lmost as onc might find There is a commiLmcnl lO lhe large r l(tOo. Self·interesll dominate.111 other communi ty residents. As a result. in a more persollal ""rAY.. It is easy to view Gnne. Table 5-2 SU lllmalizes the differences between the ~mtiTl.mcinschan ami Gl'5C:lIschaft. induding "l!I90tio tions. sllch as laws and leg-. d'. with lhe more intimate relationships of I.wml Tiitmirs two ClmtraJting 1)11'. such as purchasing a anauging a business meeting.onl· rcl... • SOCIAl I. Social change is an important aspect of life in the GI'Sf'f/.:. Sociol chonge Is very evident-even wilhln 0 gen8fotiol1_ I Virtually evci)'onc knows onc another.1/ 1887.Jm·~/ "pe c1mractcristic of modern urban life..ldutji: it can be strik. immediate wks.. rather. Their differences In bockgfOUnd appe<lr more striking than their similarities .$ of Jorial Jtnuturr: Ge.1.. Social interoclions. art... !uciaI rol1tJol in the Gemeinsr. Sociologists have used these terms to compare social structures stressing dose relatio nships wiLh those Ih:1I emphasizc less personal tics.. In addi ljon.. d<)min".n dealing W ilh .}t(. ~7HUCIVM .'S 1 them not merely as "derk~ 0 hut.Urbon life IypIlies !his bm.':::::::' community which results 'i and Ijfe experiences.gO\'emcd by social roles which .1rnily background than on people's unique lalents and ac hievements. IIICioI aII'IlroI predominates.. Therefore.. relationships o r. TheM! tt:ch""-Irk effectively because people are genU1llct'mcci about how others feci toward hidl change is relatively limited in the the lives of members of onc generaquite similar to those of their grAndronh-oLSl. .he CemPillSclwjl comes a price.ingly evide nt even within a single generation.'lSchajl with nostalgia as a far betIcr way of life t. and there is gencmlly liuJc con- '':I:::. I"tI"(/j. from People perceive little MlnMl of CQfTllT"lOfllllily. Howevcr. social control must rcly on more formal techniques. (including negotiations) are JJld familiar. Cmu:inschafllends to be distrustful of the individual who seeks 10 be creative or just to be din'e ren L /35 CiIAY/Vi ..-shoft~) IVriti"g... are in timate orld to be task-specific. subordir. IrIIphosJs on individuol privacy. and even gestures..... be quite confining. There is more emphasis on ochieved S!aIuMI.han th e ~rat race" of contcmporary existence.li':7r pcopll'" art: strangers and perceive liule se nse sensus concerning valucs or commitmcnt lO the group. fonnal social control is evidenr. mcluding nagOllo tions..~~ through informal means such tL'i moral go~ip..p Ilnd a sense of logclhcmcss among members.. Privacy is volued..tlly defined punishments..

ued that more than I million people actually have AIDS ( R.ujon~hips tend 10 become m( persolla l.. 2·12. 1992: CelltcJ'S fOl' Di.1--.n"'nun"~ gcncmlly n"Sisl. and the econo my.JCcitll' or AIDS.he distinctive plague of the modern era..qllirr..·. R::uher than being a distinct disease ..\llc ntion give n by health to me thod s or tr-<Ulsm iltillg the I-IIV rect I'csuh of the absence of a V.r So:i 1981 1983 1987 1990 1993 199. it hi essclllial 10 reduce tilt' mission ofl ll e vi..n .. A'i o f September 30. line.cs the degree to which people can)' o ut Ihe samc lask!."'" dramatit"SI' III A1J)S (f/.The work o f Em ile Durkhcim a nd Fc rflinand T o n!lies shows that a major foctts of sociology has been to identify changes in social sU'uCtlll'C and the consequences for human behavio r.W.. Anderson and l\'lay.000 cases had been formally I'eponed as of 1992. shaking hands. ' " 136 IWO I'WO · OHGi.000 C:lSe'i of AJOS had bel'n reported in the United StalL"!>. sh ari n~ drinking from the same cup. 100. the huma n immullodeficie m:y \'inl5 (Hrv). o r ot her I)'pet. AIDS is the acronym for m. Th e first c..~ease Contro l. by mid-1989.. 1992c.. By 1987.\'17J.000 people had died of AIDS-related ca uses. sce Table 5-3)." RCg"J.rclcd by many as t.$/j of OhIO f/Vt'T tAt /lmlJti J "" .es of AlDS in the United States were reponed in 198 1. 35 797 2. we 1"iIl cxamint the AIDS c ri si~ has transfonned the 50cialst of our complex society. C.·us.. Durkheim emphasil.50. transient. AIDS is not t I through tOllching.. or 10. AIDS certainly c"" gllt major social institlltions-pani clllarly the govcrllmclIl.s ofinfecu:d blood... Ihel'eby leaving lhe c:uTicr \'ulncmble 10 infections such as In .. 1992b.• .... ilnd fragmented .t/ imllHmetitjirimry sY1ltirome. but it... 19'J!I:90-91 .se European sociologists.. In the policy section which 1'0110\\'5.417 5060 7288 Thu t(lib shQWS 0" ro.5 SOll" I).ta I. Tonnics directs our a ttention IQ whe the r people look out fo r their Ol\'n intt' for the well-being or the larger group.. AJDS is actually a predisposition 10 disease callscd by a Vil' US... the hea lth care system.<1 IU/><'I. is e~litn. "':t " r~IILLd . Since there is currently IlO W.1Il 'JAIn .rO' p"~ . they iden tify the impact of these lIocic tywidc dmnges at the micro level in terms of the nalure of social interactions between people.. Transmission frolll o nc person lo pears to recluire cilhel' intimate sexual csdmngc of blood or bodily lIuids (wl""'"1 comamimtled h)'l>Odennic needles or tr:lllsfusion."". At the macro Ic'·cl.1 an infected mother 10 her c hild before or birth). Alben a nlUS ( 1948) wrote: MTherc have been as many plag ues as wars in histOlY...eS had been reportcd. The . yct always plagues alld " '< Irs mkc l)Copie equally by surprise.000 cases. 1992. In addition. abou l 350. Thl'\ that iU social structure becomcs mort (' peoples re l .ed issues? • 1-1 01'0' his no\'cI Pfagut.~ pne ulllon ia \Jmt thoS(! wi th healthy i. 199. ti. nonilllirnale co ntacl in the home or place. Nel'cn there is a great deal of simi lari ty 1 Ci:1l )CI\\ polobrie!l o f tht.SOC/AI UH· .by surprise.le hed 10 infectiOn wi th th(' 1-1 rv vinls and to AIDS? • How mig ht sociologis ts influence resc.u'ch on AIDS and AIDS-relat...000 C'L-.IY Iv AIDS medically. that destroys the body's immune 5)~ l e lll . m e)' both orrcl' descriptio ns of societies shifting to more adwilced fomls of tcchnolog}'.. and more than 160. T HEAlDSCRISIS Ill:Is AIDS alTected the lIonnal funcl io ning of social institutions in the Unitcd StaICS? • Why is there such a stro ng stigma :tIt.5 and 19!k> .... Around the world.

ancl onl)' 40 pcrc..'i(J(. JhOlUII ""' ill a "lilJoi n "lu dram(JIi:~ dmlh.ifmm AIDS... . According' 10 Dr. the high-risk groups IIHian"cr of cOlltracting AIDS in Ihe United homlJ~cxuaJ .I')' and Federal. Viewed !"mm a conflict perspective. and their sexual partners. state. they constilute 48 percent In United SL. intl' I\'C nous u. _. people with AIDS or infec led with the HIV virus face a powcrrul dllal stigma.:h:.. Michael . as hospiI by the dema nds or car. As one health ca re consultallt pointedly asked : k\Vho " I-II V-positi ve~ 137 rJI. TIlis linkage \.he "AIDS epidemic is beht'tl'lmcXUai e\'c rywhcrc~ (L. H.I School 01' Public I-iealul.lgr.:en l of re males I .or Sun'e)'. \'.. ymakers havc been slow 10 respond to the AIDS c risis lX"cause those in hig h-Iisk groups-g'''Y men and IV drug uSt:l"S-are companuivcly powcrless.lIll on AIDS." According to the 1990 ! mt': AlVS oclitJisl orglmi:.jlh stigmatized groups delayed recognitio n or the sevc lit)' of thc AIDS e pide mic.J)S (})a/iliall 1(J Vllkash Pm"". III 1\1':13.. polic.. S7Rf/{:fllllf. dean of .e. Not only arc they associ. from ".or orten /"unc t.l"" has affected the nation in a proliarvC}' Finebcrg ( 1988: 128). (. (ACT·VI». Rccenuy...-ir l. only hair '. Indee d ..1 of !IOCia l inl eraction .. j(I meet the rising AIOS casclo:tcl .\O~"::":..'TOSJly illmtrqlUllt. Whereas ~~~:lispalliC5 reprcseJU about 20 pe rcem of l population .md bisexual men (who ae~hOUI 60 pel'Cent of all cases)..o. the label or-person with AIOS.wn·:Jj .". th e llIed. In the 1990s.Jptri(J11y vjsib/' (//1(1 ulIl... I. it has ~~~ lOrt'ClSI thal AIDS I'd" rcad In a more qoxual climate-among bOlh ho moh('\crosexlIaIJl-in which people will be t.brtn \\'t-U publicized. I"..atiulI S bill!!'''').II(M)ls and communities to busi n esses..md contagiolls disc/lSe: mer have a disease which is disproportionatcl).th at leaM 2500 e m"''tll all nearly onc O lll of every te n had an employee with H IV AlDS (Pog-.i.ju_d will! 'f !el/ml . evident in alrcadysligmatized gl"OllpS. E.('I1Il'~ for Disease Comrol. . chow. 1992b: New IWlb) .lImen are bccominFt" infected with HlV ruttll as men. Altman.rri(lIt'1l m~(Jfch IlOut oc"n I. LOok link inte rest in tht: d isease unLiI it seem ed 10 be sprcllding beyond the gaycoml11unity. IIIlfl'O k'\'C.'ltcs who have been III haIr AIDS in the last twO yeal1l. has obscrved: c. and tWIl"'""""'"'" The strain on the health care btrome increasingly obvious...:Risk ~ Beha\-. paticn L'i and lhe despe rate need for btd. Th e s t~ ggc ling '" >JUS '.UUiOllS about involvemcnt \-"ith new Vt'1 It appears that many sexually acLive in tht' l"lIited StlltCS have not heeded preabout "safer sex.tn (~·ho account fo r aboul30 percent (JM"I).xtends lO C\'cry social institution..'JAL lNn:llA c nON A."~. such as gay males and elmg uscrs..sh. Arollnd . in good part of ttan5mis"ion via IV drug lL-. 1992a). Ihm public Molth tjJarts mill govmlRWl1 fundingfor AfI)s. 11"" of the World Health Organi7"'nion's prt.ut l'ltp<'rience or sexual intt:rcourse for [)ise<lSC Comrol. ~ ~:~:.ljxJtnl i'l Illif if/rn1 IJ Ihl' ". Ihe rnilirn. more than two-thirds of all tompathe United States \\."".ions as a master SI'3LUS..for the urban poor. 1992). ther or their partner used a cO lldo lH Ih.NI) 'VUM. M heen increasing evidence that AIDS is a .

.':Iy in a 1988 sun'(.h'hen Ih ey I'll1e on AIDs-\.l agencies deaJing with lh e disease. ACT·UP h:.. KyVhat AIDS has d(}lIe. bout AIDS ha\'c led to grO\.tnts with li lV h"ear gloves.-a:. 19(3).1: . II courts seem guided more b) Slcreotypc~ amllc. Polling dam show how the stigma associated with high-risk groups affecL" people's feelings aOOm AJDS. crisis is likely to bring certain transformations in :.~e questioned in 1991 indi cated that they had a 101 of sympathy 01' some sympadl)' for "people who get AIDS from homosexual activity.lblished to caJ'c~ for t. sists that ulcse situatio ns po~c minimal tl1lnsm issiOIl :lIld tltat tlte COll rt decisio ns ~n} face of a ll lhe public health . arc often spoken of as "innocem victims" -Wilh the implication I.h.JI. Indeed .a .~ wide disui :md proper IISC of condoms. OHGANrlJ"'G waAl." while o nly 30 pcl'ecrH expressed such sympathy for Mpcoplc who gel AIDS from sharing needles while using illeg-.:II New York Cily'sSL Patrick's C:uhednl. for CX1 I1Uplc..'isdoll1 aOom (M. today 10 per clients are female. AJDS acti\'ist organizaliOlu bI charge that there has been grossly inadequate' crlllnclltal funding for A1DS-rclated n_"Sear(~ public health efforts. I. Shilts. and runs legal financial clinics as well as therapy and 51 groups for I~>opl e with AIDS and Lheir 10\·00 (Nav'"<lrro. Fears . rgm·s Kevin Iknill of uIe National Lesbian 0'111(1 Cay Task force. and insur.. carders" has contributed to \iolent iucidents directed at people known or suspeClcd 10 be gay. which coordinates 'he wOr·k of~lI fedcr.mce. D.\11-IC and other groups conccnlcd v.. than by scientifi c e\·idence..t society's social ture.'lgay.tw 1l11d a coauthor oflhe repon . si t.\I others wilh AIDS arc ~b l am:tbl e \'icdms" ( Hcrek and Glum. sends a dvoc'llcs to hOSpitab sist on beuer care for patients. Yet the legal system has hardly taken the le. had a paid stalT of 2j(j morc tha.. ~is simpl}' give biguts alld bashcr. ACCQl'ding to a nation(ll SU IVt. 1991:C3). Yel onl}' 39 percent oflho..stcm with those amicled with AIDS.trgolick. 1987:r\l2) .a ck g<"1Y"" (0. j o hl1son.HThe disCI'cpancy in these data reflects a t.. points out Ul. housing.1S popularized the it views as the crucial meSS<.. 19Rfi:5S-7/). <111 W':lll Streel. at scicntific confeI'CIlCl.t.. sa id Lhcy had a "lot of sympath( or ~solT1e sympalhy" for people WiLh AIDS an incrcase from lhe 75 perC<:1Il \\'ho anSWCI't:d the same question this . 1988. III this c1imalc of fear and blame.inR -buddy s). G. Especially visible and 0 ken in this cn'ort is t. tJlCl"{' has been increasing hal1L'iSlllent 01 homosexual male!J.~ . a pl'Ofcssul' of hl"a lth l. ifesta social insUludons ca!l not mee l a crucial net-d.d dnlgs.safer . ma.lge of tile NOS H 138 I'ART nro .')' in 1991 .td ill fighting such discrimination . and lobby for mOl"e responsi\'e policies.y Men 's Hcah1I Crisis (C New York City's Iargesl privatc organizauoo viding AIDS services. O.)t some couns have cxacerbatcd public fears of the disea~e by plac· ing "Do Not TOllch~ ..dated cases.c ndc ll cy 10 blame members of hig h-risk groups for contracting AIDS. 44 percent are no n-White:.. AlUll~n..i\'c public educiltion campai garding tJ\e need 1'01" ". According L O a reporl issued in 1992 by the National AJDS Program Office.. by having defend. CMHC opc:r. ng discrimi· nation within m:yor social instiHltion~ of the United Stat~s. pt'uple with AIDS have 1 :lced discrimination in employment.hich has conducted con sial prrucstS. Any ~lIch dramatic.he AIDS Coa lition 10 U Power (ACf·UJI) . 'hough initially G~lI-iC's clieJ1L~ h'ere almost sivcly White homosexual men .speaks for lhc drug abuser in our SOdel)'? Who's in favor of lhem?~ U. ilnel elTectivc co ing and suppOrt services fOl· those with AIlJS I-IIV iufeclion. suc h as teenage hClllophi liacs. llIany al·e he terosexlllll...ins.S cOllcemcd " AIDS.. self-help especially in the gay communi tics of Ill~orct· have I>cen (:sl.itlt argue that lhe proper socie Lal rC$ponst to dead ly di5<. and "zaps" in the hall! of CJ'nmcnt. 1988:888. By J993. Gay lights leadc l'lI bt. K. from a functionalist perspective.. Cross.hc sick.ues a phone hot line. Larry Coslin . and b)' Ic\ying harsh pt:'lla!tics 01\ with AIDS for biling or spiu ing <It oLhers.~ex... In the case of AJDS. the justification ' 0 aLl.e incllldes (C. ed the healthy.85 percent of rcsponde llu. social nelworks are likely 10 emerge 10 fulli1\ fullction.-lic\'e t11:1l the conCe pt of homo· sexuals lIS "di~easc.')'. those who gOI A1DS \"ithollt engaging in homosexual bl'h:wior o r drug use. sting of new dlllgs tu : hat AlDS. I 987:A I 6: He rek and GluTH. I992: 16).'l.igns 011 AIDS-rc1ah:d e\'i- denee.n 2300 Vohllltl'el'S typically \\lork.. 1987)...

si!ptallCC to l ie need).~.({Jr-I. tht. Anal)'"l.15) expressed UlJl(nn (hill research on AJOS has been largely \ IiluC!oo b) biomedical sdc nt.r-I. fltllll"sponsc 1. atld the institutions \\ithin which we function.~.tn. Fur ex:unple.111 ItlC pti\1leges of the powerful while contributing 10 the J>Owede.IlJ. In tIIr l"niled States..rllltlRY ltti.. Dell lh~ (France. Ihe sdlOols. 3 l1w fUl1('lionalist. thaptcr cx.n" call all be l\Sed ill :malt.. Gamson .:. he out line d fOllr dim. .tlJ.. 6 .. use their expcni.. and imcr'":tetiuniSI per· sp~'cli\'cs ("_'1 . mrdia.'Sdl'!\{t:.'V "NI)MX:/AI. h 010111" p.ial .l('h distinctive st.RlJll~:r[().l.c )'clur college eomlH ll1Iit)' <IS :111 cxample of:t I1cgoli.\ replacing pcr· Inrl.0 I>coplc's Ix:ha\"ior is based o n th e "'''< \fit al1<1rh 10 . R Ol1r \\01\ tQ wtdcrstand social illslit\ltion~ is to sec j!JOj Ibn luum ~~l1tial flmctiotls. . crimcs. .nJ.'Ithin a socie ty. ~·nwc/'/JI<f. the heailh care system.ssneu of others. Shou.t sociologi51S can m ake a n imporlant co ntribunon IDAJOS-rc]atoo research...lwd o rd e r. tht.l] and social sC ly ices made a\~<li l ­ able 10 people with AIDS? Why . t Thr conflkl pt:~I>ective a rb'l.r-I.c 10 assist t ~J89).we these se rvices often denied to the pooresI pal. co nll ict.mclions csW!!.icl1Is? • H ow is hOlllophob i a (fear of::md pl'cjlldice agajnst hOlllosexualit)') relaled lO fears conccnling AJDS? In what \\~<lYS does homophobia cOITclalc with t/lJ. S \n alCl"ibtd itallu is gCllcl1IlIy . 12 The AIDS crisis has affected C\'cry social inst itulion in the Unltc·cl Statcs..'Is soci· ell' known as Gesellschafl. 1988: J. \~hich an: /. 10 ImcraClionist theorists elllphasize that o u r sod.tion$ for such sociological research: other forms of bias? ·11o" i!inlonnation abo u t AJDS p l'o duccd and distnblllctl. th c eCO IIOTll y. J.:. or cOI'er brcakilt~ nt'W~ :L~ rcpol'lcrs? Select tv.t sodal insti lu· .ions secm particularly susce pljbJco \(I rolc co nlli ct. !1i.heir actions." being limited or even ccnred: .:J"L /NIJ:/lJlcno. Itnll ran ~iologist. wrm. sHch :t.ud Ill(' health Gl f e syste m 31"C all examples of "dill/lion. jutl nmi isLS commonly experience I'ole conflict dU li ng tl is.nstit wions.U.lltll VlCiologica1 study. 5Qria i strlll:lllre refers 10 th e way In "hldl ~ "<tlt'itl). found in lhe Uni ted St:ltes.~\.'rl by the norms and s.s tn J~nding to lhe A IDS crisis? In an address be- • H ow d oes an AIDS ~fo lk.<::.i sL~.clt'logi§t Barry Adam ( 1992:5. includ ing the !::'mily..lIAI'I"I-.~ is the d isldbuUoll 01 in lormaUoii alibi!! heM· to hart Msafer sex..r. . is ortpnizcd inlO prcdictahle n :I.rt!1n KrOups. Wh at typcs o f negotiations arc co mmon ill the day-to-day intcf<\ctions ill titis social inSlitu· tion? 2 People ill certain profcS!.."mcrned bcha\"ior la kes place wit hill ..1.I tions help to 1113111 1.U\!l ~ inflllclICI. and how does il become inlcgJ1ltcd in to a cOll1llltUlity? Why do ccrla in communilics and individua ls 1'esist or ignore scientifi c infonn:uio n abOlll the dangers of Cur tht' Amcrican Sociological Associatio n . t nlf ahi1i~ It) define lJOCial reality c1l":IrJy rcnecL~ :l Il""'P' pwCI ..hese concep ts. T IM.ltlltl1g new t'eCrtliL~. 5 \'tllh f'. 1989. I I Ferdi nand Tunnies dilltingu ishcd tl ' t": close--knil communi ty or Gemeinscltaft frol1l thc impersonallll. and preS('I"ing u l·dcr.(l"S lh:. L~lcrs.1 beha \'iol" is co nd iti u ne d by Ihc roles and stat uses tha t wc ac· ce pt .e dis trl'~si ll g sitmuiolls.\l.lr.lSSigncd 1 persoll 0 I~nh "hcreas an Ci (hitllt d s/a/IU i~ . 11t\. and go\'cnllllc ll(. . ccotLomr.: M><.I. the grou ps 10 whidl Wc bel.atus-whClhcl" ascribed 01" 'I<"lt!l-~o)U1e lYolrticular social roles.md otl..'?. Ca nadloIn ~:.tHai ncd I:lrgd) ~~ljIfr-tjljt" uwn efforl. Adam argued AJDS? • H ow arc med ic. What :Irc tIll" ~ trcngth~ 0(" \\"t'akttl$st":~ ill cach pcrs pective's ltllalysis 01" social institutions? 139 r.: h t expe rience.\liOllnIt..b Oljler professiolls and di !>t. the gO\'crnmCIH.ld thcy offer m.t's~ lhe ' Y P(''lI of role co nOi cl''i:hc)' miJ.social S laIUS.l orc~ emerge. ascribed sta tuses of mec :H1d kl ~Jn hmerion as mas /er sla luses Ihal hal"e an imJol"U1I1lmpilcI on oue's potential to achicve a desired ~'Ilal and .. .S«.ulIines t./ illlrrlulilln refers 10 the \\':1)'5 in which people r("- 'PJ!ld I" unr another.!~.

A wclal position -assigned.. (123) Ne.. sociolOboi~t Ebo' l. :lIld cxpecmtiOlls who rl.. in which strong penon.~. I\'MIIt'II Symbolic fntn'tl(tioll. Richard. Zcllncr.. oflcn found in mml ate.1 of d isengagellu:n L from a role Ih:lI is centr. gender stratification.....s and in l'I'hich rdalion ~ h i ps arc close ilnd intimau:..t".. Ikph...1"•• into p rcdict.11Ie! WilliiUlI M. ( 120) Sto tu s A tenn I~I hy...:~ the proce!\.'IlJcial i nstillltiQlI1 Ol'glHl ilCd paltel"tls of belicfs a nd behm'iul' centered un hasic SQ("bl nccc\. Jc~.JchO\~ h '~ Witnesses.lrv.~ of disclIg..gan Ex: 7>.. Ihe Oncidot cOlllnlun il)" the MonnOIlI... A \-arit-d and lIJC.1onl!hip~.. ( 125) M erhanirnl solida ri ty A tenll used by f-mile Durkheim to describe: :1 society in which people gencr:ll\)' :111 per· fonn Ihe smile t...II\C\ M'IlIOnl !k·I150Il.small diner on Chic...:~ antholog)' addn.wei:l.cnn used by "'cnlinand TOllllies 10 describe communities.o-j II(Iry Groups: Itn Exmn. and Ikllt t:. and recsmblishII1CIII of an idclllilY in :l new role..... Gtlif.lhlc rcl:I.s'-~:~~~:~ A IDS. ( I Sociol stru ctur(l TIle \\~Iy in ..:...1 .".u:tion~ Ihrough I'I-hich J"L'Opit (klinc and rcdclinc ib c har:lctcr.~':~'~:::. .he reby d e lenninc! a person's gell eral pOSition wi thi n SOCiety. As described in 1. 1-lclcn R~ Jo·lIc h~.tge 124) ASC'f'i bed . knov.to a per~ SOil by socict)' without r~g.a1l1cs.)... M...:I:I~~~::::':J !>CI""" "..istcnce from Ihe .. 1987. !lCrihoc dose-knil cOlllmllll.uge and impersonal.lging from a significant an d t"stablishi ug:1 new idt:nliIY.. ~M un. ( 135) D«gau .... ( p. ( 122) Orgcrtie solida rity A te ml.'ful colle<tiOIl or dr. (12'1) A liOCial '~:.IHT nu) • OHCoANI'IJ. Ncw Lcxi llg lOlI. 1" 000"111 .hen incompatible expectauons an!lC' 11'011\ IWO 0 1 marc "<Kial pmiLions ' hdd b)' the Silmc pCf'JOn ..o :'gai nsl hOlllmexu- ality. MllJnlfi"ity..tgo Prcsa. (139) Mlu ter $Iallu t\ SI:I UlS th at dO lll inmeli Ot hcrs and I. Amollg gl"Oup~ deK rilx'<\ in thi5 "cry readau1c book Ami! h .. (126) ...s a... a nd the ROIIIMli lo"..-d posiliuns 1'I..gY. .I~.. ( I'. Ncwhury Park.l rd for the PCI"'OIl'5 uniCJuc t:l1t: 1\ ~ or ch:u~ l cri5 Iic5. wi th lin le commiUllCl1I lO tJle group 0 " con$t:mi1l5 o n ... ( 125) Role uit The p(l)(' 6. (lM) N~&otia' ed arder A MK"ial structure th:1I deri\l'S its Cll. Hubcr.tl 10 Olle'~ selr.lrJ:.. \ Grow" AII\' n UIObcl (If people with )imilar lIonm.lid. Duncicr.·"r" "tItoI CeullJ(:haJl A !... a nd ~l"Sistt'nt IX I\t'fl) .~ ..4 ..!O) This stlld y d escrilx's t'\'c IJ d :l)' socifl l rela tio nships bCI\'rcel1 Whiles a l1d Africul in a .P"".1l."gUlarl y and co nsciousl y inter.. Slim'... M:min ·s... as GyfJjiQ)..... .w.I..BM~. Mary Jo.s].: ... _.~ . MilChdl. J O:UI..l l bo nds IIniu: members. Schneider ('... (127) fhmlOph obia Fedf of . ulioCd by rnlllc Durkhcim 10 d~ribe a socict) in which membcl'$ arc lIlutually (it'pendem and in which a complex di\ision of lab!)r cXiSLS.....l.. U~llN"tnbifif).\4)): 5.'\CI)-day lifc.W.c.... Winchcster. Nc-w York: St.ng o n lhe intemct1c:lIIist PCrsl>CCU\"(' to the role of gender in t. ( 124) . Majors. (127) Social ro le A 5('1 ut cXIX'ctll.. Athitfltd s'ahlS A 5t)Cial position :It~i m'd b) a pCBOIl 1 . 19\14. val· ues.. '.IC CemeiNsclrojt A Icnl1 lucd b) Fcrdin:lIld Tonnin lo d .. . CMI 1"111' Oilnnmru of IJln'* Ma"lwod i'l "'".ulfl prcj ud jl::c. 140 P..otic tiort The atte mpl to reach agrccmcl1I with o lh· ers conam ing liOffie objectl\...lgo's SoLHhside. Chicago: Un il't'rsityofCh icago Press. lkttlmil..'S~M :1 \OtrielY or w uc. including race.Igh. ab 'l\CII social \~i tiCl n or SI:tlU5.. 1992..iurls or 1"01.TI.1I Uok EnL OliGlgO: Unin'l'$it)' of Chic-.rtal/.] IlItcr..cun... often urlxm.. ( 134) Soci al rt dU/o r" :t serics of pel"llOlI din: cLl ) W othcn ami therefore i ~ull more people. and J. ( 130) Social in te ractiOIl 11lc ways in wh ic h people respo nd tu OIlC another.wtllJn o} Unrorlllrn/ionaJ (51h cd. Ebaugh . Tnbll': UncI'..1.lJllwxt of AIDS.u-t.l... :and Mk hacl Il ill (ed5...::.".eJy through hi! nr her u\\'n drOll. An Afric:m American h alld :I White 5ociol ogi ~t :lIIalY1e UII: African American lldok'SCCIlI maId present in cvel)"<l:ly life.. ( 1 ~1) R o l~ t'onf1 it:l mlTicul1ics th:lI occl. WiIlialll M..soci04ogisu 10 '0'"" full ra nge o f socially dclin(. that an: I.: Alien o'Uld win .1.lhin a group o r sociel)'. "'.idcnut)'.

fTHl'C'1VHI...." I 01' sociological Ireanut'1lI of self :md H'O mt:rI and . ..-.... m publications have dC"ol('(1 special issues 10 the bch:.....MirrruoriolOJO': l)iStOllfY... 141 O I.. ..ll relcl... :1I1d Sodal f'robknu (OclO1>cr 1989).... founded 1971 ) and Symbol/( "rl~fU'/lm ( 1977)......... snnr/lfir Ammrml (OclObcr 1988) ....'d SIales diffe r in thei r' '1 U"dt'nl(llld: Journals ..aI!O: Uni''enil)' of ChiGlgo l'rcM.. "'.. .. .. York: Ballantinc............' .. Scl'~r. 1 • soaM ....'·'"J-........H.ofllen in the Unilt.. _ -.. ..\7)SQ("JA'. and CIIic:...._ .. _... I... ... including Arnmcan l~dwlogl$l (&1'tembe r' 1988).... . ...' . t:moliOIl .. 1990.....' 71:J«C11O.. Among Ih~ journ:tls that focus Oil issud of lOCi ... A popbook that pfO\idc5 an I)\'cniew of how .. 199'1... interaction and MKial struc ture arc........w ioral ill1pliGltions of AIDS..• A.. .-...follntal of ConlcnpOrtl'1 EJhnogmplty (formcrly (!rhon '4r..


Ifriuf. ······ .ui1.f=====:I·..." onnal Organiz:uiolls Char.1ni7':ltional Ch :lIlgc Co:II Multipliclltion (.. Help Groups 143 .· GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS UNDERSTANDING GROUPS T. Ikh:l\.md BlIfcaucracics l)CO.ll'ch)': Rule by a Fcw Ilw'c:lUcracy's Othcl' Face Volulllary Associations OI'K'..ENT BOXF..ossion 5 UNDERSTANDING ORGANlZAll0NS f'onnal Organi/....alion :"IS a 1·l'ocd.QI': Selr...croups and OUI-Crollr>S Krrcrence Group!i ~lIIhil1g Small GrO\J I)S Si'U' of a Group r.....11 Succ(.I'! Ru lts ('wd flrgu/alilms 4 J.sc:lfCh : Multicuhural Small Croups &-2 evcl)'d:l). I Cun-cm Rc....dopmcm of ).pn: or CroUI>S I'rim. ·......5 ()..0...lCtcrinia of a BurclIuc m cy I DmwOIi of tAbor 2 IIJmmlrj of AulhonIJ . .uyand Seconda ry Groups h.~ Olig.oaliti0l15 Ml\'sical Environlllelll 1~"'IIIIJ)'Inml JJa ~1 all Ttthltiml QllfllijicQliOlU llureaucr.pmcrw{ity SOCIAL PO U CV AND ORGANIZATIONS: SEXUAL HARASSM.. ··..C====="Ir :::.:ujons ..

ations. athletic teams.ou would find the government . Tuppe .. o r Mary K.sociati011S. The strong pcrsonal appeal of OSO foullders accounLS in good part for the intense and passionate tone of gatherings...lJ. and iIlany of these sa lespcople arc makers.~ Pco ple in thc United States arc joincn. the sales fo rce is female. or.a lio n (050) such as A1nwd)'."". Shaklce. DSO employees genuinely believe that clients will be beuer people and "liO)' h. Involvement in DSO work is an intense experience..~~:~:~~:'~1 I n izational ideologies that are n ler. o ' miI ". "What should we have for dinncr?W .nixT sic groups. ~ munity. In euery case.a. R When is the'llex t meeling?~ almost as we ask.ue. y Cosmctics.. stiulti ons. He W"5 of his time.15Slllen t within organizations in the United States? IShaklee was] :1 remarkable mall . :t year berore the word ·\i~min' evcn coined .''''h M any of us know or have been visited by somconc cmployed by a dircct-selling orb". DSO employecs speak of thei ."""•.. DI"c. the gatherings of DSO e mployces have becn compared to rcligious reviva l mcetin gs. or professional organil.. LOOKlNG AHEAD • How do sociologists distinguish between various types of groups? • How does cu ltural diversity affect the performance of small groups in the workplace? • What are some of th e positive and negative consequences of bureaucracy? • How impo rtant arc informal structures within fonnal organil. sociologist Nicolc Woolscy Biggart ( 1989) characterized DSOs as ~charismatic· because of the awe th ey arouse in c mployees. . After cond ucting a study of 42 DSOs. Ggt!S. Nc\'Cnhcless.ge rol<:s . DiMaggio ( 1990:210) eludes that DSOs are ~ prcfelJlinistR becau. at a~ head of any new undertaking.1ry associations? • How common is sex ual har.. . and.Americans oJ all.pp' '' ' by using DSO products. Sociologist Paul DiMaggio poinu om DSOs providc these homemakers with hance their marital power. they join direct-sclling org-dnizalions.uons? • Why do so many people in the United StaleS join \. and offer a .. He developed Vita·Ljne first product.." ideologies arc supportive of male ~\"Oille n sho uld vicw selling as nOI quite husbands' permission 10 enroll.olunt. where in France ). all. 19i~ I'.. strect g'dnb"S. social tion is necessary for thc transmission ofcullu.. caree r. poilllcd out in the earlie r chapters. I n most DSOs. 1989: 142). ..· companies' founders in tcmlS no t usually applied lO corporate chief execu th'e officers (CEOs) : 144 . ask..llu:olt. when finns recrtlil spouses as backsl. all types oJ disposition are forevtr fonning as...nil. in lhe United States )'OU are SU're to find an association." E\'cn watching (Mary Kay] on TV is real hard I j ust get this knot in my stomach whcnt:\-ct I or listen to her wlk or anything (8iggan. ch. stations in life. H c's [had] a special place in 1nl (Iligg-"rt. These sales people o flen go door 10 door or arrange ho usc pa n ies in an a!. These rounders are successful :i:"~'.. m..tempt to reach polcmial custome rs.

It has monu11y meetings. who orten .al and privatC'tt{lot urg:mil. College sororities and fraternities... in sociological tc rnlS a group is any number of people with similar nOllns. ol..u·ding debating strategies coach new me mbers relr and lechn iques. dance companies. Ihr runllll of a society.~...'u ions came into c xiste nce 1"iII brrumineO. At the sam e time.lflJlJpL I'ilnicular allention will be given lO small ~. te na nts· associatio ns. Th~ rhapter wiU conside r the impact of groups and orgiUli/.. !1P~. TIlis Chaf"dcu:ri!llic distinguishes groups from me re aggrega ll'.md 10 theanal)"Sis of illlCrac tioniSlthcorists Irprdillg the dynamics of small groups.ations...tes to join voluntary assoallI"'I\'\.'\./" IIW..i inconscqllc nlial ime r' lc tiol1s... Our li\'es are fill ed with re lmudum anc...'ce n lI' trio us types . We rclate to ccnain people brr...·... .se do not act together..tl(fltUIt! visiting a humf . liowever...Iahs f'r1JreJr.".~..IIN:· lit' like them.. l UERSTANDING GROUPS ID n'f'ndl....NlJ OHC.' speech.N I1. noted by Alex. run by elected offi cers .1 Budaptsl.. or we have no othe r choice. o r from mtegvrles \'o'ho share a commo n feature (suc h as being retired) but o th· c rwi..... The study of gro ups has become an important part of soci ologicannvcstigation because they play slIch 145 Clf. the wcie ty has boUl a fornm} and an infonnal stnrcture.1...i TIONS .. find I/UlIl)' of Ihe. unofficial leadership roles are held by the club's most expelicnced debaters. J>COI> use the tenn group to le dncribr an) collection of individuals. How :md • fUftrl.111ttling oflhc Tuppcrwarc sales force ... the)' are working to accomplish a goal we iIwt.$ of people. fllmgnry. will be dllr:Ll'IM"d.... The lendency of ptup!r in the United SL... !lU£htHoolcrsalions with cashiers in stores a nd suprtmMkcb. All me mbe rs want to improvc tllcir· public speakin g skills and belie vc that inro rmed de bal. 5/iiffijij jj all Atkm ..JI diff et·selling orga niza tio ns (DSOs)..ion . many social intCf"dc tio ns arc pbnnl'd or anticipated.. The social policy section will focus o n the ~ul ~1Cual harassment ..tI'Tt.?~. IL will bcpo hi· noting the distinclions be ty... . ..'!p....... and Max Weber's model of the mod · rru hurraucracywill be desclibed.H 6 • CHOIJPS .. such as passengers who happe n to be togc the r o n an airplane Highl. whether Ibm: 'Irangers sharing an elevator or hundreds ar o1... and expectations who regularly and con· -sciollsly interact. likc many gro ups. It has agreed-upon \'alues and social norms. A college de bating socie ty is t)'Piedl o f groups found in the United Stales..is d e Tocque ville. and c he.e of belongin g.tJ J(lk5fH:"/JU < iHi 1W"II'1...~?. tllII Sfl ~ fora is O"i!nwMimmgly f t/MU.......S clubs arc all considered examples o f g roups.. values.jIl~rn.ations on social interact. ~l\' as we noted in Chapter 5.... in a stude nt union building.. Howeve r. wh ich has beco me a malOOCf'm of both go\'e rnme lll. In addition..d organiz.. It is imponallt to e mphasize that me mbers of a group share some scru..e on issucs or public policy is an essential aspect of democracy. they have some thing to o fIn Ut.

It.. sllch :IS la rge college dassc:t and !'less ass()ciation~. Somt tcrnides or social dubs become so large and personal thal Ihey no longer function .. frleodly imperJOnOI In du/inguiJiling ~l 1yf'e5 of gmuPJ. temporory litHe iOCiol inlimocy or mutual UIldeUlanding ReloIiOlllhips generally superficial Mere formal and Relalively long period of IIlIeroction Jl1Iimole.wolly Iorge Short duration.MIwrl of IhlS g1T1IIp typtftl/lf p~ _bm lUll/tU IN/Ort SiI/lI1g Old 10 tMlIK' hl'lp lIrrmd('(/ mo/om/s.1).rm primary group 10 refer 10 a ~1II. p ia).oole)' ( 1902:23-57) coine d tJ1e u. TIX/U.1.3.. '111C diuinction between primV'" secondal).h tU Mw 1 ~mJtI'Y dJ f. and o/JutallOfIJ ru\o and ronmOlUl] mtmut.-en t}1>C. 1989).'i of gmups (sce Tablc ~ I ) . 0 /trml flu' hl~rh/if(/y 10 hI'li W /M 10 IIN/lH'II... M " \81.. 7'M bfAm Inlllllll] InA . JOlIoIOgUll hmv "vial thl' dlffrmlfc INlwtf'fI . ~ :I key role in the 1r. a pivotal role both in tht ciali7. Ihnl flm Ihi' (O"vt'rlI1IIQII kI "fbtr tOPI C lu.. groups i nOl .-looa).. dOS(" friends. cll1d ~ gm/Itl.~."S Honon t'. Sociologists have made a number of lIscful dislinctions beIw(. living in lhr h Olll'Cilold .. and pccially kinfolk pia). facL'-lo-f. 146 PART nl'O • ORGA . impersonal group in which lhrrt ~ lie social intimac). 6. $AowIt AuonallOll of IM Full GOJpd M_ HI Piano. The term $f!co" dflry grOIl~ 10 a form"l.SOC1AI UH': .tlwa)'S clcar-c.". primary groups can be instnlmelllAl .J"C.bl)' a primary group. so do members ofa famil). a viml role in assisting to follow comp li c~uc C\ sched ules for laking scription medicincs (Kail and Ulwak.«Woce ouocloliOll Some emotional depth III relotloll"'il» Cooperative. nr . group .ce . When \. Studies ha\t' for example.lIIsmil'sion of culture. foce. person's da).:1 moloriJts about tJrnr IJWtOrtyl'ltt . wdologJlaL tmfts.'e find o u rselve identifying clO5C" grOllp. as well as Msisters in " college sor l)limaJ). a group 11_ rwmbt:r of ~ WI/h UMliar oo/IJG.ut.Uon pl'OCCSS (see C h apter 4) and in tM "eiopmellt of roles and statuses (sce Chaptrr 51 deed.t 1l group characterized Iw lim:lIe. 1 Generolly WTI0U U. U(J\fo people in the United States participate in groups which arc nul chardclerized b)' c1QSC of friendship. or mutual understanding Table 6. that ndghbors.'Il. P ri mary and Secondary C!2!PS Chari(.u pri grOllp. it is prob.. exislence.L~i:Hion and coopc' '111e members of a '!treet golllg cOnstilute a pri group."mary (md M'( tmdmy grfm/Is.

il is a sign of~hackwardness" and tIJ enter lhe twenueth cenlll!")'. OUI--group. ~/XtC(._.:J~ ~m"" ol·["-g"m'p~·' ''''.~:t~~. a high school sll1dcl1Iwho aspires lOjoin a social circle of p11nk rock dcvot ce~ will pattcm his or he r be ha\'o io r after thal of the group_ The stude nt will begi n dh. The vcry exis- " .R.A... Reference groups also per· form a comparison functi o n by se rving as a standard affdinsl which people ca n measure the mselves and others. ~.s A group can holdspelor members because of its re lationDlhcr groups.9: i"6'"" "l.ian Gulr. Simply PUl..'clU!sS and superiority \·.~ -Ihey or . Proper behavior for is s. it is "un-:~~~. and be llavcs. A law stude nt will evaluate himself or hel'llclf against a referen ce group composed of lawyers.. and judges (Merto n and Kilt. if the group is perceived as being differor r:l.~out~roue.pis a group or C<llegol)' lO wh ich peo"7.CROUPS AND OR('..them" More IOl'mall}" ' ..II'I come '".lmatically influe nce the way an individual thinks.1ft\" other Christians as friends..srrjbe~ JJJ..oJ1O sce themselvcs a." :=. 6 .world . as connic t theo- po"••"j" IIf certain Christians toward J ews iI- . People sometimes Ice l a n· 111 or threaten ed by another group. They serve a normative fun c tion by seuing and cnforcing standards of conduct and belief.imultaneously viewed as unacccptfor Ihe OUl-grOUp. 1»' a double standard maintained of the ill-grOL1p. and hanging out at the same Slores and dubs_ Referen ce groups ha\fC two basic purposes. Sociologist Roberl 119IltH8I}-481}) dl·.C'ially. rYpical consequence of in-groul) mcmberJ frt'ling of distincli. IUlh J double standal·d .. Bdl. each of th(. if ••• Ih".lM.:. ~ T his view of lhrm. 1950) . 1io..:A~1 tl1e sa me tim e.1.!i~ •. " bei ng Mdanni s h .i(:" dk3'C~ .. it is seen as ~co nunend abl e".~ bellCf than m tho: out-group.can be destnlctivc.tTf)UP when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating them· selves and th eir own behavior.[~J." UI' nQ! explicit.0 church every \vcck.fJ. 147 CJIAl'1Jo:. 00 not belong.. Sociologists use tIle tenn reference I. a pcrce plion \'cry groups 1.11 ~r.· [nlO "outi-fTOUP Yo... TInls..0 which wc Ix'does )lot have those sexual go \. This se nse of supcl'iorit). If Chl'isuans lake tl'riousl) .'c" or may be llS narrow as onc'..NIZA TlO"'~ . Sociologisl.m"'. and Oll l-groupS.'Sc declaratio ns "hu tllt' in1.'O identify these feelings by using two tenns first cmi I CrAham SUlnn(' r (1906:12-13). fam'~r"" broad as an enlire society.· Croups BOlb in-groups and primary gToups can dr.ft!e1'r.fToups and OlU-gro Ups are. ThiJ is "')' dN~._--' .: prefer other Jews as friends." " So lo"t..In be defin ed as an)' group or catpeople feel they belong. If Chdg. ID'!I""'""" In ~uppon Q lrOOI>S in lhc Pcn. ("'.JIO Ill-group implies lhat there is an out~"tl <l.!i~ flTirg \0 l((C saIn t! record albums and COs.'. the high school student who wants the approval of the punk rock crowd will have to follOlv the gro up's dic tates to at least some cxtent. mme United Stales tend 10 sce tht. For ("xample.i. it promotes li 191\9) a sense of belonging (Kar- Referenct. ~'e l)'one who is regarded as "\o. law professors.

cially uscrul in hcll>ing us unde!" Slaml thc impac I ordivcl'sity wi lhin org..l rcporL~ o f corporations.'S and prOCe-"" dLtrell :U'(~ t)Vic-.\ 'f> 'i(If'.... 1977)..'yer. a gn)uI"s composi tion becolllcs 1I10re di· verse.llIual ion. 1.. additiollal altcl1Ialivcs . .. .. ncighbors. people model their behavior aflcr groups 10 which they do not belo ng... ordinate role or !'cmall'S in coo\lT' Slllions wilh Hmle! (ke Chllpl~ 11) . In j4 oflhl~e 45 gnJUpS (76 PCI'C(·llI ). s tud y the a nnua.ll e nhance the quality of de chion 1Il<lJ:.'llefil fro m the IUliclue pCI'S pCCtiw~ of members frol11 racial and eth nic minorities. 1Ilt. Onc stud) conduCled fur.. socializatio n (sce C hapler 4) by using fin ancial experts as a reference group to wh ic h be or s he as pires..ex.. a nd lis ten to midday slock market n ews 011 Lhe r'a dio. Sludvin~ •• .•. it will inllucllce pcoplr·' Id confidence :lnd their :abilitl III exercise leaderslli l' within a _ group.1:" Ny...J2: lit!e also Kirchmc}.....~min cd .. Ihc m e lllhe r who cUlltribuled leasl fl'crjllcnu y was.. This general fi nding a bo ul LII .. T he likcli hmKI that a group \\'ill ofTer mallY ideas and proposals is paniclIl. w.:: :limit millllrlUtt within small gro up5-like VU!.....I millOlil} P:lrlid l)..llask or problem to feM)I\·c. Wlmt impact will this dil'CI'5ilY have on dccision making within (ll"gani1...9.ell d OCl1l11el11cd. .lIly developed iu meetings of rcl:uh'ely mod(. In f"ct. it}' is e1:idCI\I throughout ow '10. In mall)' cases.."Ci~ioll makin. slIIall-group rl....\'UJ.lmuil" Mt_ 148 I'AHT nI(J • (}/(f. •• .... h is imponalll to rCCObTJlizc I...'Ous gl'O ups. ..scd on 45 sm:lll gtnUps ill \\'liich 1ll(r..:\tC executive who qlliLS the r.. The student is engaging in the proces. feeler.... and coworkers shape different as pects ofa I>crson's 1. a college student majoling in finance may I·cad the Wall Slrwl j ounlllJ.11 go\'emmenl fou nd thal 70 percent I~ scl f-c.....ages of d i.·c!e rt:llce grou ps at lhe same ume. 19911 Such stud ies faise two sobennc questions for IJrWkni~Jt1i o f\§: (H How do I. especially in EI1l'Ope OIl1d N(}I'UI America..MULTICULTURAL SMALL GROUPS The growing dh'crsi ly of the paid I:lOOr fOl'ce. re prol}(lsed th. cCrlail.. Wt''' reference gruups as we take on dilTerent ~tlllllll during our lives..lr ly atlracti ve ill light of llle C(I['re!ll 1 demallds on mallY o l·g.live and crc:Hh'c ( Kirch.n tCldctlo ils bc lweClI merllhdj ofairiillc nigh t crews..alions? How doc.:1 Sfllll ll gmup i~ Cl'calcd and then as· sib'llcd . .HI organizau. one C':lI1adiall study rocu. th e apparclI1l} subordilUlt 1'01 ofmc1al ..\ ll Clh'c participants wiulin SllIall Kruups and .. 1993: Ruhe :ll1d Eallnan.-..he d )'mlmics ot ~l1Ial g-rnups iml>cdc Initlority partl('i~ lion :111(1 (2) how C.. ..iJ:c. So long as in~l.<kant.remind~ lIS that lhe powttrril lions of Ille largel' sucicty infllltl melllbcfll t. organiuliOIl...h a l individuals arc often influenced by t .. For example... is . _ SmaU Groups In an unus ual example of s m a ll-group r~~u~ social scic ntiS L~ .'o or more .l[ h('tcr(>gcnoous small groups (including cullllmlly di· \'cnc groups ) produce SOIUlio lb of higher (Iualit)' than do homogcIlI.. reference group allachmellls ch a nge during the life cycle.~1 s.1 to bI. A corpo- ch~I-..] millorit} gro up member ( Ki rclllllC)'e1' fllld Cahn. Igc.. has been lelJlpe n~d by thc f.er. . JlI.t~il)' ill SIll:llI group.l\'ialion incidents during a fi'C!1'car ~ were :Htlihumblc 10 human enur. IJIJ. assist and bend!1 fmlll empllllM wh o In..Irc ~ I.•.......lIl i't. P'OI'I Ihal 1I1inllrilie! :lre It"I. the co mlllllJlica~ processes and socl:tI .. nd c .n race a1 ag(: l'l ' become a social v.f snwll gruu ps \\ithin ..IIIIS were from Asi:ln backgroundli...:llioll~ 10 be morc inllO\'ll.md eth... for exam ple... ./l."l\earch can lx' cspt-...g htl r le'!:'! CQllllllim·d w the gnlllps' clTorl\ thal1 are ...... In lIlallYe xpl!l'imClllal swdies. In addition.:lniZaliQns.JM. Rescfll'cheu r(..'Iher members. .. o f amicipalOl).I( 1 thflt such gnmps 00t:1I r.....oti Viewed fro m a connitt ptf'ill'l> live.ing. Thc ovcmll (nnclusion or ~uch reliC3rch is Ih ...o rker \"ill find new rer~ grou ps 10 use as slalldards for c\'aluauon. One's famil)' me mbers....••. met:.llI1 to partid~ in 1I11l1l1l-group d(... based on gcnder...~ cuhlll'al di\'cnilY a fTecI Uw pelfo rmanee:' of small groups in lhe wOl'kplace? Since 1 >olic1(.l} be rcluc t.

.. IllfHl)' sm!lll .:.'e n witllin to 20 people.1962). marc poin ts or view la absorb. \\'hom they have ncvcl' mct before W. groups..ct si multaneollsly. IlowC\'Cr.1. slIch as families.tiU iLJtd todtry... nnnwrl).. that is.:.11 bchavior plays a rol t: in a perS<IIl 's (1ft/IrfHUMs la l~ formotlQn of lOOlitions "'hill! (lr~ :. ~=::'."". 1979).hcr or was not transmitted at 11) r»ychologisL Roben Hel m. an individual has grea ter freedom to ig4 nore certain me mbers or viewpoinl'i than he or she would in a smalle r group. Cer. yet.1 1C'.~ difficuh to achieve in large . 19tH.h·~ (nnrercnce. f\'l'cQlltactanci all upright. may also be 'l\ Imall group-'.'C rel.<eni"g. Itrg:UII61Iions-which will examined r~:~~dlf rhJ.&In Ifgiruml salel. The salespeoplc.pler-smaJl groups have a defini te I (8Mk..improperly transmitted ti'om OtiC 10 . Georg SimmcJ ( 1858-1918) is credited as the li rsl sociologist la empha.. forward-lean.n7rum ~oriofogiJl Gtmg Simmd (18'8-1918) f!imlmnJ '" IM slud.. of SlIItll/. Simmcl ( 1950:87.v'7l:Rb · GROUPSANDORG/lh·ru.. Nixon. who 11 dlfkrt'Jlt cities and rarely see one anOlhel" .'jell.~ d'Jrartl'rh(ic of primary groups.~ shown. a 0 I ~ . still twice a year for all 'iIIIeIaiw .-aJlr 6 ~ IIMII 'lCcond:uy group... Re necti ng o n group size.'SClIrc hers ul. In a larger gl'OlIp.." """e.ui"e 1 others..110V$ . T he term Jmall to refcr lO a group small enough for In ilucrJ. For ex. it is harder la disregard someone in a 4-pcrson work force than in an offi ce with 30 e mployees or a high school band witll 50 me mbe rs.'::: innuence in a group.. o riginal editio n 19 17) suggested tha L smalle r groups have distinc tive qU:'llilies and pa n cms of in te raction which inevitably d isappear as they expand in size. People "'ho c m~ "inK 1 ~r:~':~~. Genuan sociologist. each me mber has less lime to speak.. interactioni. a numbt'r of airline accidents arise from fail ure to work . Group size also has noticeable social implications ror members who do no t assume leadership roles. ~"~:I .:.\5 1·1""'".ni" g ". Clearly..Illhere are distinct and predictable .11'(' able 10 be more pe rsuasive withoul 1". to I be acqllai lllcd.1).~OUI"S is an important aspect of (scc Box 6-.lIn.grotlp bdw' lior mid dl'Vf'~ think of small groups as be ing informal -.~.e ll "'~ .. imanll(OIclUrcr may bring together its seven. t r(.e the importance of imcntction processes wi thin groups.._ me person who dominates a group of 3 or 4 members will be rclalivcly more dominant in a IS-person group. a nd a more elabor.irL pllOI5 and copilots frequently fly with 1Imln.. Moreover. . 149 O/. The refore.".H\or. E..ro.i& dir«t and intimate manner..:aun ued.puiIrTt'r fmm primary groups in lhat they do I\f'tn'ilnl) offer the inlinmle personal rel. ForexoH the ntlmber o f group participants in· m~1 active commun icators become IMfI' ac-ti.. not a primal)' ~ ! C.uc structure within which la function . AI lhe same time..lt is nOIbecolllesclear at whal 10 be exactly poinl people too large If there are more tha n 20 II1t:Wfor individuals to interact reguin.. Vel i I i.~i1.. group size can subs tanquality of social relations hips. I I Cec:i1ia Ridgeway ( ha.

The dYde! now 1xr thret".." a m:u'ric..ld dramaLically tmnsfonm the aCler of the small group.'<i by the loss ora single member. coa litions ClllI be expect."l/l gaol. J-Iowever.o assistants by making them (Nixon.JI:~ . The convenlional marital rcl<l tiollship I>Ct\\'CC ll a wife ..nior. Finally. Thil is th~ forexamplc. tht' roommate may attempt to relmlin 011 good t with e:lch and arrange compromise SOlUtioN problems.. a memocr of" triad can ch< to employ a djvid~nd. o nc is able to achieve . Ib )'car. Obviously. first child . develop Jlarticular forms of illleraction which are unnecessary in small groups. roa/llion. In a ely:ld. d 10 dt!\'tlop.ldic relationship pcrhal)S more than o\'er an)' other t)1>C.!slIO)'t.J I'i lemporary Of' fJn7Mnml allumu lowt.:rmallcm allialltr \\"ant a common goal. State Icgisl:nures have shown an interest in I'educingjur)' size 10 S. 1992). or triad.UCUS in the Hour Represenlitti\'Cs-firsl organized in 191P eluded 38 IkmocrdLS and I Republican.'11JSCsot/M /. 110.llionships is the (~od} or IW(>'lllembcr group. P. 12-person jurit. Fo!' cxamp1c-.13). social scienLisLS have explored how this might a(fect ajury's decision making.. membcr group.. tJlis coalition used iu voting l)QWC:r t(l spending CUll in progr.s groups become the size oflriaru larger..lI11ll lhat bcnt:fit poor A coalilioll i. 1979:9... with a coach wh o hope tOg'din cOlllrol over t . argnmud In 1970.'cvt'r. the size of a jury had no impact on the likelihood of comicLion when the defendant appeared not to be guilty. The m. TIlcrefore. Researchers in ule United Slates ha\'C givcn spt..d..Larger groups. the imroducLiOIl of onc: addll)' person 1. can be dc.1 special level of intimacy thoU C'dn nOI be duplicated in larger groups. as Si nllnel (1950) noted.."C basic W:I)'S of ime'-dCting "'ith inOuencing the dynamics of lhe group.. Coalition. nd. Thc simplest of all social groups or rel. Tht person may play a unijj-j"grole within a triad. A cOllier may also play a mLdi(Jti"g role within a ID I>crson group.-d couple has it. lhe babr. Subsequent research has clarified the social significance of group size on beh. A. TM CongrmioruU BIMi In tM HOWl of IV:fnr:MmUJIwa.0 jI dY... unlike any other group.'ld.sLra(C::gy... sen'e la bind the group closer together."Ci:d auenLion 10 cOlllparisons ofS-person and 12-pef'SOn juries.ln 199~ Congressiollal Black C1.:l\'C moncy and cxpedite courtroom proceedings...l11d a husband is an exalll ple of a dyJ.-s were more reluctant to convict than 6-person juries ( Hare. is /In nsllf/llt. when the defendant's gui lt seemed more obvious.. the thought of tcnnin3lion Imugs over a dy. a d). L two room mall'S in an apa f are perpetually sniping at each other.'W 111 has at IC'LSI thrt. as is a business partnership or 11 sillbri ng tcam. c coail'li01l is a te mpordry or p.. In one study of criminal cascs. 150 I'Mff nH) ' OllG'Jo. in Simmers view.

"'( OM the mble..H" • (.'" """. _ ..'P': j>erformallcC' and cxchang(:. ill any political. For example.\t. do coalitions work . The dat... we a rc also deepl)' " rrecled b)....II"g('" orgalli/. org. ..ure her \'ictory.......:lplo ..llions .~(i~~~~:~~S.. and the If! (. "':~:......__ .!.... Formal OrP"anizations and Bureaucracies .J«H '''11.. meet and interacl within !!<ol "". '11c United St:IlCS r ostal Selvice. access 10 three bTfOUP members ac ross the table. DiSlcfano might .trut:tured ill SUCh .~ becausc panicipants on the twOperson . Org:Hliza tiolls \~try in thcil' sil.. "(". \\ hich will he described l. In a mock rom mcrci:tl..... If she the support of his thret· b:. those o n the threeperson sidt· would have cas)' access 10 on l)' two group members..group $Cuing. chairs (.ttor Ernestinl' -a dmraclc r lIcated b)' lhe cnmediall LiI)' Tomlillpl'ocl:lims: "\-Vc d o n ' t care: Wt· dUll " ha\'(' 10.a later confinned thesc predictions: 70 pe rcen t Of th e leaders emerged from the t .. confonnit) and dc. TIIlIS.I" Our li\'eS arc increasingl) dominated b) large second...lS).tl ACielllists confirm ....:."w.. from becoming th~ Qlhcr halld.hc p. She is eslimalt..cl:ers.I\'C some id.. _ ..C)-'ICat side. cieClion .. . Of COUN. ..·cra.. could try 10 make a deal with Smith.01<0< of coahllUl~ lorm'Hio n (C'. Smith could of the COlltcst and urge his supponc rs to for DiSlcf.H a table and is allowed la discuss a IOpic ". \haw. including many African families (Cullningham.I bond o r some COllllllon rcato keep Riven...side would ha\'e eas).rroup cnct)HlIlf'" h:l\'I' a ('nn~irl(·r.J('II'n.md dC~I). two candidatcs h....a tio fl is :t speci al-pul1>ost: group designed and s lru(' rlln~d ill l!. " wh ich ha\'e implica tions for dVII':lIl1i~ .~i \'e l\t·!os of l. whilc it is de"r lhal slllall1.$ Oppos(:d 10 • and e\'C1l the shape of a la..i way liS to f:lci lit... the Boslo n Po p)' nrc1U:Slra . 198 1).c.... ~..11)' ~rOllps which take the ro rm of ronllal organizations designed fOl" a lipecilic pU'l>ose. a different type of coalitiun bt dcveloped. it al)pcal"sthal River". or small.. Sha\\'. 1981 : 107-114)....an be Cl'eated.. he r e lt.... ~j)l"i.s paper.. e\'cn tJlough it accounted for o n I)' 40 percent orl. nle cditor-in-chiefis seVOle of the 15 outgoing cc\itol'S..le hncrcst" of Illl"lxim um efficienc).~ suc h a. This w.i.. oali tioll.l........and physical environment on gToup d)'lIlunics arc but thrce of the lUany :tSpcc15 0 1 tJ1e $111.l. specific it}' of &oals. In order 10 . o f small grolll)!i (M...vc undcniCorcd tht· [l'lISlf'dtiOIlS . illfhwnrl' 0 11 "~Ir lives....tnl5.... t(. In relLlm.'Cbe assured...lnt! degrec or c l nci c ncy~ hut afe <..o. 1993). Rooms..o inn uellce leade rOne controlled experimenl in\'oln..uul pc rv. mtlllben on onc side of the table and ..11 group which ha\'e been studied by sociologists.. \Vc'rt' tJ1 C phone COml)aJl )..milh as his assistant or losomc Such a coalition miglu be p.. 1\ for mal orgllll i:.. Thus.'\iancC'. ph)'llical c nvi ronme nt ran ha\ c a clear impact on the dynamic.:. _ . Snmll groups do n OI I"UII C- TIle).tl in opposing the to\\cring structures of gO\'CflUllcnt or big business... Another arca.. d to ha\'c sc\'e n while DiStefano has fhe .. ..lh'l· ... there lire nuW".s in imFor example.'~"gc of rece nt decadelo has been the Ixmer .roups scaled ~II a rcctangular I:Ible...famili es....... · fa\'Orilc. The cITects of group sil. experiments b\. .. 2...-. the tdCI)ho llc o per.rlidp.'~:~~~pSmith have the option offonning Ri... scated .Ihin a small group? that Elena Ri\'cra. and Smith mOI'C leadt·rs . and hoping to become editor-in-chicf nc .lir of the: loncl\ indi\idu..... Frank DiStefano...".. SLa t e lllent... _.ble call innu~~I"..mb<n across the mble rrom cach ol her comments to ot le a nOlhcr morc than arrangellle n ts can a l.:ol.. resea rc he rs cxpectcd thal Ouc poigmuu Ill(·s.llc tit(' 111:111agclllelll uf1arge~:llc uperations: Thc) also ha\'e a burc:mcratic form or OllYtllil'llio\l.. ir a gro ••p i.. is gi\'en particular a ttentio n in Cha}>" le:r 7. m uc h I:II'ger b"'O ll pil l g~ of pcople..e.. tl ' It.<... _ ..'Quld e me rgc rrom lhe tw~pc rson side.I..mo...IY' In which <:oalitifJll c. "Yo u can ' l ligh l city haW I. Since interactions a re more likel)..\1) ORC"'M/A IIOX.'1' in tJI C c1ll1plcr.

ho perso na lly pcrfnrm cd a ll r.cd rll'd.<!. a ..lrial societies.?m of formal o rga nimtio n illwhich rlllc~ and rhical mnking are u. a nd home.' had 11101'1. .t CI. MesopOlamia.rani7. It the c m e rgcnct. "lIdt liS E~.ltiOI1 in all trial socie ty such as the U nited Statt. sawed it.tions to their fullesl extent 1)cC-dUst' their t«hnolog). e ndless litW'l ' fortn~.e Imrmu. .rnt lO ide ntify their acall ~bl.<.. Ollt' bedposts.:nions seem to haw' 1'lIIcrged .011 a ue nd arc . an cas)' targct in politicdl campaigns. 1110 1 sophi. nc IYofimagcsunpleas.bit" to r~I)()I1d mand in nCighboring "reas. w'd.lopment of Fonnal Organi7.". Hc cu t the lumber.. ElIioni. Cen u-dJi7. Deve. 199!i.lII l~ elTkicntly. f- -.~ ks o f his trade.IlICrdCY arc nOl limilcd to the United . llnd Exchange Commission (SEC) and olher federal regula tOT)' agencies.n Somalia came unfit. Characteristics of a Bureaucracy When wr..rcvcr.t lilfgC«ltlc fonnal org:mif.. hm.r. 1 urgan izations beca me illl'vir:tble in .I formal o rganiza lio n can d evelop. 11 is important t. In fac t. CoI15Cqueml)'.urd other nUl the store. Ignaled to rUIl relie!' efforts in Somalia had than 12. lhis c(J11Vcn\ioll from a one-pcr. . SCI'\e_ Atlil1ll.tncl increased consumer demand .. the bllrea' l c l~lti c n:lIltre of the Unill.<1 11 d ]'orts . In* dia.'Chn iques. he hired a si ngle: ~ A few )'t!3f5 lat('r.o em phasize th:1I complalUlf bure.'lSks..lrca uc rat" despite the fact that nil of U~ vanous bureaucratic t. t1lere " 'as nn nced tu accullIulate pr()fits 10 invCSI in machine l')'. m:tde fu ntilurc. iml>O\'\.socie lies which had stalc<o rHro ll cd irrigation nc t\\'ork ~. ' hlll11a nit.lted lllanagenlc nl e me lxcd to m aximi~t' production in order 10 ser"e new marLe tS brought about by improved tr..ti(lItS h.·come such a d o minant force Ihal wc must c reate organizations to SllpCrvlSC othe r fJrg"d ni7. Before long. 11 ~lInd~ much m orc exciting to say that .lIl~porla ti o n nel* works .l\'c bc. as he was .l io IlS. hc could p furniture more quickly and with less cxpc n~ ever.'S.<!.ations I-I ow a nd \\hy have 1 0rmal ors. I ~ r(' ltll~ 11 gl)\'('rnnlel lt.' ing in thc impove rished .11ll'age of new lool" and iIH1 0\'i.. Earlier socieues had not developed largt.mrl Pcru u nder th(' Incus...mrl nCl work.. 1973: 1-15) .· o f a dramatic ll1). forl1101I orgallizaliolls fu lfil! an enormolls varict).. As a ft. . Earh of them s in II specific aspect of furn iture mak. fonmll f)rgani/.. Ele mcnts o fbuf'(: arc found in :tltnoSI eve!'}' OCCUP.::a nce for pco pl c'~ imc l'actions and !I lalionship to work. C hina . 1964: 1-2 )...' customcrs tl1:m he could personall). like llIallY bureaucracies..ooley. that ha" signilic.IU w: tc.inns hacllo be mad e about waler disllibmio n . nt -comc to mind. Ro " 'S of rlcsLs b> seeming ly faceless people.~ of C\'crr pcrson.'S.iblycolllplex language (seeT . As mechanica l iIHIO\'ations 'e ('\'olved .'l tic. he began to e small gl'o lll) of workers. Wool!')' began his adult life as a sc lf-('mp lo)'cd arti. of personal ami socict:11 nceds .'w peoplc ~o.. 152 . known as burl'flll rrary.>4 no ted thal th e five inte rnlllio nal agC'1! .'fi. T he growt h of fOll11al o rgauilalions has been closely lied to til t" c lllt'rgc nce ofindlL<.on 0 10 a small asse mhly line illustrates mort' th..e live in the ~s pacc age" than th. 1972:1. let us consider Ihe cs'l1uple o f a carpe tllcr ill colonial New England ..~ rclad\'cly underdeveloped .cd 10 achic\'c dTicielln.Ik.'chniques. O nc wurker cu t Ihe wood. different I organization ..<!.~ 1'o'aS slow in dcaliug with a drastK: pn the wmds of:l former United Natio ns .."'SCale 0 1 '~an i T. FUlln:.'}1) 1 .ing and ad"l. ~realU:r'a CY i~ a c.aa ply a changc in p roductio n It.atio ns come in lo exiSlence? The fil"'1.md fmSLraling e ncounters with red ta~-iIl ha\'e combined to m:tk.~ 1'('" fat rying out such policies had to b(~ l'stahlishcd. Generally. of who III o nl)' 11 6 . Ni hi ~ villagt' and business g rew. Woolcy disco\'elcd Ihat b)' coonlin:tl ing the o r sc\'cml ill>~h t. :t lld sold his pnx hlc ls himself..\! we li\e in the "age off0 1111011 orga ni 1~'lljons". slort!.san . onc W.he ta.II. slIdl OIl> Ihe Sccurilic:<.rtl?adirr. El our l>ocicty. he \I'o rkcd alone in the building Ihat served as his shop.000 c mplo)ec.th e la u er is pro bably a more :U :CUI'i.111 exa mple5 o f forma l or* g<lnizations.\!C desaiptinn of the 1990s (Azumi and lI age. Woole)."ld S-hare thc Ii"l. a carpemtt become the managcr of a small fumi lUrt (Stark Cl al .5 became tH nrc comples . To sec how . whom wc call James V".L~ in charge of staining. "'ar-tom African Moreover. the mid ra lU. concl udcd that he.collcge )..Y (lft he teml irnrfflllcrury.

"Ople can die in 15 days" lip"""' 1!J!J3....:. 10 dC\'clop a more useCu [ . by con trast.md object ive ::::..i .: n bcnelicial in the pe rronnancc o f many compte. people .jY.• .llce.rJ". ItgldmlJ jighiJ imLgtlGge polllllion by publishing t'X(/lIIpflJS of bumlllcrtllir ~dollblrfl)t(lk ~ : us t.haraclcrlstic aspeCts of al l h uma n -:':::'~~I.).. For example.. education.. In all imlWKiolugical ad\'3.relll fro. n /mbliralbm of liu Na/IQlmf ('.. rdiac patient is brought into a surgical recovery room.:'::h. Analysis o f d ivision of labor by intcr3ctionist rcsearchers has led to scmuny o r how various cmployees at a work place interact with one another. . Nevcnheless."..m tbe family-run business.toying off of 20 percent of laying oH of 19 offidols AdvertiMlI'IOnt of uled cors won force Workers wele dedored "duplicotive" CoIled 0 "refocusing of !he company's 5kills MICoils the~ COli "pr_n!oYed" cors Inslitulioo of new job litle for drivers who deliver piuo Drivers now called "delivery ombonadars" Ca lled 0 Collision of !wo plones on the ground Death of 0 patient 01 molproctice (I -runway inCUl'1ion" rewlt of mediCClI A "diagnostic misadventure of 0 high mognitude" pe~n lakes days to a I.. T h is emphasis 0 11 speciali zauon is so basic a parI of o llr Jives th::lt wc may no t realize that it is :t fa irly recent developme nt in western cu lture.~. T h rough these lask-'1.ti<". n.k.::a..u'c morc likely to become highfy skilled and c:uTY ou t a job with maxi m um efficiency. and business.. 1 5 77w Quarterly RJ . Lmer procedures. Weber e m phasized simil:trity of S!. By working at a specific task.: co nsider writ9·1 7:333. who was in troJl<jlill ...he fiesiK'ltd 10 mislma fx. \It"\1t'd bu reaucracy as a form of o rganidillc.will chardctcrislics. "''''p'd. A lawyer need lIot be able to comp lete an income tax fonn. 11lc . tbr pn... in somc cases it can lead lO trained ill capa city.R 6 • CNOUffl M.. potclIlial ..hh"".u.ollt/rif rifTrachm of English.. rtfler a c. let u..N.W'.HI ideal type o r bureaucrncy. o r army. ___.( crncy. original editio n n ib pitmcer of sociology.Slnce perfect burcaucracies arc Iii no aClual o rg'<m ization will corl'(..OP/~ al/li lllallipulatr sonal rrality.m:rngc U. 1985:2) .lUcrdcy-whelher its purpose is 10 wro<m..." bureaucracies.·n•. workcl'S become 50 specialized th at they develop bli nd spots and fail 10 no tice ob- 153 Cl IM'n.idclll of the united Slates need not be a good typist...«1 in Table 6-3 o n page 154 .vtlv 10 Weber's ideal t)'}>C (Ulall and 1 ~: 1 9-22).i\'c efforts of two or more workers. "" I. are mo re likely 10 involve the coo l>CI~lI.ebcr argued tmrt'..Ih<".. Although division of laoor has ccrtainly bct...n ORGANflA'II(J.fUcture and process foulld dissimilar enterprises of reiibrion .9).000 pt. lirst dirccted rescllrchcn to thc p of bureaucratic structurc... that is.\'$ . which most .340. med iad personnel gain pr~ Iicic nC)' in delicate and essential procedures (Su-auss. 3.." of Lobor Specialized ex pcns are emin t"¥h posilion 10 perform specific tasks. n urses and technicians independclHly make 10 to 20 connections between the pauellt and ' '''rlOUS mo ni lOring dcvices. conL J i' . r 1 'lnl...

'S a nd last the players.:l..~ men and women reached parilY in their level or e mployment. a nd admin isU<1lOrs et al.1). 154 "ART ntI'J • ORGA.mi7.hy 1984) observes that many traits l. A proressional b". M ort! jriCllistJ lwrH' ducrihtd lilt conuqUl!tlaS (or hrlrtllUCTIICJJ . ond e Imoglnolion Contributel 10 feelings of olieflOlion Discouroge.es ~fficiency in IorgNCCIIe corporation Clorifies who is in commond lat workers know whot is eJCpected of them Reduces bios Discouroges Iovorilism ond redUCfl perry rivalries Prodl. vious pro ble ms. 2 Hierarr.=~. flllrtll!lcmry /1ZI1/tI1ult/llo /lOSifirH' (lS/ltfi. the division of labor (as renec ted in U1 C fmgmentation of job titlt.tling unn cces~m ly and inappro priate diStinc ti ons be .. they may IIo t a lrealXHll what is happcning next lO them on the assembly line. [)jvisio4'l oIlobor Produe.cr but not the upper echelons archy. Even worse.n team is run owne r. cooperauve 71 ~:::= are conducive to participation in a "n.:'i:: d~~. scpardtcjob tilles-ostensibly designed 10 renect" dh~sion oflabor-werc actually being used lO prcsclVC Lrddilio nal occup"lional segregatio n by gender.\l}("JAJ. 198 1). "po"". In the Roman church . an a utomolive machinist who pushes bullons on an automobile assembly line in Michi&"'-n will lack the proper tmining and skill to \\'ol'k as an oil industry mac hinist in Texas (Wallis. it is especially dis:tslrollS ror the person "'ho loses a job du ring a layoff. and so fonh. within r1~ 0: andfot"" iJUrt(Juf7ary .. through such de.. who hires a manage r.lCeS troined incopacity Deprives employees 01 0 voice In decision moking StlR Inllioti.. SOciologist J amcs l3aro n and Williarn i3ic lby ( 1986) found that proliferation o f j o b tilles tended to increase a. Some obscrvers believe lhat . As an example.d.f. Political scientist KaJ.hy of AuthorJ. Apparenuy.. Beneath the manager coac ht..'e. supporti. -1tions..!y Bureaucracies the prin ci pl e or hie rarchy: uml is. who hires a general manager.scl. 1985).. each unde r the slIpelVision ora ure 6. bishops.. "'orkers have become much less productive on Lhe job. lhe pope is ule supreme .. I ... hilTlllrc cardinals.\"f7J"'G ..7.ori'~. medical group pr-dCtiCes have boards of ex(:cutivc committees. In some instances.<NCf fOR M INDIVIDUAl.NEGATIVE CONSEOUENCE POSI1M CHAAACTfRlSllC <XlNSECIO. even lh ose whi ch are direc tly related to his o r her ro rme r job. re< THE Produces 0 norrow peflpttCli. Allhough trai ned incapacity has negative implicalions fot' the smoolh running or org-. In a study of 368 businesses in Califomia. An une mployed \\'orker may have spen t years becoming pro fi cient at highly tec hnic"l work a nd yet may be tOlally lIlISuited for other positions.. Social science research suggests that cics may be a positive e nviro nme nt for the lo."S) may actuall)' cOlltribmc to sex discrimination by c re. tween re male and male employces.".:::~.. ombition 10 Improve oneMlt' elsewhere Hierorchy 01 outhofity Written rules ond regulotionl ImpeuoflOlity Employment bosod on technical qlJOli!ication.J. . ated with the femipine gender role-such ing wann... "ciopmc nLS.u'h. lJN- .

tfUall)' iml}{n1fHlt.QWI arc a n importHll characteristic of bllrcaucracie~..ll a. Ideally. IIle}.. appear to become d}'s· iunUlon.IICt1£ ..R 6" • GIiOu/'S AN/) OHGANllATm... (lgnuy is faill)._and Spo<e Communlwtioos SpqcaFlighf TI~ fQ17Iud $lnuf1jrl' of a I.n of rotnlll(llul.. ". he re's a n cxtra S20~? It would ccnainly be a pleasant surprise...$C Ibn fUlltUoIl more as fadliwlors than as innovaan... Ilowever. IjIIrtllll" olhlwugh .ion.. J It'rilltll Rllles and Rl!gulalions Would n' l it be nice if a ba nk tc ller cashed your c heck for S I 00 a nd deliberately handed }'ou six $20 bills."'S . saying... bur les5 appafmr.~ "omen aspire to grcater po\\'c r and prNlI!('.. .c ndly smile. .Ire not viewed as aggressive enough "" f\l' in higher managemcnt posts.. is tl~ infonnal rll(l. COnst." Ru les a nd regulations. but it would also be "against the rules.. ·. .. J''. · • · :" H. a bureaucracy ensures 155 ClIItI'17:..'vvt'nlment orplua. "You have such a fl... Organil ation Charl of a Govl!nmlllm l Agency National Aeronaurics and Space Administrotion (NASA) . R •• Edua.mditional feminine valLlcs may hr fUlluiollal for wom en in the lower levels of bnrrJucrauc stnlClure... as W~tlJill. upward ly mobi le women find m" ir career progrcss hinde red becaLl.... etJ5] 10 asm1ain. And then .... th rough such procedures.

such as monthly state ments or i!l\'esunent advice.UlUu'fry tar flrfll trivial d.m y o ne bureaucr./ tO refe r to o\'cnealoos ronnity 1 official regula tions. il will also provide us with those selvices.md other procedures. Sociologist O'DOllnell ( 1992:275) obsel'\'cs that BJitbh unions often have their mcmlx:n ~wo rk to (pclf0l111 all ulSks strictly by tllC regulativn.'" JUUvItJJ ~u..uurcd person bt. MJU. This would certainly be lhe case if a hospital cmergency room ph} fail ed 10 treat a seriously i.Ulce for no nconfonnity. If Lhe bank provides them with special sel'\'ices.011 can study the store's records .. ILSe of (my . Instead . but the smlcture and past records give the orga nizatio n a life of ilS own that o uui\'cs the sc . they will no longer serve as a means to achie'~ng an o bjective but instead will become imporulIlt (a nd perhaps 100 imponalll) ill their own riglll. II un· . bookstOre.u. IC)' lend to suppress or destroy thr dividll:llilY uf employees. The complexity and dh'ersifi~ sponsibiliti{!s or most bureaucratic jobs aPJd play a n impo nam role in promo ting Oexibihn opcnnes.. I1 is widely believed liml the n. disCO llllt policies 011 "sale~ books. In addition. if you arc broughl in to work as the nc\'o' manager of.llion and become dysfunctional.md accollnting books LO leant about the payroll.\11J.Uld th~n'b!­ ven ting the use o f an)' subw:ay c<lr that h~ trivial defect.'ices o f . This pro hibits U~ f.nilcsj!!ld regu lations can o\'ershadow the larger goals of an o rganiz.prl. lo! 5Irir'(~ IUlhm"g III fill JIJ!tIJ Wd MJ ~ rrguiOliolls (md t~1!j JlfrotllIHl(.'OIlM 0 1' she had no valid proof of Unitcd Stales d ship. London 's mmsport workers can ql cause chaos in Ule subway sysle m by suicu) ing to all safety c heck regulations . unifOl"lll pcrfonnanee of every task. sllldi~ ductcd by Mdvin Kohn ( 1Y78) suggest lha! reauCl1lcies often encourage intellectual fI tolcl':... and willingnffilD CCpl change... Ir blindly applied . employees may am.III fin o:nmpk of goal disfJI4u-L London l 'rml$/X'rl IIJOI"kM (till {(fuse chllllJ' HI .((iwm g<lgc in goal displaccmcnt.. burcauel'leies ge ne mlly offer e mployees clear standards as to what is conside red an adequate (or exceptional) performance. However.. you do nOI ha\'c to St:lrt from scratch . Thl'Ough written I'llles and regulations. procedllres provi de a va luable sense of contin uity in a burea ucracy.ll bring manage ment to thc bargai ning lable. For ample. raulcr Illan blindlyapp !'ulcs :lIId regulations. 0 In somc instances. financial dealings wilh c\isuibutors. lO change _ 156 Plllr 1110 • 0IICoA...'om recei\ing an extril S20 at the ban k. Thus. .ill receive essentially the same treatme nt as othe r customers. Of COLLr5C • .lles and reguLr of bureallcl. blll it also guara ntecs us that we .. Robert Menon (1968:254-256) has u~ tcnn goal disp laceme. ).\'(. Indhidllal workers will come and go.

or&.. Ir. he factory COIItinued to grow-and Woolc\' took on morc anrl 'ltio n IHllllrI UIl mo re emplo).lIed: ~Stude lll at ..H" ' CR()(.tl they cannot llandlc (Blal l and Meyer. the "impersonal" bllrc. Abcwc a ll .1 orbrani7..y. has ideally been scleClcd on the " ' ' ' 'm..cwecl as a mallcr of dt'grcc. /::\'C I)' employee with in :1 hier:t rchy tcnds to I..<. in colonial Aml'riC:I.procelts by which . Wr trpically think of big government :Uld big Tech"ical Qllalificatiolls lfiring is based on tcchnical I rather than on favoritism. This h)J>otitt. ha\'e bcCOllll' wel l .icularly hccau. a. including a hotel and a lltock brokerngc finn .\.... Peter.. fo ld . I 987:l! I ..:.o ns. bureauc ratir.~ \.7. \\ithin bureaucrac).r i"not because he or she did fa\'ors for ' . 'llions wilhin the United St. th ese o .ees-his organi7.. In l'acl.I~ ._d"". or social move llle nt hccoll1c~ increa).!Y all-the bureaucnttic chamcteris-tics identifiefl by Weber.l group. Tht'I'l·fore.'{. or Illuulate. According t..\I~ ~I'IIO\'\ . Socialogi_~t Aldfl CQuidncr ( 19!i0:53-5-l) r... Stanky Udy ( 1959) compa red the struc ture of forma l orgolni/Ol lioll$ in 150 nonindll<ilri:tl sociedcs. ~wilh­ or passion.'5 ha\'e been .se 10 his or her level of incompetenct' (Peter :lI1d Hull.e think of impersonal bureaucmIDlcre:uingly. unfeeling hureauc r:'lc)' whic:-h cared the uni(luenes. right to appea l if bt~ that pilrticul. Iltllt i~. 01/ Based 10 Pl'Otcct burcaucrats against arand to prmide :I IlIcasure of secui a rc dictated b) written pt: 1 . we saw the bcgillnillgs of this procc~s as c:upelUcr Jam {'~ Woolcy bec. CtnenfTht" ~m hn) ~ ftfdw fn'!'spN'ch mOI'i"rhe UniversiTy ofC.t: positions th. the uni\'ersit)' had become onc lIIore flatdess... of the individual CP. 1969:25). indll~ u'ial '«Xic ty ""ch as the 5<>.'i h:l\c used lhe term bllreallcrafi:o(jo" to refcl' to the.(' notes that not every formal o rgHnil... which hml not been directly or systemal ica ll) Il'''ted. rcllf'clS a pUSloible d)'Sfunctional outcome of struc turillK lIdVanCelllclll 0 11 the basis of mcTiL Talt' ntcd people recei\'c pl'Olllt> lion after promotion until. .lr rult. Like their coun tl:I'parts in modern induSlria l n .. . =~::..1 hfcrrolftl/ity M. of t l ie work of UlI<.2 16--219).o the Peter prim:iple. complex..(' 11 earl) in its oprr.Jacobs ~l. 'laUons. took 011 at least t\\'o 01 Weber's c harac teristics of bureaucracy: divbion of labor and hierarchical authority.uic organil. in dC'iCribing organi. and q") forth (NicLino\'k h.ltion. howc\'cr. llr less. Similarly. ~E:~:! ttm ~me.. Du IIOt bend.ra f't slurlin.eel Webcr'~ ideal t).iogly bureaucralic.llifomia at Bc rkel ey was computer card which st."!lis. sadl).. Ittudem aCLivisls around the world bit*'n""".II(.. y. Chi no)" 1954 :40-41) .i<ltioll a lllong aCllla) bureaucr. doubtedly become 11101 e impersonal and he would 15 7 O/ II'1'I. rence J. 1 1 personnel decisions within a blldo not always follow Ihis ideal pattern. Weber's dm l'aC lcri!>tics of blll'caucr. and perU measured :lgrtinst spccific st:lIl dard.-d ('ilrlic!'.ttioll will po\-sess all or Weber's charactcrislic~. during the most tUI'blllc:nL years )%Os.. with the." •• " procedures encourage loyalty I() the or- . 1992) _ Sociologist.~... lhl' burea ucracy is to value technica l and professional COUl""hich is es...pe agai n'!t ID 1 'ol1n:. more o r less hierarchical.~elltial in the day-to-day fllncof .....llIi7:..lme lhe I1I:Hlagcr of a sma ll flll'l1itlll"(: fano!).1tion.io.ax Weber wrote that in a bu~~~~\\'Qrk is carried Ollt sint .\71 OHr~Ij. This 'lD1rnded 10 gual'antee equal treatme nt for each ~. need to apply the Webcrian lIlodl"l carefull)..IInrlel~tanding Ihat all organization can be more or It:ss l'ule-orient('cI .cd the bure<lucratic mlture of the uni'"'I. more. ganizatioll~ posse~scd many of-hut not IIcceS-SaI. Richard Hall (1963) teSI. it also contributes to the often .ilh those of Udr: bureaucrac)' mus t b. when ." RurC:lU crdtic non-ns clicLilte perform their duties without the per• C'Onsiderntion of people as indhiduals. the re call be wide "'..s.'S. p:tn... t. Ilis findings con· cu!'rcd Y. Wnnlt. Earlier in the chapu'r.anncl :md people onen have .. • 1966.. they flnall) achie\.lcy should be seen as describing all ideal type ralher Ihall as o r· fering :I precise definition of an acnml bur'eau· er-UT.ulcmC)' call rmprm-emeru O\'er nonbllreallcl"'dtic urganiA fcoderAI bureaucrat in :t civil ~ervicc pofor t'xample.""'" machine.. ('\... ~ In the view If.. faClory .aLions.. BureaucraUl-auon as a Process As st:lh. and lIne-dring feding associ:ucd with modern ~tion.

1983: fOI" a different VlC.ltic th.ic appeaJ (as Weber no tcd) to direct.ining their 0\\'11 positions and III At least one recent shldy.ation in tcmlS of large organi7. nonhier.1970).. Roth.lI foml .uion!> and security 1(11' officcholdCl's.ng a school dub lUay clect . Irol. Callers call get transferred frO Ill one dep"lI"UUCnl to another until they finally hang up in disgust. On die basi5 of sea rch on orbran il. BureaucrntilauOII also takes place within small-gronp setungs.:llions.. The emcl'gillS leaders of th e~c organil. howel'cr. German soc iologiSt Rubcrt Miche ls ( 191 5).1975).'! also been a con· ccm of connicr thcorisl.IS many officers as thc::re arc club members and mOl)' develop \'OIriOllS I"IIles lor meet· ings.'II·S niglllmare. COIlOict th col"isl. Indeed . 1993).'lin lheir lea roles. ifnnr.. and alcohol problems.III1" 19905. Normally.\n 11 groups: the routiniwd procedures thul thM make it more difficult for ie. Eb'YPtillil bureaucrats in .~ ju'.'!. of an o liga stJ'O ngly motil~lI ed 10 maint. me mber.! argucd that burealicr.sdiction over" particular problcm. plivileges.:m. born in the c(lulltcrc:ultufe o f thc 19605 (see Chapte r 3).IlIcrali7A.0 OUl which official ha. In :l typical ciUZI. :lI1d 1>D\\·cr.·cr (scc also E..~1 SU1. UN. r"lichcls origioltlt'd ' idca of the iruII law of oligarchy. o l·gan i:t. were eswblishcd to olTer counscling and Slippon to people expcricncing divorce.iC. Through his n . Mic hels <lrgues that lhe rank md of:l movement or orbrani/':luon look..Sc:U'ch . Michcls' insighlS continue to be rclcV'.ation charts. to lea direction and thereby reinforce the Pl'OCeMtI by a few."l.. or mm. others.anne Stagsenborg I di~plltcs the assertion th.probably develop morc rules and rcglll:ujons 10 e nsure efficiency.L<."lusal) mriablc affecting social change.*JCJIII. Contelll!lOr.nic orga ni7.". found that slLc h organizations were bccoming increasingly bun::auC I' II. s.ants. Despite their initial commitment lQ leM bUl"e..cnuncn ts llctually promoted rad ical For example.'dge.'W. knowlt.1 9 1~ ) ( 1968.lders 10 achit-wsivc po.alions tcnd 10 inhibit c hange becausc of their emphasis on reb'lll..:lH:hical. 1 organ wilh profess-ional leaders inevitably ooCOIIW se n~ dtivc and olig. they would have to 0Sl I'CllU'1l to full·time work as manual laborers. As Mic hels lIoted in his iron oligarchy.a ( 1987) studied regimes in Japan (in the period 1 937. o nc may havc 10 speak to 10 or 12 individuals in a corporaljon or gO\'crnOlcnt agency 1 find . lit that the c ivilian burcaucmcies s("Mng thnt tolt)' go\. It should be added that bureallcrnciC1i ut' wa)'!> a conservative force within a sociell·. leadcrs may become more co will1 maint.. and Egypt ( 1952.risis CC llIel'!! increasingly tUnled III writ· le n job descriptions... which cndoJ'SCS the lighllll abonions.undcrwhida a democratic organi lation will develop into. tHUnbers take precedelll'c ovcr neeck Oligarchy: Rule by a Few The burcau(ratizing influcttcc on social 1Il00'cmcllts ha.~ These urganizations. we think ofburcaucrath.'(lrl i 158 I'ART TWO ' OIlGltNllJNG . 1979). reaucracy mice! by a few (the olig:lrchy). If they 1 their leadership posts.~ hal'e t'lI: co ncern about thc longevity of union leadrl'\ arc nOI alwap rcspomil'c to the needs andd of membership.tion in Mcrisis cclltcrs. '" oligarchies emerge? Peo pl e who achievc lead roles usually have the ski lls. In addit. hureaucratizatiQn a lso lien 'es as an independent (or c.iuns active in the Mpl"lH" social m(I\'CmCIlI.ociologl. and writtc n po licies regarding trealmcntof cascs and c 1icnt~ (Senter et al.schild-Whill. a team of sociologists studied burC".try I:I00r unions ill the r Stales and westenl Europe bear liule resell to those organized after spOlllancous aclivitl plo ited workel's.iied. As one example.1iwl!eping land refonns that redisuibuttd ce nt of all land suitable for cul tiv'llioll to Iht try's pC.tl. in studying MlCialist panics alld labor unions in Europe before World War I.trchical Stnlctures. .ion.ations-evclI some of the l110st nIdi· COli -had :I vcsled interest in clinging to power. Conflict theorists ha". Pa· per becomes marc meaningful than people. Similarly.aLions in Ihe pro<hoii t ment appear 10 be more tiemocr. c. she 1 111t'" 1l1:IIIYiormal o rgani7. In c ritici zing previous . In addition to V'drJ'ing from socielYto society. scielllist Grcgol1' I{. Scou. dnlfl. r.llIcratic. de:Hh of a family member.f&\ liuns about Michc ls' vit'I\'S. Children organi. and other types of e motional c risis. some public (lSSisL<lllCe (or I\< dfare) caseworke rs aI·e so preoc( upicd with the required fonns for clien ts that they fo rget to scC whethcr people's bitSic nee ds arc being !>ad1>...

libtnI.'c maximum work efficicncy through scientific planning. I'tanni llg undcr the scie ntific managcmcnl lIpproach imol\'cs dme and moLion studies but not studies of work en' allillldes or fce ling'i ofjob sollisfaclion.tn' a number of checks on leadership.tlHlh. commu nication. Onc !'I'SUII "''as OIn.lltKJ''l . KaSi'.. workcrs are u'caled as a resource.s {ltiJ/"fli!JII ..JHPll:Rb ' GROUP$A\VOIlGANI1.mir.rl Ollfoll1i~lions lx.'lSCd 0 11 the human relations perspccU\'C focuscs on workers' feelings. and (OIrclul slIl>cnrlsion of \\'o rkcrs and production..'n ot!I<"Ct thc ..lh management and adtllinislr:llors. lIluc h likc tlte machines Illat have Ix. sudal SciCllUsts becamc aware that informal group.wrdinK 10 the dassic:a l OHIO. Unlike pla nning under lhe scicmific mau agcmCIll approach.s in small-grollJl bchavior..d can IIndercul the power of top officials of .n IlKt'r cars COIll IK!IC agai nM each olher for I'L-..lIion .olllll 011 WQlhm'jtt""gJ.sioll! manufacturing hco"y machinery oIDd p.. This is bUI'C'HlCr. ()n~n compete for power within a fannaJ arpnllllJ<III.t!t crll. {notmtilJllj'. While Ihe "iron law" llIay ltOllleumt:s help us to UDdtrol2ud the concentratiun of formal autholity withlll organizations. planning h.'clltielh celllu'1'.cs the rolc of people..~"rQ(Jclt .l-'lfllHlIlIg btlYfl ml Ihl h..ICy''' "other facc.'g:1Il 10 rc\.. or coll'leJVali\'c bmcallCr. Th crcfore. established pcrfOlmance 'iLandards.n~. and nmll.~. fm e)(amptc.magclllcLll peramelwidlin bllreaucracies. ('1J:L11IlOuion? The early theorists of fOl'l na l orp!1t.uic policies. :u in an :mIOUloti\'C corporation in _11 rll\. If"" rr.e"" in indust ry a'· cle rks in go\'crmncnt . and clllOtiOlml need forjob S<llisfacLion. ami partici pa tion wilhin a bureaucracy. .. IIIIn... 1986:79-118).jIIHIIS tended to lIeglcet Ihis <jIlCSlio ll . 159 (.lUnaLif CQnscrVlltislII . sociologists recognize that Lhtrt .\I.cs tha l d ifIrttnll\llC~ of regimes may CIlCOIlr:tKt· radic:. /"1" JnI.rarch and de\'clopmcllt funds. rcnccts the inlcrCSl of illlcraclionist lhcOIist. Alo ng l'I. I.~<lS nOI until workers organi7ed unions-anel forced InanagemcllllO recogni/£ Iha llheywel'c not objects-that theorisLS or fonn. mfimnal channels of comlUUlIICtUon and CIJIKf. o f lannal oral'IQ known <Ul Ihe sc:ie1l tific: matlage. Ltuup-.tge individua l who works in .. type of "\lalrsi..1 elllpliasil.m ions (I' errow. lhe Iwmarl relatiollS app roacl. pr." _"I ~5 Oilier Face Ilow doc~ b\lreaucrati- lIQ\. focused 011 m. T hi.wcr. bi ll he had litlle lO say ilbllIlI 1I'''I.Ulum matw/1Ji /N'I'f/l«tllit jQ('lIY.ttivc Woly of conside ring bllrC.tllCI':'ltic d Y lmntics. . 'II'Orkel"ll are mOLi''aICd almosl c ntirrft bot t'COllornic rewards. Man. fmstrdtions. Max Wr-IJI'r. This theory stresses that product ivi ty is limited on ly by lite p h ~ica l consll-aints of worken. which c mphasil..'gun 10 replace them ill thc t". It . of workers have lln imporlall l impact o n ol'gani7..se 111e classica) a pprO<lch . Management a ll Cm pL'i to achic.

Inol·ne)') rather than ask C'.'11 Lh" I-Iawlh o rne s lmlies.. they usually so guid.. For ~ ample .e\tigation \1'<lS made of the switchboartl-b.llIy by . Inrormal stnu:-tllrcs and socia l network! \\'il1lin orlr-UliZ<ltions develop panl)' as a rt:sull 0 ] peoplc'~ a bility 10 CH..ulI 10 follow lhL~ .crm of interaction that cannot accounted for by Ihe onicia l SlI'UC[Ure.lch to su'css the less fom\Oll .lcd advocates of the human I'c huions appru.'e :"".rd :tS tile) could ( Eujoni_ 19&1:33-34.'d other female c mplo)"ces. towing th eTII to illl c rrllpt.. thd r pOly rate mig ht be reduced or some mig ht luse their jobs.ttiulls. Roclhlisl>t'fgcr and Dicksun..tniZlttion.anls.. wh41 produced -' too mu ch" were clllk'd "speed kin gs~ a nd ra tc \)lIs t eI"S. prod uctivi ty sho uld l~ lIl..l fern.'" att' more direct fonns 0 1 COllllllunicaooll than lhe fonnal ~U1..tl lindin g IIUlwi lllstanding.. they we re required 10 COIlSulllhcir pcrior (. GolTman's leflUS (sec Chapler 4).c judged to bt.wi lches for telephone equipmen t.Io r assistance. 160 1'\1". As a resu lt .'eryday fonm n::sisUltlce by tempol':ll)' e mpl o). Tuc ker pOillL~ OUl that h_ ma l socia l nctwol-1. The!ie maneuI'C1'5 pe ted I:IW e nrorCC IIl C11l agc lI lS 10 maintain fact'.udal f. ¥ of course.slcl' ralC. MafT .. Thcir work ' voil'cd auditing books a nd records and a lso in viewing c mployee" and cmployer. If agcnL\ cou lltcred a problem or proce dure that tllf. male su pervisor..tl life. sanctio ns.lI'ch has u ndcrscored the impact inlo nnal structures within organinltions. How does o nc gi~ t advice withOIll asking for To put it allotlwl' 1 v. nlll • flllt .earch . the In'tio r fo cus of the Ifawlho m c ~tu di es was the role of . how does o nc officially ~pcct . ('fe.ullong workers can redefine official policies'" a bureaucrAcy_ Recent fCSC.TIll' g l~ldual 1Il00.cOlrerully $ub\'cning this . HOI\'el'CI". Whenever \\-e examiall sufficielllly snmll scgm e nlS or such org-dniza~ we discover pall.lCh otl H owt.~ while Iho:. and tlrgOt terms to e llrorce th is sUllld. rd. u lugic.ed . sinct' workc.. Workel'!. Iisht.n 1 :ICl subverting it? Typi when faced wi th this problem .o uld adlersel)' ani Ihe ir job ra tings_ Therefore . Charles Page (1946) has uscd the Lenn burnlllmuf s ofhl'T fim· 10 refer to the Ullulficial lIctj"jt ic!I alld ilH cl~l cti o n !> which are such a basic part of clllily o rg-..tSpects 01' bureaucl~dlic . the agent had ne l'c r asked-at I di rct:lly. Ul relations approac h.llc reccplionist working for an mo bile dealer was being !>ex ually harassed phrsically :utd l'cl'i). T Il(').-d policy for fear tha t it . Infonnal unde~ in~ . Yet nran a~t. In Chaptet' 2. M M K In anOlher study of intcractio ns within bl Pe t('r mall ( I \)63) observed agclllS "'01' in a fede ral law e nfo rce me nt agc ncy.I)' establish a dear hicl-arch) wcll-defined rult:!f and Sl.peus or gelting rhe joiJ done-and (o\\o'a r (l the concerns ami needs of WO I kNs. \\hich alerted :. all agcllI would sclibc a n "imCfcsting cllse to colleagues..'"IrtS.. TIllIs..tnlctun:.\l cotpabililies.i"'O\ G VKJil UN .~ tOO slow \\'t:re "c'-hiselers.IYfrom d )Ole focus on ph)~ jC11 a:. This W.tXim i7.<Ind. Pf!ople can get around uleir superiors..ocio l ogist~ tn the laC! Iha l re-. ."." WOI-kef's who I'lolatl-d this agreemCIH \\£'rC Kbi ll ~ed~ (. in practice the men \\oCI"t..1C~ lOJ"'i in Ilorkers' Pl'oouctivilY.schcm e to boost productivity_ l1ley fcared that if U1C produccd y s\\'l tch parts al a fa. 1 one aspect o r the \3 re~earch. T\\'Q slUdil.-one or a r.:y c not handle. was unawlIre of such practil. we looked . Liste ne rs wou ld rem" llle ageTlt arnew chlta that might be he lpful or gcst other \\'ays o r lIpproaching the pro blem.15 es-pecinlly surprising because they would eam mo re mo ne} if they I>rodllccd morc 1 l..'cr.mdatc. ubjeclS lIIay a he r Iheir be hal'lor to ma tch the e!\pt' I'i melll e r 's expcct. 1939)..!. Soc' g isl.lled inlu fl'lI:!1 r ules.ee s working iI' sho rHc rm positio ns. \\1. This m ethod. an in.'IY..m enl.. man)' "ere reluct. Ihe ulher Of':1 law CIlrurcelllcll t age n C)'-i ll u~lrate the value o r the huI\l . Both the Hawthol1le sludies a nd Stau 's r~ testily 10 thc impo rLance of infomml StnlCID" within fo rma l or~.mk wi li ng room. T hese men were found lO be producing far belml their physic. who were a of ule ~lIper\'isor's behavior :lIld suggesled lhal CIdC)" H S a.ssiral thcol") ."u' tory.l amt's Tuc kc l ( 1993) SUlflii:cI e.'Hl i:/ations. cOnsuitt..lcturcs m. Iuggtd o n the sho ulde r ) by COWO I ke rs .tncc.v wa!> there such an lIncxp('cted restrictio n of OUlput? ArcordillK 10 the da. \00 a bllrC:Hlcmcy m .\ poliC)' while .U1CC rrOIll ot her agents-even though dearly I'lolated the official rules. rs had been givcn a IinanciOlI illcellti\'e. where 14 men were mak ~ iug IMrt!\: of :.cs lIml had actually come to !>eliele tha l the men wefe "'orki ng as h. this gl'Oup of workers established their uwn (unoffi cial ) lIorlll for a pt-o per da)"s ""'Ork.s ca ll olTer advice to a te mpol1Q employee on how to l}lIfSUt: II griev.. "'lth both !la cO\\orkers and tlte ir superiors. slO\\I.

~"od"tio. the Ki . (l"ilni 8Iul" ..11 during mrniIHIII.'nn.m.""' parly and the United Farm Wo rkcl"S considered examples of voluntary as.:ulllfaclllfcrs Insti tlU. 1 dt). belollbring to :I polil ical party or a uni on can be a cond ition of e mployment and not gelluinely vulul1wry.1' wlllning Ih~ Wodd . three Canadian soc iologists examined membership in \'olulltary a.."" in Ihe StlllliHul rotlU! br/O" IUlIldmu (I/lhmUfllldJ of ~/"rlalllrs. The Cirl Scouts of Amer· . and educational goals u.. cersuch as the Young Me n 's (YM CA) and the I'eace Corps.ANI1..lItI/"llR " • r .hiijh in these cJlI~ (Ce rio.J sense. If it bothers immediately. . 1I>'''''gori"of-fonnal organi7A1tion" and "\"01· . Ilmtil.pendc nt prcsidcmial candidate appeared all Ltm.his. .000 volulllalY .sually in \ululluuy associations. kw days of the lelecast. Voters lireare CO I1eso. T II ~rom' 1~::::<~::'.\ml:rican Jewish Congress. In . ncvcrth e lc ~s. .Iunlltions Ihal romp'f.. •••~l the hardliStnCIH slopped. 11J9'!. A"lomobile Association. (In: 1lOI'"l/ary (is. mere we re morc tha n 23. the "-Imps Study Croup."" m.." )' as. all th I r'bsoriatlon of Aardvark Aficionados.. All Ill) Jewish friends in Dallas..ic Rope Sports Association.tion ~ are not mutually exclusive."..·csting ly. 1D02) .~oc ia[ion : the nritish Elast.WIII:r or I/If Sulwr Bowl in til.~ lIall y included in discussio ns of \'oluma!)' associat io ns. PerOl re plied .':\:e member. 1 1!J9<~.e. IIHC. the .ations establishe d on th e basis I~_ ." Perot's mCl11be~hip \vliiiilary associaiio ns.. Participation in \'Olumary associatio ns is no t unique to the United Slates. .~ 161 r. • .nl within organizatio ns in the so- poIia K:Ction allhe: cnd of lhe c hapte r.he Dallas Country 11 .-anis J 'OM Sllmoo dubs (p' M~rlJ(){Jb· M of Nw de jlllu:iro.'" in the United Slates-an increase of I ()\'t'r the 1980 figure. .he School :.\c)(ia.!.. "" lIJ participate. M. I associations.. the Mikes of Amcl"Ibr SC\\ York Corset Club. . too.... h(' apparclllly spoke with lbe supc nfi· 1 [.1 ~ a C:1l1er if he belonged 10 a ny social clubs ncludedJl'WS or Blacks. Vol 'lII lnry QUOan' organil. ciatio ns.ociations in 15 COUlltries. they've had a dr~l or fun wilh me over t.~:'."n LlllerCSI.~... This texlbook's senior author auc ndcd a carnival in London feamring bungecj ulllping.::':'i. he resigned his ...ille Brook Club and !. We will examine h<lm5SJnc. inrlc. Blacks and Jews on his staff. whose membe rll volullleer 0 1 ' ~. III a crosKultural swdy. such as the Lions Club I At the same lime.. Killg Livt! and was . "Yes. AI· the m.~':::~~~~."'Ihip.~""'''n 10 the manager of lhe dealership. and the WilIia m rrltm.. .. Re ligio us mc m· "".7 \~)luntary . politiC<lI parties and ulliolls arc \J.mager said that th e "c wns liule Ih1:l1.JI'l"lONS ..s.o. has o nly 5 (Burck. The nalion 's largcst volurmuy rllf/II/pitm iJ li1r.H/)U/':!i ANI) OIlI. at whi ch participants were expecled toj ump fro lll a height of ISO feeL Skcptics were given assurances of the attraction 's safety by being told that the proprietor belonged to a \"01Ullt. American the smallest.~::..

. :'lIld they Illay join naUOIml lobbying groul)s such as the Anu:ric.J!!:ovided immigrants with substitutes fur tile extended grotllll.o(JMI.~~:= members.l. union participation was highcs".~SOdll li olls hold . /lbtml IJ/.. pl'olllinClI1 in the United Slalt.'IIJNf..lIch 1':'lrtly. the si1(~ alltl of slIch groups Vllry dramatic!II} . \'olunulI")' a. 162 PMrt nIT) ' e)HC"v...tlly IMd ri\'C milit. AfriCA 10 the cities WOlS accompanied by a !. 1993:359-360). . lhe Ncmeriancb.. 11 a ll-male <\. 199J . glorify till' acti\'itie~ ofw-Ir.'" IIv U. Canada. and perfonn certain services for the coml1lllllit). and mutual aid organi7. oligil1. the Dog.Ok(~ I~: '" Mml IJNfJIt. ~lIld o llt"-firtll arc aJl-m:tIt.cl1l. occupational socic1. During the poSlWodd War 11 period.onal problems that they cannOl handle alone (sce Box (. who "'cre amung the Chcycnnc's mosl illlj>ortalll w-."Od". Each was headed by four leadcrs.~~~. Although these associ.hip i" Vo/..'Hion ..1 Liberti~ Unioll .. SOllgs.ic~. Membership in 'Iuch associations is lIsually \'OIIlI1(. male .bcrship!.·". and lhe Bow. \'OluntOlI) :ts. in Great Britain. slIch military societies were common. Th(.\ry and based 011 the achie\'cd criterion ofpanicipauon in. all-fema le groups ( Mc Pherson and 1986). . 1988). I-hllf of thcIII cxclush'ely fcmaJe. memJh:L1ihip in such org.'>OCiatioIl5.lrkabl~ variety of . sociO('conomic Sllltu~ .uions..i"'CIII l}n~dic1Ur of "".i lie.ary 1lSSoci:llions they join. mallYpeople join ~se lf-he lp groups" 10 deal with per.mbcr.IS mcmbers of a co ll~ge dc bating society or " scnior Ci li z.'ere alike in Ihdr illlcrnal organil. Norw. llIort· promise for illg desil. migration from rul"' 1 areas of ...'Sidcl1lS of the Unil('d St.o. developed aJolIK old lrib.'Iociatio lls in the United arc largely seg.rn. As people moved from the c. string. 10 pt-"Oplc in preintlustrial societies. education."..1 war.uion.tI")' . rcnt.lI1d occup. "'hich may be com pared 10 our own American Legion or VeleraIlS of Foreign Wars posts.ions ?.". this rcflccb Ihe CO'lt of group which may exclude: people with limited frollljoining (Sills..he North American Plains Indians. 1973).I &'.'casons. there is no I}'J>" ietl volultlat")' associ:ltion.uc lIIorc likd:~'~O~. the Elk.tn 0\. for example.. Fo.Id in !lIdl' villages (Unle . including trade unions. Reflecting thc occl lpatio nal patlerns o["h.tr chiefs (Ember and F.o.·egaled b} gender. 1992). tion is socioeconomic st.". mOSI people al leaSI onc \'oluntOtry a~iati OIl (sec co'''''''''1 0"""""" FIGURE 6-2 Mt'mbet'. A com mon voluntary association in nonindustrial societic:s is the milit.. l1lf$c associations uni te members through their experiences in the miliLa')'.. Among l. exdllsi\'cI)..enne Indians. R(. :mch .'l!)ociauons serve as <t pOlelll political lorce. were found to bt.. Finally.~~1 alld P<l1"liol'alc acu\'CI)' ill . and weden.mlory Anol:iolions. While people's count ry of residence llI11y influence the types of \'ohull.· hiking club.jol. .· mhers. or tlte Nauonal Righl 10 Life Committec..J. Some join 10 sh. 111t.lI'c in activiti es. Ireland. socicty.-2) .""" 10 ill ImSI /JI't' 1/OIlw/a? ""'~ . . 1968:365-366. the Shield..' Che. . or kinfolk that they had l1..' most cOII .."schrifi of the countryside to the (Agllsdwji of the ch) (refer back 10 Chapter 5). they . Voluntary associations can prmidc ~UppOI1. 11("' . Will I I .tS. learl mr>ll(ln\h'llf.\tus-thal is.'K)Ciations: the Fox.mil.OIljons is clearl)' a common ((" soc~t1em (Curm cl al.. thcse VUIUllliUY a."ltes belong to \'ohm1<11")' .al. it come.'s.wd dances. lblc business conwcts lhall "">c"nt~"'rn.I')' association.15Sod:l1 ions tcnd to be larger more heterogeneolls in lerms of ~: .\. Although participation varies across ulauon oflhe Uni lCc! Statc..rroWlh in o \OIUIII:'II)' associ..m. Peuple .IH· . By cOlltmsL..Hiolls leatured distinctive costUIlICS. As noted in CIIoIplcr 5. and Nonhcm Ireland. Mcmbership ill \'ohll1mry associations is ItOI dom..lrth mtlll'ltillll fA"" C y.ty.tssocialiOIIS lor:...".

..[onab. 0 1 lh:J1 "'d)' 10d. I gOI the PI'OB I~lI n . the number of ~ I f-h clp OI'g<lIlilauons in till. I got the Sleps.. iu mcI" apcuuc and a '"iu lgd ical o\'C'rsilllpl" licatiom. has COIld(.'Se Itlluual aid en-oIU renCCI$ a profound di~l ti~faction \o\ilh ('xis!jng mcdirOlI ..Ih onc '~ fedings~ 0 a llhe c xpensc of mtio nal di~oll~ conccmirlg such i ' yll~ ti('es :I. plarc in AA and other self-help groups.:111 :titaniC')' and joul'nalist. backgrounds. N('\'cl thoug ht I'd lIlolkc iL Rem('mlJcl'" when I first r.". lY Ih:u 'he rt. That' groups. model.AnonynIOU$. 1111:: AA modd of group proccu includes few rules. . 1988. I gOI Ill)' Big Book. \lib.. N. In thc lasl decadc.. RubCIIWrt. FundamenGllist! Intot Sun.ew a nd exprCM his or her life ~tory in a manller slnlctun.'d b) Ihe group.. Got rny old job hack."lck my lifc. I gOI my mceLiH!fl IU go 10. 199'1:4!S) . Sociologist No rmall De lll_ in ( 1987. :u a resull. l. Could n' l talk. Child~n of hrmlS. and its mfatuaLiun \o\.i that :1 fX'l'SOn who becomes :Icl h~ in AA is M)Ciali7.:.' instead asthrough ~er sU I)an""'fl. perhaps !I.I).yhile unqut..slII."lU.llher aUIOllomoU5 local groups.hclp groups. ''<illu:.tehrsc:n. inrre . III Irer view. of III which about 15 III the United Stales A .n1.(1 "n\ III ~ lin g \(' rvices.7. Wctld ). Mthough il maintllins a national he"dquarters. As an cxample.dJ-hIp group i~ a .. 1990).. "iI becomes 1110l'e irrrl>orl:U1t 1 focus 0 (Ill )'0111' own problems lIran on larger :roe.. Fou nd my stor)' ill therc. nruwlI.ingly multir'ftc1f1 I.ullc here..m y 19M) .'8 has more Ihan (Iuadrupled. DClllin 5UggOt. K:. Alune.. 1900.' Uni lcd Sla l1.'(.ed into Ihe group's noml~ . ~Tll e)' do not want to he dep<':nde ru o n OUlside profe".tlf of T he succc~ of AA ill assisti ng many rcc()\'cling alcoholics ha5 IInqucstionabl)· conuibUled to the increase in . Alffcd K. AA i5 remarkably decentralized and basi· I'll"""'" but '\IX of thousand!. 1990) has dra\\'Tl upon the irHc l~ ctionist a pproach in his ex. Thanks.. K:unincr ( 1992) .t5l. I can lalk.he m:ed 1 ~gct in louc h "'. You IlCOplt' g-.m. man)' o f which ha.!i scxi~rn a nd me. Lo\-e Too Much. 163 .u.""'" ~upyort and prole- I ~:~':. T. . al ld disl.i.~:'::.self.. ~ notes K. Scare d to dealh.:.~. self-help groups place c)'ccssi\'c focus o n !. .ty.' mc b. and AA has become much more accepting of openl}' gay lII(':mbers tban 1I '''. because of tile [mu!.·c al'g ot.". ~ Pt'opll' arc d issatisfied with irnpcnlo rmlily lIlId bm caucr:uic nlll"ro u nds .'C' borTO'l'l'cd from AA'.lh chariJirna lic OIllll u:lI.md diverse i n tcnll'> 01 • ~~~.. and a common purpose of rc:'cU\cry which ol'ercomCll an)' traditio nal dhision of I"OOr (Leehrscrl..''''''''"P -in ""hieh I>copk a common concern or (ulTlt together l'OhIl1l3r- cally comins of r. an cxpert 011 public health and social welf. thtir ncal'reiigiolUl fC I' t meet wi th out . Oclll:in (1987:1'1&) quoles a lIIan who h:1Ci been in AI\ for 1 0 )'cars. Tht')' wanl 10 ha"e mor(' of a saf ( P. ShoPFn.\'OI'lI- all members in la rge cities.help 1I10\'('rn('1II also has itJi crilics.'.self.is in Ihe p.'\ll. liule hierarchy cxcept for no minal group leaders. duo indhidual1e:t. \. amination of Ihe ~~I f Story tclling~ that lake.llnincr adds that lIIan).ll k w my mom no.'\l'c.1 iMlIn~ (Crnbt!r.lIIned the rC('m'C'l} 11\meOlenl for it' :tnu-intclk<:IIIalism.S 10 . lire .'Slionabl)' popular. poilltli OUI Ihal the dralTl:uic rise in tht. ..incl.I988: I).:a.O\'C I) ' 1II \1\'C IIlCIlI CIlCO Ul'agcs.

.and a\\~drd ed too little respect by the larger society-bec'lUse it i.. eve n tllOugh the skill levels.hat. _.tuization (ond uU\t its goals must change."ll")' a. Ht socioloJ.."1I")' associations assist in governi ng. A.'>ional associatio ns such as L American Mcdical he Association mediate between their me mbers and govern ment in such matters as licensing and legis]..\.-oitlllLary associauonsand especially of their un pa id workers (or \'o htnleers) -i. 1988). 164 .h. and the American Association of Retired Person.~ viel. Its r SlalU tt.. This renects the fa ct tha t a dccision to elllcr :1 volun t... licensing proce dures.... Traditionally.. a n oil rot " purchases a mO\~e studio.~ increasi. During th e in nux of Indochinesc and Cuban refugees in lhe late 1970s and early 1980s.m continuing ed ucation prog r... Second. pt.~s~:. In tli(' the Eld critostel nlO\'cm c n t opened collegt puses in the Uni ted States 1 older peopk 0 could live and learn along wiLh much yOlln!(tf lege student s..ation d ecidCli !. These c hanges onen relate to o ther wcial lutio llS...e groups serve within our society..~. For exa mple.... most 0 ))\'....... It mu~ modiry its pl'C'. an organization'S goal~ ma>' c over dme a lo ng with its lcaders a nd StruCl1 churc h SUlI"IS a basketb.. 1987. parucularly the governme nt.11 key funct io ns lhat the..<. the NnI.'S.. \'olutll.. o rganiz.) 01 disability rights (scc Chapter 20) inlh ' lhe inle1".."1ntial amount of\'olunteer work is perrormed by WOlllen.. Curiously.. Such' take place whe n an organi/.uiun necl..~ (AARP) help to bring tradi tionally disad\'.1 decisions o r ol"ga nila tion~ and even req uire the hilin g of new pcrsoll ll cl. In acidition... Generally.u1t..lcung ror goods and services directly inn the stntcture of rorma l o'lrdnizatiom..'ecl as ~worne l"s work.Ition.. both fOI"I1I:11 and \'Olunllu. it wi ll lypically t.... experie nce.. Finally.."-SOciauon typically involves on ly limited personal objectives (Bnbch uk and Booth . Th ird. and train ing demands arc often comparable with those of wage labor. new prcsicic11t of the Un ited Stales is C1 ecuLi\'c is fired....d YMCA has practiced sllch goal multiplic... David Sills ( 1968:!H3-376) has l(h:mificd 5e\'("r..\.:d.ngly being recognize d.'ccn individuals and gm'e fOmcnL ProfC!I.. de Tocquevllle wrOlC.'ious objectives o r cease 10 C:uL Goal Multiplication If an org-. tllt:diate bctv. Just as individuals and rela tionships change.1Ild tr:. althoug h membership in volun tary associations in the Un ited Slates is hig h.Oplt ~II ' Unitt!d Sta les a re "fo rever IOl'llling assOCidtil Orvanizational Change . do urganizations. taX la\'i • . a chewing tobaccu bc!.. of voluntary associations..while llbollt o ne-founh maintain three o r more mcmbersltips..eerism LllCreby obscures a critica l cO lltribution WOme n make L il socic ty's sucial st I'UCO \lIrc (A.."1ged and uncletTt:prcsemecl groups in to th e po litical mainstream ..0115 changes often invo lvc person CCll. Covrm policies relating to afiimmtive "clion (see ( I...ational skills that is invaluable for futu re olTicc holders-and for beller performance within most jobs.ional Women 's Po litka1 Caucus... religious and charilablc groups became deeply invol\'erl in helping the federal government rescule refugees.. dilional goals arc no lo nger adequale.. like the unpaid child care and household labor o r homemakers. T he imponance of ".~ Fail ure IQ recognize women's vo lulII..rins to manufacture ballpoint pens..rists are most interested in how the zatioll itself c hanges.. people lend to acid and drop a A-i1iations rather quickly.._.. First. \'olullt...ro ng e\'a llgelistic foc lls dUriDg· ginnin g1l in lhe United Sl<lIes in lhc 18..'lt)' associations give people training in orga ni1... thl" r·('sult of c hanging social or economic ("on I"hidl threaten Ul(' organization 's SIIT\.... Sociologists have applied func tionalist analysis (0 the stud). Fe min ists a nd connie l tJleorists agree thaI. Goal Inll/tipli calio" takes place when an nization ex pa nds its purposes...ing its name. the Young Me n's Christi:m dation had a Sl. Viewed from a CO llnict I)(:npcctive. the).. the critical difference has been that a subst.~.uions slIc h as the Natio nal Association for the Advanceme nt o f CoIOl'ed r'eople (NAACP).. unpaid work has been dcvahted in tl lC United Slates... 19(9).111 le:lgue...tms to m('d lIeeds of poten ual stude nts ho lding full·tunr and wishi ng to lake classes at night. additiona l goals or expand \lpon its lrdditional jectivc.... tht' dTort o f \'Oluntcers has been too often ignored by scholars.. Danie ls.. a star athle te rcUres. in the 1970s man} c beg...

~.i rommlly jllc/lllil'S .' 19M0s.$. Gradually. in !lIe ear ly 1900s. Luthc rMll.. However.t. Ule YMCA contin ued 10 ser\'e the poor. p refelTcd the YMCA to rem ain as it had been. POI' so me t. no ted that organizations d o not necessari ly behave in 1I rigid manIler when the ir goals arc achieved or become irrelemnL Rath e r.'1l by expanding i L~ goals from e vangel ism LO general commun ity se. However.I(/nlts r(:$iII'71U f/ormilorip.ime. ~oci(11 wviu !Jrq.. 'llional c ha nges. In la rger urban ar. Th~ 1110)( recent p hase of goal m ultip licauon at .ivities tUlfl'llrh. ¥et !he organiza tion also maintains 11 hJrnur\! br.rvice (E.AI1()NS .:m iz. thc YMCA received substantial lladill~ from lhe federal government . the YM CA has SU lvived and gro\'. In ti lt. 1970). a nd the . Go al Succession Unl ike goal m ultiplication. usually dissolve.s. . R OInan C'lholics. popu larl)' known 101' its an nual March of Di mes campaign.~ expan ded apdl. the 'I'M< \ brlpn to diversify its appcal.j cws. r('.\ Ulcnt trdi ni ng alld juve nile dcl inque nC)' propn.ng gym n asi um faci li ties . M learning ror living" classes for adults.~ion oJ grxd..p.$ for mllegr amf single fldui{J. da .ullchl1rc hed IIm' J~(epled and e\'en n:cnlil.wd rniden{'c (Iuancrs. go al successi on occurs \vhcn a g ro u p or organization has e ither feali zed or been de nied its goal.. who coined the term ~'tlfcl'."'(l1I1. the 165 UIA/'/HI 6 · ( :ROl II'!!' ANbORGANI.'vival meeungs were p rovided by Ibc rarh V\ICAs.(Zioni.A Ocg'dll in the 19605..1nd telll rt. "Jfirp !nT tOOrlll".t I>ete r Hlau ( 1964:24 1-246). AI times. 1990). as in the case of a co mmi ttce supporting a victorious cand idate fOf p u blic offi ce.$ jilT Ihe disabled. It'UIh . 1964: 13. wome n.lhtOrg-dllization became involvcd in provid illg ftIIpl. Th ese transilions in thc YMCA were not always smooth. OIul Sl'nior rilivIII' Jari{ili~. th e).{rd gO(l1 mlllliplicalioll in reaml (femdl'. tu SCIW middle-class residentS of ciLies a nd 411buM.l t attempted to lIttf\'\t members by olTcl. This was it IRmJlil change for an org-.me. lis mll~ of (lc/ivillt. J\ (''I'idrnccd by U1C bu ilding of a new faci lity i1JlH in the Wall! scction or Los Angeles-the rt\Jlorpd\'Oltc conslnlction in the a rea since the _ tlr 1965. the). they may shift to ward new o bjecu ves. It lIlust 111(:: n idell tify a n enti rely n ew o l~ec u vc tha t can j ustify its cxiste nce..:lIlge o f act..ed as members. fi'''''{< rh".\'1 a resulT . fi tness classes fo r oOicc IIOfkl'IS. Cases of goal successioll a re I1Irc because most orbraniw lio ns n evef fu ll). flny mrp r"'''/p . The YMCA's im pressive r.Ind seniOl' c itizcn s' faci li ties (Schm id t.. Socio logis.'1'111' Yuung AlnI~ CJ"isliml J\5wl('jll/iOI/ ( I'M CA) IIlIS ~1.~irlcnce dormilOries fo r college students IIll ~ n g l t· adnlts..IOch in Bcverly Hills and ha. ~" r. A case in point is the Fo unda tion for Infantile P:rralysis.inclndts social service programs for th e &bil'ti. Zald .' .miza rioll \\'hose inco me I PIY\iOllsly come solely from mem bersh ip fees d 1 1 ~l rir'I I)lc conui bu tio ns. If th ey do. ach ieve their goals. ~(.. care centers. lIl<yor contributo rs and board membe rs withd rew support because of opposil io n to org.

he quel !:.hout a dear rationale for exiSlCncc. Ironically. Rooney worked as a migraLOry farm worker and casual laborer as part of his research. Like many bureaucracies. it sim pl y refused 10 die (E1..~sio ns· man- agers arc able to force skid row residellts to au~ gospel selvlces.·on if other IreaUnCl1 l options might be more elfet1Jlf 166 1'lItrr 7110 • OH(.~ suddenly left wit. This left th e found'llion. "une lHpl oyed. These missions hope to cOllvert visitors.. in 1955 the Salk vaccine was found to be an effect ive protection against paralytic polio.J 'UllCS Rooney ( 1990) has shown Ulat program fai lure is necessary for the maintenance of certain bureallcmcies. they urge them la accept. 1964: 13: Sills. so la speak.~ A vast network of commilted slalr Ille mbe rs a nd volu nteers "'<l. Rooney found that only a w:ry small portion skid row residents eve r came fo.sJxnI5iblt for e1ljQfcillg drug Inllll SlIlkt hI alloiding gool to)!timlf' la exist biJC(lUJt tlI11g Som~ (hey /(III~".atiolls which rectly benefit from their OWII failure.1: . Thro ugh his observdtion research in ~s k i d row~ missions.253.271). f.h.'I1JN(. IM)('JM. lhe mi. Prisons fail I!) I bili talc inmates.vard to makea fession of fait.1.e o perations.organiUllivlIs may actuall] ~ sucaniqn f" example. In his view. bu t instead it selected a new goal-combating arulIilis and binJ1 dcfccts<ll1d look on a new 113111(. if lhe missions 3Ch became m ore successful and quickly COIl\"CIIM much higher proportion of skid row visi tors. In an example of sociology (refer back lO Chapler 2). 1. a re hardly tht' example of programs that succeed through failft't Government agencies responsible for en~ dl1.Urn of many clients. to allend c hurc h services. Contrary LO the usual vil"\l· org-<U1izations perpclllale themselves by ate plishing their stated objectives. Christ. of course. Rescue missions. 1957.dt Consequenuy. By controlling the dis-lI·ibution of food and she lter.<. liIIsIlI'rs 0//1 0/ busintlS.lg laws conti nu e lO exist because they fail tIJ drug pushers Olll of business. Rooney su that skid row missions continue to exist bca.atio lls may have a stake in a\'oiding goal succession.1. there by gua ranteeing a Slew l.".'otle17WWIII Ogt1ldtl rt'..ioni.tl research on polio ami 10 pl"Ovidc assistance fO I· victims of lhe disease. foundalion's major goals were to support medic. Through these work expelienccs. to a bstain from liquo l·..u't their ongoing failure. he routinely inte racted WiUl skid row residenl~ with whom he visiled morc than 200 rescue missio ns throughout the United Stales. the m~joJ"i ly of missions would hlII to cea.. and 10 accept regular employment. With sllch parddoxes in m Rooney concludes by examining the poliC)l implications of his study..ri\'ing con tinllcd support to organil.M. some organil. socio logist . The group might have disbanded allh is po im. a \at few rescue missions would be able to handle the auvely small number of "newly fa lle n" indi\. and ". However.

..lpSM'1l as well-have been Ih c vict ims of sex· 1w-a\.11'"1'/·.mcnl conSlitll te!l a violatio n o f the law even if thc unwelcome sexual demands arc not linked 10 con cre te employment benelits suc h as:1 mise or a promotjon .g-... .'lCll/ry lIie ill Uers... 199:1:8 7: McKinney.dc Ihe ho me. hat 1Va)'S do organi1.«1 . In the 1986 ( ...'/1. BUI't.. or pinched in a sexual wa y... lndtl l'vohing legal standards. 65 pcrcelH of female students ill gradc~ 8 through 11 reponed thal tll<..social M:rvices research :n the Urball Institute.". sexual haras.IWtJl'S ""NI) OIIf' . Even th e hallw. law professor Anila Hill.W7A'/'/(). bIll mOSt incid e nL~ are nOI re po n ed to college administr. women n.ariet y of studies invoh'ing bOlh IIn' dergmrluiltc and gr.'}' were ~lD u ch ed. ~ Because of these experiences and othe r forms of sex ual ha· raSSlllcnl. ex pclienci ng sexual ham_ e nL can . I )ooc... blll in rolct ... 'l\11 lu::nlsed . In 199 1.'"o.llccs which consti tute sexual ha· may take Ule ronn of subt le pressllI'C$ re· sexual aC lh~ ly...u'e mort: wi llillg to label these bchaviOfli .t shallering impact o n all employee's '!..!).. o sexual in the compmer age.1 national suney in the United Stales . 0IDrI1 01 all ages and radal and cth nic grOl..'lII by r...·.. director or. 1993a:37) ..s1lH'1l1 (T. and people are mo re langryJ about it~ (R.."S.o l11cn .SEXUAL HARASSMENT .. Obviously."11 advances that interfere with a person's _ tlll)t'rfonn a job and et~oy the benefits 0 1 a t111)!!1 blalant example L'i the boss w ho te lls J:=~:::~a~:~. lattemptedr kissi ng ~ I for sexua favors.~:::"': Court nominee (no\\....imilar sUr\'ey in Octobcr 1991 .dy held that sexual haraSSlllent by a sllpcrvi~or "i"bll'~ fNl/'~1 law .. e publ ic display of pho tographs o f iludc and part.ulail (Price.·orkplacc bl1l a lso in colleges and univcrsi.ItOrs.atis-faction 011 lh ejob.iI sex discrimina· tion. ..nbcr 1992..' Associ.!. BUI Anila Hill is far from alolle _iug such a complairu abOllt rI coworkc r.lSC of M entor Sm)illgs /Junk v.."k.hM they had been sexually harassed in . r n'p"iW'rHy ! 11 ' 1- ~"fomlcr aide. A . Milra". inappropriate sex ual lan· or Howeer. v 'tt~~'::i.-l i ll~ ' ~f' X fli.~ grow· Lhal sexmllly ha rassi ng messages arc .ll judge ruler! IIIiIt !l.L~ being ~exLlal hamssmclI1... Vill.toNin .. In the Unil....\)'S of hig h schools are dangero us terrilory for femal e Sludc nl!l. there i.. 199 1a: \Vithcrs and BenaroyOl..<.'k envi ro nment-in which a woman feels degraded . lile}' hold manageliai or clerical positions.it. grabbed . The justices rule d that the existe nce o fa hostile o r a busive wo...r /111.'_ . ~1otin..1 from ~I con Oicl perspective. Sexual harassment 11. :. 1990:424).. 33 percCIII of those female students stated lital they wan led to avoid going: 10 school and were less iJlciined to speak in class (Baningcr.lon. as I I.h ey may si mply rcprc.p~~. harassment...."""'''' main largets of slid. tbe rcsult of unwekOll1C" Oirllll. L. .Hed pattern of bt. H'urrrCIl arc by fa.may in itsc ll co nstitULe il1eg-. Such harassmenl may occur as a t'f'Irotultt'r or as a rep<.ion or obscenejoking-.: I". as o ut1ined in lhe 1961 Civil Riglw..men! influenced the political syste m of the ~latt!S? harassment received cdt'ntrd aUcntion in the United Stales..'1 If • (.ational SlmClUrcs en· l'tlUr~I' or pcnnit sex ual hamssmcnt? """" han' women's concerns about sexual ha. . a leder:.u}' <lW)Cialion or a ~ corpor:llion.·. the Supre m e Coun unani· mou. bow do [he 4au flll scxlIlll hamSSlllcnt (en cel inequalities ""rI un gender and mce? .lIdCnlli show Iha l 20 10 40 perCCll1 o f studcll ts arc [he vil'lims of se Xli ill ha· ra... ·. ACL If suOic:ic n tly sevc rc.'ism have .". 1lIoma.. 32 percent o f .. nude wome n at . over of years..llC Justice) . sexllal harau· " recognized as any lIllwanted and lInwel· ·.~("I·imillaUon in the workplacc. 1989:6-7).ss m l.1..buses. · Put ~ Ollt gel Ollt!~ the "c1\1"J. These lUa} :11 fi rsl suggest that thc l'(' has bcell a increase in sexual h:u-:~ m e llt. Accordi n g 10 a 1993 nauoIHtl Sill'· \'e)'.~men1. 1993) .~~:~s louChing.ed Sla'..t workl'lace con sU tul e~ sex ual ha ..'''' aJlonymously over computer networks f . sexual hanLSsmcnl I11Ust be 16 7 (. compared with 23 p CI'· In.. people arc more willing LO talk about it.... III . obscr\'c!l: · I)eople now .~CI1l a s hift in aLtilUdes con· ccruiug sud...ldu:tlc st.cs. IIII:Y I't'ork i n a volum.:P0 rl being viell) *xual harassmenl..1$ been common ly reported nOI oll ly in the ...

Whe ther it occurs ill the fed e ral burea ucracy.llly L kes place i'l o rgani/.U~IS!l mellt lead lu di'lplaceme lll b> tho'le in pm itio lls of power.U) rdSSlllc nl CIIl IX' coni)' :'111<1 dl':lining ( Ih\'(' 1988: Sait. lb1c e llll.: I'.' corpo r. I .:ISS I1I Cnt may ha\'e to l o n g" ~ !our ymrs to get a he aring befo re the EEX.'S have tJIC will 10 fight.II W Im1ruur AIIlIII fMI Lf ~ d um'K h" 1991 Ii'll/MOll] S"Wlf j ut/lfil' . MOlley..21 ).ilics.«.m .o n a St.".In . .~1 .. /It J/'f flmUM ~lIpr"'M COl/ rt .~1ll c nt . )988) .. it is not ~uqll'isin g Ill.milKlfI d p"rl'uing j U' licc against th o~ g uilty of 5e"1..'{:tOI' found lhal African Ame rican \\'o mc n we re Ihree limes more likely Ihan Whilt..U. lIo\\'c". 199~ : 20. Th c~e gro UI)5 ." IIICIII .000 o the rs . In 1992 . context of t ontilluing prejudice and di~c ril'tlinatiorL against WlJ ll1~n (sce Chapter 11 ) .'I o f discriminOltiOIl each rear and OI'('I" ('Clj 50..lgcnC) has a huge ca.lIId the n had bec lI repe at e dl y d t' llied promotJoa After a ninc'rea r le wtl bailie.<Ind especially wome n of colo r .lfe l}pioJlI)' an org'lIli ~ 1:llio l1 's IIlost \'uhle l. Still .I) pe rcenl of th Ose who had bcen harassed st:l1cd that Ihey had rile d complaints.' pri\'.'S in te nns ufjo b .eXllal h . from a coul1ict p'>rspcCli\'c .atio lls dll U 168 1'''oK1 nm • 0Hf"AM1.. 01' ill uni\er...:Ilt.J'lllan..:u. (// rl'/Jrfllfdl-.t} linds White males . <. umil'rstood in I.lo).s cload . E"<ln Kcm p.. *xual ha~ rd"SlIIent gcner... While it is agreed that sext. 0 111:111 who hJlli filn! cUlIlplaiut o f .. (\ling complaint'" or ~cx llal h .. Ye t F.EOGs fllnrlint clc:lll y iuadcquate IU im'eslig:llc all lhc\t' ~ (1Iclllol1'. Brode rick had re fu !>Cd he r s upcl'\'isor' ~ advances . 1nl/ally hllmu l.11 lakes a 101 o f self-co nfidence to lig ht .nl1llll«.11 Ihe lOp and in \\ hich wome n 's work b valued lc-.. 1Jtfotr .. of IIl<1king a sexual hal'assrnc m COIll ill lhe ('otlnS o r in mus t bllrellllcrad cs is sl(1\Ir burclensolllt. only ...cl. Eve n if Ihe viclilll d ot. 1988:56-57) . 'tOU.s Lhan me n 's. her e xpe rie nce i ~ :. ' is more cOllet'nI for followi ng the regulations fo r d c alillK "-llh a nd prC\I!III.hat arc hal.'x lIal hamssm e lll compla int ag-dinst lhe agency's W:lshinglo n office.are most likely tf[ become victims of sexual h ."." s ll ggesl~ Calherinc Brod e rick.J\ ( .lle "·o dd.'iuell procedures fotiuf. headof thdl'il e l'al Equa l Employme nt Opportunitv Colllm~ ( EEOC). admitted thal a .dled b)'s"'tr I:!mploymcnI a ~e nci es. was \'1( riuus ill cou rt :lI1d won a pro m o tio n and }t'iI' ha ck pay... "" a /JmlKl (1/ )'fW' . il i nl. Onc sun t') in tht..'\'enhcless clear thal most \'ic lillls d o not re purt Ihc ~c abuscs to prupe r ""Ihudli es.'. St..a1iolls in a which the hierd rchy of a uthm. P o f Ihe proble m i!l tho umll)' urf(cl ni1.'U 1 ex pe rie nce sex0 ual har:'I.] (.ht.' W OIllc:. in a ~ lIr\'c y of federal government c:mpluyees conducled in 19l'l8.I rt:.tclIl'ity (j . J UIIC!I.1.<l / \ Jl(K'Ulk Just. is no t the ouly problem many organi zatio ns. n.ing ha rassment. _"" (1I01. 8mdcrid:. 1 harassme nt is widesp.'ead in the United Sla tes. proces. For l'xlImple. w. Th e' .(I) ('.. ill tjl(. il I'eceil'n 6111 complaint. a lawyer f or the Securil ies a nd Exchange Commissio n (SEC) who .It "ome ll .

. Committee. the cmOlionai costs of t h is discrimina- (largely female) employees have COIlCCI11 . lY92:..able prucessts at work in the fUllc- rjo nin g of small grollps. a la·.1~lcrcd ""' luitlst... The . Some observers belie\'e that public oflicials arc taking the issue of sexual harassment marc seriously because they believe their political fUlures are at M. 111\ prohabl~' a primary group. 11 r among human \:x.ed the rights ofa female e mployt'e because of crude remarks tklt led her to quit her job. In 1991 .m.: "Sex\lal harassrnelll is a big problem in Japan. Cordon. writlcn rHles and ft'g IlIHLio ns. lUlO VOhllllal)' ."dllier.'."..~a.>i ideal ronll. This figure. However. The complainant had chMged thaL her male supelvisor had spread rumors about her. the secreta lY or r(\igned in 19m~-and Congress delayed aodf"I."."l1l groups. R. The battle against sexu.~ il is. Indeed.mcl perform a comp. ThaLsamc real'.lrterlllalh of Anitlt Hill's testimony before YUJtC' Judicial).!lt:"S lend to scc I. 4 IlllenlCtioniSl researchers have n:vealcd rhat tht'ft' . and employee turnover. a disuict co un ruled that a sma ll publishing company and one ofiLS mate employees had violat.j by 175 or more naval i.m"" bureaucracies have IT-adilional1y given little )!(t]\r flll\1)l1 10 the pCl"'.~ being rough! nOLonly in the United StaLes but around the world. "'Iit'll II"r IlIId oursel\'cs idcntifyillg c10scly wlIh .00''''1'1"". foul' fe male candidates critical of the comminee defeated male opponenLS in 1992 Democra tic senatorial primaries-and three wel"e subsequen t I)' elected to office.I.h.ake.he worlll in I•. impt'rsonaliry.0.. ~tud}" of 160 Fo rtun e 500 business finns conthat sexual harassment costs lhe average "I'. 1II1bo: Lnited Sc.)'er ror the com plainant. 1992. In 1992.f1d 'f . 5 One poib"lant ami I"ecIIlling message of rccent decadcs has been lilt' power and pC1V.7 'I \'ear."Irc distinct and predict. the political sys1!I'lhL United States is responding to allcgaabuse in ways t11:lI were hardly com(. 169 ."f Navy and Marine Corps prornolions - I!I ~~. This rcsponsibiliry is often to a personnel ofliccr whose unly backror the msk is a lwo-day seminar on sexual Ii.regula~'pfnh. spurred by the irll ense angcl' of mall)' women about what they viewed as the (a ll-male ) Judiciary Committee's mistreatment of Anita Hill. and we hope th is will send a signal to men that they have to be more ca reful" (Riding."lrison funcrion for pcoplc's 1!1!.hc. does 1101 Joci.'"~aIlY (111111123.lS advised to quit her job.ii~.t...'1lOIlIlt!l who are adcqmncly trained La deal \Ilth complaints. mort.Ibhlng sexual har.. lO of cu lture and tlle:.lsin:nt'ss of larg(. In a recent example. 1993).llifica ri olls.~t (M.ssncialions or l so- cmluations or rhemsel\'cs and Olhcrs..". high a.slIl"'o'hn l of ew'!)' solhe impacl of S1n.. she \\~.grlll/pf and oll l-gro"ps.""f"'lU. 6 Max Weber argued lhat. 1993:F I 7). Weisman.lsivc sexual har<lsstllcnt ill .· sues a company because of sexual haIon Ihcjob (Cralvf'ord. telling others that she was promiscuous.. In the view of Vukido Tsunoda.ulagcrs and cxccllLivcs have been forced U1C COSl~ of sexllal harassment for the Afr. III all ImpOlUIfH VICLO ty rul' J:!p:tn 's relll ll11sl movcmCnI . lII'..... m.er calculating losse~ linked 10 ab'productivity..:al qu.111. Francejoined many European countries in banningsextral harassm en t.'f..'°tlfWC(}St.'i ortcgal defensc and damages when . a perccptiulI often M Ilw "cry groups to whkh wc belong.ll harassmelll i . organizations. and cmplo)'TIlCII\ based on tcchllic. in il. erupted after al lea.750 emfjloyees) ~lb011l $13.~'f. When she attcmptcd to get him 10 StOP making slIch com ments. eve!)' bllreaucrary "'iII share ult'se fivc basic characteristics: divi~iorl uflabor_ hierarchica l authorilY. '''.A!3). the European Economic Com nlllnily established a code of conduct which holds employers ultimately responsiblc for combating sllc h bt:havior.ll Tailhook convention 3 Re/enmcfl groups set Hm\ enforce S!alldards of COII- dUCI .lssmclU have been isIt.'ing'S is necessar).

Ulcl1I a llia nce tOMLrd a common goal. ( 151) ad"".a d t\ tWl>lIlembcr group...i mo re or less hureaucr..ration.\hu regularly and ro''''''~ illlcmc. illlpcT!lonal grou p in thert' is li ttle social intimac).'TOllpS? What fllnction~ do these g-TOUpS sen. 10 Changt' is an importallL clement in org'"dllizatio nal life. 01 .ocirtl·pllrpose signed and smletu rcd in lhe .iuion? What d )'sfunctio ns migln occur as a resuh of their pre~(: n ce? 2 M:IX Weber idemifie<l fh·c basic characteristics of bureaucl-acy. " Cte l'. !'J...'\C 10 hi3 !en'l of incompetence..-.cc associa tio n :uld coope.g~!. I J Sexual harnssmeOl has been common ly TCl>Orted not only in the federnl wo rkplace and in priva tc-seclor organization!.ti.. ...J uc mcy can be u ndc r~lood all a process and as malle r of degree.alio n in whic h ru les and hiemrchim l r.alio n Gin u nUI·e d ermine :md red dine o Ricial bureauCl'atic policies... an organization j.lIlization!.ch to tht' of fonnal orga nimuom ¥I'hich cutphasi7. 01'Wllli"l. ..1 ""rl"n.u being moth~dtcd almost entirely by economic rC¥l1u·ds. 8 The infoI"Tual 5Ln.. !I.cd or ( 165) .'"w. c:xpcrimc nlS.-jl :ruislallcc. (1'17) Scirn tiftc ma"agemrmt approach Another nall"lC' the drusi(al lhtory of ronllal organi L:ltiolU.••• .l:tnd whulIary association. . ( 1-16) Self-help group A tl1lillml aid group in which pa'I*' who 1 :ICc a commo n concern 01 conditio n comt ' get he r \'olllntarily fo r c mUli0l131suppon and p. Goo l dilpla cfnnent Overzealous con formity to reg ulatio ns within a bureaucracy. a religious ill~tiluliol\ or chic anocia11011 to which YOII belong) and apply Wcbcr'~ analysis to Iha l orgalli7~.octatiolls ..d. WiL hin a romlal o rgani zation . lIion Imrcaucracy and tends 10 focus on till' infomlal LUfe of th e org-. ( 14 7) Iru.~..') Sexual harauPnrnl Ally IIn¥l'alltcd a nd ual a(h"'tlco that inte tfe rc with a pCrwll'~ abili~ 1 lt'lfom l a job and enjoy Ihft 1x-1le.lI1iza tion mar need t.·ork.ation.dcqml1 c. to share in joint activilies or to gel he lp with peDOnal problellls. uccessioPl The p rocess Ihro ugh which an ni/.d ".lIli~aliol1. to which the y lIo nOI belong.uj o ll researc h. )'our cOlkgc..'. in-groups. ( 1-'9) BurMucracy A compone nt of fom ml o rgalli"l. 9 P(>ople belong 10 1I0lunta" aSloda ti ons for a varie ly of pllrpo5CS.for cxarnple.Iichels under which mn _0011 ocratic organi zatio ns will bceonlt' burca ucrado by ..gronp An y group or category w whic h people Ihey belong.s? Grflu/J An) number of people ""ilh similar no"""...>r' n.. ( 145) f/umoll r.\lld p:llticip.o c hange its goals if its OIiginal objcc:. and expt.1 few individuals.d. a business a t whic h )'011 .s tJ.·cc doc!' it correspond 10 Weber's ideal lype of bU fcaucmcy? 3 How mig ht sociologists elmw 011 SUI'·Cys.llIking a r~' used 10 achicvc ('flicienc:y. 1It:.. opprooch An ap pro.·e~ are full y realized o r a n: no longer .~ firiclICY.~..1CL of an organi7.I. (pllgC 152) Burenucrati%a tion The proccS$ by which a grou p. f.t.)mcs increasingly ' bure:wcr:ltlc. out-groups.~. c fOI' Ihe fonnal OI'ga ni7..I..t'.. (1!)3) Formal orgonhation A spt.Ilt' people. ~niz:ui o n expands its purpose.rough wh.llcgor).':l::I!.. o bser. bUI a l50 in insli tu tiOI1¥ of higher learning. arc )'ou likely to find plimary groups.social mo\'elTlCIlI bl!co.~• .lit5 of a job.. ( 158) Olll-group A group or c... 170 I'AI(I TIlt) • ORC. ( 150) D.tlic than other org. (164) Goa' . (l6'it """"... (159) Coali tion A te mporary or penn. (156) Goal m. Iurencc j.iduals IIse as a 5~ndard in t. ( 16.. or mutUa l ". comlllunication .:I:!1:'. (159) Se co"dary gro up A fomJllI.S t. lallt oJ oligarch. thus...010''".""~ ' Illay disrupt a social system or lead to bility. To whal deg. Select an acuml tlrg:m it:llioll wilh ¥I'hich }OU ~lI'e familiar (for example.l ry groups.It 7 llu rc. ( 147) Pt/er principle A plinciple Cif urganiZo'uiotlal u.N'{17JNG $OClAI un' . and reference ..Iu:lIIsch'CS and their OWI1 beha\'.. An org:..lioll.iplica.lce-lo-t... ( 157) Primary group A small group characterized by male.iot/ The proces. ( 150) III .«""'"'.. (1#"1 Re Jerfmce group A term U5t:d ¥I'hen speaking oj group that intli. ( 157) Clasn'ca/ th~ory An approach 10 tJlC s tudy of fonnal orgal lrn.or.tions whic h \i e~ wo rkcn . A prillciple of org:llli1~"\lional dCl"Clopcd by Roben.. according to "'hich illdl\'i(lllal wi thin a hie rarc hy tends to ri.. ~cco nd.....C::.m>tl inatcd by ["'. ami cxisling SO ll fCC~ 10 bener un· dcn.n ""·".. Dy'futlction An cle me nt 0 1 a prOCC-SS of "..!Iotio.':l::I~.:tlioo idt'ntifics an cn tirely new objcclh-e tra ditional goals have bt-cn ei ther rcali1.:?~~.

.. Small Grffll!J fUstorrll (fonnerly Small Group 8e1U1vior.Iy of 1989. BerkeIcy: University of Califol11 ia Press. ( 153) rl'illl \IJu~mcmbc:rgroup . Politiwl Eoo/lO/Il)' of/lit YMCA... 1i. Biggart details the social and cu lr2I WUI" that ha.. associations.UI limuhanoously. rorall m CII. ( 149) '"ta/lll rily TIle te ndency of wurke rs ill 1I h uInlll"r~rv 10 become 50 specialized that they develop I !d'IIf.r.. 1988. A critical loo k at how m L\ \if'\'~ in the United States. (Imt Politia. \... C h icago: Uni1)1 Uutago Prc!5.1L)' :wolOlL in brge numbers... offers a historical perspective on bureaucra cies and focuses on lhl' impact of bureauc rati:wtion o n dcmOC l<ltic id ellls . noslOn: HoughlOll Mif/lin. 11IIocialioll' Organil..ations cSlab1ishcd on . The Fnnil!ist Ca.'locialion to a service orgllllil.. ftIIIrIdtJ[>hia:Trmple Univt:rsilY Press.k (lgai/lsl 8Ur(#lIf:mCJ.S . Kathy E.. Orgflllizlllional ClwlIge: 7'1J. Unil·eni t)· o f adifomia Press..".'W Yo r k: McGraw-l-l ill. (161) ADDI} lON!\!'. hierarchicl!! org-dni:t. . FI:rb'llson <IhwI "n J broad range of sodal scit'nce litenttu re 10 Iiclawtllt holl' wome n arc a t a cOlllpar:uil'e dis. Henry... We ndy...~ .......·c given rise 10 direc I-sdling orgo\II&tII"n~ rDSO~) and explores the d yn:un iCli of oqpm~llHt: in these groups. Qumtl'l"ly Review of Doubkspe(tk ( 1974). ligan.. 1973. m rfIl1lcmporary bureaucl"'. that is. a nd Social P5)'clloli>g)' /kuiezl} ( 1948).1'...a.''''". Pain.mmulliwtiotl mul the GrllulI Process (3d ~...... Chic-. Aubrey Fisher. janis.\liministmlit111 allll Society (fonnded in 1969) .lJlhI"//U in Amtrita... N. 171 t:/fAP'I'f. Amon g the j o urna ls that focus on the study of b oups . . AJexander J. 1970). Qillical S«iology Rt:VieIQ ( 1981).:Wl1ft'1l M. TI.. 1986.. and organizations are .. Aubrcy.-uniner.. and (onmcl resolution by re nowned authori ty B...).aLioll heavily d t: pendcnt 011 federal funding. WOlllm of tlu: Kkw: Racism and Celld" /AI Jlf20r. 1970. ChicilgO: Universi ty of Chicago Press.bcrs 10 IIIIrt. Comm unication s peciaJi~1 Oonald C.. Nl. 1990..'h~ mc m bcl"S "ohmor ..: AllcllOl.!N. of Un/Xlid I"or#! from 18}0 10 tfle Pr-tUlIl. \o\'omm Foflmterring: Tire PfeID1101'. Ikrkdey. New York: rraeger. Small Gr(JIJ/J Den\fnkl~ o.H 6 • ClifJUPS ANO OllCANllIonO. and Donald G. 1967. noting tht' I_idetpreJd lilil()(t 10 include th e unpaid labor d ispropordunMti\' pt'(hmned br . . Ellis h:\s revised the examination of bITOuP structure. jaco hy.@.. cd.....Prt'". Matyko.. Alkne Kaplan. and Clnllot notice o b~iollS prdblems. CJuHJs1fIatir u lPil(llism: Direct Sell/Jrl{fJlII.1. decision making.B¥. The &IfDtJealing Organhalian: A Critiqlle of BllrMucrag... a German sociologist."'Omen joi ned th is vo lunt. A presenta tio n conce rn ing Ihe power that small-group dynami cs has over decision mllking. 911 <\ldlolLgh White Ll1en domil1:u cd the Ku KlllX ilia 111 the 19205....H leasl be acquaintcd.1d\..1 Ilf common illlerest . Jo:J1 is.Igo: Uni l't:I'S . This socio logical study traces the YMCA 's LraIlSfo rm aLinn from an . .-d within vol· umal).. A Iti ~luriull cxuminlltion of lhe promillt:1II role women have playt.·n !lay 10 participate.U. Xiwle WooLscy. A group smllll e no llgl . to talk with one anh~( ". IY84.'omen . jOlcohy. ( 150) .. Gm'den LILY.lcies." . Viclims(JfCrvuplJlillk.vangc1istic ll. 19M. Ma yer N. bl\l..!!. lIving.. Administrative Scienct Quarterly ( 1956).a. ...tI~"p r.. K.e HUI"tUlHTflfizalioll oJl1u \Vm"ld. Zald..ations face a crisis because people are less wi ll ing to accep' s uc h aUlhOlimnan an-angemenls. [lIvisible Url"m"l.Hl. Ma t)'ko argues uLal tmditiorml.


intemaliOllai Crime R:\le ~ Use a lld Meanill Mof Clime DEVIANCE \\lIJI h 1)c1'lance? i\)ll. DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL SOCIAL CONTROL I nnr"rmll) and Obt:dicnCt (AlOronUlt) 10 l'rtJudict O~llrn(t \0 Authorit) Infumldl and .lIIct :lIld f'CIIl:lle I\odyhuildcn 7...lwhng TheOl) (:'>I\fhclll\C~ory 173 .. And Sodct) CRIME Types of Crimc !'rofcssional Crime 0'1Pnil..\1 11011 J 7'htory rif 1"»tJ...ctl Crime Whiu:.. ............l l i ~Hioll of D~'i ....llis! Pt'1'Sp(~ li \'(' IJu rllhtl1ll J 1 ....=====:a.liniIlK I)c\'iancc Function..isli c~ SOCIAL P O U CV AND C RIMINAL JUSTICE: GUN CONTRO L BOXES 7. Police Power in Jap:m 1..tgI1C] ..'0I1nal Social Coll1rol I.lwrr 1' iml'r"JctioniJI l'el~ I)l'Clhc: Dllferential /\\'IOCiatioll St :u.......C=====::"J{.2 Around the World....... 1 CUITCIH Rcsciu'ch: !'\cUlr.."....ColI"r Crime Viclimlcss Clill1l'S Crime: Statistic"......

1992). Onc woman illlerviewcd by Sand(..~rs . false eyelashes.ct a crime.A ( 1989:55) recalls: H of"''''''. having a l<Ill()O may be regarded as a dcpanul"t. and otllers can idclllily likt.\'I'I. men and womcn wilh ea-:. and cven plastic surgery (Caniglia.·C'lCUOfl wa. Of COlll"SC. lalll to a tattooist.. For women in particular.: n'l the tYJll!l~ girl he wauts his daughlcr l.When is condu. they were al tht same time conforming to the .. paimed nails. . tlle. I. members of TIlolorqcir g-. S. like those Wilh unusual types bo<tl piercing:.M :. people engaged in body piercing view their bc:: ha\ior as merely pan of a continuum of a hering onc's appearance Lil'1! includes use of lipstick.·ie\\'s and beha\ior~ signific. ork. and other body P'lI"ls. Mrcrs. based o n the kind of UlUOOS they display (see aI.or evalua ted as MdevianL~ while oth~r behavior is not? • Wh y is there w litde crillle in Japan ? • Should Corlb."'l Mascia-Lec'i and Sha'l}C.:1Jl1 Olhers.0 carrings. Srlnclers not only chose to lr tallooed himself.·e~ and state IcgislalLlres adopt stronger gun cotHral measures? would a person all er his or hcr appearallct.. 1992). lhc)..lI1ce.and close friends who had already been t""OUtd.r noses. They a •. j1l5l arc u'l nice )(irl5. tOO (Sanden.. He le t me knOWWI 1 lel me h:\\'c it light betwecn the eyes.. ORr subjcct noted: ·'My faliter gOl one when he wa~ iD the war alld I always "~d.Ulders that while those clectjng la be talloocd were &q.O he. su·ctching the skin of thaw' ing talloocd. hair coloring and replacemcl1t.~ J USt oue of disgu$1 bealJl( women who get tallooS to him arc .I!\'(. however.ilyvisible muOOio often face dis.ional subcultult which nalll"lts authority and to establish immtdiatr bonding wilh stra ngers whose values arc obviowk compatible. he worked for a time as an .IIl!. and calming lhe anxieties women receiving their first taLtoos. .. Jeuiro MitJord Kind and Urual f'lmishmml. aling frolll broad social nonns. 1971 • LOOKING AHEAD • How does a socicty bring "bout 3ccCptance of sod31 nonns? • 1 ·low does obedience dilfcr from confonnity? • I-Iow do socio logists view the creation of laws? • C'm wc leam deviant bchavior from othel1l? • \Vhy is ccrlain beha\. Veler.--and c hallenge traditional social nortns-by c hoosing lUHLsllal forms of body piercing or deciding 10 be talluoed? Body picl·c:ing is common in numerous CU ltlll'C. cosmetic ciental ..lnS. lie ~id. and when is a crime not a crime? \¥hen Somebody Up There-a monarch. 1989:42) ..tS. tauoos allow them to panicil)atc in an lUl colwent.lHcd onc.1 or My falher's .1. a Pope. a dictator.' from co nventional gender roles.<. minded peopIt .'lpprO\'a1 and e\'c n hostility rrom pt'fl" pie committed 10 u-aditional Ilonns regarding ~ pcar. 1993:. Sociologist Clinton Sanders (1989) stud ied tile Why practice of tallooi ng by cngaging in particll~nt obselV.. I don't I:nQIII . II legislator-so decrees. iJlduding family I1lcmbt. and mcmbcr~ of both sexes ha\·e begun pierci ng their nipples. Somc e ntllUsiasl$ of body piercing read maglI/ines focusing on this pmcticc or g<llhcr al social aclivities organized fOI" likL"-minded indhiduals...'iOCJAI. Men have joined WOlllell in piercing Lheir eal"lubes 1 wear . While scm'ned by lIlany mcmbers of the dOlllinant cu lture.ltion research . ~I)" ·le 174 l'AR'r ·/wo • onGA.. around lhe world and haq become increasingly popular in tile United StatC~. For others.

hmll both conforming and noncollformtlu. /Nlln /M mlib . /HIIt 0 / (I (lJllli llurun oJ nllning ont'$ (lpptomna: Ihat indudn U of li/lllirlr. (1ttllunnitv and dc\1:lIIce :u t: IwO rcspmlSl.h:1II kind of girls gel 11I1I005?~ :U\d j U l ..l tattooing and body pir. .buut those who do nOt confonn? They mOl)' hi It' Ilt't. Sl fid~ l''Jrlruht. crime has been .tnce of physicians.I'/A. If tht.& group of business people dressed in simU. beh(n>ior as mertl). The tJlird part of . leade rs. Particular :IHc lHion is 1(nl:t1 1(llht' k-gal order and how it reflects uncler11lL1~ ..ive . VariOlls lypes of crime fo und in the Un ited Stales..n 1fl(II~idlla l is cooper-dti\'c or .1 "team p layer. Whil' . t.llUt'r win examine the rclarjo nship bl. the n . or c real.l..u'ly.j(lIptl't1 tn another.1 special concern of pol icymakers and t.\I~rd nUl uf !lit: roo m .ON1'HOt .w !hi n1\ Tht' infonnal and formal mcc hani . C le. includinK tlte JUllfllonaJi'llllpproacht:S employed by Emile DlIrk· M Whim sronltd by mlJll] mtmbt:rs 0/ tht! dOIR Hlunt m /lrm'. conformity. arc discussed .I~ ~ II'OLlblcmakcrs~ and ~wcirdos" (Aronson . Y the same i.\.rc. dntl deviance can be understood only wilh in il)ClIl'n \Il('iti.Lwx:iation theory of Edwin SlIlhcr!alld.o-. people are socialized lO have mixed kchn~~ ."pt'r appe-dI".he chapter focuses on crime. Ihe ".tge conformity and discour_" dl'liJT1tC arc lIn:llYLcd.df1/ /aJ UIOtlr.s upon both the inItnII um\i~r and the connict perspccLivt:s.& circle of tecnage rs wcaring punk rock g:.ut of the chapter focuses on 111 eo· . tht: social policy sectio n at the end of tht: chapter considers II controversy highly illnucnct:d by people 's pcrccplio ll$ or c rime: the deb:lle over gun contro l. hair co/nnng (lIId r~plflCtmnlt. and t: \'CIl socio logists.. a nd the ways in which c rimc is measured . (. llJ.et' ill lhis chapter.1.h e public in general.>odal values.rllI.. military om\..l' 'Ult. Ho\\'..\.. the inte ractionist-bascd Im'l\tial. deviance.ms IIsed t>I . ""'I ~\ di'\.) \\ IIr \\111 -.!. Or they Illay be lahrit'fl . tl1.'flIrt'11 flIUronn ilY. and social control. .ub or. The term amf ol7liity can cOI!ju rc lip 1It~""\4... K'il·tic\ W cllcour. \<lIlIt' people disrobe within a ~naturiS lM llll' nudi\t) t-oUlIP ... ANO SOCiA /..[. I l ~in' h\ distinguishing between confonuity and otnilrllCt :md lhen looks <11 IwO expc rimellLS repdill~ (ollftlrl1ling be ha\"ior and obedie nce to .he behavior of peers.l !i) . finall y. 175 U/AY. obcd iC'Ilrr.anl in onc sclLing may be common and .!1 e~Jll:tnations ror deviance.uing widely held soci<ll no rms.7l pltutir surgny. they arc obe}'ing the rules and Jlu!lImtmg IQ !.011 LlhI'ling theory.l context.'rg vitll! l/rn . IJHJfI/t "" g(lp l i. In the l niti'd ~UI!CS . COS/MU...1 mindless imitation ofone's peer ~"oll l)­ wIIe-LIlt'! . hrlm "lid Roben Menon.hnl~t" "'ho br('ak new ground. \UJI\ IHl1ra~ues and students would at least he WlllfN11tu lI1eel a sociologist with visible tattoos. If people disrobe publicly. which dra .t(-d as individualists. TIll..1I:r..t:J'11l can also suggCSt et Uul.C'~llJr imagined preSSlLrcs front othe r. Ibn ~'r Iwl.'('ond p."S 10 . wrinel1 no rms. As a fonn or deviance subject lO oOicial..'Ill IJItl\l' ". lIle-mile" of the clcrgy.S II.-ha\1{lf. rn'llk maintain distincLive standards regarding hr ".$. mu} ror.. R 1 • /)£.

tte expressed senti mc ntsjusti ing racism..ltld asked he r to p:u·ticiPJU' in the sur\'ey as well....As was seen in Cha ptc r !S. But ~ semchers have found th at people may co nfo rm It) the auitudes and bc ha\~o l' of their peers c\'e n whe" such co nformity mell ns expressing intolc mllce I~ ward o thers.. evc r). th at widespread resistan ce to social norms wa. Th ey poin t OlH .. deems appro priate behavior... Ro be rts.·e obey th e instruc tions of police offi cers. to th e "techniqu es a nd sU-'Hegics fo r regulating human bchavior in an)' society" ( R... Such behavior re[]ects an e liecti\'e prOCess of socialization to the domin a nt standa rds o f a c ulture.c arc introduced to inform..... foll ow the day-ta-day nl lcs a t o ur johs. we regdl'd as o ur pect'!.. Laws... In Iheir view.. gro ups.....\·orkin.A. for example.'5: in o then.n tc nllS of m the r ha rm less situations.. I'co plc who m Confomlity to Prejudice We often th ink or COt~ fo rmi ry ..:1.•. and gro up has d istin ctive no rms go\'c l1Iing wh:l." a rc conce nled that "successrul fun c tio ning" ofa s0ciety will consiste ntly bc nc:lil th e powerful and wo rk 10 Ihe disadvantage of" o the r groups.)1 nomlS suc h ilS drC5S cod es Lh:n gove m the be haviol' of me mbe rs.jll ube)' th e orders or sllperiot' offi cerr. Howe\'c r..NI1. Both stude nts were asked bOil SmitJl Coll ege ~ h o uld resl)Ond la a no nymous n asi notes actually se nt 10 fou r Africa n American S li>den ts in 1989.. an ce with higher a uthorities in a hierarchi cal struc· litre.. sud!.1 respect such norms if any gro up o r socie ty ic. How does a socie ty bring nbouI acceptance of basic norms? The le nu social control refe . she tundenHled the n OI(.•.. Conformitv and Obedience Techniqucs fo r social cO Ttlm l can be viewed o n holh tJIC group level and the . a re(""nt . ... obediellce is defined as compJi.•...... who haY(' no special right 10 d ircct Ihat person'. .. 199 1:274) .llors whe n people e nte r.e r first In so me cases. byJaws o f organizatio ns. a nd rules of sportS a nd g' lll t. l il.'S all ex prc~" social no rms. we a rc socialized to obey o ur pa re n l... connic t theorisl. Teri Lilly... the govcmmc n l of e ve ry society legislates and e nforces social no nns-including norms reg<lrdill g ~ propcr" and ~ impl'oper~ ex pressions of sexua l in ti macy. Milgnltll d e fin ed conformity as going along ..•..individuab o r a person's own statw... s a pproach 7! While stude nts as each was \'\'<llking ac ross the c::tmpus..... subjects we re much kss likely to expr a ntimcist o pin ions tha n were those who heard 176 /'Iola f11V ' OHf.~oci elallcvd . necessa ry in orde r to O\'cl"l urn the ins titution o f slavery in the United St..••. a nd instilUlions o:lJut us to ac t M propc rly. a second expeli tTIeTll de mo nst. societies lite l. co urse requi rcme nL'i. In the family.. she j ustified them.. Even without thin king . By contra. Sttt uley ~·lil gr....J!es...t cllt.. workers mU ~ 1 cope with a fonna] syste m of rules a nd regulations.. Most of us respect a nd accept basic social non m a nd assume tha t others will do the samc..~ If we fail to do so..•. In l)Cc" groups.J.. drc~ codes...i tll o ne's pee rs..'i simply because th ey arc OILr pnrc n ts. Bla nchard a nd his colleagues (I991:102.•••.....ilI typicall)' rmifor711 to lhe ha bi ts a nd la nguage o f other recruits a ud \\..ls. Thus..n . tlly co uld n o t fun ction if massive numbers of people defi ed standards o f appro priatc conduct. Each tim e she d id so.••.. we Illay fac(~ punis hme nt through informal saPlctiotls suc h as fea r and ridic ule.. ~ lI bclllturc. Howeve r. o r as ollr equals il1n UCII O us la act in pa rticulat' ways: the same is true o f pm pIe who hold . Flelcher Bla nchard. or F onnal sanc tions such as j ail sentences o r fin es (St!C Cha pte r 3) .. th e co nfedera te W:15 a1w:tYl instruc ted to a ns .1O~ C'fmciud e(\ th a t "hea ring al least onc oth e r pe ex press strongly anti nl cL~t opinions p l'od ltc(:d d matically more stro ngly a mi mcisl puhlic reactio to racism tha n hearing others express equh op inions o r opinions more accepting of racism. At lhe samc lime. In bureaucratic o rganizations. Finally. ~ h t:! also sto pped a steo nd While 5tucle nt..11 5) made a Itsl'ful di ~ti1l1' t iu n bclwCer these IwO impo n a nl leve ls of social control....It conducting a n o pin ion po ll fo r a cla. Amidst conce rns a bout growing radal tension in the United 5 mles.. la sUlvive.. a nd move to th e rear of el ev.... a....rated th whe n lIle co nfe d er.ac tllally a confed erate \.lIr ( 1975: 11 3..... d Functionalists contend lhal people IUIL. f Jlo} .~ me m bers of a n expemi\"e health d ub who \\"On Out in dabom te a nd cos tly sportswear.. bc havior... The researchers had" student who said she \I.c ring military sc n~ce .. we a rc wel l-awa re that individua....... By conUa5t... culture.\ G rot'JIoI.... a nd Lcigh Ann V:mghn ( 199 1) Cl)ndltctN OIn expe rime nt at Smith ColJege a nd found that overh eard sta tements by othe rs in nu('llce exprbsio lls of opinio n o n tJle iss ue o f rad'lm.... Social contro l occurs on all levels o r socicty...u uhorilY over us or occupy positionl which we view with some awe....( with the rescarche rs..

the learne r did !lOl rt. \\'hich convinced thc m 0 1 the autlu-n· lint! of Iltt' expcrimcllL The I(. Obtdience to Authority I f ord ered to do so..'\..{(lit.. lb.· r.f/in. only a Mp. For example. The k. They 1ft'I'1' t]lld lhut Ihe purposc of UIC research was la IDYntilfolll' the efft.llnn('ctirnt .I/lift Ms fm'INlded MlilCtilll'. fah \\1I(h was labeled with graduated vol tage despUOI'lli from 15 to 450 volts. subjects in the ro le of IrMhn bdi('\'ed tJml the procedure was gen uin e .'IL-ttrie appar.ulinK pair(. 'u/"n 'j W hUllt/ 0'110 till' P/(I/l (f/. "Ex peri· ment. In Milgram 's words (I975:xi): "Brhil\il)r that is unthinkable io an indh'idllal ..w:uI psychologist St:lIlley Milgr.'ollagc each timc tJ1 C ieamt'r ir.hocks of increasing . damage." Ho\\'e\'c. lhe cxperimc ntc l' would imist Ihat th e teache r continu e. When the shock level reached 350 "OiLS. ltn(' ulll.tf Jtl'r."n MJCJM (:0.'(\ words slIch as blllr ~h)' and wild l'e. 1978:3'1 -(3) suggests that most of us will rho. f. If the Icache r wamed 10 stop lhe t:xpcrimem. 1975: • Alien.".. /JI-.. dressed in a grny technician 's rttilL explained .\. tI"" throug" lilt 450-V(}/1 lnlff. newspapers to rec l'llit su~j ec ts for "hott \I. at 150 \'Olts. A sample of psychiatrists had predic te d that vil1ua lly all subjects would refuse la shock innocent \ictim s. subjec ts were givcn S:ltnple shocks 011 4!l \ull.. 1011(:11 was tigged so thal the Mreal " su~jcct trllUlrl Jl\\~. !lI e r C!I(:arch 01 ". )'ou "'tu/ go o n" (tI-'l ilgr. The rcsults ur this unusual expe. the learner's hand was su-appcd to iIIl .. The teache r was taken 10 an rln'trumc ~~ hock ge ncralor~ with gO levcr sl.. 10 jH!rct'1!1 dIll (ma Ill .ilcher W'dS instructed hy th e experim enter III ~p"lv . . In their view. get me Ollt of here! I won ' t be in the ex· pe limclll a n y mo rc!" At 270 \'olts. the learner wou ld scream in "goll}.l'ot' attlnnles. In Lhe next sectio n .mcllt n:quir('s that yOll contilllle and ~Yoll hav(' no olhel' choi ce.(. Pal'tici pants included postal cl e rks. ~uch orders.I11 ( 1963. rtt(tl1rrl"i. ({t. .chcr.f 5hoWII III fill' pllfJln) ..Mr d'IC orrer o pinions. 1975: 19-23) .l/g 0/. I" om' OfStwlk).'. M 1/111(11 whtll his ha/lll "111'1/ 011 (/ !horll film.l~ingl y painful e lectric shocks? MO'II I~plc would say no: ye t.ll()it l!'Ilf/..~ Milgmm placed advertisemcnl~ in New I'''well . would yuU lompl}' wiLh all experimenter's instnlcti rm to RIll' people in cre.liberately gave incorrect answers .llhological M 177 ('J/. using slIch ~latemcllLS as ~The cxpe .lrning.-1'1111':11"1 /11 ~vl[/i".".un.and .. \\'111/1' 40 f~(nlf of /M Intl' suhjrru immbiiatfiy mded rQmf!/i(lIIu I'll 1/'15 /Juml.1 (Ill etu/lir tHl/ll 0 1'i/y.\ were lold that ~ alth o ugh the shocks om hi" r~tr('mely painful .)'li be 111e teacher while an associ al e of M&1~r:lm 's St't\'cd as the learner.In reality.W/Y ] ..-\lthi~ point. Befo re bcgi nning ihrc'CJ}rriment. social rontrut (through the process of wnfo rmity) influruct-d people's auitudcs and the expression of m. Mtlng nil his own nlay be executed wilhout het-itatlun IIrht'1I carried OUl under orders.Cts of punishme nt on le. (111irrrxi IIIf' arluol 511bj«l/0 fOTal Ihl .llherwould fun ction as the Mlc:. they causc no penn:lI1e nt u.l.mc!U stunne d and dism:i\cd ~Iilgr.U annollnccd as a learnin g expe rimenl al Yak< l~ni\C'T'l\ity.itc hrs.f" hal/d 01110 1111' shOtIl .-'(I 0111 a prearrdllged script.. the leal'l1('1' \\'ould fall Sile nt..\''fI«) / JI .un ( 1975:3 1) and o t11el' social scientists.X/JmlrvnLs a rerl'hH'f. the learner wou ld cl)' out..e r. 1"1' ~'/Cllm dl'm(mdnllo br rt/"ntfJ fJllIl rt'ftLYd In pkllt his "nulf 011 tht Jnodt /110/4. o ne subject . agv"y.i'IttNlL A.tm('r de.uus. ' Thr experimenter.I\'t' an incorrect answer on :l Ill clIlory te~1 tR"f.It.c r.hat in each (esling. high schoolteachers. In this experimctH. wc will sce that vriJJ control (through the proce!OS of obedience) filrl all('r people's behavior. alld laborcrs. At Ihi' /5().uM he randomly selected as Ule ~ l ea rn eJ''' wh ile lhr.· 1"11/1/10$00 Milgrfll1l ~ rmm:nl.l£t.Il ~hocks: hOI . The n:prrimetlln..

feW see mcd to el"tioy admi nistering the shocks." Milgram poimed out that in th e modem indus. 1975:xii. Mi lgr<lm's suqjecLS frequently stated : "If it \..~. scowling anrl staring passenge rs and might tell the third person. 1978:42-43: Katovich.~P. school administrators... passenger'! might en liSI the aid of the bus driver-whose occu pational role carries \\'ith it a cCl'Iain authorityin an auempt lO force the teenager to give up the seat. Informa l social cOII /rol.. Instead... the experimenter negoliated \\1th the teacher (sec Chapter 5) a nd co nvinced the teacher to continue inflicting hjghe. un: .~... Techniques or infomlal conu'ol (Ire typically emplo}'ed within primary groups sHch as families. For example.... Milgram launched his experimental sludy of obedience 1.. Normsarc enforced through lllC use o f Lllc inforlllal sa nctioru described in Chapter 3.o bedience-. he suggcsted that "i f a system of dealh camps were set up in tJ1C United St<lu:s of Ihe sol't we had seen in Nazi Germany. . In effect. 1987). Ind. "Mind your ollln business!" Allhis point." Why djd these subj ects obey? "Vhy were they willing to innict seemingly painful shocks on innocen~ victi ms who had never done them an)' hmm?There is no evidence to suggest that these subjecLS we. In an interview conducted lon g after lhe publication of his study..tl authority figures whose stams is indicated b)' a tille (professor. T he auLllOrity is viewed as larger and more important than lhe indh~dual: conscqucntJy..'c unusually sad istic." They saw the11lsc1\'(:. Forma l social COl/lrol is carried out by au· thorized agents.he annihilation of 6 million Jev. and managers of movie theaters.lhirds of parti cipan u. In the ex ample abo.~g. ICIl into the C. Moreo\'cr. Examplcs of info rmal sociaJ conlrol include smi les.. interactionists emphasize thal teache rs assumed responsibility for punishment by inrrlmlNllafly administering additional dosages of 15 VOILS.1tegOl¥ of ~obedi ent subjects. il can .levels of punishment _ It is doubttul that anywherc neH t1. anOlh e r lTlay sta re until lhe teenager becomes un· comfortable. while a third may verbalizc Llle conlrol mec hanism by tell ing the teenager to get up.~. 137.e two-thirds rate of obedience lIIould ha\'c been reached h(ld the experimenter told the leachel'~ lO administer 450 mlts immediately lO llle ieal'l1crs (Al ien... one wo uld be ablr to find sufficie nt personnel ro r Lbose camps in an)' medium-sized American town" (CBS News.S-are carriecl Ollt through informal and formal social control.selve as a last resort when socialization and informal sanctions do not bring about desired ~ haviol'_ Societies v<u)' in deddillg which hehaviors \\. J.fringe " of less than 2 perce nt would conunue administering shocks up lO Llle maximum level.. is used by people ca~\lall y. the key to obedience was lhe experimenter's social role as a ~sc ientist~ and ~seeke r of knowled ge. lieUlenant. employers. and ridicule . 1979.11 b(o subjected to formal sodal control and how severe 178 PAnT 7WO • OH(' NIlJNG . imagine that H teenager is seated on a crowded bus in a scal reserved for cldedy and disabled people..Qr. . trial world we are accustomed to submitung to imperson. 7-8). doctor) or by a uniform (the technician 's coat) .viduals learn such lec hniques early in their childhood socialization to cultuml n0l111S. l11ili£:II)' officeR.~~.~g£~~.. .~OCltll. As we have Sl::en. . th~ teenager might look away from . physiciaru....ed. r\ rather frai l-looking elderly Illall gets o n (he bus and has nowh e re lO sit.J1(.f. raising of all eyebrow.md to d iscourage viola Liol1 of social 1l01lll.. Since thtsf mechanisms o f social cOl1 trol aTe not fOllllali7.'S and millions of ol her peo plc during World War 11.. laughter. informal methods or social con· trol a rc not adequate ill e nforcing courorming or obedie nt behavior. 1 would not have adminislered shocks.'C.." As Milgram ( 1975:5) observed: ~ Dcs pite the tact that ma ny sul:!ieclS . 7-8.0 better understand \J1(: invoh'emCJll of Gennans in I. there can be great variation in their use even within the same society. a substalltial pl'Oporlion continue to Llle last shock on Llle gCJlerator.~. Yet al· most Iruq.. Viewed fTOm an interactioniSI perspective.:~.'ere lip to me. yetlhc teenager does nOt move. Onc nearby passenger may scowl a t Llle teenager. In some cases. _ The sanctions used to encourage conformity and .. . such as police oflicers.~ . protest 10 the experimenter. as the term implies. in Milgram's view.~n!!. 01l(! impor13nt aspect of Mi lbrnlm 's findings is the fact that subjects in follow-up studies were less likely 10 inniCI the supposed shocks all Llley were mm'cd physically closer La their victims.~ as mc rely doing their dut)' (M i1b m. the obedielll illdh~dual shifts responsibility for his or her behavior 10 the authotity figure. 144-146).

A..'cfcr back to Chaptrt. taw is the '1Io!h (If ntlt!5 made by go\'cnllncllt for society....'l in a factory (sec Chapler 10)..' ... responsible.\7ROI . Still othen pt'm the Ixha\. cooperativc......'" (Sraneg-....lre fllles of $625 for lincri ng...o rld . 1971 :8) .bun<l member amounts 10 ~wcial dea th ~: lllC JIr'V'" la totally ignored.E.lnd 51 ..or is \..' has not )'tl been j8IIt1J... the tcnn droian(f! does nOI mean pcn. of ho .. inIr'fJlI'I:ll.'uk hody of rules handed down from generation to generation.Gn~.tvity. For example. iomr law'.li l..n~: \uch behal. .. (:rntralh.. • "l'M of 1 are considered exa mp le .td people who come fushio nably laIc for dinner .....0 their di~ ". Rather.nions of li9 ('JltWn::M " OH1M'O......I\(.....'d by the COUI'LS.s the standards of conduct or ("xl>ccl...... pee..Y!..• 10 e mplo)' illegal illllnigr.. it is nOI exte rnal p... 1O\'Okl: its IUost scvere means of fonnal social CGbtml.II conlrol to maintain ad herence 1.. the cre'Hion of criminallaw can be a mosl comroversia l maneI'.... laws thal al'c L.' viola tions arc to be de te rm ined.l.11 particular categories of people..... Sociologists ha\'e sought 10 explain how and why such perceptions are manilCsled. we wanlto sce ourselves (and 10 be seen) as loyal...lll l1c\er Ihe Eigh tcc nth Amendme.._...E... "n(WI1I ~ Mridlwg....' of fonna l social corurol (Kcphart and bnc: 11\(' Sociologisu have become increasingly interested in the creallon of laws as a soc ial process.. or "shunni ll g ....'aluc. if a n Am ish pe rtrIO commilS an especially se ri O llS lr.. .._. Ahhough a la".. IDtial nurrnt (Chambliss ancl Seidman... induding obedience 10 l a . people are social ized bo th 10 WOlll t 10 be lo ng and lO fear bei ng viewed as differe nl o r deviant..\}'S C"drried OUI on I) by gO\'ernIIImI"fficiab in response 10 \iolations of the law.n b.. Rathe r.'i. we have illlcrnalized such uonns as \'alid and desirablc and ~Irc cornmiued to obsen. Cin. 10 h:wc an abortion (sec Chaptc r 11 ). In the United Sta les and otJlcr societies al'OlInd the ... and 594 for fai ling 10 fl u$h a pUDIIc lodcL in 1992..._ •••• _ •• . of fonua] . Laws are created in response 1 perceived needs for fonnaJ 0 social cOlllrol... Ir \) importallt 10 ell1J>hasi7c that fonnal social Ulnlml " nOl alW'.the... the commu ni ty ...m._. 1993:49 1). w" •• _"....... Howe\'er.lJ..SOcie.()(iaJ t:onlrol). lhrrr .. 19!H:27). In thc nation of Singapore.ide implications for' naljonal producti.mu are considered so illl l)Qn:U1t by a sottm th..w and laws regarding the' taxing of _ptufil enlerpri~) .. _ ..ewed as a ~S"u\\ing proD)rm "lilt v. a nd backed b)' the powl'r statc~ (Cumm ings ami Wise.r aod ..r group or a uthority figure Ihal makes us go along wiUI social nonns.. e\'cn by family members.lIlsg. ~~J .... h ibition o flh e ma nufacture and ~::d f" of intoxicating liquor... ~ With in "c~ilAlIlish community........ a...·cssio ll or IqIC'att'dly \iQlatcs accepted norms.lI~s ll ch :L the pro.. $3 12 for eating IWI th(' ._..... SJngapo~'s gOl'cmmcru has ofliciall)' criuc:ir.ing them.Un mlx:uhurcs witJlin a sod(·ty exercise fonnal lb' II'lO. Othcr. Not SUI'p risi ngly.. I:IW is Itot merely a sl...ubl<l'aY.._ .1".. In a profound scnsc. It is important to undcrscore the f.odal nonns..!\ they arc fonna lizcd imo la"''S comrolling JIfOpIt'~ hcha\·ior... suc h • fi~lIng and hunting rel:t>'t.ml.ln l>o p lll..'L .lCl that socialitatio n is the plimary source of conCo11l1 ing a nd obcdielH behal'ior. ~J?~. Samt...\7JSOClM aJ..~(Ijon~ wil l be.or of 50Cial institUlions (corpna..~.... Should it be againlll the la .... TIlercfore.sense.1\ .. Generally....·crsio fl or dcpr...... ___...yj~£~?.1 people ... !lIe shunfled member chooses 10 leave (IMmunity mther than enclu re Ih is I)ainfui Itthl'lIqul. * r. d lhl.l\'c bee n bitte rly de baled because Ihey requi re a ch oicc amo ng comped ng valu es.. a fonnal decision lQ... :'Ire aimed pd"'....... In a poli tical . .111 initlall)' be verbally chastiscd by a mt~ mbe r (i nfonn..... such :l!l lhe pro hihilio n agai nst murder.'essul'e Crom . art dlrtct«l al all me mbe rs of society. et"(: comined of iJlegalJy IIDoling in public.~G._.) liolaleti the cOlll lllun ity's sta nda rds.. Sing..... Sociologists rc-presenting varying theoretical per· Specti\'ClI agree thal the legaJ order reflects underlying social ...nt in 19 19 and U1C cSl1lblisluncnl of a national 55 mi le per hour speed limit on highways in 1973-becOllle dif· ficult to enforce owing to lack of consensus supponing the norms. For sociologi!ll.i:Hions. he 0 1' she ..llxu·e bomned tJ1C 5:llc of cht!'\\" ~~m.. D ev ian cfI is behavior Ulal \.... In their \iew.. Despite IIlIch differences.o!ale... and respectful of others. 1993:36). it I'cllccts con tin ually changing slandards of ""ha I is I'iglu a nd wrong. or to smo ke (In :'In airplO'\nc? Such issues h... 1968:39-43). and of wha t sanctions arc to be applied (Schur... if a Illelllber of tht\lI\i~h religious minorilY (..

\viol' upo n .'tIY school classroom. Of course. O n the b.A".f).'ho have explicil inJltructio ns frolll medical a Ulhori lies. is '~e \\'cd as a clc\~am act and as symptoma tic o r <'I drinking proble m. M St.. Peo- Ringing 0 World ng HoYing doorbell 01 2 A. devia nce can be understood o nly within its social context.'S Ihe \~o la tio n of gro up 1I01111S which may 0 " may nOI be fonllali zed inlo law. 0t1 New Yeor'. COIll· pulsivl' gamblers. he o r she 1"'10 commi llcd d t'"iall l (a nd crimina l) bc ha"ior. If the pharmacist :sells thc sallle dmgs to a narcotics dC<lier./(llul from 11" ~/(IIII O fll/lured 011 IIII~ tU/1fT.I. A phar.rd Ill'" rrrord wm!IlIP/1 '0 rn1l(!lJ(: Ill' mol.· a f0l111<11 wedding.. but so 11<1. (lrt ~'lwdmlll)' srdllf. gt'1l. 180 I'AI( " 11IYI • /JII(. Till' ft'..!.II('JI. but II Ot at lh e o pera . macist is expectcd to sell prescriptio n drugs o nl)' to people \..~ violales COIllIllOIl social no rms in cCrL'tin situations. we arc all deviam fmm time to time. and J ews from admillancc i~ deviating from the club's nonns... th en.lIlothe!'. A nude photOgrdph of a \\'0 111. In the United States.Ul ce involvc. PtofJIL is often 11 rt/lllilNl may (OIlS/tier il (lU4JlabII "intl '1111(/. . and the mellla1\y ill wo uld all be classifie d as deviants. Dc\·iance.mJV of IN /i"" tILIIWlI1 imJQ/vttf. 199 1:85). h a\~ n g an alcoholic ddnk . . De\~. As wt: notcd earlier.mdards 0 1 deviance va ry frOI11 o nc grou p (or subc ulture) to .M.M. dc'~at io Jl from norms is nOI always neg-.$ the high school sLUde nt who refuses to sit in a n assib'n ed Sell! o r Cll ts class.ulcC is d efincd by the social silllalioll . is a common pl'aclice in OUl' $0dell" but engaging in the samc he h...une is lrue of dressing too casually fa.\I. people with taltoos. so lOO is it relative to lime. Iking late fo r class is c:!lcgod :tccl a$ a deviant act: the s.·o me n .j albl/m for. a grou p or Jlodety (Wicklll:ln .r 1II111l' S/(i/uN on rteortl alhlm. lel a lone criminal.11 MUfhi". bltl G '''glil. wi thin the dcpanmcIII . Sflf'IM UH." ow lIS d. Each of II..u ising a l 8:00 A. The public official who lakes a bribe has defied social norms.lIirwt limply brr. eve dote $8)( on 0 fif~ PIoylng 0 ~r8f'eO loudly in &Ofly morning hoofS Hoving on okoholic drink with breokfoll Arllnllfuctor" ending 0 college don oiler 15 minutel Gelling monied ofter having been engaged For o nly 0 fww days Toki ng five yearl or more 10 complele high school Soo'1J mtlJ "K"lfl (mu.. A me mbe r o f a n ex· cl llsh'c social club who speaks o ut against ilS tradi· tional po licy of e xclud ing . is a highly relative maller. In the Uni ted SI.'mce.i(ll/Ct ID muller.Jflfli'llg «)1I11Y1111'fl] ((II~ '" 7. it is generally considered acceptable to si ng along al a fo lk o r rock concen . So is a police o nicer who -blows the wh istle o n COl'· ruplion or brut:tli t). Blacks. 'tsis o f the socio logical defin itio n. Wl' oncI' add itiona l examples or u ntimely lIClS Iha t arc rcgarded as d(:\~lI nt ill the United States. CUIII:I'. It is a comprehe nsive concept that includes no t only c riminal beh:wior but also many anions n ot subject 10 pmsccUlion .W. 51(1l1fi'S in (l II/flJ'l'l11ll. In Table 7·1.Ilivc.J ust as cl e\~. For inst.Il 6:00 " .. alcoholics.111 or man may be perfectly appl'O]lI'iate in an an museu m but \\Iould be rcgardt:d as 0111 of p lace: in a n clement.

(nwl'h Ics) deviance) i'l hardly I proollality char...·ue diSf'u'>SC<\ in Ch:lpter 4. 1988). If improper acts wen" nOI commi ll ecl and thell S:ulClioncd. Yel we are nOI n early 'IQ shocked by the pr:tclicc of two hum..II)' smdics... me i ~ rif Ihl. and the college stude nl who is pe· nalized for h:. expla in deviance 0. deviance i~ a cummon pan of human exislencc.uc world.f' punishments established within :1 cuhure (including what \\'c have identified as forlll:. N/flll Of ~1f"1r1"'llh'".LSis on genelic n>OlS or crime alld dcviallce. reseal'ch el'<.. lhe likelihood of rtmrorring mcisl and sexist asslllllpciollS so clear..... Dllrkh... before an audience of screaming fans. lIggl·C'i...IIII" I!rrglmlft...~d sllpc rnaturnl cau5CS o r genetic f.J1 1'(''>titrch efToI'I$lo id~'rHif'y bioloJ.15. ..dm 's LegoC'J Emile OurkJle1m (1964:67..~ 1)('(' 11 disclwlilt'd in I ht· Iwcnl ieTh Ctnlllly....~iOlI ('an .. dC\. 5OCiologisl. Chi ld ren who sec o ne patrOl scold the other for bdching al Ihe dinner lable learn about al>prm'Cd cunduCl.. have fou~d on t. l)e"iaTlce helps 10 dcflnc the' lim iL~ ofpropcr lX' ha\'ior.\1 A.. bcnmd«ril'l of tlvi. pl'irnaTily by biotht'mim.ant . then ...mclinA in pal)('rs weeks ol·cl·due. wil. By tilt' 1 800~. IClors (~ II(' h as wbad blooct~ or e\'olution:lI)' throwhacks lO pl'imiti\'e anrC:Slors).. The ... ~1)('i(llngi.1 Ihr /J(JlU of his I/Iuly I'u nlfllll Functionalist Perspective Accord ing 1(1 function"Ii~IS. 01'Ith!!r areas or lite."Viance identir. havc !lnll~ht In . his conclusions h<l\'c implications ror dll Iypes of de\..pIt in the Unia'et St..L~ well as negali\'c) consequenttS fO I· ~ia I 5m bilily.lns fighti ng fJ/uh IJ4hd with boxi llg glo\'c~ in fron t of a similar Judience. FYnlaininl!. _ .~nlalt' g~'netic faclors leading 10 a likelihood of c('!'Iain pcrsonality 1101.rait.. Ih el'e wc\'(' ~lIh~t:lIl1i."'~fffllhlll tI" J'Im llms' jltTYmlwtJ rif(J!wkl'n Ilnd f'XHldUl1! ofWOIMll a...\'11 'VI.. Irue of th e clriwr . Deviance 9.Iso Icad lO sue· t~ in the coqXlr.ant beha\ior.. The Iimilalions of current knowledge arc $0 signilkam.. ...uions main I)' on criminal acts.... original edition 1895) focuscd his 5OCiological in\'estig-...·m Enk.. yCI... tJ...... professional ~porls. _ .rica\ roots or crimillalit)' is bUI unc :LSIX'U or lhe larger 'llXiobiolog)' dcb.'l rcjt. /8/ (II"YU.'Ct :my cml}h.. """mum/y._.J II'I(rh..~ that might lead 10 crimc. d()('lI deviance occur? t:''\rI) explanatiom for clt.. \\"y do people violalc social lIorms? We have seen tbot..'icall<lclOr~ th:tl1cad l!ld('VianCI' and c'pt'da lly In rriminal flcdvit)'. conlclIll>OI.l1~ "cccpl~ble bchil\'ior ilml llms comrihulc to stabilil) .h po~ili\'e (.. or e\'clI illlprisonmenL Why. people Olher "PP' O"clH:S to (Sagarin ... ~ntl tllC implicaliom ror rt.JM (:rJ\' IWJI .\les Ill:l )' consider it strilnge for (I person 10 lig lu 01 bull in an areml. thal socin lugisls han. su ch as ago ~r~ion . speeding licket. IOS! of friends.J( i • IJtI '/AXO ".lilt! San ch Cl.largely drawn upnn =. AIIhQugh cri minalil). The cOlltempOI"aI)' study of po1>Siblc bioiOJ.. The noncol1forming or disobedient 1X'f1}on limy race disappro'\'2l..1 and infonnal mechanisms of social conlTOl) IIdp 10 der.lctcri'ltic. In general.lCLS 'Ire subjcct to both inforlllal and formal sanctions of social control ... _ ... Of COIII"\(:.... flues.....' h"bilitatioll of criminals "0 dislurbing....ml \'I1f!J.. the dep:u'unclll ~IOfl' (':t~hier \\'ho is fircd ror yell ing al a customer.. In Dllrkheim's view.....f ''''''ft'VII/M ttmlmlJi1!g llltrmpl$ /0 drJinl' mill rt'dI'filll' . Whi](: such research ha.....!t o receivcs ....

As this example illusu'ates.tWS (a nd proli ts from) I millio n visitors pe r )'ear who come to sce the sites of th e witc h l.:tttion orQua kcrs :uld execution of women as witciH:s re presented cominLling atlempL~ to defill c and redefine the bo undaries o f their cOlllmtlllilY.f 7-2 IN$TlT\JTlONAUZED MEANS (HARD WORK) SOCIETAL GOAl.~. Since there is muc h les. con fol1uit y and obed ience become less signifi cant as social IOl'ces_ It also becomes much more difficult to sta te e xactly what COllstiUl lcS dcviance. the Puri tans placed tremendo us e mphas is upo n conventional momls. ill lenns o f mOllcy. 1975: 85-87). sudde n prosperity..might ex te nd th eir standa rds as to what co nstitutes appro priate co nd ~IC L Kai Erikson ( 1966) illl...rn. Ihost wllW! re tary do nul secm a t first to have a great deal in common .. 1988). Ma.a ls a nd executio ns. for lIuflmfl{ wtafflr ".tl cxpccUltions. bc havio r· that vi- form /If w l(I/llali(nI IS droia/ll Jlill (lrCl'/Jt f'ilfll'f" Ihl' lUfJrN rOr. that suc h a ptomin e m mem orial to the I)ictims would d ampen tOurists' in terest in witch lore (DriscoH. a no mi c is a state of Hormlcssness which typicall)' occu rs during a period of profuund social c ha nge alld disorde r.I.s.oIL UW .. is the opposi te deviance.ts previously acceptable sudde n 1 fa ced p un ishment fOl.Ultage of opportuniti es.t1 goal in the Uni ted StaLes is SLL CCI. e<lch b ~workin g~ 10 obtai11 money which can then be exchanged fo r desired gouds.. A~ . In effect. "CC epmlCe.tS nOted in Chapte r I . Confo rmity lO social norms.!SS. suc h as a Limc OfcCO liOmi c collapse.r J typology (J 968: / 94) show.".lsu-.. in man)' c~. which posits five bas ic forms of adaptation (sce Table 7-2).'id . and so forth .indka\l'~ ''''jCC:. It involyes ae<:e p tancc o f hOtJ1 th e ovcrall societal goa l ("become amuel1l~) and the approved Illeans (~work hard ~). tilt.'/'I. of 20 innocent victims \\'ho had heen executed . In addi tion to providing tllis goal for people.. " .. 1978:78-79: N. o ped th e a1lOlIIie t/reoly of deviance.'l.ullre to describe a loss of direct io n felt in a society when social contro l of indivirl tlal bchavior has become ineffeCtive.if/ttJ ·coll[rnWIIJb'. changing social norms created ~c rim e waves. Engla nd . protests blocked th e public inslilllation o f the stallle_ owing to concen.llugger and a scc· olales accepted norms (such as mugging) may be pe rformed wi th the same basic ohjectivcs in mind as lhose o f people who pursue more co rwe mional li fes t). . o r both .JNG ." most conmtOl\ adap tation in MCI'LOn 's typology.OIIGM. Their pcrse. By today's st.bein g de)' viallt (Abrahamson.. original ed ition 1897) also introduced the tenn allo".. However.'iOC/. 'W/Klt Mmo.. eit her by co nforming la or by deviating from such c ultu r.. Peopk become more aggrcssi\'c o r depressed . work hard. or econom ic dep ression .iQn.1 1/)(1/. Unexpectedl}'. in fac t.j~ in sociologicalliter. measured 1.andards. Using thc abovc analysis_ sociologisl Robert Me rton of Co lumbia University ( 1968 :1 85-214) adaplCd Durkhc illl's no tion of a nQmic to ex plain why people accept or rejecl t. do not quit. a statu£: was designed 10 COmlllc mOl1ltC the sla in women. • vO/Ul'ti ftJ 182 I'AlO ' 'IlIYJ .:lIed this bo undarymaintena nce runction of deviance in his sllldy of the Puritans of seve ntecnth-ccllw l)' Nc\. he dL ·c!· . 'UIfAU~ ~tld b '<la!. M er/OIl '$ Theory of D eviance A 1. the re must er T.~sachu se ll. Yet .he goals of a society. the sociaH)' approved means to fulfil! thei r aspiratio ns.c fir tIll' dmr. ~ Tel'l.\Ul.les.. What ha ppens 10 individuals in a society wi th a heav}' emphasis 0 11 wealth as :l basic symbol of success? ro" lerton reasoned th at people adapt in certain ways. At the urgin g of descendan L<. take adv'.. "d Oc~ '~ huli" u. . boundary maintenan ce rcclllc rged in the same area some :\00 years la te r. Tlw town of SaJc. rJr..00::c:mctH .~ agreemC Ill o n what constiulles proper behllvior during limes of revolution. [n Me rton's view. Du rkheim (1951 . Davis. Consc(luel1lly. (ACQUISffiON MODE OF WEAlTtiJ Nondevionl Conformity Deviont Innovalion Ritualism Ralreolism Rebellion "o.~ f + + + " " . and th is results in higher ra tes of viole nt crime 0 1' s uicide. our society ofTel1 specifi c instruc tions o n how to pu rsue success-go to school.' as people whose bc havlor w·.11-gc\}. MerlOn maintai rled that one im· portant cullut-.

1)" OUI slealmg.d .ccess to high-qu:llity education a nd training fOl' skilled '>\Ork.IIl blindl) apl}l).rcatists.~ . in a 'iQ(:ictyslIch as that Of tllC United Sule$.pcnciing time ill prison..e I dldn ' l t'xacLl) lill.' Ih e fl(ldid'lt 10 (jlmho!.. C.. tl)!I'lin money through rou lette 01' poker in Ne. Ii'tJl. According lO Mcrton ·".15111:1 they'd IH ' 5O".unple. he instead of siuing ill Ihis dum p) 1'00.lS(' it g('(.Ih Illt'.lCh lhis da~? I bel if lhl.cel SGltC. we noted IIUlI official.. People in the lower social dasscs often identify with the sa llle goals as those of more powrriul and afllw.lnOlllie theoll ory of (kvi:mce.l1'C a leCture to a sociology class and \\~ IS asked if he had minded :.uhs o f upward mobilil)" In Me rl OIl 's typnl0J..'g- T he " I"e l reat i ~t.:y in Cha pl cr 6. a re IHlt cqually distnhuted. 1972:x).Iccc pted cl/huml Koab and legitimate means fOI attaining tl. Ihl Urultd Slol"... ".'o plc R the 0PI>orhlllit y 10 achicve succe55 throug h SQcially approved avenucs.lSl aparuncnt W"". Fo r example. il ill leg-.l..u.e m . work l')Ccomes a way of life I<uhe l' than a means to IlIe goal of '\ucccss.tJ\TJSlJ(lAI CO.. has basicall y withdr11wn (or "retreated ") f!'Om bOlh th e goals a nd th e mea ns of a soc ie ty..1f1 their . Ih al \ \'a.._I of pcoplc-nllhcr th.hi le drug a rldi ( L~ and residents of skid row a re t)'Pically po nraycd as rc t.hlt" (11 (Ill fIIrty ''K'" plicl' )f1U p:'ly (Ch :\I nhl l~~. rule and fl.- lion 10 lil(' goal of material succcssur "gct t ingsom~ Ihing)" \\. In discllssillg goal cfuplacemelll ""ilhin bure:mcr. IN ""'tPWllUI~ l/tu btwcolh fIIIiMm". UUI Ihey /In iI b«a... Even withi n a IDCiety.. tIII.crtainl). some individuals (like King) wi l1 turn to illcgiti lll<lIe p./. Bm it ~~L~ 1111(' or 1111' IIL'('t'tiSary I" Hck1 Mn1fn"." tllIlI1tS :100111 Iht' il..· tda . For i n ~ tan ce. ui<llion " 'ilhout rememberi ng the larger goals of an org-dnilation. IIIho WO/M rrtrra. nlC final adapmlipn identj(j(. if a society largely d enic'! pt. Without such consenSIIS. In the Unil. C..\U. Pcople who o\'el7calollsly and rigidly ('11force b ure:l llcr.. hi .-.JifomiOl. Therefore. llIm /1 Jfffl/I'''I! mll(. Forex.. Kjng rtlIpondcd: n.H 1fM1'} King 501 ..tc:killJ.:nl c itizens )'e l l"ck eqlml :.." ~ludt' I' b 1I.~ p cciali z(:d in safecr. othe r four types o f bchavior I"l'presclltcd in TOlble 7-2 all inv0 1\'c w mc de p... Ofcourse. this wou ld be Inle of a wdfare C:LS('wol'kcr who refuses to owist a homeless family becausc Iheir \. TIlt· M inllOV:ll or acccpL~ the goals u f a socie ty bill pursues the m wilh m ca n ~ l'eg:lI'de d as illlprol>cr.uic regulations G ill be classifie d a. Do )'011 hke 10 ("oml' ooe:lnd 1(.e~"llI'rc t'I~."SCclIl't addicted to alcohol who become retn::alislS :al an early age. 1I1. lhe re is g l' wing concern about adolt.\' fur 4U p:ars1r.~ abandoned the goa l of m:Hc rial success and hecOllle compulsively cOnll'lliued to the i'lslitl ltioll al means. Ha n )' Ki"g-ll pl'oJ ~ss i on a l thief who . wlnot in nciKhboring Q .."' 000111 tUlo/J:lrnlls life I had ch~lI .ln as unified clIl'i' lurrs-and might function in continua] chaos.." as described by Mc rto n . If I had to KO to plison from \lllIt· 10 UlIlI:." i~) a no the r district.hl' 'iOUle COIlSC IISlIS regarding .'Y. the ~ri tua1i s t" h a. c liminal lil(''8I)'I(' lts an adapt.l lcm some lhing they ~~\IlL The ":lIlle "'.' -I"HOI ."CIIl)' Menon reflects /83 ( JIWI"P-.n fmm bofl! IM gooh (lnd mttIns (If a )On11J.trture frolU COli forM mil)'. : "rit ual ist~. f'JllI)/oKY. societies could exiSt on l} ' as rolJecu\'t.. the mtan5 fM rcali/ ing object ivc . institutio nalized means tor rt'<lliling objectives \'ary.N 7 · 11I1·1tt.. confonniry is nOI uni"C~IJ.

.ic soriali/'. R.. Members of a n:volution. people acqlllre dt.-d group~ h.lh ildvcrsit)'? Such qlle"lions arc not ea. his furmul.. given pC l'son t'ng:lge in activity regarded . through ItOdally approved means.e-in other wnrcls..1:\.L\ Iwell nmdc to dctCl1nil1t' how COlllp"Ch(...pl:lllalion.... drt'w 111'0" the Cll ltll rot : t rn ll st/l... 01 de5 "i:II\1"t' ha~ hac! f('I:llivcl)' It·\\ applk.. answered by Mcl"ton'" theory of deviance (Clo. which c'lllphasiles Ihal criminal Iwh[lviw' i~ I..:lmagl.. The cultural tr.lfIling include""ll! (ml)' Icchniquf"i uf IlIwhre.LS thc Irish Republican Army (IRA) 0 1 the Pucno Ric:. ·artwd tlll'(lIlg h inl(·r·.111 (·)..send IheiJ . depcnding on the {Il'm:tllds uf a pOI I'lieul:u' :. 1959. not atlcll1pl.·er rates of reported crime than others? Wh) i ~ crimin... l1\Cse simple ideas MC nOI d~ pUled loda)..' faced ..lku lg' (for . for example. rClIe"ti~m.b h.blc to criminal acts learls In "iol:n ion ofnll~..1W..m)' peopit. he offered a Iypology 10 e ).. MCl'ton ha:.lIlsll!flm how to beha\'c in o. l)e_pi lc its popul.ltiun fails (0 explain key dilTerenccs in rtlles.illl<llio ll.I\'('.l1ly cheat on their taxe!l or violate trame law!l.1 beha"ior 1I0t \..:1I11 beha'~ iOl' and Iho'\e which promOle l. 1978).IS lhe n.l t· tion~ \~ith m IH'I'S. but this ..:lIoo..L" propcr or improper? FOI' each in· dividual.~on cl a!.. COIl\'('Nd • ~re-­ spccmble people tml)' occ:t"iioI1.1 -1.... hUIll. such as ill('g:l l glnubling by dis.cd .ICCcpL'IIICC of social norms..cs. of differenlial a...il).In .lpJ>roach call illso Ill' IIscd 11) explain Ihe b(~h . Nt.nc ht'l'll thl' domimllmg force in rdn1inolog)..crlhcless..lk into a ('lIr quickl) :mcl rj1tictIY) but al'Oll lIlt" motivd..tCIll will . do ..' ribc the J>1 'OCC"5 through which eXI)O$llrc to allilucit.il.I)lain the aClions Ihal people I/(fwlly lake.ing IU describe five l)'pe'i of indivichml ...cme of'alienaLion fl't)lO domina III mcans :lIId goals :md 10 he seeking :I dr.some disad\'..tn("C cm be understood as socially crcolled ~ha\itll .is a viablc allc'rnalh'c by m. Yet the) m.. 10 what cXlenl all acl"i of dt. ~utllt' r1ancl\ idc'.ith :1 primary grou l' a nd significan l others.\ult of momentary pathological impttls.. how It) hl('.'S fam.... Jack.c: Oiffe rential Association The fl1tlctiot1iIU" approaclws 10 deviance explain why rule violation conlil1ll('.ocial Silllluion_whether propcri) or improl>crly.iance roll1 be accounleft for hy intHwation.pes 0 1 social itltt:'r-dction cxpel'ienC('s-lhosc which ('nelorsc (\e\. There is 11(1 natuml. Rmhcl'. dn'·C5. and ration. udl .Il'iI\'(' thr.. fun cljonalists do nOI indicate ho ..hilcll'en lu medical school.. such . il wi ll depend on the lh·q uc nc)..ttiO I L~. The convicted felon may hllld many of the same a_~pil-:'lIions that people wilh 110 criminal background h. To what C)... Why.. SUlher\:Uld m:linl:lined thlll lhrolrgh intCl"action~ . According 1.unatkally different ~ial meter.. Liule erfnn h.'S the SlIUlf' ba. !lincc they do not l)ul'Sue slIrce. Hartjen.4Nt7.isl in sexieties despitt' pr{'~ lIres 1 confomr :md nlx'.llizations 0 1 crimina!'. I-Ie uscd the term difJe.ioll l\'acional (FALN)..as Armadas de Ubc:ntc. I !C.lluplc. D('. IIpOIl the illl(>racljonist pcrspecthe to offer JUSt . Rt.Liol1 and impflt'tanc(' of IWO t).fio ll sc honl.ui l)" Ml'I'IOt)'1\ Iheor).'x.lCh~lIllagt'cI people functioning 'IS inl1o...'ht.." ors..'Sc.rtnlial assuciatiurI tl) dt. cocialion can br applied 10 such nonc..~HT nl'U' ORG.:lIion procc~ . chll. millS conforming 0 1 dc\'iallt :ICI:..ml acts as !liuing dowlI dllring the singing of tJ1C Nationa l Anthem or 1)<1ng to :1 spou~ Or friend (E... ICOIdeo..fiw mocles of. made 11 key con lliblltion to sociological lIndcrstand illg of d~iancc by point.tns llli~ion .. illll:lt(· 111:11111(:1' in "hich ~ plc inlcrdcl ..people's aucmpts to cn :all' ~I II C\\' social Hn lctllrt!......ard.0 Merton.ing ou t Ihm de\'iants (such as irmovatot'S and ri lllalisu) share :t grea t deal with cOl1fonni n g people..iam Ix:ha\'ior. can h(' C:lt (·gOlil. SlIch le.. whil(' Menon 's thcol"}' is lI'>('ful in ('xami ning ccnain Iypes of hcha\'iOT.IS rebels ac· cording 10 ~'I erto n 's model.m.·finiliOllli ofbch:wiol'th... .l\'ior of p('c'pl(" \\ho engage in IllIbi tual-:md '1llimately life-threillening-uS(' of alcohol or dn'h'll. 1 0 ·lowC\'e'T.~ to t')..• . of org:wilecl crime S~l1rlicates will he cau:goriled as iI1lIO\'.riminal dcvi. Therefore...c .l)' also lI!1cnd church and . the same pt!l"on will m ove back and lorth from o nc modc ur OIdapwtioll 10 allolitt"r. including criminal acti¥- 184 "..1 gi\'t'1l ~rson C01l\e~ to COlllmit ..s. rather than .ist Edwin Sutherland ( 1883-H.LS not the case "hen socic*(l~..... MCl'lon htlS ~Ircsscd thal he Vo'lL<.lW) advanced the argument that an IIIdi\idual ulldcfKOt. uiol1 .1 I.t d('\i<llll act.ur political Org-dllil.ulaptatioll .h onc another.~H"i:llion dl.md rci)('\Iion.s.1I .m ' nation:lli~t group Fuen.. 111l1s.:tfe deemed prop('r and improper.\'e lo . dc\'i.C\\'ed . rillmlbm. 1986). Tht> -rcbel" is assumed (0 h:I\'(·:t .-cc:nl re~all: 11 sug' gats Ihal this \.·thcl· Ic . In teractionjst I'erspeeti\.. \11(. TiI(' thenry of dirfcrelllial ..'Ithc.. MOI'cQ\'er...

l ch as che.' ((HIIi..lIId and Cn./lid hml dn'fMfI a -. l>cers. J acKson cl . 19i8:80-82).1.op because of hi intcractions " 'itlt peers. ft Labc6ng Theory T he Sait1 t5 ali(I fl..lIing ill school. 1M. adopt such bc h'l\. Ih~ .lfhuod .wont') lif btl'1... I .ell :I ~ wllys ufj llsl if)'i n g criminal l)('ha\.c\·cr I trnl('II('(/ ho)' living in !l. diflerenlial associatio n does (/irccl oura tlc n liOll lO Ill\.. C"b!o. s.".!.sociaUlln 10 I/nm""IIv pmtlM whit}..tMI~. ho\\c.1 "o}II(h rroP/ro HI LnhnllOOll.ospeda lly their Ix. an outgoing :tne! ath letic IftlI JI'III a Uul(: l. .ol'. bUI al!lo wilh the com ent that is actuall} passc..iSt. While nOI a preci~: SI:ucmcnt of Ihe process th rough which olle become.1 ol1 l)agc IH6.. Ih. Io(lftrllogislli ~brk Wat'r a nd Ma rk StalTonl 1\1911 j·\.". with .t/h. lenl con c/lu::l ..c(luirc tI1(lre s("lI li-..~ peers and 3 \'Oid delinquency.111... »O(hnrl)nuJ1unity.0 association :lllpro.:.. condllc l. D w-h...L~OC ialiCl I\ un.mcl \i~'S leaming improper bcha\• \ht' 'Nllt of the types of groups lO which onc ~ ~Ild the kind!l of friendships OIlC h" . TIle differential association approach dt~ls nOI only ...wII '"rlml.I.(/ ." l~ul\t'rI... "hcl wcr(' conslaml) occupi(.1\' from hi. iI IIlS I1' l l e~ h O\\'('filllimll ami Olher norm-defying sc ntimcnt!> :H'e d cfi llc d by the clC\i:t1H pC1"'\01I 10 juslify his o r hc.". " ht.'cr.I/I mdll'Mft.rori"g IlI/.. "ild drh:ing. [he difTere n tial . IIIImJ: f. a crimilMl. .. Ilo ...·d on fro m OnC' person 1 IlIlother.. ltInlf IUnu~'nc('d the bchador of thd. . In (1111111111'5 fiwnrahW 10 mmmallltlJ Imds 111"1111111101/ of /11 I1 .o. I'coplc art: . 11/ 199).~ who ".. -'i/lur 1'0"'''. InMd. usi ng ma r!i U:lIla. hoplmer or th e impo\'cri'ihcd PCI"iOIl "'ho s tc:tl~ QlI l of necessity..Il'Olds. blth 10 engage in llolllHlcfyi ng: bc h. 1111'1:"IIOn) Iltlll Pou..'d hy tho. According 1 it5 cri rics.r'uplc 's a nitudes and (.l~ .!1 a..."l'S ior C\'CI1 wll(:' I it involve d C\c linq.lCh rails 1 cxplain lht· dc.. (/IId.e same neighlM.llnf or \iolation or norms./illll.1"" ~ulhnltllld Ul4't11A."... rxponn. III "dd. mnllbrn IrIlQU'" aJ of 11 1ft'lInl:" rllI....lItht'/) hllll ro"'"lIlfnl mfN'\ .clI."" difreren l!. \.\"0:. :I ~ d l'snibctl in Box 7.or lhe first-lime impulsi\c . 17"''I.'}'.mng pt-"Oplc studied b) Warr and lillfwd I\ffl' likely tu imicJle their rriends' I)('ha\ - SInh."""M.1.· 10 klV'/l 11~"1r of Ihnr VXJUI/ ro"IJr..110. . Mlfl m. Il"u- 185 UIII"rllH 7 · ')111.\IJMJC. o r clJl1ulliIIjng acts or larcen)'. J!1'lt1'l.·i\h drinking.l.Nb 111 l.or. U ."" rollT'frtro of a .1lI j'mpiricill st udy o r din"crc ntial ..' par-ImOUI!! rolc 01 social interaction in increasi llg •• PC I'son's motivation 10 eng<lgc ill de\'ialll bch:wiol(Crcs5Cv. The COIICCpl 01 " l cch niqllclI (jf nClllralilal i(lll.wior if Il'I' pm ill d groul' or su bcullure that strc5.IIJ1im:d thc aUitudes and beiLavior of J.~. Ihll5.iJ UJ"Hu/ .o ughneds wct-e twO groulh of high school male..i:ulI!x'" 0 ha\'iOI.. fu~r. Su!llerlalld :lIld Cressey.. This 0 conlCnl includes mcth ods of commi n ing a cri mc as . TIlt' researchers found th. 1900:53-54: E...'' "11. 1978:82).eague b:t'k!ball team or a '".ht u.·i'h the J>I'OCC~ by which criminallcchniques are learned. 1 1986: .

t· dition:!. Duff.I. rrj/«ltd gIOT)·.:-. Apparently. SQ('JA I. 3 Basking il.... We argue that larger force~uch as I)QI'cny.. 4 Co"rlr mllil1g Ih.l afe nOI "fen1inine .! Such tenllinol ~ l>lIggesL~ that these actions are not ~rious liolations.(such :llJ crimc ).lI m ent? On the basis of hi l> oi. Duff and Hong . :md corruption of au· " thorit y figures arc used to jllStify de-11:UH or criminal beha\ior. and lazy.rnmellL leaders are dlC tnlc guilty p. Such ~c1a ims of ben· efil ~ havc been crnplored by pCCJpit eng-J.. tT3}ing lhem a~ igno mnt.'roids.sk in the re necu:d glol)' of a few ICM mUllCular. Wi lliall1 Chambliss ( 1973) CODeluded that. more lithe and slender bod)'buildcrs wno Oal't been glamOri zed in the dectronit and print media.r fm'll':iplo or IIII .n... Uf" .tion . 1988) applied lIeUlr:IIi1.liza. CI'Cry ROLlghneck was continually in trouble with police and townspeople .1bl y in the media.' h.we been obscn.~erting that they arc ad· hering 10 sl:l lldarw morc 1mpol' B using these lille teehn iqut"S o f r lIculrn.ck from the public and the mrtlia by w.sdl/'. COll1mon response is.lgemclll among participalll~ ill a re la Lh'el~' tlcW sport: wo mcn 's bodybuilding.l.>l>etYd ti()lI research il1lhe ir hig h school. ~ 1~lI t I didn'l do anything wrong . No ne of the SainlS wa. Lawbreakt·rs often insist tha t police ( 11' gOIl. ..:auSI! the)' rcpn.-. neutr.liun theory in studying impl'ession m<ll1. ! 8111"lIl1g 'hell/mm..al Ihey hal'c dC\'Clopcd health)" sU'Ong.l.. jealo\L\..o. 111('1'(' the . Duff and Ilongsuggesl thal female body.msc of :llIcgaliollS thallhl. 1981).l gender-mic cxpcct. and I'alldllli. Fem"le bodybuildtn lypicaJly ~blast~ thcir critics by par.e of three mo re lIeUlrolliz.t.or which they call lu h· lIi91t~' .horill.\ ( 1957) clarified the variolls expla. Wc adrnltlhal wc hurt iKlmeone else bw maintain tha t lhe lictim "had il comi ng" o r provoked the' incidell1. bllt they h!\I'c alro been .. alley...l!. people who break the I"w arc able to defcnd their conduct.spcctabilit y. . The alleged slupidity... Wume n dcf.rties...'nd their particip. Crimes suc h as I.hal others rcgoll'd as illlpropel'.liz. nnd attractivc bodies and imptm'td mental health. brul.'cd iu ail actiull !. Richanbon and QII1dini. 2 DI!ll).· tics 11ewed as deviant (N.:mdalism or obstructiOIl of Irdf· fie Ileal' a collt-gt" campus are called pmllluor ".llc Kic~ of justification fo r onc's behavior.stn. OI.'S: C/oimlllgbnlljitJ.. They came from M good families.~utrali.NEUTRALIZATION OF DEVIANCE AND FEMALE BODYBUlLDERS W hen ""1..rongdoing th. in comparison with IlkneULrali7. but .s a form of ~ pOO-­ li\'e deviance" whereby the approved socielrll e mphasis on health and liwells is cameo to nn eXlreme.· wom en .s0cially stigmati1. Lion of positil-e dCI.cd-p:mly bt. of .~ l. builders respond to "egalke leecl· h.1tiollS fo . pell)' lheft.ation in the sport of bodybuilding by claiming II . poor aClldemic preparauolI.~ Grcsham Sykt:$ and Da\'id 1\1:)(1:.g I}" inpH)...~ SOIlIC participant!! in th~ spon ~b:t.uol1 tcchni(lllt.omCll bodybuilder.similarill' e nded. But how useful is this model in understanding justifications of l1Q1uTiminal deviance? Soc:iologisl$ Roben DuB' and Lawrencc Hong (1986."'NIZJ.'tlt 186 "IIRT nm ' OR(. Female bodybuilders arc sometimcs treated lavor.. unhealthy. 'c r arrested.. Out ri semiti\ity to the erilici~ m tJm . social class standing played an impol' tallt role in lhe mrying fortunes of the tWO group! T h e Sai n LS cfTccti\'c1)' produced a facade of Il" .1' usc ! H . 2 8lQJling. 5 Appttlling to hlglv. 1974..l..auoll of *negali\'c dtliance..c ac· J tions by a.." .:a liQn: DnIJ"'K 1tl//(!1Uibifity. bUI primarily OC..l. ~BI:lSIing" is an atla(i: on criua in order to t"n hancc one'. or IlIc bad example of m hers--drove u$ 10) the misdecd. pari model of justificatio ns of deI~a lll behal. Friedman.m status (K. 1977). Wh y the disparity in their trc..W.U wc usc in such ~i lllation$ by offering a fil'e. mllfl oriliiS.~uggest U1al both women 's a nd me n's bodybuilding ma)' ~ licwcd a.ml than lhe law-wh~lher lhc un· written criminal code of ~ nc\-er sClueal 011 a ffi c nd ~ or moral and religious bclicfs said 10 j ustifr acts of ch~ 1 disobed ience.lIi IY. L Hong and R.allce require fewcr tccl11liqUCli and al1ol'o" for greater reliance 011 t1i recl and aggressive sU. f. 1)1~lwin g upon tht' resulLS of a mail sUI"cy by Ihe 1I1Icrl1allo ll:l1 Federation of Uo dybl1ilders.sent a blatant departure from Ir. nntion ~ for .ged in othel' role~ and actil. People m tio nalil.

psychifllrisL~.maker~ ('.. em· ployers. Rathcr than adhering to negative label ing based Oil obvious "deviant" behavior. we are all exposed to fears a nd prej udices concern ing the me ntally ill. l'lIiike SuLhcrland 's work.hat lihl'l. delinquents. These nondisablcd people assume that tJ1C sevcrdy disabled haw ratio naltliougilt processes.active in school o rganizations.11 illness in the United States suggests tha t ".. and . Conseque ntly.>it.~ By con· tmst. it is argued. yet only o nc came 1 be treated that way. proba· lion o tncers.he Seaule police ber. nlld other regulators of social conu·ol. 1964). rem inding us that it ~ thl' rrjpon. it neverU. is the recognition Ulat so me individuals or groups have the power 10 llrfine labels and apply th e m to others.'he Roughnecks were labeled as Mtro ublcmakcrs. were generally unsuccessful in sc hool. they mar expectthal others will devalue them.YI"fIOI. judges. and he lpe rs of the d isabled are cari ng a nd accepting of people with seve re di.. Thus..h ey fear will reject Ihem . For exam ple. ~ An importaotaspecl of la be ling theD!).. Consequen tly. and rece ived good grndes.'i negalive elrecLS for those individuals labe led as ~ m e nt. rTiend~.lT1pson (1986) fotmd that juveniles from Ul e lower classes IIhv tame into contact wiLh I.nnwn Ihal some school personnel a nd therapisL~ ~'(palld educational progmms designed fo r learnTnl{odis"&bled SlUde nts 10 inclllde those with bt. They d rove around town in beaten-up cars. These agents. SociOlogist Howard Becker ( 1963:9. Washington.ereviewed .\rr~tcd and then indicted than were th eir middle·dass countcrparts cngaged in similar ac[ivitics. labeling th eory does not lOCus on why some individuals come 1. laueling theory emphasizes how a person 1.t~ to an ael and not the behavior that deIcmines devian ce.ation into Ul e nomlS and values of o ur culture. Instead.all y ilJ. leachers." Thro ugh socialir. a rece nl slUdy of 111")11. shun th e m. Surh discrepancies can be undenHood by use of . In contrast. summed it up with llir ~wtemel1l: ~ Dcvia nt behavior is be havior that pro-plt'!IQ lalx: 1.)TI1eol to be labeled as devia11l or to accept t. "bad kids. Robc rt Bogdan and Steven Taylor (1989) conducted o bservation studies over a 20. and even discriminate against UIem.:hav~ 1" rJJ problems.clviewi ng agency administrators a nd caregive rs.HI'It of delinque nt behavior were mo re likely to ht' ... 0 \lOre recenuy.. o r rejecl those with severe and obvious disabilities. former men tal patien ts may be secretive aboul Uleir problems and may avoid interactions with UlOse who I. the Roughnecks had no suc h aura of re~ ~p«t:\bility. 1985). Refit'cling Ul !! call uibuuo n of interactionist th t. ~ Labeling theory is also called th e lorit/al-reaction apprQach. the no ndisn bJcd accept the severe ly disnbled as valued and lm'ed human TS beinb • Tradition ally.VhlNC£ "XD SOCJAL CO..yeal' period at settings in the cam ." Ihey ofte n experie nce a decline in self-esteem and isolation from social netwo rks (Link e l al. whn popularized this a pproac h. . as people accept the label of ~ment.lIs as patie nts.lwing on labeling theory. Tll ere are ma ny nondisabled people who rio nOl stigmati ze. when people e nte r m e ntal hospit. .h susp icion no matterwhatther did. This view recalls the connict perspective's e mplm· si.. and V)rr Wr\a (Osbo rne el aI.0 comm it deviant acts..1lI 3pproach to deviance known as labeling theory. Bogdan and Ta}'lor found Ihat many family members. . school officials..c\ess ha. labelin g theory focuses on police.abiliti es.a\ly ill." BOUl grou ps were ga ngs or delinquenl5.~ and cli mina ls.md po lice records ill Staule. stlldies have r. \>iew t.. see individuality in them.R 7 • t». ste reo type.. research on deviance has focused on those individuals \\'ho violate social nomlS. it attempts to ex pla in why cer· liIin people (such as Ule Ro ug hnecks) are TlimVfd as ~('\ianl5. o n Ul e social significance of power.. rntmity tha Lsupport peo ple with severe disabilities ."IIn~t\. L1beling uleolY call also help us to understand Ulat while some people routinely and 1ofte n cruelly label severely disa bled people as ~vegelab les" (set: Chapter 20). 187 OJAf'1"F. With this in mind . a " u·Ollbl c. Sociolobrlst Ro ben 5..~If·rcports of ddinquclIts . and define thcm as actors in a social environm en t. play a significant role in creating Ule deviant ide ntity by designating certai n peopte (and no t others) as ~de­ viant. .11I1e the labding process does not f))"{xill ce me ntal ilInes.. Thcil' de1inqllcIltaCts were gene rally .. The researchers supple mented their observations by illl.. expressed the in· !~lltlOn of atte nding college .hem as reciprocating. Cha mbliss's o bsen~dtio n s concernUl)lju\'eniles have been con fi rmed in researc11 usiog . r'r. while others whose behavior is similar (s uch as Ihe Saillts) are not seen in such hars h terms. .i ewed oil! a few isolated cases of '"sowi ng wild oats." where the Saims were seen merely as "funloving kid~. 1989).m heimproperly labe led as lea rning-d isab1cd.

. the wk explanalion lor dcviance. ccrl.nnbting. its propo ne llL\ mel'dy hoped to focus morc attention OH the undeniably imponalll actions of thosI' pcoplt· o llic-ially in chllrge of dcflJlo illg de\iallcc (I':.. Da\'i~ .tptcr 11) led 10 im~· t.tl jutlglllcn ts..mm ru dllllR"VIU druj! mlJr. a rorrJIj(/ JWnfWt''''''.. ch ug usage. ' .' ca. the lega l ddinitio llS o f . I-!owc\'er.on 's ahility to resist . it j . As one conseque nce.. ... Sociologist Richard Quinney ( 1974. legislators... according to Quinncy ( 1970:15-23).ondllct c rCOIled hY:llllhorizt"d age nts of social cU nlro l-SllCh as Icgi~I"l ors and lal\' entorcet11cn I omcials-in a pol i Iically org."he r than as "iolalol'$ of rules.ew "ife b. I. 1980) is a leadi ng exponem of the "iew thal the criminal ju .. M cording to I-Iow:lrd !led.il11ages ca ll be ahered h)' socict. Ily 1991.h. yl (I~rrlt" I/ru/ (1/rQ/uJl 0" $(M lrgaf(\· " Imrut f'I. :tnd proSlitution \\'hich arc violated on a lIl. \(If_ HI un . 1991) .-st. 111 undesirable labe l.alc (wc \\.c wilh which our sclf.'$ could be proseculed undrr .Uld) fai l Connict Theory Wh. it l.nt changes in lIQCicl:1I 1l00iuns of crimi nalit}-b il has in cduollingjudgc.ulccs fOI' lllC rnpc of the ir win.I\. I. Labcling theorists do suggt.'S the interests of Ihe powerful Crime. com pare C ultcn and Cullen.J'I!I ..ticc ~)'Stem St'l"\'t.clmnilil1g iJ: oftnt IHI allnn/l( 11)' IIv pall.lI1d in all 50 s t~I\t. in Ihe criminal law. bdillg theory was not cOllceived a..\ de\'i:lIl1 \\'l1i l(' o the r bch.h.. 1979. Competing: appltJachc . power protec t tlleir OWII i1l1erC~L\ alld defiru: d e.... his wife-without her consent "11(\ against hc r will . JUlrmf.11 ex· .I M rlF1J1"IIm U' Oll l klTlffl b«au5#J flfl1.-iancc to suit their own Ill_ed s."/ui to ronu oil. :lIcrl lI.lssi\ c "..lI'hn.).". this pe rspective may cx:tb'gcr. For decade!. 11110 tl/I'. IIJ)Os.. f!/ NmcoilrJ inuTllh(li (J r(lm/~jlf" 10 haw IIUlrlPUHffl u. pe rencc tc d the O\'c l"whcllllingly male composition of slale I cg i ~ laturt.lin circ lIlllsr. It was lega lly accepl"ble ror a husband 10 have forc:iblc:: sexual intercourse Will. 1975: 172..llI t. [" fan. th.111I ".r QI/'II brnlld of momill). Fro"..he rise of the women's libel1ldon 11l0l'e m CIlI (sec C h.' again"l g.'S (altho ugh 34 states ~ till required:l highe r ~la ndard fOt conviction if an accused mpisl I ..lg". ' nIl' lane ling appmach does not full y ex plain wh)" certain people accept:t label a nd olhcl'~ arc able la reject its appl ication . 1978:36-37)_ "'im $houM " M flgtmul fhl' Imu III g{{ lIT 1/11' fffli"wl/j'HWW (J Iflw1jlwlw1 /11 .. is certai n bchavior evah.1 din e re lllial power is imponant in dcu'rmining a Ix:n. not? Mcurding to counict theorists. Im..er ( 1973: 179-180 ). hu\i).:md ). howl'\er. i5 ~ definition o f hum..as t he victim's hutb.tmillc lhc ~c M\'ic timl c~s c rimL'S" Itllcr in the chap • 188 "IHrnIlJ ' om~"sl/.. because people wi tl.lIIilcd s0ciety..". He .meting and other forms of d0mestic violence a~ setio u~ c rimes (National Cenlt'f o n Wo men :md Ram ily Law.. (including those ofbolh Me non :1Ilt! SU lhCI I....me! Qth c r ("0110i CI III c.tinst ..". la\lo. Ix· penained onk to se)( ual relatio ns betwecn people not married bl eac h other.1 j 1 10 explain why somc de\'i:II11S continue to be vi.thlll1 IU Q pIrolu~lI"tlu c'i"g JUb:l/(lNr~.o ri~t S argue that lawmakin g is olicn all alll'lllpt hy Ihe powerful 10 Coel'CC others into lhe ir own mOI'3lity" This helps 10 t')(plaill wh)' OUI" MlCie t)' has la.or' h.-~'fii as conformists .\lc Lilt. repc <lled prOICSL\ by feminist Ol'b'1HliZ3tions fillill\led to c hangc. and police ot ficel'l 10 \. In this insl:t nce.'li .d 11/ fUrll.

For examplc. File prflsentenCfI reports Recommend senlences (hlll'tr/ I/I'I)I1s/ U.)~Ie m of till' United Slatcs lrcau> suspects and on enders diff(·n:!llly.~ rcceive stiffer pnwn !iCnlences and ~'I'\e longer term'> than Wtlll~ comicted ofsimilill· fclonic ..lIlic'i and on ly :I./ "/fUl/ ((111/1'01 . this cm 3(tuall)' meal1 perpctuating mrquabty.u requil-e mandatol) minimum sentences.{c.) I cig-dretlcs :me! alcohol :In... Amut or detain people File charges or petitions Fo.I11~ticl· Lois Fore!' ( 1984:9) nf Philadelphia s l1ggt: SI.·xercisc ofdi\cn.' ~ Id Icgall} aiIIIrl'lt t\'eJ}.1 aNI/irrl rfi.. rcscarchel1i havc found tIw . build ing. 199108A)...t percent or Whi(e'). \\1. 111 rl 1988 I .llla is outlawed in the lmted States bcC.Ind Ili ~p.11H1UI' Sill/IS/if.nic."'!lQfI by 1/11' l1u/'1'(/1/ 01. Correctional offi clol. connlct th corb l. Thu!I.ffn'f'lIlially /0 It!l:i/lrrl.·here. :lnd sodal cI:w backgrounds.nd order. '. PoIoIt outhorities durrtliOlwry pmrllU\ IVtr'I' our/Hied aI 1'ImOlo II'I"lt DJ fI". rrimlll(j{ jlultrl' ').lrg(·" th.cept pIeos Oerennine delinquency Olambs charges Impose sentences Revok.dues.1I there arc: 1\111 1 7 1 ' """''' . Sentencing ComDli~on rcported that Black..1) be to I1l. .. COII~'" qucml)'.t. . Con~ h"d adoptcd ~\lch mandalOl)' minimllms tor w ttrl .. In commellling on lhe t.tl couns.. IN-mll _ oftllf'. but imtcad fencets compding values MId interests..rhrml Quhlll" Assiel! people 10 type of correctional focility Aword privileges F'ul'lilh for disciplinory inlroctions Determine Oole ond coodi lionl of porole Revoke porole flm/r"lI.. on Ihc basis of radal.t1lS . ethnic.lcirlg' rnancl:\lOI)' minimunl sen t. Immlfulto tatl"l.(:rirnilHllion based on gender. /l1f.sion Seek indiclTnenl5 "'''''~ Reduce chorges Recommend senlences Se! bo~ or conditions for relea~ Ac...lIld af. According 10 Ihl' rOllnuissinn. (:lce.not represent a consistent application of sodmJ I..\frican AnlCI. The connict perspc(lil'c rt'mincl~ us that while dIf' basic pU'1>osc of 1:1\\ I1l. rhe sa nle is true for 57 pcrC'clII of Ili ~i>.c nt·cs •• cltlally get the m. Whilf''i arc 1110rc likeh to ~·nlCI 11 110 pit-a harg:uno.. lIlarUu.~ th.~ and J lisrm nics arc nmre likely than White.1intain !<itabilir\ J. . .."' 'II""dj.judicial dec. 10 I ecci\'l' 1IlamlatOl")' minimum sentencc~ ill fede .').itc5 an· more likely 10 receive short sentences Illan arc Ilisp'lI1ics or Blacks (utU(hon ..'l.1'1"" • • 189 . which lead to the drollpinK 01 thoS(' ch.~ com end Ihal lhe criminal justice <. Ironically. A 1991 smdl' repclCtcd by the United Slate. On the whole..C. \\'hen'a~ 68 percent or Africall Anwl'iC:lIls 1. Y('l. criminal law certain fcdcr:d cri mes in order to cnel di<. Enforce specific lows Investigate 'PKilic crilTle$ Search people. tion in 'he courts (see Tahle 7-3) ./' If \IJ(j(j/ rllln /i(trll/. vicinities.\ccording: to tilt' cuntlic! ~chool.IUSC it is ~'lIcgl'd to bt. probolion Plcbation officer.

rob\)cry. inclttwlII! 0101"(' than 22. 'jOUII 1. ell' then.ing. cOllviction. through such djfferCllIi"l ..~": hood of ll1'rc~t.W. Even it wc do Ilot accept this challenging argumcnt.. Mcddis. plea..md i through their ski ll .llI~ itnpusc their own ~ I r-sel"'ling dclinll. FUncliomllislS vi(·w stand.social oolltrol.0 in their deprived position .1' express concern about the Itt tion's cri mc problem. lTIany people do '~~~~I rcn vf illegal aCli\>itics. thert. ally consists of those «:riolls om~ n scs that peopir think of when th(.ll"\Ite and IInequal '1'Stelll\ of justice: OI1C Iou the rich in "hkh tht: courts ukc limilk. Illay halt careers in thcil· ch osen M profes. 1":11><".000 homicidt. of Crime Rather thall rcl)'ing :. the). ..lfecr.1 1 law rOI· wh ich rOl·111.o1lal Cl a 1X'I"SOn who PUl'SlIClt crimc as 01 cta)'-Io-da> patioll.. ".ions uf dt·vi. the property crim<.'in Su~hcrlalld ( 1937) ofTercd sight. and dclibcmw on'r hUll· dn:tis of thu\lSilllds of biL\ of l"Vi(\CIlCC . wC' will examine !(lIlr as differentiated by sociologists: p::~r:~:it~~. Th i5 Cl l1 CgOry of cri minal behavior gCIIt'r.:::~ organi /. In hb \~cw.s apl)('..u:k. Thus.l'olt to the func· Llona. 1cri lllin.M CRIME Crime is a \'iolatio n uf cJilllin.lls speci.h il ('<oll:lr 11· and crimt'~.' lfu! in creatin):.I social M. the age of tht· on"cnder.r is 1101 ) prosecuted as a c riminal.li'I('e on the ~enera l public.\17J. hijacking uf cargo. mOlor \'tJ.IIe5. of crilll(' that ilrc reported aJlIIuall)' by the Federal Bureau ot" hwcstigollion (Fill ) in its UlliJofm Cnllll &portJ..IIU \ sta ndards a nd determine who is (t.llfd.arc \'iewed i~ In this SC("liUII.tI~: the uther ror Ihe poor.Ibd Mt\c\'idnt is nm::l) :tpplit'd 10 the COl'ptr rail' cxecUli\l! \\·hose dl. (l1le COlltrO\'t'I""i) over Kun comrol \\'ill be eUlt ined III the !toci.lch to dc\i. c~::~:"~.11 penalties .ICCOII Ill wriucn by a pi"'f>OC" '" T 190 1'.ey ingredi(~ in the high inddcnce 01 ~ln: C I ('ri me ap pcar to tit dntg \I~ and thc widc\prc:. but ralher abse il tee lalld l ord~ ami exploitativc sllJrc owncrs...lrds of deviant bchavior as merely rcnccling cultural nonm. o logisb classi l) t:ri1l1c~ in lCI·IllS ()fholV '~'::~ milled and how the offellses . There arc :llmost 2 million \~o l ent crimes It'ported c<ldl )car in the Uniled St." . two scp. deve loping skillecllcc hniqllcs and it ccl"tai n d egl"ce of SI:IIII'I among olitcr Solile professil)'I ..'S.ion o"er Ihe case. cndlc-.. potential pun ishlllCllt tha t can be levied .lpplic.'llcgorio. As a rC$ult.\/wpt' 101\\'. olent crimcs commillcd .lIld IlO\I'erful groups can g:l·nl·r:. lI l' appli{'d hy some gm'crnmcntal aulhm·ity.: I 15 to 19 \I~ II tisc 2~ percent bcU\'CCI I liu' re is liu le reasun to cxpect fill)' decline in level of Sll'eet cri me UI viule nt C'Iime I orJ lIst. we G II1110t ignore the role of the PO'M".:nts somc type of d eviatiun from fonnaJ social lIo rll'lS llf l mill i ~ lcrcd by the stale.s time to cltlllninc.M Ed¥..11 policy 'lef:tion m the c nd of tic or dmpll·r.:c:. and "'''011.\ regarding professional I 1'1 ing a n annotal. tlte criminal justice systelll helps 1 kccp the pOOl' and oppressed . The tc nn j"du crim{!s rcle~ to tilt' e ighl types Professional Crim e Allhough the .IIlCt'. Index crimes include mllF' del". .~~1 plc in the Unil('(1 Statcs in lha~~"~.ht. \\ IIt...:cL"ions IC3d 10 larg('--SCale cn\'irulltne ll la l pollu lio ll . and as. The I.Idage dnc~Il't pay~ L'I familiar.\ and bricl hearing'! art' the r\lle and appcal~ :m~ Ihe t·xn:pllon..OIeJ)' on legal (".~ions.'reall COllnicl :llld labeling theari'\a poilll 0111 tlt:'1I the lIln:lt powcrful grourlS in a socielYcan . M the 1. ."S burglary. in \I hit::h hasty gllllt).ne. Quinnq ( 1974) argues tha t. Ycl the real criminals in poor ncig hix)rhoods al·C not Ihe pc_Ople arrested for vandal" iSill and theft. 1993) . The pel"Sp(~elivc a(h~lllccd by labcli ng and CO IIniCt lhcf)Jisls runllS (Iuile a Cf)nlr. ill·cplcl>I.:llile in s.c d .Hsl .c.) Givcn Pl'oj('ctions the ~~l~~:~:~.insl people-as \I'cll .cd crime. Crimes arc divided by 1...lppro.liault-:tll of which a~\.ice. a nd shoplifting .. SlIch pc()plc can . agcnts of social control .ld presence of fire-MIll.r U ClUrc that perpetuateS sufferi ng... ponder.Iw into mtious calt'gories. and liu':" COllrt which holds j UI·i'<dict. A profeu. In the ()pinion of conflict LhcOI·i'its. cOIl~idcr.iH1" '1'10 • OfffoA. :lIld hear ebbor. disad\"antaged indhiduals and groups who r('present a threat to those with power become the primal")' targcl~ of c riminal la . 1993. depending nn thc sc\ crily of the vffcm.011 .ltions of .

. Org <lIlizcd c rime i ~ :1 secrel.. \\'C \\.'ice..u u rial ae ti\'ily lhat gen e l'. M cCaghy.tcs tCrfilO r) '..ugh such skills arc not SY\(I'mt.\TNfll . kills: those \\'hi{h are extens ions of the Icgili rnale socia l urder hill are ~harpe n cd and relin ed (such . It alloc:. 'cd a:.lg('s lO d e fin e T he Le nn .LSpect ut Itourl<.. . D......\'CE f\ . For o ur p urposes... Through il.gtcl od"" II" iJf' 11I11()/1HYi m / 9/ UII/"I'l-..109).. and a C L~ as an . u rg"llI l.ubi ll~tlor in internal dis pllle'\ ( 1{lake) Cl :rI. o n o ulle ts 0 rul' unloading sto le n good. U".lre<lS for lhe ex.ltd ..IY2).'ays o f sc::cur1111.lnicl Be ll ( ) 9!i~: 127-150 ) used Ih l.n~ion approac h .lIc th e con \'en ljOlla l b usiness world.ing as a pro fession. c C)rI1'pt~ puhli c otTidais.c .~ "U('l'('!o.lI rOIl!'idcr orgar. n~ of crimin.me! on .0 APllffir(IIU III /(J Cnllf(Jnllll (11-' bt'ilr'llf:f/ ilf.I slIbcuhu rc:: of similaTh occupied indhidua l. as i ~ cvide nt fl O Ill a 1978 govem me nt rel>Ol't that u!. sub rgCSlt'{\ by SUThe rland in his cullUmJ uJu".' T el111 I'lh". in criminal Trh..imidates witrlc.. Ihus becoming p an o f . m ey a re no nethe lt:<.s ami Se idm:II1 . tinc· IJIln belween two type s 0 1 criminal .sillll 0 11 Crimin al JusLicc .«I in smugg ling a nd sale of dl'\I ~.R 7 · t»IH..'/mlly laug h I in rillk-r place. 19 78: I07. p rostitutio n .. p rofco. 'iC 1."S.1ITt..lll.ional lhllje~. " xchange fut ~ pI'Olec­ tion ~ ( Nation.hose . 1 no rm amoll g profes-iIIIlAl crim i nal ~ That th ~' chie f .lke~ fl di .... Lr. O ''K'Uli led c rime .."..s('e.11 criminal. g' ambling .lill~ nllr easily :w:'lilahle IQ t 11(' avc l~ l g:e ch izc lI (such ~~ IIp!:ning a safe).f"o crime has 'iCl.orking lime 10 plr:l Il1ling a nd eXe<:lIIing crimes and SOIllClinl('S " "I'd ac ross lhe na lio n 10 pul'llUe lhei r M roft.r S()((OSroll tu d eM'ribc Ih e Organized Crime (hgrmiut/ r" /tu' 1/1 lit.. b~ ins infllle n c(' ov('r hlho l' IIninn~ . These pro fessio nal c rimilmls d evOle lh('ir cmire ." Like people p 1ft legtllar occupa tio ll<. Th e taLleT' arc learn ed in lht' manm'.~tcd . 1980: 180.1.llIy evades law l.thief.".O. IJth.~ a nd prisons... int.1 AdviloOlV COllllnj. and service.) nl. a means o f m obilil) Im grou ps ut IX'ople slrug· gling to escape JXlI'erl) .i::ed crime lO be the . Orga· nil..t'S thrc~' 1 ).\'/(1/1'1 lilt( Imtilll(J11olly \l'Illf:(/ (11 Il Wfml Of molnfd). Unlike th e pe rson who e n gages in Cl'imc olll y once or I.ork of a grollp th.~ p ti ce~ lo r illegal goo<l.L~ the ability In rlctl'Ct wlu' n hUrll cowll c r'S rtre awa y) and t. 1976 ). fur J"rrflll/!.W)'iQCIM r.hic\'es comull lrim their colleagllC'l conccming the d e m a nds of 'A'lIrk.!l e nte rprises in· m ).sio mli lh ieves rn rlkc a business I~ stealing.cd c rime lakes ove r k-gilll11ate businesses.. and 0 1111: 1' :tcli\·iLies.llcs re-laLions beTween \"arious ("rim in. \lwWII 11n! C. profc.s commun icate d elfec Lively (Chamh1i<..11' slnl1/Kling \ (() nm/Il' I HJI¥'rlJ...t l bllsille'lSjllst .t..lnung technical skills is a n imponant .sioll.<. compi r.. Sociolog i"l PN('r Lc:lkcmann ( 1973: 117.(I IIIOOtiIlIll 1. d o mina tes lhe world o f illeg-.'nlurc:erlll'lll...LS large coq)()'~l li o n s d o rnin.b. bail bonds if .IT rcgu l. liflJrof.1:'1'.11 skills arc the Sll'ee l. 19 71 :487: rhe le nn ()rguniud critll~ has man) mea nings. illld even Htaxcs" merchanTS i ." They exch an ge info rIlUtk1n on po&Sibl e pla("(" 5 1 b u rgl" J'il.~. 11 j .

'lt.lics.:u. I1I t li~ 1939 prc<iidclltia l ..ani/..~ c'U1bcl.ldl'l!I \\Cll' in llllU rq>I.: InVIl lK'h.lllll' lalil ll l.ioll . wit h IhulI\.1 2() >CM~.. I Yl-JU:2) . \\ .II~· llllllCI1.o\·cl"ups dalll back IU th e H.'<i 11 ('OIupatl) millions 01 dvllars.'l).Ind r. r hl.-'iCS and cu q J(J I .IIIt-Kcd 1\"" I)cJI1~ihtlil' ill .c l l' gut. hri l)(. illdudc oITt'Il'c's hy businc'.c ulIkIH)I"11 1 them ulltil IY/. An :t(kpl progl'::lIl11 ncr cm g:liu a("ce~..1~be~II)'\.ms.lblcM pcoplc in thl. with lit tl e pr lection.UO\'" ~lIIlt' ROI lldl1 t'n~ White-Collar C rime .1t l.'lItl\l· bdl.ll ion. fi ndillg~ !llust Ill:' I cg. ldwin Sudwrland. SUlhe rla nd ( 1940) rl.' COlll"'C of lhei r d."SSi(II' hal. \'t' l . . An otlc n·cit('d l'xa ' ll pll' I II t U I IX lI ..'li.' use: uf 'jtlch "h igh tccllllology" a llows (lilt' 10 .td) . the in d ll~ lI)' suppressed rl~dfl Ihal d(Xlltn~'ll t l'tlt I H' lil ll." ll<lction of Mkid.U1d Itlllg tl i~c. .U' i ll du~tl) 111.lccd b) lulian Alllt'ric.lily h usi ncss . I dd ' II~' " . wil h ." I pUI . A 11t:\\ InK' uf "'hill'-collar cnmc has emerged ~i ll Cl:' S lII ll('rI.IX ree I ndeed.cllwalJ)..I.h AIllC.'i :u c among Ihuse: who havc 1)('.:1Il)" iClV('lltOry withoul 1c:."1 p i \) 111.. I 930s. or to g-J in .l\'illg onc's ho m e. L . h i lhe 1a:.(\ In 1\llIlCIt XlIIlt) IIIII C (or OII. 199:S) . ur ilny .'ic.Ill pt'ndiug li ligoil io ll (Urod eur.'d h) aHluent.lrgcsl inc lu\lrial e()rpor: tl ioll~ \\-cre III\'oiled OUl' or more illcJ. I CCCS~ 1 a COIn0 p.lIId Clth('1 UIIIII-'..'l'" fraud (~illlpllUII ..hnic succl. ~ u c h 'l. Ihe tunCt'pt or whilc-<:ollitf' crimc hall J I>\cJ been expand ed 10 incl u de «Jrf}(/ml~ mlllt'.tSIJot'~lu~ h. (UIII~' 1II0l'C cumpll.I I r1ICC.it-all.'li III the lJnil( S ta[ e~ in the period 1975 1 1Y84. 1982.ts.' { ll l1l l' Ch ill~tl\ u tiu!I" .Ill' . 'h llk Il.. .ty.II" tlr!o:.t1IKt'l~ ul ¥ovrl . Althuugh IllI' d.'ell I. \'ictillls or .. ~ I c"..Ic li"i l. voids .· ~ u c h cdlllCs Llum a ll Ihe o lhe l" !inns c bined.llld Ill... m d fi l"t wrole 0 11 t h i' topic: computer cri nl('.1l1!UII~ il~ ~ II. ~ I ore H'C('mly. I" ibt-n at currUptlOIl ..~.~bt:slt rll~t>layi IIg '). mm.b. John. " s were I ~ I ructccl 1I0t Iu infor11l t' lll )l I j)'ce~ allOH I a.ioni (19I JO) fOil lId tJI.u Il'dd l'll\'iIUIIIIlCl1l. d drl'ss to tile American Soc-iulogil. 1987..l\lx=stos PI sun illg and Ihcil IrlTlli lit"N we re kit.j~J. '.. E\.I'l" .LS lI"m..1I11ilUlllpt. sHch as prict'-lix' O\'creharging.1 Sl'nt'S ull.k suc h people u nit's" the) .d(.tl PUllIIlIOl.u dcd al> <In undere<ili mat the pr('\.' IIS~ \\C. Rein 1984) . c. .) .11 \II)I. In :l sUf'\e) ul bmll1CSS pl'::lClic:l.7It'IIICIII or cicclTQn lc fralld with utll lC.tUUIt~..'oificd . .-lill1' { . ullt'lIlbmll. c:t. to i l !inn's COIIIPUII' I h}' tdt'p hullc and tht' fI copy \'a lllablc' files. . In atldidon 10 lhe IimUld. .s Iw(wl.l:ii}s.i" I~l n i. \\'ho I>or~­ u la l i/l'd th e diITerl'lI lial .IIl'. Su therland (1!:t.). tl lc P l ll( lu(tIUlI u l Ult~.IIl. lI t) phy~ki.III(t!f AI J u bl " ~1 .UlIl'l>" I Hti lht' .·II'aled th rough 11 11.1111 1 .'l' rr expusHle IlIl bcslos ..UhJlh C('I'I~ .l)llIp.ll ~iliea liun of !.lS "hilC"-Collilr cri m l..lIlSC Ihey arc OftCII pe'1>t.11 Sncil.l\ Itl!")' 111.1\\ . In lh".uwlllc .llclI1CIlI.Uld \<ocft' lIdt'lIl1lilJIl\ (/1)1 UIl1l. wh ich 11 111 int u billion. :\1.. l>t'caIL'l(: lhc act of ming for banknlp. lhe IHP 100 coq x H'atiollS we r l.my' ..tl COSl\ of this fom Cli me. UIIlSIIIIIC I" 1r.ui l~ jJl' m liug 1)('("-..1\l' I)(.llcncc of wh ill.luo~ III .lilt! \<001 kCI ht.tlCII\t·S arc nuw ('i:I... llll' tl l\cl~i l) u l llle !"llIUI".l\ll lj{ . Mrcs pc(...mid (Dt'p<l rllllt'II I o t Justice.' loleN 0 1 O IH"~ occtlp:nio rl (Ha)§1Il .llC crime takes many .it-s. h.anilcd uimc acti'. 19M Mokhibcr.ub th. lth ami ~11('t\ \'iul. of dolla rs per) whilc<ollar cril11(. soc i ologi~ 1 Ail (1 lai EtJ.ioni\ study wa s limilcd 1 th 0 whilc-co ll al' (.lc\\ I. Ix . rdIcc l iu g. j u h . S10ck m an ipll' latiulI .1111 Ihal Ihl.. hdd h\ Instl A' IH:.f(' I'fcc! in the 1 920~ ItI . ~ I urc rl'ct'lItl)'. h COSI of l. fraud .tlwilk tiled tor 1»(1 n l p'C~ ref)I)). 1993).t1I\'i ll c.ICI hya COqlOl"lliull that is pu n ish able hy .tS distinclil'e social C~~ 192 .' .l{merull1c11I .1".!>c!> (l1IdtldillK 1 1I 1I ~ l -. .tll) ill1pc~i hl c 10 u'::ll.uht..lS i o n . It is \hlll. Arcorti illg 10 a 1!JUO estimate. nOlcd that cenai " ('f imcs an: cornlI1itll. 1983) likcll ed th cSt' cri ll1 c~ to orgall j:f('o lI lI llt: bCC.CJlupu lCr crimes in the U nited Slales has reached S~ ICI S5 hilliun annua ll y (Con ly :m d McEI\t' n ..---collill c li me in the co rate ". rciatcd health datll{l'rs---t'\l' n \\'ht'lI \\'orkt'r5 '\\t! ur SUl h rl i~east'~. I ~ \\cll as by indi\'iduak A wirlt: \~II.I1 1.lI l)." TV OHt cmlX:I. l thl' III ~ i nK.Id}' pa rI o f IlIl' 1\\t'IIIIc lll lClI lIlI).mcl .cd " I illll'..i(:'lns in II Il' ('. jlnc~ !l1'/fe/1'I1 hy t h c ~ovc nlm (: II !. ami Kigcria n illll'lligmtll.'1 111 10 I>I..". pobollill~ (.' guilt} mon. Corpol . "ul h d. ill. Si n lc 1 '.IIHJ..uiUl .'. of the \.sbt:~. fc r rcd to '111'11 u n CIlS(:~ as white-colla r crimes. till) 11/.w.H . ('ump. .lIId lIIi~rCprcsclUalioll in . 19~: Siml)soll..uujs uf 1.. illlllllgranl~..1llt1.()ry dist us-wc! carlit'r.'t:l1 inci d clI\.~ incume lax e\~.ll. Ill(' le l ln wll. laiC'" P.: l1Ietl d!> t:. \ 1. J cwish trill\(' 1l'.llI d P ark!"'" I !l1:~f.-mllflr lIas been bruOIdl' llcd It.ocialioll L hl. I fJrlll~ and I1Idutlt" 1II1 II\1l1u.procc'~ dllnn~ \\lIl1'h leadcrship uf ol'ganiJ.11 C I nol l ~ h e lto ugh IU call fro m lhe 5'lIlle p h Ulll' l'ad l Ihnl'.IV a signi lkam roh: in IIrJf.L.' et) of l.11 IUJ\ " \(agt' III . Wlu le lhi ~ 'lCilellw '!:I\'l..1IIt! c.tt 62 PC''CCllt of Furtu"! 51)0 t.

.!~ . and o tllcr \ictimless c rimes. .!:. \\11//.lltctiOIl is Illllch IaO/'t' It.nrronsidercd-probation is granted lO 40 pel'cenl r4 thO!w.·hite<OUlIr olTendcrs are 1IIoJ1t" Iiltly to rt..ambling._. ~o. .. By contrast.~ (. Jlall j'l {989 (lfin "'1I1!: . (Sch ur. !l~ ..11 10. ~ lei!lll ~e..J.. . and other olTcnses which 11....\UaltiM and d iscas. rmifltcl JWnIJfrtl11f' 1It"1't'1111 1kn (ltgl'. sce ~1an­ 'lUll.lli/_ :ltion inR 193 IJItY/'1-.'tn and se . • . 1Iilt.111)' measure. 1985).!.. ).l...'-<:01l:1I· crimc'!' uf the . Yet .. . ""hill! focusing 011 iudclI! Cl'i ml'S oftl'1I comIIJtIt'tI b)' the poor..'itcm should instead de\'ote it. le. sociologists tL'iC th e tcnn c..n 7 · /It'\/'\.--:~.'~ r~ ~'....r. theft.olls and the S.has becn prc'\Sure rrom some groups to dt'criminlllile \~.L:"'!'~.-a. !C~. 110\\'l. 198 1:50)_ Ir Ibol\C" al the top or the mlliou 's econom ic and soUiI] ~truuu rc red rree 10 viobte the ]a\\ . '"... 1985). he rOllnd that ill 43 percent orthe inudtnb tithcr no pellRhy was imposed or the compant "...J...1 "' " j[~ -~-.::. dl-bcing is e ll". As .. fur more mOllc). rhe cou nict pcr~ti\l" oIrgues that the criluinal ju...OOI fir . lu( n II¥ull"-lVllnr 1"1110"11111 nlf SOmllllHI'l /lfT»«'Ulrd (/lid I/Illm j rnlld.'nt :Lrc not surprbing.!:.. but illegal.llmcans (lol' " dilTcI"C1I1 view..{' "Ill f.!:!::L.II ('1)V rt/(!/ . DClIpite the social COSb 10 families and rriends 0 1 those eng<'gcd in such beh.<.. and 70 pcrcelll or C OlI\'klt·d l'mOc7.l rt'~ul .icc.imes to describe th~ \villing exchange awl~ adult.i--... ~ In the dnr III conflicl theolislS.crime. (all. goods """. m. it is impossihle to prevent proslitution .. di l'cClor or the Corpr»lIle Accountability Rcsca rch Group.~h ilIeg. III Eu.. lWO)..."r __ IIno""... ami producc~ 1:11 morc {'. The alread)' o\'erburdened cri minal juslice S\.\Q A\1J VH.viti('s which fa ll inlo dw cale~orr ofviclim1css crimes. 61 percent nl thrM convicted of fraud. I·~·t .. Kl 0:: ~.' .m the olTender....-'.ined !b".-'1 prhiItvd citiltn5 ca n ccnainly be expectcd to loUow ~t Ralph Nadcr (1985:F'3).. 11.'i resource'!' lo ~nreet crinle.~ .Jm blin g .... . NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE POLICE WANTED _ - PERSON NI< RSA.. Apparently.. _'" _ _ .. .-m • .m/'(/tJ (m rhlJllP'J 11 . harm a person 's rc pulation and caTa'f <bp.. c rime in the suit es \lk-I.011 [mm tllnll. 110 have violated antitru't laws.. .!..nioll ncarly so muc h as conviction for an IDIIn rrinu: would . Thus. and innllcn cl·.11...n.J.""'2.hllll du/NI $1 ....Lf.. .- ~" .. the bhcl "whitt. 'P'!'rl •• ilC.tnd a weakftlmg of the social order (Conklin .riuus act.·('r.U.ill'-rolulf' mml'l of Ih.l.c -coltal' or index crimes._ . SlIpp01't<:rs of (I!-~l'iminalilatioll arc trouhled by thl' attempt tn leKi ~ l :ue iI moral code or bclla\ior for adlrlLi. In it'dernl courts-where most white-collar cases .red \lgain~t their will (or without their direc t ba'-)rd~c) . jr.zlt'I'!t (Ce~ t .lIl crime in the SO'CCiSbiJd as that ~iluation is.. no ~\'i Clilll· other Ih.. o pponcnts of decrimin..' . propIt"~ «Ollomic or personal .'llil'lII (Maguire.lI .. IV.... 1 9~8). public dnlllke11l1("lo. III'Cl _ .iolli ·s s wdy rl9lG. ...or. 1965: 169.. onc mig llL expect this !>l'Oblt-m to be Qkn quite sr:riously by the c riminal jwaice system ~ the l'oned Stales.·n the economic and )QCia) COSts or ""'hite{OU.! . -. YIdiakw CrimCll In wiJit.''':(1 1W1.4. •md me of mariju:ln..dudUlg a decline in thc quality o r lire .1\'(' ob\ious \ittims. -" .:..J..il:lI::!!:r>-I':'!:. if an offendcr holds a po_on of stlW...:!:.-_ _ .'fI 101/1/1 JL-d Ih. lAid Iu.-!-.. comiction lor stlch illegal aclS doc~ QOI Meller.IlI • .. 5)'flmt (If 1nl l 'Hllhl'\w/Ij Im(!:'rlY (/u1l'g(lrilj Ihl 1l'l.. l!I:Hfi) ..stice systcm ~I\ d"rclfAfds the . his 01' her cri me is ImItrU ..0.'.:s th....t... suggests tlut ob) almO!lt .== S/1II1I111 a Will/led /10..dl)..'. proStilution.. ." of ""idc ly desired .lliJ._l "I". tif]fllnrl. for II NI'//) I 'rnl/I'l/m.:.s required merf"l)' to ccaSe clllr-Iging ill the ilJrxal practice and to rcturn any runds g-. th. ! ' ... such dinerelllial labcling tDd In'alln!.. III their view..b \ic tilllkss crimes in which there.11.lJ c:riminar docs nOl caH)' the scignta 0 1 tl1e "'1 "fdoll convicted of a violent crimt: .f Ihat IN mmmnl JlIl/l(. "'C=_ 1I .-. lIotr\Mr..my peuple in llle Uniled StatC!i continue 10 \'iew ~..'Ccive fines than priwlIl sclllences...1 ..

rope. higher in the Unhed Stales. Why .htt CO lllll riCS (Fingerhllt and K1cinma n . lhe maM Int':dia .attention 10 people guilty or dl'llllk drivi ng. th e comparati\'el!' e~)' a\~Jilabilit y of fin'arms in the United SUtlCt llIal es crime I'c \:advcly morc IClhal than in ot. \\'e can o fTcr preliminary concl lLSio ns about how c rime r.olent crillle K» much higbt't in the L:nitcd St. . parities be twec' n poor and amucnt citizens. Undcrlying this debate are t\\o'O imcrc. (Iuestion. and NC1r Zealand .1 dangcrs of driving while uuder the influence or alcohol .. 19'10). 1968. 8 ... For exalllple.. pro.u i\(: da ta are available. a compulsive gambler ardrug lIser may steal in o rder 10 pursue thi~ ob~'iSion."ing questions: Who has the power 10 defi ne gambling. FOI' example.ti~~'~"§_~'~~'~~'''''_''''''_'8'''''''''_'''''''_''''''''''''''''''.He in the UlIit.l1. it is still mo rc diffic ult lO make useful cr~ national cO ll1p.society. t. "lIch o t'g'dnizations as Mo thers Against Dlull k Driving (MADD) and Students "brainsl Drunk Dri\~ng (SADD) have had success in rt:cent yea rs in shining public 1I11itudes to". "'~lS rOllr li mes higher than that orallY uther nalj O Il st udied :Ind \\':. At the same time. Yel it would be a mi~ takc lO interprct these data as an exaCl re~ resentation or the incid e nce or crime.rinlinal JUSl.iI'd drunkenness. lhe mOSl recent )'e.md robberies were reported to police at I':Ile'l rour 10 nine time. Ihuher. RaIC~ o f violcnt CI'iillC ill lhe United SWIC'S v.. in some cases... tistics compared homicide rates for )'oulIg males in tJIC United S1<ltcs . A 1990 report by the Nation:ll Genlel' for Health St. 1985).-sult.ues diffe r :u'o und the world..counu'ies. Again . NC'\'{! nhdcSll. Rather 111.\ '(i }f)('J<\1 un . Crime sl:t tis ti c~ lire nOL us accurate as sociill scie n· lisl5 would like. while rates of burglar}' and automobilr theft were comparable in tJ\(:se 1'0111. 1976:2 16-2<18: Sc. the pol iet': and the courts. sociologist Elliot Cume ( 1985) has sllggested tJla l our society placcs greaerr t':mph asis o n indi\~dual t!oonomic adlic\'clUclIt than do other 5Odc tics. rnam' fornlS or viole nce. signifi. do se rve as an indicator or police aclivil)'. Australia .. Filmlly. since they deal wilh an is-sue of grave concern 10 the people or the United StaleS.'I or properly crimes WiIS not so great. Rmes for other violent crimes werr :tlso higher in this counu. Po la nd . Fot· example . a nd public drunke nness as c rimcs"? And who h..:ts the power to label suc h beha\~ors as 8victillllcss8? It is gener.. The contro\'cl"'iY over decrirnlnali:mtion reminds liS of the importallt insighlll orlabeling and conflict theoriClli prescllIcd earlier....§.equenct=S (National Advisory C.)' than in western Europr.111 being vie""cd as a Mvictimless c rime. bill the difference in 1':I1c.lIly lhe stale I cgisla lUre~ and. ca lli ull e mployme nt .u·t: giving greater ...tlcs. these r-aCtors combine to produce a \It mate conducivl' lfI cri me. As a rt.J. Such da!.~ tJl mu:~ in 2 1 o lher countrin TIle homicide rolle fur )()I lIIg males in lhe Un i~ State. 19I.ed Stales was aboul20 pe'" cent highe r th."CLS lhe struggle among compe ting indi viduals and gro ups to gain go\'c l'llln c ntal support rur tllci l' parlkui:II' mom\ . .sbt lh. society must no t gi\~ t.J..ingly be· iug associated ""ith lh e pOlenti. Whe n (ouplcd \"ilh sharp rus. "Iowevel . Murders. allll substantial alcohol and dnlg abuse.icc.lIIdJapa ll (O ine ..~ . they a rc frequ e ntly d ted as ir they arc com· pletcJ)' reliable..Ire mt<'5 or \. mpes.arison~.lt such o ffe nses d o indeed bring harm 10 in· noccllt victi ms. in 198'I. Dul'ing the 1980s.hr burglar)' r.ommission o n .an Ihat orWCStCrn Euro pe. we can sec that cl'i minal law is nOt simply a univeDaJ sUlndard or l>chavior agreed upo n by all lllell1bel'S or ..lr ror \\'hich cOlllpar.~ t 20 timl'S as high as the homicidc ratc for >oung males in such di\'tJlt nation) as F" lIIce.'C'1? also highe l' than in Canada. it rcflt..rielY of alcohol·rcl:nctl O rrellS(. according 10 crilics or d ccnminalization . <IS well as an . In Box 7·2.. if 1101 condo lled.. pproximaLC indica· Lion or the leve l or certain Climes.. many t» SCf'\'CJ'lli h ave no tcd that lhe culture of the United States has IOllg to le l'ated. \iole l1l crimes ""ere nU'more common in the United SCl.JO) . a person with 3 drillldng proble m can become: llbusivc tu a SI)OUSC or child ren.tCS than in ""cslem Eu.III 's low crime rate.v. 194 "AHl nil} ' UHC..hur.nitlltjon." drunke nness is increlL'. \\oith somr ca rc.. we ex' amine the re<lllOllS ror Jap. whi le rales or auto lhcft and la rccll Ywen: twice as high.IS at I ca. while many stalcs have insLiW led morc severe lin es andjail te n 1l5 iora ""ide v. Inlernational Crime Rates Ch'ClI the difficulties of developing reliable crime data in the United St.~ .:tll'$? While there is no si mple art S\\'er lO tJli. Thererore.md social values. 1989: Fingerhut anel K1cinm an .cit approval to conduct which has such hannrul con<.

an ~dditional surprise comes the lie)!.spo n~ ible behavior associated ". of mu rder.'S 10 a kolxm . Once or twice a )·car.uing back 10 the IOI~· period lx:fo~ the beginmng "I tht nation's modentizalion in 1868.' monling when vi nually no nllll~ .. !i<>l1I<. Inch. hllel'mltional human righ15 groups cdtidl. I II schools. It is also sugg('Sled ttwl pt'Ople's confidence in l>olice is Aruhur.O X ' A .'eS1 ratc.. who li\'cd in the UniH. I~ . When a PCr'lIOll 5eeks police: :bSisl:m ce.. AND SOCIAl (. .. "Id till' mll' of robbery 200 ti mes Itrt::II1'r. parliamem ( I..atio n . c hild reil arc encouraged 10 respecl authority figures and place great value on sd f·di!ICipline.. prO\. TIIQI'!I\Qn and I'. thercrore. hands or e\'CI' beheading IIIem. I .:UllrdState5 iSjC\'en time! g reater.._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _B.. known a.I)J. Vet Japan h.111(1 lhe media ofrer 11 0 coverage. he o r she Iypicall)' g()(. evcn ill death penalty cases.islcll l comm u n ity disapproval ufwrongdoi ng. In IhOlI em ofJap. b ul r-.. young people are taught 1 ilccept code" 0 o f rc. "ASI woman. wh ich in tu rn rCJ>orl 109 district headqu:lflcrs.ha n rearing its social control functions . samu rai had (he shogun's l Ulthori ty 10 e nforce jlt~ lkt: inslantly lIg-. O u tsid e obotn'tl"i belie'o~ thall)Cople's faith ill !bt fllJhct n:ruIl!i in gocxI part fTOm Iht.. Why 15 there so link crime ill . In comparison lo'uhJapan.!.unM t. VIANCE.\1l1 front doors [Ire unlocked. 11~.llTed by twO officcl'!i al alllime$..rI(OI. 1\192 - 195 C/ IAI'TEH 1 .. iminal$ by cUlling (lIT their ....Ilh cr as a n exam ple of the police taking pcNOllal interest in Iheir welfare..UC5\ hert': in the \\'01'1£1: repons Wakako Hi· 1l%lb.. btkn si! unchained 011 the SUCCt.r txuaordinary 99.18 fewcr police IIfrlCfl"i per capita: I for e ach 557 rNlitnl5. .1 \':llucs of the Japanese hclp 10 promotc I.. the police knock o n C\'(:ry door in Jap<1II 10 sp(:ak wi th re~i­ dents or busilless ()\\TIel'5 aboul conditiollS in the bllilding and neighborhoorl ..11l! police o ffi cers. arc locate d ill 1111 urba n ndghbo r'hoods and arc st. w-ollers abound in the park. and . These executions come 1 ligh t o nl)' at the cnd of 0 each year whcn the policc re lease cri lIle d:lta.J.. l~Lth er I..n.. that Japanese adult! oftcn belong to orguppon c rime prel'Cfl lion pI'Og'-:I1I1S. Yel there are no broad puhlic dcmand$ fo r c urtailing the powcr of the 1>olice.\11.o.e the police for such practices as conducli ng illl'cstig.Ih ~<lcs­ lfI:lrlS.lIions wi thoUt allowing 5USPl'Cts aCCl'llS to a lawyer and jailing snspccl!i ror lip to 23 days withoUl filillg criminal dl:trges. Tok)'o h.~ a member of lhe upper of Japan". Indeed . The kobmr of· ficia ls arc the fi rst line o f police reSpOllse to:t cri me or c risis..' . \lIlIbf1\).._ _ POLICE POWER l N JAPAN midnight in " 0 10:)'0..'cr of japan's pOlice hall cOllle under fire.lwJu. I ~n feci S. A:5 t~ OIuc:h /)fa culture shock as Ihis m :l}' lit to a visitor from Ihe United 'italo.l1'lI old are (.O. the 1 >oIice make 110 announcement ."S in d Tokyo'5 con rusing malC of houses lInd b usinc!lSes. Consc<llIe nlly. 1991: aiM) Mivazaw.c(cd criminals arc executed.-ed. conuiblllc 10 the low rate or crim!' in Japan. It . D _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ . as well..I1lItifact d..'Il I. lh~ nut' of rape 30 timcs greatcr. When com. ROUND THE WO R1. 1990.. )'c llhcy mon: often fun ction as infOnlllltion brokers.llIlination of police· communil)... The cuitu r-d... compared with I for each 15.tn!CtlI ar(' (ilk-·d \'.. 1989: Shdlcy.. robbery.Ul? The answcr !lecms to center QI1 the lIlMlu tc tlllSt that people MC in the police.lhc murder nlte of lilt' t.. It is nOt s urpri~i ng.1I($..1IlCSC history.ssm(.I... the Japanese seem 10 comple lely !nISI the l)(llice.. WIIn . " 1Q.~ kol){m~.. inlernctio ns in J apan olTers quite a dincrelll ex planation for the powe r of the police a lld the low rale of cti mc. lllCre is per. In recen t >eal'5 the pOI. midents il'l the Unitc d 5t. as parI of the ir earl y sociaii/... Ihe \oY.'S..lIiam.re repo rted.<ling information aboul 100:' li0ll5 and addt·C5M.'lOCi"lly deviant behavior is not eJ(cused . and Iheft of a ny rnaI'. Hut an eX. ~ Rnlthw' "e.... Small police boxt. al1d rhlldrtn under 8 YC. Consequentl)" the Japanese lend 1 look 0 favornbly all the !rOOmr ~)lltc m . These 1250 /WballS n:porl 10 Tokyo's 99 police: stations.-... Other faCIOl1ll. Ih citilcnship.lapallcse people do 1I0t rega rd this as hara. 1991 :25) .abiding behavior a nd coopel':llio n .'\~n )ttt) odingalo nc 011 the su bway.r (il)' in the world.83 pen:elll IUlII1Ctiull rdte..:d 'lLlln and F'nlllcc befo re being t'~ltd:n ho!. Dow»..

970 1. It ur 1 .'K. i\ /111' major Jl)lI r ". inc:ludcs stali~ L on nUII'der. tilt clime dOli:! ul>cd in Ihe United Stales arc bascdon the index cl'imcs dcsclibed ea rlier in the chapler The c rime index. Use and Meaning of Crime Statistics T)'J)iC. I!I'I!L'>II .0 ....1/101I 011 (/rt' mm.932.. arc nO! in.1. 0( .llIlt. .""" I".111 19')'2 """'-.:..505. I6B 3..60 1.n 1979: .902 5.900 7.1 all .915. published :t1IUtlaJly by Ihe FBI . REI'ORTID RATE PER 100.to! 'n~\ .mJlIIgl)' btillg /I.fr.. 126. TIws. ..\81 .A38.660 + 11 + 14 + 19 + 19 + 19 + 12 +27 +22 +58 +41 .000 INHASITANTS PEItaNT CHANGe IN RATE SINCE 1988 SINCE 19&3 Violent crime Murder Forci ble rope Robbe<y Aggravoted anaull Tolol 23.' . mOlOr \'chide then.''K. ""''''''1'.~1 .".<. "." lhose rcfeo 'cd 10 as wltil~rofl(jr ml/us..theft Motor vehicle theft Talal Total index crime 'm'~ .. wheft"l\ most citizens arc more w0I1'icd about violent crimeagainst people ..1111 add h) lo.. lhe c rime index is disprnportionatcl)' de\'Oled to property cri me s...b u "" ~ ..900 14..1 ). robbery. 103 632 4.. '" ~tl' 01..u.270 2. a signilicant decrease in lilt '17//: ( OIll/lllrtlliI'tiy mllll' IVO) (/I'I Ii/Il/Jlbl)' of jil'1V1I1/1l ill Iltl' VIIi/lit Slllt~ IIIl1hn "'(1/"....t: 7-1 CRIME INDEX OfFENSES IN 1992 NUMIIE..979.610.11 -I -8 -3 .\rY.T .$. '''' U<' ...!mblishrd l/IUHIfI/l]k tl" foIJI .:111. burglar}'. "r . such :t.. in IIu! Uniltd nm. ass.r~~ 1""K"'''..2oo 9 43 264 442 756 1.760 109. eluded in Ihis index (ahho ugh lhcy an= reconkd elsewhere). .. O bviollsly lIla ll}' ser iolls un'c nscs.L" part of Ihe Uniform Critlll' /(l'jJorf!i.llly.13 +8 +47 +6 +9 Properly crime Burglary larceny. 196 .."'''' 01' I"'"C".!I'd}.200 1.. In addilion.060 672.thefl. uod. 0/ i'I/O"".800 12. //Illft' lnlwllltal'/ 1/1 iHlin'l(/lll/lnl'.<1) .. Iar· ics celly..1oig.. rapc.fT. Stall'l (altllO/wlt IIICIIIIIIUIf'OIl mr.. ~I ..""" Till' ('171111' i"dl'x. a nd :arson (5tt Table 7....

.et 01 [rimes during the preceding }e. tlu~ proponion ""rapes thal (In'rt'pol'lcd is MIIIlC\dml higher than t\'". \ictilll~ t}'picall).o .000 hl)ll'4.olds an nually :! nd ..e)'5 have... the femin ist It\Il\'cment has spokeTl OUl slt'ongl). ulI:luding about h..!IUUII ordinary lX!ople... lioll lllll.:In NI.. L 01 onid:tl pulice s lali ~ t.:. not police officer. been tuO permll.. clllb.fe<t. to le.1\'(' paid incrcao:.&iKs if they h. MOI'cO\'Cr. In these insl'llllCS.ilatiull orsud. "ittimi:a t... Ihe Sal.tiun clal. PanJy because nfthc ddkiencil's oi l)l.aUOI1 sludicll. income lax evasion .. or both. : \I'{' IlOt n~ pon ed.·C)'S sh ul\cd .lr runher n:plisoll front tilt' uITender (DCP:U'lfII Cllt or Justice. They IC(Iuire fit"t that ViClilll~ understand whit! h:L~ h:lp1 Jt'1l(''(! to lhem a nd also that victim .I~e ndcs.:(. crinH' aCHIaIl).t· tio n slIl.' particular limitations. 11ItiOlI1.11 crime \l.w l'nlOrCl'IIIl'lIt . ef' aimc data.111 )... man)' cri me.ot/(/I Griml' SIItV" \\~I~ inlrotillcl'ri in 1!)72 . 1992: 11 0. lih' o ll. crime h(.dpe in L1\(' l titled States.'oC in lhe I'l'l)Orting of rapes frOIll 41 percent 1111980 to 59 perce nt in 1991 (a lthough the figure Iwd reached as high as 6 1 !>('rcellt in 1985).(XJA. A" "'c noted earlier. 1'191 Penonol crimes lOO """'. is tha t L1le as!o<lult is f't'g::.luIL~ :lI1d robbe ries. take'! place in the Unilt~cI Sla tes.\ m"'e!> K" IUlfIjN'Ud.. The most SCriUl 'S lill. L:sing \'1climi/auon llU .l\'e sen"i ti1. 197 (JIU'fJ£H 7 · IJH1A .cd the ir ollict' r~ t.1t IJj . ics clearly present. and bl.1I n how much ailllt' flfOJl1. In genera l.llId other J'('scarchel"5 ill undcrsl. (Blumstein Cl al.\-n. \ojclimi7. I..'Ctusc she feels she docs nOI ha\'c c \'ide nce.l\'e bcen \'krim .. :rtlQU.tllruCS is that thl'~ indudt' tml) tI)(~ 1.. il was in the past.. /1 1\ l'J'l'J'lI'l The...1111...I\'ilil a rece nt foctls on dale and . A:-.. regardi ng the w.. "nOI IInponal1l enough ..'" PN/IfJr/". T he mosl common reason.\ce C hapt er 13)-and law enforcclIll'nt ~cncic!l h ..:1 "prh"lle or personal matter: !-I O\\<' ever.' .kcn 'mprcs. T he Uureau or Ju ~t1ce Slatislics... ..'<1'5. ~(:eks inlol'llliltilJn from taw cnfOlcellleill agencie~ but abo inter1l~'S members c)f 100. (" mis!..1. nit' media 11...u'.. owi llg pdmarily to Ihe victims' feelings of fe:lr.1 10 I(~\'ca l lO police ufficen alld oLlu~ r SI1":lllgCrs f)r t hat the Cri'llc io."\'eal th:1I \'inually 110 "'PC \iClilll rails to report lhi..~mlS.·UANI) '. \iclimil... rapes.v TM:nt. 01 a ~pccilic .number of mpes alld robhcri c~ cou ld be o\'el'shaclI*t"d b) a slightly larger incrca~ in the number of <tmomobi lcssloIcTl..-fl/ .mdillg crime.... pol..lc kJn:til arc examples of cri mes that arc un likely 10 be I'cpol'ted in vlClimi/.~ion tha..1I 0 1 . .. Utlfol'llln.) IhOlI 6U /J"Ct'nl of ul/ m/Jn allft robbmn {wd II'\I IIIul/ Iwlf of alllJS..O the p light or \lC1ims.Icq ua inWIre r:11>C (.~ of learni ng how lIIud.. Fraud. ..rded a~."t of Criml'l RII"urlt'd 10 Ihr Poliu. 1991 )..)\ice data .I C:O. /II'Tf(ll1fl1 ~afc l y i~ II1U fl' al I'i!>k th:m hcrore. \'icl illli/. Iceilhal lite exprrience hao..I. virtually all housdmlds han: been willing to coopemle "iLh ill\'estigalo~ for the N(II.II! a mt:an. 1I"I"m"~·.s. in compiling Ihis report .lf>l"S 'I re ~Iill not f'epon{'d. :U\o Lher 11 pc rcelll of mpe victims remain silelll bec:IUSC they fe.Hely..wlnl '''11/ 11 Ill....tvin which the frequl'n c)'of rape rc n en'ilhl' high Ind of misogylly (\\'Ul\lan hating) in ou r SOciC IY.uion ditla 1'(.11..1 document the lact that while IWI) r.~ 'sc I1IJJor methodulogical prublt'ms tur sociologisls .111 a.lht·rcb} IcMli" ~ lO 1. disclose such inrOlmaLiun to inl e l""it'\\'ers. hnlyas a result . surveys qIlC..illg :lUc nuoll to Ihis n/fl'nse-. " 'f' c m OOltr assess the lIIulerreponing of . FBI has noted Ihal rOf'cibll' I'llpt! is Out: of tht' lIatiOIl'~ most IIndcrrcpol'lecl crillle~... b clear in figure 7-1.ol/(l1 Cnml' Sun.'l."' .Jllldb afr '1f'O"t'tIIQ Ill. nll/S. n CURE 7·1 P"n:. onid...ICIILJII) rtfJortni to I. Ne\'enhelcllS... oITered hy 25 percent or those who fail to re port.

1:1 (' r(·sidt.'f) as lht. M ore than 15.'tI impact ill rcducing l'I'illlc. n ~m (on (hruf' a IjIUI. Kcnnedy. in Ihe year 1992..'11I . In addition . I9'JI :25)."!1l Amcric'lIllllak!f result Irom a firearm iqjury.·ading cause or dc.. 40 perccn t of reported robbclies. sale.lr 11 ( Dep<lnment ofJustice..'SC could .ldy ill lIS(' ill ... hil(·.. :lIld posscs. Marlin Llll her King.s invol\ed a firelll1l1.llmost uiplc'i thl' likelihood Ih:ll someotK' wi ll be kilk-d lIICI'C. TI1CSC dcaths-along \\ilh Ihe :I"5<ts:.h~ 0 ' handgun owners rrcquc'lIt1y imist that Ihe)' need 0 . Then:. m.)~ ( Po lic~ Fou.' 1Il:tllllfltClllre.J.000 g un·rclah:d d eaths in lh e United Stales-a figure which exceeds th e number of lhc Ilmjon's IroopS \V'ho died in World W.:nited SWtC'l in\'ol\'e lhe llse of:t firc::u'm . 19Y~) .tliOlI ur lmmlg lll1!o hasonlt a lilllitt.."SeI"l't' uE guns wou ld mean Ihlll many Ii I'ca nllS would Slill be: ....l\1' ShO\\11 lhat gun owners kill Ihem. the IXl puJaljon of the United Slales has an CSLim:llcd al-.' .II11lS in clOlllt'stie qu:tn-cls is 12limt. According to th e FH!.S... 'Iueh ..hlalioll : I?l'fjllllillK ''I'b''~lml/lJ1I of IW/ldJ. eWIl ifCQ ll gl'es~ were to pa.' 199:J. Social science r('''Couch oITers 'KI1lll' slll>pon r"r gun comro l mh'tK:t IC'.1. . 19U2. a~ wc shall scc.LI~IIIlCeS that the ~rig hl 0 1 the people to keep and bear amlS shall not be infringed. 1993: I tillS.'Ople died in 1992 lill'ollgh hmuicides committed with a firearlll .c Second AIIH': lIdrnCI1I lO IIU' Constitution b'1 I . cxpensagrce Ihat rcgislr:..lch is fa\'llrecl by IlppOllentS ofolhcrgttllcOIIlrol meaSllrt. Dr.. the e llo nnOllS n aliollwitle rt. a nd singer J ohn l . 6Iu IlJlIgh~IIIIIK (TJtIIltI(lI IWII"II. Sill c(' 1963.JIld lh<...kcrs \\'ho ravar SOllll: form of gun cOIllrol legislation? • In "hat way h.! beel! m o re Ih. According 1 a study com0 198 .lire fOllr main:JP' pm:'lche'l npen 10 policymakers who f:.eIl~1 of 60 to iO million . 1992). J r.O\·l'r." CurrclIlly.. here do' IIll'stic \lolcncc i~ alltOc) common ('lCC Chapter 111 use oflirc. Kellcnn:mll c l :. iling pm. thcrc have. and 66 pcrccm of reported IIHlrdcr. AI.."'" I .Iohll F.mit. According 10 ... Many index crimes in Ihe t."oClvcs and membcrs of their r. 19'-.ults.tpom y.group IlOlIure exisl across lhe cou ntry.· yollth~.....illauons of ~uch pllblie ligurcs . I:nes :tCl'Os..ion (NRA) .1\\'Sarr !lOI a SIalic lXld)' flf nllc~ bUl rcOl'CI c hall gi ng SI3J} dards (If right and wmlll{. nership exist UII a Ilalion:tI basis. (Oftuibllle to man)' violent ('rimes. Gunshot w()unds h3\'(' become the sccond·!c:. in a wcic ly .HI 400.000 pt.'lIing:1 gun is not .. kccpi llg:1 handgun in il homt..lUtOIll:II. sociclfs ]. 2 IVill/iring n mm/Hlg /Jmoo INJo".. while 60 perccnt or deaths among teenage Afrie.mili(~ 1:1 limes ilS oftt.. 1-IO". ods ranging from '18 hl)ur'i to 15 d .. 4 IkmllillK I/fUIl/glIlII ft/Jew/II.o filr illtglllluf' uf1f"'1$..!VI/m/lll) oJ fimmnJ.'!l morr likely lO result in dt:alh than use or m he!" wcaponl (I lilts.lInd sccon<l:II)'.c n non-havc forced Icg1sUlors 1 considc l' gun contro l mcasun.GUN CONTROL • are the main approachcs open to policy. As of 1991 .. This option it alre.(1'5 (Mackenzie. ul roll~..lS Ihe National Rine Assoc» l. . AJt. Il1fOl'lnal gUll clubs of bOlh " primar}'. 3 tll10wlIIg IIII"~/Ijr/I'{I . Ilm\t!\'tI."I. liNed c:u'licl ill the c ha plel'. Clearly.\'alcd asS<"I.)2). ' nit: liglu 10 hear anns stems in pan from the l1 a ti on'~ gUI1-I'irldcll frontier hcrilagc.'S..o. the nation .L~ SO("ial science research oncrcd sollle support for gun control ad\'ocatcs? • Ilow do conflict theorists \'icw the po\\cr of lhe National Rifle M'IOCi:lliul1 .uons pl'ol1lOljng gUll o ."I.24 pcrccn t o f all l'cponcd agg'(l...m act of devi:lI1ce in our !tociety.. .'11 fircal'lns in order to protect Ihcmseh't:5 anti their 10\'00 ones Irom \iolcnt crimi na ls. suc h <I lalV'.1ioo ofsllch we.n"ilablc illcgally. YCt. sludio tt. dalio n ..I SILLdy rc1e:tscd ill 1:1It..' .'or SOIn' 10l'ln nf gt ll ' cOll lrollt·J.:·:lth a l1long high sch ool-agt. 1<1 litalcll had . Senator Robcrt Kcnllecly.'0 1\. TIllS appro. " .ic \'I'capons and "':0.')' shOOl a criminal who halo clHl'red Ihe hOI11t.md other strong lobhying grollp~? Wh~ 1 E rearms have achic\'ed an almost inevitable place in the United SI:JtCS. 1993: Fingcrhtll.. This could includt prohibitillg Iht. formal org.

m(:d iall illlllua! inclllllt"s.' 0" 6Vl1 Ca..\CE "XTl <ilx.rf /Imf 11) "'/Ofi' tllIlII "..de tire TlIere pos.we not la llnc hed :I n en rOI·cement. 199 1: Md.ional. wh ich u n~ lI ccessfll ll y allem ptt:"d to ha\'4.(j{J() Idll".. w."".'itS nearl y th ree limc'l d. A U'<UIl of rco. th e Mo n o ll Grnvc law hm.Uon of handgun\ (Sloan Cl a l. of stillC rifle a. symbo lic \" . while four subLlrb~ followed ~lIil. Yet the ris k. W Iltt HMlD(jON$ ? .. raIl'./!" 1lI". wielded impr'cssi\'c pm..nROL C"~&£D ? 1 ....c..lM<:':.. the ci ly of Ch icago pa!oloCd a law prohibiti ng lht' registration 01 any new lrandgulIs... W h c re.ltil1 t1 i n !'t'cc n t deC'oldf's."S ofhllrgl:uy a nd rubbcl) . I: ! / NO. 1 6H I\~Olt:DS /' Of LET1U.. lullld~'l"rj I'(Ifh )'f'f/r. : illlldditioll.{)()(J //I'Ofill' 11/ lilt UIII/I'd Sl(ltl'~ IIJf'T'I' dyIng n.. (llilmt I(). 'ill".l.~ the NRA hasa fo rmidablc W:II c hl.J.lIId exert inflllellC~\'C n in oppm. HAT MkllJT "'filE 10.f ('(Jflomllct! "'1111 IJ lir.ec:1 bF'lIll comrol measures. lI'h"" thu carlO/m wosfiflt /mlXlJhaJ. . Spur rl--d in part by the Morl un Gro\'{' IlIC..II .:II'f'hcr. Nc'\'crtllclcss. ('. Owing .. T hisstalllle.~io n or a h'lIldgtrn . drive. th e na tion 's 111 rtio r anti-g un Ltltltrol lob~ i nK group..ll.1 I 1 Il 5Et.h e pt:riod 1I11dcI ~ l l ldy. Yt·t.tt11ts were IOlllld IQ have comp. n police h.can . some rornmUllitiC5 h u\'1' pas. <I lO 5 million member. While tIll' peop lc of the Unilcd S l. rhese pori ci lit.~ I.. I(~ 1992. H a lld ~'l ln Conll o l has less lh .ion h.... 1992) .·er in blocki ng or d il uting such 11lt".H ..H LESS • WEe< on'OSlI<'6 If VG<"- 111/991.tSlI res. tlt e ~ ati O ltaJ Rin c Associa tio n (N RA). iI cnnlllllllli ey's homicidt. 1988) .. since to .000 l1le lll bl' l~ 0 1 I landgu n Conl rol.u r (t)\TH(JJ .x munths in jai l :Ind... !\Iorlon G l'mc..lIl i/. such Icgisl:u.'S a rc o nly 140 m iles ~1 p.•:mada.000 ProfIlE KILI. a nd rNOi.u":\blc levels 0 1 !'ChooJ:. Founded in people. Conn icl IhcnrisL'I con tend tha t powerful groups like lh e l'\ RA c m dumin.~ recognized by the NRA. a kc) nrg.eo EAUl 'reM...1$500 lint'..lIld i L~ allies.) n Si m illiun pe r year (Mackt=II·IIC ."St. only ~lighth higher than lh al of Vall(OU\'CI'. AA~ YM I'OSITlot. u io n ill the Kun control lobbv..~ Iriule resources .met rates of' uncI}}p!uynlcnt.. a Chicago suburb of 24. II I . Sca uJea nd \ 'ancoU\-er had imila r m lc.Ire subject tQ up 10 . a~ . tht: na tion's lllos' ''lringelll g u n comrollaw.r clime Il<:gin ning in 1982. gun (omml measlII'l'S may red uce PJri ng crime r..Jon-m:tking process because of thcirabil ity lO 1110- h.l.tS nOI been /99 UllI'/HI 7 • /JI. has had liul e pr:tctical impact.. Ilwl /fJp.lt e~ have con\I\I~ nLly favorcd g lln cont rol Icgisl.'!) <. Despitt' opposition from the NRA .u eI ill St'attJe a nd Vancouver. ".. II".. Thl'M' figur~ compart= with 0111) 350.iliol1 10 the wi ll of tJ1C majorit).uc the defl.lI.S: i M SEeM EY '0 BE MIJ(... ViolatOl'" .s ~llld icd crime 187 1..000 data in the two cities over the IlCliod 1980 to 1986. Ul{' NRA has 3 mi l1ioll llll'llI bc l.~es.l!Ul'e .lltLc . of beinl( killed \\tlh" ftrcan u ..i high in St:atWo as in Vancom cr-whic h halo mo re resoicu\'c rcgul.' tilt:" statu te ruled IUlCtlllSll l111.tlile Scaltle'~ ratc ofassauh W..sociations slIPl>orl many of Ihe ' RA 's goal."') )f'UI' Ilmwgh hl)lmflt/f'.

11lI that Ill"" are fOf/nali/. ban 00 g uns.. Wllt:r~L~ obedi f!nfl' is defined .. 1992) .<..cd 11110 la WI controlling peuple·.ANI7 ..~ While lhe NRA predicwbly o pposed the Brad).n in the same period in 1991. l'ai!ing of an eyebrow. Consequently. Supponcnl or b"'" cOlllrol a rgue lhat.sociclY liSt'S social co/aru/to brinK abo\ll acceprance of ba~ic norms. seven-day wailing period on all handgun purchases to allow for background chccks or those who wish lO buy gons and to penuit impulse purchasers to ~cool 01T.c:m Americans wa. ti(lllalist t. many'" them Africa n Amel. 3 Ex.'.un defined uHI/arm. advocalt. 200 /'.ty itS goin)ol alrlllR with one's ]. gUll sales in the St. I II this d13ptcr.". iuciuding obedience' ~1 law.:ldy bill.-Ind oppuncnts found stit! another way of debating: this COlHl'oversial isslIl!.. lonu·ol... 72 nlurders had occurred in the city's public housi ug projecb...'!ession o f it . "' Somc 'nomlS are considered so irnpurt.t(kocau::s n l ~ WQI1 m:tior vicl... in the first 11 days of May 1992. T his action was lllken primarily bCGHL"C in 1990 ~llon('. :-.-1. 2 Sw.1lifonlll 3Y has a 15-<1 wa iting period for gun purchase\.Sst:d and Pn:sident Climo rl siglr l·tl into law a modified version of the Brady bill which requires the buyer ofa handgllll to wait five days be fore t:lking pos.s 111 Afl. 6 For fWlI. h(lld~ 7 TIlt' thl'OfY of dif/rre. hil e fior.ltes . A .ty was infrin ging on rhe Icnams' conSliltltionalligh t to bear anns and tha t this action would havc dispropor· tiomHe and unfai r impact on the righlS of Blach livin g in public h o u s in ~ .'s tenants.>.. ries in New Jersey and Virginia in o 1993. J J .rtlll COlt11'01 ad\'oc.1tC \. CI·itics urthe NRA Charged that the NRA's suddel1 COllcem ror' the right.ol assoc.0 protect them selves (Ec kholm. Ncw. However. n stolr e thousands or weapons duling the r. mpponed thi .Ilcnrists. Gun c:ol1lrol . deviance helps to ueliur tlte limi1. in recent years. h.cre 511 pe rce nt higher tha.ICCJ"S. law-abidill~ c.\'v . While lhe l-I olL~ing Authoril)...1."diting pel·iod. 1993: N~w!il.. Thi~ bill was mUlled aftcr onc or its chief :H\vocates.tllC Un ited Stalt'5 Timt:.Jtori ly began 1.0 enforce a 20·year-old ruk forbidding tenants tu keep guns 011 lhe premises. l1lts deb"te recaJls a control'ersy that crupted UI 1991. bcha\.\ cum· pliancC' wilh higher aUlhoritie~ in a hierarchical stf'U(· mrc.JRA oflicials counter that . SUMMARY Collrorm!l) .S. 1992: 1992-wl1ich cruplt:"d afle r the . 1991). many more peoplc .Qr" ItL un. 1982) .IOnd to 1'1':1 1 rrcssures or 10 Imagined pressure~ from others. after the dismrbances..ld such iUl-pulse pun:lmscs or gun .lcrsey upheld its ban on the purchase of assa ult weapons.ould hall' died.\m p lc~ of iliforlnal SQcia l control include §mikot. whic h helped reduce impulse buying during the nots. The l3T1\dy bill proposed a compulsar.. while Virginia restricted hand· g Ull purchases to one per munth a nd fluuuwc:d gun possession by minors (Ec kholm .~ III proper beha\·ior. \993)..itizens .INS of Blacks (Prud'hollll'llC..k<l. In Ihe aftennalh or the Los Angeles IiOlS or passed by any other city in (~lc Roberts and Kuo. In latc 1993. 1tion is the prllllal) 1. occurred 011 a large scalr (/ Unllg the riots. bill-noting that it would 110t h aVl~ deterred Hind.. The NRA insisted that the Ilousing Amhol.can.md deviance :IfC twO ways ill which people rcsl.I¥!t'k. who obt:lincd his fireann six months before Ihe assassination :lllempl-:I 1993 national survey re· vcaled th:u85 pcrcelll o f respondentS f. who was shot and paralY/ed in 198 1 by John Hind:ley during Hinckley's anem pt to assassi nate rresidelll RonaId Rengan.1\'orcd such 3 seven-day \".el·c not able to buy guns 1.oll that iJt. C.ulcy Milgr.oI.'.ol. fOl'mer White House press secretary James Brady.(J1ITCC for dlCcling coofomli ng and obedicn1 bch:l\'ior. ilnd [llcchanisms of social .. The crucial problem in asse~ing the enh:ti\'cness of a ny slate or local gun law is that weapons can tx: imported rrom localiti es in which laws are morc hLX .11'1' 711"0 .). laughter. Congress p:l. wc c"uluine the rc\atiou~llirs br'-Iwcen confonllilY d~iancc . ratJlcr transpare nt and added that the ban on gUlls would disproportionately SIWf flit I.(J/l('.\cqu iual of four White po lice otTicers c ha rged with the (videvtaped) bealing of suspect i{odllC"Y King---f. congressional debate 011 this isslLe centered o n the so-called Br.1l1' 5 Sociali/. thl' Natiunal Rilk Association did not. :md ridic\Lle. when the Chicagu Housing AlI c.Icy.'S or handgun cOlllrol insi~1 thal Stringt'fll federal gun control IChrislalion is essential.

.l~'-to-d:l) .... (i1J:i) .~ or or ~ (:Cillg along with OIlC ' ~ peeN.\·ianc(' proposed b) Ed\\in SlItherl.:­ '"'M)" thal JOUle people an:: t"r:uoM as dC'li.h) is Ih~ approolC h lIIor(' ('OIIMuting tI~1I Ihe OIhf'r thrC'l.. lheh.wards fur conducl .::..". I An imporunt a~pt:cl of 'a b~IiNg th r:ofJ i~ thl' n~nlf.. ( 179) Diffl!rl!l1 lial auocia lio /l A UWOfVnf dl. assau lt. school ad min i~ lratUl"li. . IIjrli\"1l l ual~ p"nfJn'. rrOtclmg Iht" intc l~u of ' he 1)('J\'!'erful lhe Uh:gOry of itldt'x crim f!s include" lII u1"(ler• ..numble 10 Crlm iI mj :lCIS.lI'omblc 10 (nlUlna] ... (1 H6) Yi r: li1N itat iol1 su rveys Qucslionn"ir('~ 01 IIHe1"\'U'W!> lI~cd 10 determine wheulcr lK:ople h.. dC"\"CIoping skil1('(l t« hniqu« :111<1 c njtl) Hlg a cenain (Iegree of S(alU~ a mOllg Olh('r criminals..\lI1J dilcussed in t. (HIoI ) 1 WhJI 1Ut. ( 190) Sal1tti"As I)cnahjel....\!:".rl\ cngag('(1 in Ihc salllC bcha\10r arc nOl_ I 111e conflicl pcrllpecli\'c views 1 . . Inll illeg:l!. I1 ilK: power of IlIe Nalional Riflc A.."? What an~ the main ~ ul each approac h ? J . (paKC 11'12) "'Hry of d f'v itlll ce 1 tl U '01"\ d el'doped hr \ M"I'toll which l'x plains de\' iancc us :m ad. n W1IilH olla r crim fll h:we S4:..~t. of conduct or ('1CI>CCI..'llt. burgl:ll"}.... 01' j:11" 1II .1ml1CIIl in- 201 ..lIIo n . such liS police oni(l:rs. ·n.and or . w. the u.. or . intCrp1'('ICII b)' the coons. COl11p.hrough such U1c. Bcckcr which allcl1lpLS to explai n why ceruin pcuple are VII'UItd as de\ianu while othen ellgaging in UIC llOInle behaYior are not.. Illlrlht'lm 's (('fin fo r Ihe loss d il'l'ctioll fe lt ..."'ark ofa grollp that regulal~ rC'lalions bclWI.\ ..~ lIf " 'i<ld) tll"~i .:nncemmM .or Ihal violalo. 1l:I\C no ' 1loCcial right 10 rh~1 pt'non'~ bcha\ior... h"Ullbliu g.' Ihi n k of 1Ihen Ihl') c)( p rcss cOlleen! abo u t ( rime.l\.. mong adlllt. ( 178) IlI dl!x crim es 'n lc l'ig hl typt:~ 01 rri Ull' reponcd alllllla ll) b\ Ihe FBI in Ihe U"IIilM en""..nllncnt for 'Iodel\.U fUl1cl iuna list. pl"oslilUI IO n ..ula. "ociol~ists IQ d . ~nu1es..!"c h ical Slnl( lme...! em p1o\l!r5.!! cOl1lmiucd hy .tl"m t:1I.-ape.. &poru. "'.. .m.' Mmlkh higher in 11ll' United SI.tmr IIIcrre\"th~...1 .... . l1ld :md o thl'1 activili e~ . $Clilx. __ .. (I i6) Soc ial CUIl/rol '1U' lC1:h n iquc5 and su'lI ('git-~ fll r rcgu.lI"c hecl! l.ompllallcc \\..lllt! "hich holds tha l l'iol. wh. Auslnl lia.lr-. and r(.S. ' (Mln.~ their :&1I.wior i~ learned through SO<. sod. _. rape. ___ . . Nc\\ Zealand.chool of crimiTllllul(r which al)C\ll'S Ihat cl'imimll hch.. I1I C'Xpliin why th~ Un ilc d Slalc~ i~ ( lIch .uHhority.. ( 176) C"rilllinal I..\'IoIn(~ rcsulb from cXpoiure 10 lIIU1udCll f... O l'a \\ 0 11 _mny or th(' tilc :orie. ( 176) Orgol1 i:r:d cri mt' T he .m81 11cr... K'Klfls :!IId 5C1"\'icc-.." appliC'd by ·...llIy I. I':llcS ofviolt'l1l nilllt.ur ill any 'oOCic!)" ( 176) Soci da/-r('(J ct itm ap proa ch Another 1]. (190) biformal socia l cO lll rol Social con tru l Gm.... (184) Devia l1 Cf! Ikh:l\. and backed h) Ihe powt'r of the statc.IS l.. ""urt\ ".1I1l \'Ihih: Ult..tpproach 10 de\.l1iulIs of a group or society. Ihe body of rules made b)' go''c..km "'Xiety..lpta.IS 1'05. (197l Yi r ti lfl leu cr ilflu A t(!ml lI~l by . t..'COII \'ariOIlS crimhl..'1 r('sult5 fwm t'XJl'fI'\U·C to attit\l d e~ I.u:.. _..!... conflict t IW(lI. csc itre murder. OWn M.. all t.. 1 I :.\ discllss('(1 in Ihe d mpll'r ..III1S.'Ch. il1l(!r. .II'~ gun control leg~ation I' Cu ltu ral Ir al1smjuiol1 A o.. robberv.l] norm. I...ome go\'crllllll..'lvri~ imoln :d ill smuggling 1 Sille o f d rugs.linmcuL (182:) or Jo'ormfll social rQlltrol Social coml"ol c:ll'licd jJ111 b)' authoril.judge.Hln~ human beh..tCtA.' While-collar crim rr Crime.rh... ___ .'s dm l peopll.11 he h .tmli\rd.hc'r (If lIOCially pft.ll en ll. and olher lU~riOUS uffc nSo. ( 10 I) Praf euia flal crimill(JI A pcrson \\ ho p Ul'$III'" crime .. ( 1i9) Obr:di l!Nce C"'......t\'l'1l :Ull! pun i~llIncnl.ucd by l-Io"".. ".hto sodal conlrol ur indwidu.. :md ridicule. :lI\d :m'Oil ..l1 d S.lIl isms form. TERMS .i~ ill :I hic". (11'17 ) T echlliqllrs of 'lfw t r(lli~alit}1I JUSliFic~ljOIl.l\illl .ooal intl'taClioll" al )'Qur 'Choolr 1 \\ll1ch ..1111(' for labt-Iwg throry.d .cLims (lfcrinl(!. (178) Labe/illg Ih tlory' An approach to clcvi:lI1 rc I>opu ta.'irll inlt'racLiom.he ('hapler.lh lughcr :l lI l horit.thl' willing I' xdlallgc .. ~ a da)-lo-tl.Cd agl! lIlS. bttn J major faclOr in prn-enLillg tilt..~ribC'cI g<)als nr Ihe norm.ation of nlll.. mOlor H·hide theft .l\'iur. ( 187) La w In a poliLical SCII.IW for wlllrh fonllal " \tnbtion .'l'iuus econ omic :m d tIONI ((bill 101 1nl' United SI~Ie5. or labeling Ihl'()risl~r \\..U~ thall in \fc<.uocialion (1\'RA) 1w.w lloCcul).allce <in rou lind 111051 pertUaU\'C' lb. . .~ IClr del'la lH bch.1Sllagc of tlIl.tuh.t-U alii br peo p le GUlu. 1:lIId inforllla l ~ocial (011Uulllll' "idem in )ollr college ci:lSS('S aud ill rl. 1 ' J. . _ J!!:.

... or Journals ..... etUIWII:.. D:wid . and lIIelllal iIInellS."SI. [ Iin Waling.... Vachss.. 198.. Trn\i~ .or shan' ill commOI1 the purSUil of IITIlncdiatc hl'lIcliu without conct'm for longtcnn COSts...... Sa Criml'. TlI#! ~II ' tmltry tif0ro. Alice. In· cludt'S cO\'Crnge of ......J1ce crime.."sodation Iheory into ia social context.. Lnlxllllg Wo".... and Dtln~ (founded ill 1955) . Cregg (ed....... Weishllld..... 1994.: TrduQction . co\'cring such topia as dem l15 or Alxlligi lle5 in Au~ tntlia n prisons. dud lax fraud..... Thi! an th ulogy ad\'3nccs the al'p:ulIlclI t lhal rill forms of de-" jam and crimi!!al I>l'ha\...awall4 Soom IVvirw {I 9(6).VW.... Philad dphi:t: Temple Un h'ersity Pr$.. Cnmf.. Till' Cnmmology of EsiWHI SulMrulIId..... Edwiu M....... I'au:mosler.. RLIIgcrs.. __ Sandt'l'lI.... 1/1" 202 PART nro • ORCA... lmd ('\'CII body type...r. ..lpis of t he II:uldling of ClISe'!I ur securi l it!~ fmud... Schur....... Mi)....mdw. antitrust "iolation. AJb<IIIY: Stale Uui\.. SI/g-..SlIII.. :tIld Michael Coufrtclo\OI1 leds..... 1989.• and John F.J. ... ramily \1o lcllce. I' hil:ulclphia: Temple Unh'Cm'Y Press... New H:I\'c n ...ltiolu of replaring the death penalty Ioith life scl1lences wil holU parole and lIumdalofJ financial reslitution ...ing Cli1l1(..lord.1Iulated hu o English.... Ill' Gnplfllm Sink: All ilil1'()dual/m 10 . 1986.......1 Schustt'r.. Rutgers. I'oI/nng 11/ }a(1(///' A Smdy IIn Malr. I lirschi .. and Nancy Bodc..: Kandom 1 ·1011$('... ).........: Tl"'a n~ction ..... _ .. Ca). Clinton R. Art find Cui· l/mofTlltlOOlllg. acth.Among the jouruals which focus Oil issue! or de~ia.J oftll#! Midllk CIt/w.... and 50Cial cOlltrol are Cri"....divid ua ls or corporntioll.... An examination of how gm'cmmellls imtlate or racilitate Cnlll1l:5.. ul/d Sona/ Conlrol. Wilroll...... Barnk.~ the ~i:d irnplic...). r.. A criminologist c:xam il\c. New York: SimOIl . NJ . 1992..Hion 0( th~ who work as la llOOISIS... 11<1 A chal1enbting...lCh It) clim-= thato..... 1991..\ 11 u:ullillatiol1 of the criminal jll5tice ~ tt:m in iu broade!lt contcxt <15 it :lpplie1i to wtlllu:n.cr. Raymonrl.\ r."/{ 1111' Jhxly: 7'h..:Y"lc Un" \'ersity I're~s.' " ork: UXillgtOIl . An an:.ties..ur lO int('l1igelltC'..u reo.5C'5 to prbon riots..sexual haragmc.. 1993A fQmu'r New York Cily prosecutor a... Conn..l He l·IIstcin.. con IJ'O\crsial..llada's 5('"ual auault laWl!. 199 1... Setsuo.... and J.... Mark S .. An in tellcc\llal biogmph y or Sutherl:lIld wh ich placc5 the dC\'Clopmelll of differential . Cnmlllu"". SloInton Wheeler....nt... NJ.n_". and Richard . 199 1. 'tOClA/ un" .." iHlnan': C. _.. New York. J alllc5 Q.. re~pon.. S:lndel'!l oITers a brief histmy or the practice 01 1:luooing and discusses his participan l observ....... In lhc course of lheir dai ly busim..ielo·S the nation'. pl':'1 'lIOlIaltty. 1"31)1:. C""'IIIQ/ogy (196 1). amin('~ ole rdatiorls h ip law'3bicling belul\.. Stale Unin~rsit} of New York l)reM....s: Whill"CoIlarOf [trUIf:fl/'lll!e l'N ltraICtmru. and indifference 10 CJ...u:!wa. 1987. A profC'MOr oflaw iu ja]>...lp p Hl.dIY(If New York PI'e5M. Capillll P!4"IJhllKflt mnua. legal ('II\'iroumelll :lI1d crimilla! justice s)'lItcm in a work 1.... ( 192) ADDITIONAL READINGS . Cri"li an4 /lu"'(ln N(lturt...... Calliher.allfl..... Alb:Uly.~ the 1001)' in which 5('X crilllcs-and C'sl)(:'cially rape-a rc handltd by the crilllinalju~licc !>~tem . Nt:v....

. of dC\-iance...~.... P A R T T HR EE .. ......... ......... lJtljnquenCJ Loll! and .......... ........ ....................I.....................J.........................\~J. ...........Y. SOCIAL .. .QY!.........N...


Jociologir. Chapter J J discusses iruqualily based on gender and fhe position DJ TAIOmen as an oppressed majority..~I.Y.~. ... Chapter 8 examines che important sociological concepts oJ stratification and Jociallllobilil)~ (u well as inequality based on social class.. Part Three focuses on the structure ami processes of social inequalily.... 205 ... . SOCIAL PART THREE . . . we consider stratification and mObility abroad and give particulaT allrolion lo the iruqualit)' euidl!11l in the world's deuelcping 1i... .. . ...ol analysis of Ihe aging /m>ctss is presented.. . .Ab. ~N.. .. ..QY.... .. . with special emphasis 011 llle United Slates. In Chapter 9. . .. QUlpler 10 deals with inequality based 071 racial and tthnic background and focuses on prejudice and discrimination against minority groups.. ..alio1u.. .. In Chapter 12.. . . . and iluqualit)' based on age is examined. .

· .s .~ S.'d Il. . l.r ( (: 'JLL !"It 1. .

r.uili<::uioll Is Stnuifi c.nion and Ufc C h a nC(.. UlUlrrr/rtJS SIIIdyi1lg "(Jll/7ty t:m::mpIO) IllCI I ' " ~mll$ : SlI'lllific-..>e n "CI1I US Closed Class S)'Slcrns T)1lCS of SOd.... J Classes o n Str. STRATIFICATION AND SOCIAL MOBILITY UNDERSTAN DING STRATtnCATION Systems of Slraliricatioll Sb\'cl)' C llSlt.ollscrlucllces o f Social Class in th e Uni ted 51............... =====::1.·....... ....lliriC-dlif)1I Karl Mao: 's View o f Class Differentiation M:u: Weber's View of Slr.ll Mo bilit)' Social Mobility in the United Slatb SOCIAL PO LICY AND STRATI "'CATION: RETHI N KING WELI-' ARE BOXES 8................11('5 Wealth :lIld Income 207 ......'S Povcn y 'I'll....1 Around the World: Slavery in the 199(b 8-2 SIx:aking Qut: Blaming the Victim Col1 llin View STRATIF ICATION BY SOCIAL CLASS Meas uring Social ClaM C'.::.ui o ll Unil'c rs:lI? FUIlCl iona li5l View Pe~pt'cLi\'('s SOCIAL MOBlLIIY O ... ~ Soci...

.as slightly higher ll1an in Russia and Costa Rica blll was slightly lower than in Hungary and Uruguay. The quality of life fO I' Blacks and Hispania \. 1993). including significmu segments of the population of the United Slales. macks and Hispanics in lhis counll}' appear to have a quality o f life comparable to I. compared with 99 percent in Japan.!lion o f Guinea. """" Orox/J AnilMI Form.. All sod- 208 I'ANT 711HJJ-. in the Un ited StaICS? • How likely arc people in the United Stales either la move inlO or 10 rise OUl of poveny? • Should there be major CUIS in welfare progr. the Numan DrtH!/. compared with nearly 79 years in 101). To assess the quality of life in a gi\'en COlllll!-y. the quality of lile fo r African Americans WtlS comparable to that inlhc Caribbean nations of Trinidad and Tobago. the Unitcd Nations began issuing a IhIT/an DmJf{o/lmenl '?Ff)ort as a mcans of assessing the quality o f life of peoplcs around the world ..tms in the Un ited Statcs? 1990. In an especially sLJiking finding. Ever since people bcgall to speculate abOUl the nature of human socielY. while Hispanics' quality of life W. of povert). prestige. 1993). ed- In ucalion . the United Slates ranked sixth-highest among the 173.als are equaL BIll some animals are more eqltal than others. In Guinea. or power. the re are subSl3ntilll dir· /crenccs in peoplc' s qUlIlity of life. have" life expectancy at binh of 44 years.1AUI1' . In 1993. and Guinea 's annual level of production per capita is one-tentJl that of Japan (United Nations Da't~ o pmcl1l Programme. By CQntrolSl.. which ranked thirty-finn.." equality describes a con· dition ill which members of a society have differ· e nt amounts of wealth..\S cornpamble to that in Estonia (which unlil reccl1l }'can was part of the Soviet Union). only 24 percent of adults are literate. yel Whiles in the Uniled Stales enjoyed a quality of life higher than the people of top-ranked J apan. which milked thirt)~ fourth. 194' LOOKING AHEAD • How arc societics organi1cd lO deny privileges to some membe rs while extending them tu others? • How did K. • SOCJM 1. their allention has been drawn to the differences that can be readily observed between in di\~duals and groups within am' society. ranked Japan .. By contrasting the extremcs .lrI Mao: and Max Weber contribute 10 our understanding of social class? • Can life be organized WitJlOUI stnlcltlred inequalil)'? • How clo sociologists measu re social class? • How is the ideology of ~ blaming the victill1~ uscd 10 minimize the problem. The tenn social . and health. All around the world.\ 'EQ!.All anim.he residen ts of many dt"\'cJoping countries in the Third World (Bcals.·c sec thilt residellts of the lowest· mnked ".ofJmenl Report relics o n an index thal combines iudicators of real purchasing l}Owe r. The 1993 report painted a blcak picture for Illllch of the world's population. nations studied.. a foml er French colon) in Mrica milked 173.

II \/(fflll rn ."}. in the social poli(. mologisls ha\"e dirccted their :llIcndon ltllhe Implications of Slr.tt.. Particu lar altcnliOl1 \\~ll be h'1\t'1l to Kad Mal")"s the ories or c1a1>s and 1 "'!:I.lul.lIjon will he um'>iden:c:i a nd contl-a..II. These unequal 1'(. Social inerl'mlity is an innit.i" lulf'll fIIlmwfl)' by (OIU/II)'.Af:f1 mtH hr/l 01 a M>CiCl).u. nations go 10 \\'":1 1' u\rr preciolls reSOlU·CCS suc h as oil or minerals.x 0 Wd"ICr'.:c "1111 rnmhi" PI ".zt:d by sume deg H!l' o f sodal 1IIl'qualit). fu nctio nalist and co nOic l th eo rists ' cxplm.ttifiC. In lhe I. a nd receive special tfl'Jlment.J.h ird pan of t.1 clisuibution o f wealth a nd income whhin indU\lnal socieucs. lhereby producinggroups of people arl":'Ulged 10 r.uldilioll. Whl'f\ a S).5. . IICQlllf! refers to sala ries lnn wages. each of us \\'aIllS a -f.f /ru/ . sec lion .he chaple r . ir s hal'c~ o f sorll'i\'~ rewards.~ Ihe contro\'CI"S"I' I)\'er the welfare system or lilt' Uniled Stales. l'h U /1. Ilu' l'nlv-JI-ml..he CO I1Sl't\Ut' IICCS of stralification a. IlLsuWlu rJj GIIIIIM h«J'f' (/ "11ff/("'CJ al birth of . 11le term. in· flOOmg land and other Ilopes or pro perly.'\\~ oU'(1s arc Miurnt 1101 only in the distribution of wealth and iUtfllnc. Fam ily rncmhl'I"\ ~1rgl.stCIII of soc ial ineq ua lity is based on is hlCrMthy of groups.: result of stralilica ti on in tlt:'11 ce n. 'if' of str<llifi cati o n in terms of we:llth :tn d illcflme .1 ill Cu in ea and o th er developing countries.cucs arc charactc l.1 0 11 fill iml. Cllinm. wc will adrlrcs..mpl~x sllbjcclli of sociological im·csligouion bc'<llIW 01 iL'I pcn'ilsivc influence 0 11 human interaclIQlI\ :md iUSli tutiOlls. III 1993. 1 inNlualitics are JXls.I person '5 m ~ t e ri a l a'iSCIS.1' qlW/IIJ olllf. IJf lif. 01 course. e dllca L ional npport llnil.ics.wry 44 lalll". j (1'lOllt. I'C!ouh. The COlISc(l" e n ces rhl~ "alii)/! III IPnt/J ol/Jl'OlJ/.'ll'lI\~ ofslr.III'. By COnU<lSl.Ilking of e nure groups of ]X'lIple thal perpetuates unequal economic re\. IilfJlificalioll im'Olvcs the waY" in which '1oci:-.."\'1) v )(.cs.lIiolls for the ex islC~ n ce of slr. '\If'Jlilicatio n i ~ o nc of the mosl impol"la lll and I. tlt e 1l10VCm e nl of illdi\'idual ~ up and dmm Ihe social lt ierarc hics of th e UllilCcI Sta tes \\111 be C)(. t. 1 1eal.ressi ng lift: ex peclancy d...."3tl'l' resoun..ific3tio n in ra nking me m- Tn Il. wield powt: r.Ioi\'(' term I'nfllmpassing all or . :md we o lle n com(' inl o conflicl ove r hU\\'lhc!!C rewards sh o llld be di\'iclccl ." led .ttificatioll.t/mlfOll of rl'lll ImrrhrtSillg IlfIlt"".. wf!ulth is a n incl u.a ill gl'Oups of 1>I. As . ill AJrim.I IIFHX/"If)..11111 /lmllh . 209 Of Wlt. III .'IIplc sland hig ht'r in sodal ranki ngs. All wc will sce in lhis dmpll"r. Fiually.r. contro l \C.ll 1-1 1I111:m J)c"d opuu:1l1 Rcpon .(lra/ion::1 SU1.a rds ~l1d po\\'cr in :t socie ty.cd on frOIll onc gen crmio n 10 the IkxI. (I formn f 'rnu h rub"'. /If Q gw'.. Ih~ "'t! Uuitl'd N"fwm . but also in the disl. order from low 10 h igh . 111t> second part of the chapter will explain huw uxiolugi'u mcasu re !locial chw. chapter will foclls on the unequal dislrihll\lUt! of socially v:tlucd rewa rd~ within human <i:od t'11t"\.. lInd Olllcr aspects o f life " 'ill be discussed . sociologbts refer 10 il :l.'e evidclH in lhe IITlrqUJ. Illum/lo"..1I 11 • s rR.1t begins with an examinatio n Or ro w· ge ne ral <'.IC over who should be give n money to huy Ik"1I clmhing o r 1.lc tW'ed I<l.lInillcd .1kc a \'acatio n.'" .anaiysis Of lllc co mpOilc n l~ or sI l'alificalion.I!)I.

Schaefer.ha bles. a nd to a lesser exle nt to rilcial groups in the United St.0 triumph in .. inchides 11 provision a bolishingdisclim inatiOll alrJ. eslales. and public transportation fadl· itate con i. Sociologis ts have also used the tenn mst#' to describe st. cal led II(m/l'lS. led by a carpenter a nd former slave na med Denmark Vesey.. This situation has created resentment among people jusl above th( IIntouchables in the ca. whose main work is the undesi r· able job o f cre mating bodies. The distinguishing c haracteristic of this oppl'essivc system of stratificatio n h.e syStelll. wi Lllin that caste. A fi fth ca t. In ancie nt Greece. Imagine the resources Llli11 must have been needed to cnlsh suc h a ma. b{~.~ 9000 Blacks were invo lved in an 1822 slavc revolt in Charlcstoll . 1993).in..1. de pe nding on OI C circumsta nces or histOl).es. factories.·cclI dirre re nt caSles that lI'en: previously a\'oided a t aJl COSl.tes.." Asian ....rJ. slave ry has \'equircd extensive coercion in order to maintai n the p\ivi teges and re . motes a re markable degree of differentiation..~~.. Thus.~t lllltollc..S... racia. Caste membership is established at bir th .. unto uchables consti tute about 15 per· cent or Ind ia's population and arc eligible ror' cer· lain reser\'ed governmental jobs. In addition. the single caste o f ch:llI m~urs has been spl it illlo twO se parate subcasles: drivers of luxu ry cars ha\'e a higher srarus LImB drivers of economy cars.~~. just as if they w~rc equivaICIll to household peL~ or appliances.. and Black..~~.. TIlis is but onc rellenion of 1he commi tment. 00 hospitals.... schools..QUA II n ' .~. t1. The c. Th is sec tion \.. Schools. that lelld 1 he rlXed and 0 immobile. Today.\\'e no place wiLll in lhis system of stra tification .. in the Uni ted Suites and L.~~ .. and social clas. By COrLlI. c"st. Slavery The most CJ(trem e form of legali zed social inequality for individuals or groups is slavery. milli ons o f people around Ihe world conlinlU! to Ihx: as slaves_ Wh e never and wherever it has ex isted. it was not neces.~.-.. In In· dia there arc l'our major castes.'ards o f slave O\. Eslates A third type of stra tification system. For exam ple..~.ken their toll on India's rigid caste syste m..e ms of SIl'aliJicalion-SYSlems of slavery. There arc also many minor castes. all citize ns had the potc ntial or becomin g slaves or o r being granted rreedom. Although slavc status cOllld be inherited by sl1cceeding generations...:ICticed. Castes Cas tes arc he reditary systems of rank ... IX'Ople in the Republic of SoULll Arrica. 199 1. usually relibriously dictated . 1988. Sou th Carolina.'~ bellio n.~.. since child ren alltomalicall)' assume U1C same positio n as Lll eir parenl...~t C syste m and therefore deemed ineligible fo r these special j obs ( Economist.22-23).nown . the main source of sla\'es consisted of caplives of war and piracy.. called es/n/es.'1tlIS is unk. Fo r example. l1'ese huma n bein gs are treated as property. to social control required lO keep people u'3pped in Ii\'es of involuntary se lv itude (F I~J.<.in aspects of India'. ~Col ored . G. In recent decades.ste system pro. Many villagers have mo\'ed 10 urban a re~ where their 1 ..S.'lste me mbership gellcl'3l1y dt"tcrmin cs one '~ occupatio n 01' social roles.'ncrs.ssive rt.. l1te type or d ifferential lreatment given to White..'lCIS be t... [lI dia's constitution.. the southern stales of the United States had social classes dividing Whites as well as institutionalized e nslaveme nt of Blacks. The caste system is generally associated with Hin duism in Indi a and other cOllntries. Each caste is < Iuite shaq)ly defined. As we will sce in Bas 8.~~~.. . that em. bnn hrs to lIlind ccrm.egory of Olllca<. Slave l)' has varied ill the way it has been pr. it is estimated th . is consid ~red to be so lowly and unclean as to h.uus might change depending 011 whic h c i ly~ Sla te happened 1.'lte! (sce Chal:" ler 10).!.1 military connict. An exampl e o f a lower caste is th e Dons.ISt.... I/"F. was associated wit h feudal societies d uring 210 PAIn TI/REf• • •~OCJM.rrorlS to refonn LIlt caSte syste m. there have been governme ntal e..u <IS many a.ill e xamine fou r gt::nc ral s)'St.. and members arc expected lO marr).~ .kli ll and Moss. Any stratification system may include clements of more than one type.tificatiol1 s>>stems tha t e mph asize racial distinctions...la\'cd inclivithmls a re owned by other people.. castes. . adopted in 1950. These should be viewed as ideallypcs lIscful for pu rposes of a nalysis... industrialization a nd urban· iza tion have w. In effect ..l and legal barriers were cstablishe r! to pre\'(~ nt the freeing o f slaves.llin Ame rica. who had traditio nally been excluded from te mples. referred to as ul!toudltl. and most fomlS of employme nt.·caslc Si.a rity penmlnen t~ A person's su.<.

:alp'" 1!19'b. Similar tactic.olunt. a decrepit freighter carrying nearly 300 iIlcg'.uC'n with stid~.. India a lone had an estimated 5 mil· lion bonded laborers working in road-building ganb'S.nhed su rface a. 1 (l!j2~ : /'r. who brought them imo Ihe counLl)'.ulobe hm recalls: ~No money ~ 1). and ill swealShops.. in quarries and brick""orks... s. the NClhe rhmds. t9'. A IO-)'car-old who ntapcod with three friends after 18 lIU'luthJ working in and confined to ~ red. III man y cases. these g irls may later nll.t1 immigranl..lICS dW'ing lhe pJanCllion em.. CI'eecc:.~~ (Cargan.: owners and 1IC\'cr inrormed 1ll0~1 of its l>opuiaLion that slaver'}' had be(:om c il k1f. '''' 211 CJIM'n:. more than IOO. and Swit..tda Ould Mbarek.ilJt. Yel Rriwln's Anl.000 (and perhaps J million) ~IiOtlren w1)rk a. . &].I. Bangladesh.tl immigranL~ a rc forced 10 tabor for yea •. 1U't'b:A8). guesl workers and maids are employed by ~ma§­ ten~ .I... ConsequentJy.. m upon achieving independence ifll960 and passed a similar mea· 1lI~ tll 1!l80. To.Oc/M MaNum' ..'llrialized naLions of tile \001:SL TIlI'Ollghoul Eurol>C. D.nd. smal l debts. While COlllcmpor..tI11 orth~ children come rrom Rihar. Eight of the imm igrants died .~ child prostitutes in CaI· cUlla or Bomrnly.. in a ll their "'d I()rm~" (Masial1d. for ex· ample..OOOofMau· ritania's reside n ts of African descent are still beliewd 10 be Ihing as sla\'es. a 25ye....ex industrics of Bel· gium. . COrdillg w the 1948 Universal or Human Rights.H It • S1HA1'lI'ICdTlON "MU.t is a lso present in the indu.ations.i-Sla\'cry l 111crnaUnnal. India's mos t impove... In some pam of Asia. subjecl th em to dcgrddillg working: conditions...'.l. border.lfily from an clllplo)'er. 1~lamic Republic of Mauriuntil. In 1992.cs o ld..l\'e who is unable to withdr~lw his \)1' her lal>o r \. AII SLAVERY IN THE .l'3lioll which usul>pc»cdly binding Oil all ":." When asked about tJte emancipation of Mauritania's sla\'('5.OUND THE WORLD BO X .~ are IIsed to essential ly .a: (. \Vi lhin the U nited States...32).1111 to nil. 52 weeks J \1'aI. . '.!fouod the world art' still enslaved. As of 1991. \I.. ille lf.' -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. he !lays: "I nC'\l!r heard of it...ggo.sla ..lItjon. M. It \J estimated that al leas! 31_1..shed lU/t:.lO..OOO to the ~mugg: l en. And what's more. organi~. t'1~1I up unti l rni{lnighL We ""-'ff' nOI allOIl'Cd to rest during the (UI' If wc became slow.uen Ihl!1lI with deportaLion if they protest.. creating carpeLS sold in the Stal~ and other cOllnLrics. 19'n .~ nlg wea\'er~ in nnnhl!rn India .~ from China ran aground in New York City'S harbor.. . C"." .cnnany.ration Front has fou nd worke rs payi ng ofT debts that are eight ccnlut.: ry and the sla\"(" lrad~~h:all ~ prohibiu. 1992:30.. 7 d3ysa weck. in man y paris of tJn: .'mbcn or the Uni ted Na tions: Ollt shall be held in slavery or ocn'itud~. in mid· I993.: .. A passed legi~la tion setting punish· Dt't'loI.. Exploitation of children i~ often a n a!lpect of sla\'ery in tJlt' 1990:1. under lerrible conditions 10 payoff dcblS as high as S~. 'IOl'1IQlI: Ero!oooou'.ltc in nortlmest Alna. The United States considers any person 3 sl. .s were found living in enslavcd co ndi tio ns o n a California rAnch. the Bonded Labor l. Indeed.. lhc world's o ldesl human nght. wc were br.zerland . All day wc had l() "UI'/.l). They \o\-ork 12 to 16 hc .ny slaveI)' may be mosl obvious in lllird World co untries. Myen.. Tyl tr.. pri..' : Simo".. girls arc commonl)' sold at a n e((change ra tc of six cow~. bonded laborcrs endure beatings and lorture while rcpayingdcblS in· curred by Iheir parenlS or o tlle t· ancestors.. M in die case of the Indian rug wea\'crs desc ri bed earlier. . the gm'Crnrne n t ne\'Cr L. is another country in which W\cl)' is all 100 c~lrnrnon. young femalc$ are abducted and Ihen sold at auctions rcmi n isC('nl of the southern Uni ted St.. 1992:!l2) . ho hold their passports. Yet. I dQlI't bcliC!\e it. 300 MexiC'oln. IW~: C.-. CMimalCS that IOOI'f' than 100 million people . wbond ed laborers~ <lfe imprisoned in virtual lifetime employment as they sLmgg1c to re l). Although 'dauritania outlawed . 199. rh. ... O n th e Indian. 1991:/0.i\l. on p lant. marily from drowning. an Arnbic St. declares: ~ I :U11 a 5Ia\'e.. and th re. Slaves [ree? Ne\'er here ~ (Ma§land..and are sold by their parcnl'i IUOll{ellti forthe loom owners at the Io(Ulng rAte of $50 to $66 for an ~evo()ld boy.ngl"." " day.m· plison you ng wome n from eastern Eurol>t who have: been brought (through deceptive promises) to work in lhe . m y who le family arc sla\'es.u'-old Illan who li\'('5 on a date p lantation..'orld. r l'lmce.\(1 ment for sla\'!.

(By contraSt ach ieved statll s is a socia l position attained by 3 person largely through his or hero\'m effort.999 $ 5. we re bo rn into a ). Abolt\ I to 3 percen1 of the people of lhe United S tales are categorized by Rossides as lIppcr-class.llbscrviem position with in an agrarian society.000 to $24. the boundaries hctween classes arc less precisely de· fined.'s tbm members of the live c1a!lSCS diner signifiCiUltJy in ways other than the ir leve ls of income. and eSUtle system s. per· son's unique c hal'actelistics or talents. Bo th or these classes..o.999 $25. and there is much greater movement from OtiC stratum. an: ascrihed SlatuS(!) that influence a person's wealth and social position. orsociety to another. • i. ha{{o/1I11fillllilir) ill /Ill' Uni/M SIf/fl!j romed 111.S. As the CSt.ive number of people in the United States earning varioLts le\'cJs or income.000 "A MO:: B"' ....rast to slavery. req uired pcasanls 10 work land Icased 10 them by nobles in exchange for miliulry protection and olhc.000 and over $35. 1 3. there were gro ups of people whose '\'calth did tlot depend on land ownership or agriculture.000 to $34. !. dis pro po nionatc1y consists or Blacks.. wh ic h is a social position "ass ign ed~ to a person without regard for tlli"'. like Lhc Ot her systems of stratification described thus rar..ates. both wealtl1 and income and is tOO weak politically to exercise Si&'llificam power. lhose born imo exu·eme wealth (1t po\'cny will often remain in lbc same class position tlley inhe rited frOIll their parents. The basis for the system was Ihe nobles' ownership of land . Income inequa lity is also a basic cha racterislic of a clas.9JY ill i/lramt'. of Europe. it became more diO·crenliatcd. In othe r words. By contrast.459). 1991 U-.000 tax retul"lls reported incomes in exces.2 6.te""". t!l!l3. inhelitance of o nc's po.~ ant!. the me dia.:r sen:iccs. This class lack... or level.'<lass model.~:16.0. or feudalism.f ta "IJI'l1 It'ss Ihrm Ihallft/lmwl. as well . a priesthood emerged in most. I-iispanics.999 $10.6 million household5 reported incomes undcr $5000 (Burcau or the Censlls.999 $15. For tJlf~ first lime. 1993<1:340. convey the income dispatitics in our society. while mllny mcmbet-s or racial and ethnic minurities inherit disadvantaged statllS..000 10 $ 9.t_ 31 .9 19. The nol)lcs inhe rited their til les and propeny...'lncc: of ascribed status.the Middle Ages. Social Classes A class sys tem is a soci. Conseqltc nuy.000 to $49.:ll ranking based primal." group lim ited LO the very wealthy. some 4. The estate system.n fa mil y income in the Uni ted States was $35. While the lines separating sodal c1a!ises in h is model are not so sharp as lhe dil'isions bet~"ecn castes. which was critical 10 their supelior and privileged SlalU.) While privilege a nd deprivation arc no t b'1 mr.. whereas the pca. and people who can not find regular\\'ork.~ iti on largely defined the estate syste m. fn 199 /.. consisting of approximately 20 pctcem of the populatio n. Glste.6 PERCENT DlSlRlWT'lON $50.·llc system developed.999 Under $5. a l opposite ends of lilt nation's sodal hierarchy. about 6 1. 212 I'AII" 1111111:.h celllury.l}' on economic position in . Nobles began to achieve varying d" ..'" of !I'e (.:1.0 7...s and artisans.lt1teed in tht' United St. of5 \ million. At the same timc. Yet this fact mar not full). These peopk f0l111 intimate associations with o ne another in ell.\rh ich achieved characteristics can influence mobility. S>'SlCtU .. Ilum $J5.. Sociologist Daniel Rossides ( 1990:404-4 16) has co nceptualized Un: class system of the United States T .elusive clubs and social cirdes.he relat. Tablc 8. The nation's most amuent families generallyin· hed t wealth and s1atus.6 16. In 199\. This economic change had profound saci:ll conseque nces as the eState system ended ami a class systcm ofSlrat~ ilicaliol"l came into ex istence. Age and gende r.000 10 $1.\KI. class systems arc marked by unequal distribution or I\'eahh a nd power. haIr or all fa m ilies had higher incomes in tl1at year and half had lower incomes. As in systems based o n 513\'ety a nd caste.l \NCOME tEVEL r-or_ .(JGJAI /S£QUdIn .luJica r .ion hierarchies and paHCnlS of class divisions. In 199 1. he shov. n: llect the itllpon.. By the t:wcJft.5 15.·. IwlJ o[ (dl /lIlIIilie. Yet clas~ systems maintain stahle str:.E K. using a fivt. single mothers with depcndcnr children . g rees of amhodty.939.he lowe r elass. as did classes of me t·chant. In cont.1 a lTers a picture of t.

ssoci:tl ions descri bed ill Chapter 6. whereas mi dd le-class you ng jI{'Ople typicallywaillLl1til 19 <lnd become intimate "Ith ft'\\'er partners before marriage.V SOIJM MOfIllJI1 .s.lliunal Jaddcl'$.oh'ed in the aClUal manIII~rluring or U'ansporllltion of goods.. C'llS. Reg-..mUlll or blul. a per501l in the 1"I>or nmrkcl of lhc United SutM.~.~ Such are th e clTecl. \ i illcr and Moore. Ccn...sionals (such as e lcl1lt: llta ry 1'hool teachers and IlUrsCS). and rcsidcltc~ and hOllsing (Cha pl e r 1R).ud fir b)' /I JImiOlI largely throug" his her (mm iff0l1.S is seen by socio l ogis l.dologi~t RkhardJcnki ns ( 199!) has researched bfl\\ the ascribed sta tlls of being disabled ma rgin· Ah/(". sen'ice and tcchf lical jobs . TIleol'1sts slIgKi'~' lha t Ihe less slIccessful... W 110l all mem bers of this \'1 tt'icd c1as. includes k~. T he chap ters to follow will <In:llrl. 1990: 1030...'..)rkt'1'lI and their lo ng hi5101 o r involvement ill ). Yel . 213 f'JIAI'11:. a nd beha\'1or.mllcss of tjleir ac!Ual perfar1IlJ1l((' on the job. The uPI)(: I' middle rI.~ hold colhile Iq(t degreb. R~idC!i describes the working class-about '10 ~m' n t of the popula tion-as people holding reguur m. Fo r ex· JIIl jll~. In the eeonum)' ()f the Un ited St:ucs.~ i~ 1I0tkeably declining in sile.~\(ribed sta llJ5. a ltitudes.IIu1 in many cases arc on Ihe lower cnd or (}Cellp. Sllrh lIS 'firltl T/jOlt'!'..11 H ' \IRA I1~H::ATION A . A I l he sam e ljme. T hey participate cX lcnsh'ely 111 pulilksand cxerd$C leadership roles in the types '11 mluntaty a.t.s. 19BO). numberi ng about 10 percent or the popu laUIlIl.e lower el<ls. nt'n if the)' h.and upperclass fami lies discourage early sexual beha\'ior (B.l1nuenl proreo. ~lIch as clecuicians. formal schooling (Chapter 16). and the wOl'king class. Ics. Of the rl\l' clJSSe$ idcnlified in Rossides' model. as well as ot he r relationships in which social class i!'i a varia ble.111" rcp\a(ing positions il1\. the disabled arc stigmaliled as nm -eami ng the ir kcc p . bilities arc pa rticularly vulnt:'f3ble to unemployment.l\'e achic\'ed some degree of ceonnmic steurit). in members "I 111" class. they tClld 10 identify with nmlllml ".. IJle workmKda.. and arch i leCL~.s and d ivorce palterns (Chapter 13). IJI'.. the lower midtHe rlass. of ..'i satisfyi ng nlltltJ'C of lifr in tJ.. studies have fou nd lha l working-class young prvple arc li kely to engage in ~xllal intercourse hrfnrt UIC age of 17.nd a Si1"1ble n umber of clerical workers. religious bchavior (Chapler 14).. may havc highrr iurnmc5 1 han I>copie in the lower midd le class. lktweeu lhe uPf)cr a nd 10w£I' classes in Rossidcs' Intwicl arc Ihe u pper middle class. a re oflen poorly pa id . . Social class is onc o f the independent or explanatory variablcs mosl frcquen uy used by social scic\llisL~. is 0" f'Xompu of rl(:hi~1 Sl(lt/H. tht labor moveme nt of the United Sl<Itcs.'icl> e ncourages people to !'ieek Achie\'W Sl::tlliS i. a. TIu> 5wnlom 'rmdwd "."".. Weinberg and Wi lliams.<ollar jobs.·hiclt <lccoun L'i lor apprnximately 30 pcrcctll of the populat io n.J 0 MJOoi /'Olrlio" fII//I.. .. rhc lower middle cl:L'>S .cn.. People with rli. e motional flllll llmCl1 1 th rough sex ual relatio nshi ps.~ as <I kcy determ ina nt urpt<JI)lc's values. a poflu/ar llllma. lhe val ues of midd le. they !ihare the goal of sending their dllldrcn to imli tut io ns o f higher education.. is composed of pl'Ofessionals sllch as doctors.e the relations hips l)C l\"Ce n social cla. owners of small busiIll~..

. lhe bourgeois maximize profit ill competition with other tirms.. .! I~ I/Il'11n.r! Ihrir u/bot." Marx was concerned with stratification in alllyp es of IHumm socie ti es..(!i} tlw l I/~ OOll l).HY mode of economic production .I:(h m .... According lO M..IlC syste m declined... We ber questio ned Ma ne's e mphasis o n the overriding impol1:mce of the econo mi c sector and argued tha t slr::lti lk alio n should be vie wed as a nHlltidimc lIsional pheno menon. th ey exploit workers..'10 examillcd lhe idealogt of the bourgeoisie.. Eu rope..~~~.. In capitalist socie ties.hile tht: proletariat is Ihe \"orking class. In Ma rx 's view. As sociologists have examined th e subject o f stratification a nd attempted to describe a nd e xplain social inequality. and political ine quality_ Bycontr::lM... Thus... hi\ IlIlIilYlil (Jf (lip/la/ism. In t....p.IJI r.-ated de bates a nd reached n lrying conclusio ns..!~~. Hi.QUAI..h e proceSs.. under IJ1e estate syste m.fqr ~lIbJiJ"/cI« wagn. depe nd 011 who controls the pl'illl.JTY . No theorist stressed the signifi cance of class for socie ty. or capitalist class. • . I". bu t 011.. _ .th e bourgeoisie and the pl"olclal. Karl Marx's View of Class Differentiation Sociologist leonard Bceghley ( 1978:1) aptly noted that M ·lfl Ma rx was both a rcvolutio nary and a social K. Mane foclL'i cd on the plight of the wo rking class a nd felt it imperduv(' to strive for c b 01 nges in tile class structurt'" of society..and for social change. Man..~.?~. But his main focus was on th e e ficc L~ of class o n all aspt!cts of ninc tce nth-ccnulI).mo l'c stmngly than ){ad Mane Marx viewed class diffe re ntia tion as til e c rucial detenllinant o f social..llJfJmxfIIC/W" . He ""<L 1II0S1 interested in the culturt' 'I of Ihc proletariat. In M"rx's vie .sses that began to e me rge as tile cst:. tlley have e ngaged in ht. .011.. RoseniJerg. scie ntisl. Karl MIIn (lll("l. rx. exploitation of th t: prol!'- h... u..s analysis celltered o n how the relationships between \"arious groups were shaped by dilTe re nLial access to scarce resources. and the land was owned by lhe nobili ty.~~~p.?~ .. mo~t production was agricultural . me l1lbe ~ of each class sh are a distinc· tivc culture.IAI 1.'WJISit OWn. begi nn ing with primitive agri cultural trihes and continuing illl0 fe udalism.~~~~. Ma rx focused o n the two cia. '\()(. econo mic. Ma. such as Iilcto ries and machinery.. Using lhis type o f anal)osis. 214 I'MO' TI/RfJ.. whu must e xchan ge th eir labo r for s ubs i ~ te l1 cc wages. The b(wrgeoisie.·f..~~..: examined social rela tions "'i\J1in capilalis"t-an econo mic system in which the means o fp roducLion a re largely in privat e hands and th e main incentive fo r economic activity is the aCCU111ulatiOll of profits (D. lilt bolltKtou~ up/~u U'orv I"I. social rel auons du ri ng an y pe riod of hislor)."'o .. 1991 ). mrh 11J1afit1w1 and mll(hmery: (HId Ihlll whik alll:mpling to nmnmrJ! fm'fi'. Peasants had little c hoice but to wo rk accordin g to te rms dictated b}' th ose who own ed land .. through which it j ustifies ilS cio minance ove r workers. o\\'n~ the means of produc tio n .

Weber :l gn~c d with Marx regardin g lhe importance of th e cconomic dim e nsion o l' slrat ilication .e boards of direclors. whose ~)\\.\S re prese nting lh<. certain workers in the Ulliu:d Slates pro\'ide lhe sole financial support fo r their I:uni lies tllrollgh j ob~ which P. Many of Man's predic uons regardin g t.tl minimum wage. whilc the prOfesso r holds high SLaIllS. Webe r furuter suggestcd lhat status is subjectively determined by people's lifestyles and the re fore C. a nd power (Cenh and i\'lills.heir commo n vested interests a nd the need for collecti\'e political aCLio n to bl. as contemporary conni cltileorisl!. For Weber..tpitaiism have nol been home O lll.llytkally d istinct components or stratificatio n: elMS. Finally.!jor compone nt of stratifi cation.1ll di\'erge from econom ic class standing. note. plc who 1 1<II'e the same prestige or lifestyle.ir1tercsl~ of capitalisls) and will clirnin"tc prlIJIl" /)\\'llcrshi p of Ule mea ns o f productio n..m. As I. An ind ividual gai ns S I~t tllS through me mbersh ip in a desirable g roup. sla nts. the rich and the poor.O refe r lO pea-. Yel Webe r argued that the actions or individuals and groups could nOt be understood solei).lle cla~ses could contribute to what hc called /tJ1". ' \tUC. For ex· ample. According to We be r's ddinitioll. such as c0'lmra t. renccls a political dime nsion. Through tht: gllidallce of n'1'Qlution:uy leaders.e will c:xplol'c more fully in Chapter 15. Yel the Ihie f is widely n:garded as a mcmber of a lowstatus group."lilcd l4l .<.1000 11 . Inslead . t'f)lw:ioll. Workers Jllust orten overcome wha t \oox termed fals e consciou s n ess. the Marxist apprOl. because lhey have the samc econo mic positio n .mticipale the emergence or labo r un ions. ' Veber tlsed the l('rlll sta tlls group t..$rll!Ss. By CO I1 U':l~t.1vea cornmon stake in revo lutio n (VantLc man a nd ("."ltes. ~ lI ch as the medical pro fessio n . canO ict th coris L~ gC l1cra llyagree tJlal two major sources of powe r.n the same income class as a college professor. lio lls.!- 215 (" llolYlr:1I S .1cing a (011 . power. In the United St.IN()s()(JIoI. Weber used the te rnl c/assto refer to people who have a simi lar Icvel of wcalth and income.se conscio lJsness may ree l that h e o r she is be ing treatcd fa irly by the bo urgeoisie or ntay a dopt a lt inrii\idualistic viewpoint IQ\\-ard capitalist exploiration (. innuenual gt'Oups. In o ur culture. A worker with fal. Lhe working c h~s will becom e flHlllllitted to class struggle.s regarding !. Max Weber's View or Stratlfication Unlike Karl Marx. these wage earne rs constitute a das~ . f <Int Ix: ing exploited by IlIy boss"). Despi te these lim it:. In his Illllcr utopia n view. Mllrt!OVCr. a slIcct. he identified th ree . Marx did not prcdict U1<'I.big business altd go\'e rnm ent-are closely interrelated. Marx r.]in Lain over worke rs.~ci ousness--a subjective awareness held by me mbers of a ela.lch to the stud}' of class is useful ill stressin g the impal'tanc:c of l! U~tlifi cat i o n as a determinant o f social bchavior and the fundame nta'! separation in many societies between two distinct groups.IY the I'eder. power stems from me lllbership in pankularl)...ng abollt qw:j:d change.fS co".:crs are being exploi ted by the bo urgeoi. 1958)."S-Conscious worker realizes that all Io·or]. Max Weber illsisted that liD $inglc eharae· ledstic (such as class) tmally defines a person's posilio l1 \·:ithin Lh e stmlificaliOll syste m .~t: to exisl in tbe poslrcvolutionary worker.JtiVI! prospe rity ac hie ved by the working and IIIld<. SUI· tus is a cultura l dimension that im o h'es the nm king of groups in terms of U1C degn:c of prestige they possess.IIO/AT/T'lOI1'lON . Ultimately. governll1cm bodies.Hl allitude held by mem bers ofa clao. lhe cbl.'ssful pickpocket ma). Many people ha\'c comc to view ihrm'iCh cs as individua ls striving fo r improvemcll t WIthin ~ rrcc " ~ocic ll es with slIhstan Lia'! mo bili tytiullt'r Ihan as mc mbers o f social classes r. In this conceplio n . rh e proleIJti<1t will overUlrow the rule ofl be bo llrgc o i~ i c and Ih(' gO\cmrnclll (\"hich Marx saw i. or . For Karl Marx .. the third Ill.61'e linc. writing in 1916. hr did 110t foresee the exte nt to which the politica l h~rti ~ present in western dernocrade~ and lite rtl.~ i c and 1t.lanat will int:vi!. independent o f I.md fa te. and intereSl groups. But.hdr class positions.s tha t does nOt accurat e ly rellect its ol:!jectivc positio n. lhe working rli1S:'i must firs t develop clu. in economic tcnns.1 {4mmunist pan}' mic lI'ould be established and I¥trr 1)\'cnhl'Own ill the fann er Sovict Union and lhroughoul easte rn Europc. 1987). Po wer is the abili ty 10 exercise onc's "rill over othe rs. he . M OH/Un J . In his analysis.'tr in collcclive barg<lining I\'eakc ns Ule slm llglrhl)ld that c<lpitalisLS tn.lbl}' le ad to tlIe destruction uf the' capitalist systcm. dIe developmen t (JI' class con'IOuwsness is part ofa collective process whercby lhc prolC'lariat comes to ide mify the bourgeoisie as the \lllIftt of its o ppressio n. fo r this la occUJ. classes and oppression will (ca..he flllure ot C'.

sivc Sla l..~.~~.o bt!comc presidt> of the United Stales.~n~..her IWO.. 1976::-\5-40: Cenh and Mills. vill<lgers who were ft!malc. Eloe.} man in the villagc IlClfo nned the same II'ork and lived ill similar ho using. wou ld aho lish inequality in social relationships.' highWthan others.md lhe workings or a cuhure 11100'C flllly. John F.\lS a nd powe r.195). Depending 0 11 itS loalues.~. art !l1UfIl~I/O'r(lbfJ I1 higlH/(lIW grollp 1/1 ollr MJr/f'tJ' In Weber's dew.. cio l ogi s L~ m ust carerully cvalmHC Ule wa)'S in which it disu. Huwever......:ltus if 11 nlllll rnl d". and power (Dubt·nnan. Social scientific research has reveale d th<ll inequal ity exists in all societies-even thc silllplesl or culturcs. 1I1 )Q1l closer inspection .. hal'j>oonctl. 1958: 180.'J cam /II'I.. and fX"wer. Successful professional ath· ICICS havc little power. ..~ ... while. a society mal assign people to diSlinc Live ranks based o n thei r rtligious knowledge.. lradin~ 216 l'INTnIHEE o 'j()CJM 1. l\y contrdSt.y.. lhese dime nsions o r slratifica· lion ma)' operate sorncwhal independe ntly in de· lennining <I person's position.. Suc h issues of stratification have also been of dee p conce rn 10 po litical activists. Statlls..~.'llldUlHlIl ohscl"I'cd lh<ll certain PapuanSo--the me n who were \"'3rriors. :'l Ilcnded exclusivt" preparatory schools.cs.> earning :t rela· Ih'el)' modest income...'i.m o thers? C'lll social life be Qr· ganizcd without HOIclllred in equality? Do people need to led soci<llly and economi cally supe rior!() olhers? Th ese queslions havc been dcbated by SI)cia} theorists (and h)' the ":t\'cragcr woman and man) rO I' ce nllu. L. Fo r exarnplt:.. In o rder to lIll' ders . o r unmarried wen' consid· e red "down a little bi t ~ and were oon-ed rrom owning I<lnd. each ofw. man)' llI people rrom alnucllI b<lckgnmncls :lchicI'c imprc.. Utopian mcialis/.. The lII('mbm fI{ Pmidf'lll/liII Clilllo. Each ractor innllencc~ the ot.. At tJ1C same time . and in fact the rankings on lhc~e three dim e nsions tend 10 coi ncide.V~.. T hus. Stratific<l lioll is universal in that all societit"l mailll"in some form of difTc rellli<llion among membcl"S.. A person's position in (I 'ilral' ification s}'litem n. and we nt on t.. neclS some combinat i(m orhis or her class... unemployed . and SOl'ccreI'S-\I'CI'C described as "a link mor!...-Ie din'e re nti<llio n :among them. st. has 11 01 onc rank in sociclY bu t th ree.... .l. when .·~_ QI'''lJn .~9:.. Is il necessary Illal some mem\)('11j ofsocic t)' recei\'C: greale r reWArds th. A ll'idcly published l)O('t mayachiC\'e high s talU!.. original e dition 1938) studied m e Kiwai P apU<lI'I'I of New Guinea.. bcaul).. he initiall) noticed lil.trltilrofX"logisl Gunnar LandLman ( I !)fiR.. so.. and members of recen t counterculturcs have <Ill <lllempted to es mbli ~ h communities which.. then . SI<llUS.... Ke nncd) ca me rro m an extrcme lY wea lthy famil }'.. graduated irorn Harvard Univt'rsity. Like Ke nnc dy.~~.. IhlJUlH MI'I'..~..ll'r·l' al/a/ysi. skill in h un ting.. incllldin g wea lth and in come..1/1 /\lax Wel.. bill e njoy:t rela livcly high position ill terms of class and SWIllS.~~~J? .. ID some extent Of Olher... tltgm t/ prutlgt: tll9 /XI!i.. rc:ligiolls min o ritics.m/JIOrl that Hrllt!lvn r(wklllg grrmPJ 1/1 '""t~ of Ih..bmcs iL~ most valued rc\\o-ards.

it is difficult to explain the high salades our ..stigr.~oci cl}' orre l~ to pl'Ofessional athletes o r entertainers o n the basis of importa nce of th ese jobs to the surviv-dl o f society (R.-~ ~L1ch ineqlmlit).wis and Mool·c arg ue umt st.uJj.' IIl1d p". FUllrliOlw{iJls mpu /filii rf!loorti. (I" 1. / 11 l/IIe 1111" 1 l. ccooomk. 1985: 16-17). Collins.. the functiona list exp lanlltion fo r diflcrclllial rewards does nOI exp lain the wide displlrity between the rich and the poor. 1953. dC\'c loped ill hUlllan sociClit.jn/!.lrre resources res ults in signiricil lll political.il~ gmmlUJ rom~IU11tilm .ltification syste ms such as 5111'·e o r caste societies ill which stOllllS is IlIrgely inhcdted . society must distribute ils members among ~ .hit! 1\ differc ntial system of re .r.an t 0 1· dange ro us jobs. ltigM.ratiricOl tion is ine.!d by ccrmin segments of society. -* Funelionalisl View Wou ld peo ple go t.~/ on 1nl' fI'Ial"" scomty 01 qualifil'd pmontuf.ts home makers o r in occupations lrolditionaJl)' lilled by women. rewards. or abilit). this response does notjllslify slr.nry (S Urll fir impo"allCf! olll /lWiliOIl Ilfld 1nl' IhfJt woritm Jhow n /lu lling oul 1lI'l fi rer in Kllwait) gnlf'rnlf)' I'ff'. c\·er. Onc c ritique or\his runctionalist explanation of stratilica tio n holds that unequal rewards :Ire not the on ly me ans of e nco uraging people to fill critic:11 posi tions :md occu pations. Simi lady.134. Functiona lists l1Iail1l. is artll:allyessential? FUl1ctionali~t ilnd connic t sociologists offc r conUibting explanations for the existe nce and nccc§uf social slJ"'dtifiattion... BUI wh). trds and punishmctus i.. 217 . YC I this assessment often dC\'3lues work pe rlumll.. arc based on U1C imporl:lIlcc of a po~llion and the reiaL1\'e scarcity of q ualified pCrlion111'1. I-Io . E\'t~ 1I ir st.\re fille d but also scc lhat IlIt'\ are staffed b) pcople with the appmpda tc taltl1lll and abilities. h.tl.orking ~Slrcet cleaners? FUllctionali. a nd value orie ntalions motivate people to enter particular careers.mpl"JW 111 tl" 011 wdll..til1 ..o school for tnanyycars to become physicians ifthcy could mala : .u/. Thus.triCty of social positions. Tumin . to pro\"idc hcalth care.$ r. Cdtics o r the functionalist appl·oach point Ollt that the richest 10 pe rcent of ho useholds account for 21 percent of the natio n 's income in S'. including mo ne)' and prcstige. such as women's work .... Persona l pleas ure.jg man. 1975: Ke rbo... D:. !! I·e pl)' in the neWtu mc..' tlmlthesc positions . Conflict theorists mgue that com peti tion 1 1' 0 >C. it' an)'... and social inequalit). illtrinsic salisf<-lc tion.ltificalioll is uni\'crsal :md that social inequality is neccssary so tlml people will be motivated to fil l fun ctionally im portatH positio ns... 199 1: 129. as we ll a~ job~ that require:t long trainin g pe riod. Functionalists 'a gree but 1I01e that society nltlSt use Jome typ(' of rC\\'<lnls to moti"tlc people to enter unpleas. . which is panl)' wh)' they bclic'·c that :1 Slrollifi('(l K>Cicty is IInivcrs:.itable.txperti§c...'.'s? How much diffCI'Cllliation among people.l1. It lIIust not only make 'Ufl.~ necessary for the efficient ope ration of sorirly.1\ much money and gain as much respcct .'edcn. In the \iew of Kinb"Nlcy Davis and Wilbert Moore t19·15). Jltilfuf 11.

Con fli ct tJleorislS. whcre Mar" focused primarily on clas. t. including Dah re ndorf. eco nom ic. more rc. it must be modified iJ it is to be a pplit.he judiciary. classless wdety. Co nniel View As was noted in ChapLCr 1. and CoJJjlirt IhtQmtJ contend lhal t~ f1ou-'"ful of loday. and other dimensions..lfDahrcndorf. and others. he includes not on ly th e bourgeoisie.1 Man{' · Marx viewed history as a continuo us struggle between the oppressors and the oppressed which would ultimately c ulminate in an egalitatian.WQ. heads of the government bureaucracy. In onc respecl.. 1992:277). 1982)..I I.th e owners of the means of production-but also ule managers of indusuy.crl'Hld. t\far. Mao: did no t believe that stratificmlon was inevit.I! societies can no! be defended-even tho ugh these socie ties have :t legiti mate need 1. Fo r Da hrc ndorf. fniviltgM positions. lifv IM bollrgruis. Icgiskllors. is one of the most influential contributors to tlle conflict appmach.0 rill cerlain key occllpa~ tio ns (World Bank.e t)'. and puwer. fo rmerly presiden t of the respected LOlldon Schoo l of E'.'Ccnt theorists have exte nded this anillysis to include COllniCts based on gcnder.UMfl'l .Rl111RJol'• • SQCIA. In their view. thus. o r controlling socic ta l conflict. 1979. he argued that the dominant class under alpimlism-lhe bo ll r~ gcoisie--ma nipul:ued the economic and political systems in order la maintain comrol o\'er the exploi tcd prolc lariltt. :lI1d po\\·cr. In tenns ofsLratification. Sociologist R.us quo is delinillg and disscmjnauDR the socic ty's dominant ideology. Dahrendorf ( 1959) has <l1b'lJcd tJ1:I1 while Marx'! analysis of capitalist socie ty was basically correct. In identifying the 1II0st powerful groups in soc .s as wcalth. One means th rough which the powerful mainlain the stat.IY. age. they have a dcltr inte rest in PI'(' vcnt ing. lik.C5 i1nd nQw al Oxford LTnivl·rs.c$ li""" wallt s«ldJ 10 nm S1rUJOlhly $0 that th" am DIJfTJ tM.l cto l)' to !.-d to mbdmt capitalist socie ties... and :l2 percenl ill S\\~tl. DaJlI'endorf has merged Marx 's e mph asis 0 11 class conflict with Weber's recognition tha t power is an impor· tant ele ment of stratification (CulT and Payn!'.. The sla· lUS 'lIlO is ~atisf. In Chapter 3.hose with wealth. but he did set! inequality and oppression as inherent in capi ut listll (E. Con1Cmpor. con· tend that the powerful of today. J-I owevcr.uy conllict theori s L~ bclic\'c that human bcillb'S arc prone to conflict ovcr slIch scltrce resourc(. wanl socie ty to run smoothly so that they can e njoy their privil eged pos itions. race." conflicl.CQIlOm. social classes arc groups of people who sha re common interests resulting fro m alHi10rity relationships. Wright Cl al. 218 l'A. wc noted lhat the lenn domilwtlt ideology is used to descl'ibc II set of cu ltural beliefs lIlI(l practices that help 10 mailHain po\\'crful social.able.8 1-84)... the level of income in~ eq uaJity fo und in con te m porary indusu. sta tus. StatUS. lhe intellectual tntdilion al the heart of con fl ict thear)' begins ptindpally wi th the wriljngs o f 1(. minimizing.e the bourgeois of Marx's time.25 percent ill the Uni ted Stales..

1>.t (Abe rc ro mbie et :11. ""'Ig ing from physician tojanilor.eve . eve n though it has been occu pied by people wi th varyi ng dcg. I1tt"t from the . As the data indicate. Yel these !'e[orllls may p~ cify Iho..... They do 11 0t JftTN' with Davis and Muore Ihat stratific:ttion i ~ Innctional far a society or Ihat it selVes as a source (01 ~tJ bilit)'... Estum refers 10 the reput.tn and college p rofessor were " lI1o ng I. .have-naL'....ltio n that a specific per. "l<'() use tim...IS 100.ll(' nc ighburho4xls in which th('y live. Th e key lO the o~jeCl i\"c method is that Ule rt""'(lrr/IfT. pation is regarded by soCielY. T he le I'm prestige rerl' r~ IU Ihe res pecl and admiration with wh ich an occu .io n sys-Itnt.and ul1employ..rCiJ1forces Iht: sunil] inequality which .....0 M. sociolob"..pt"Clh·t':.. The pre'Rige mnking or occupatio ns h. and powcr.ive method.'S Me continually j udgi ng relativc a mOl tllls o f wealth .tL'd social "c fo rms 1(1 buy olT lhe op.' said for prese nt dl'PMities sepamling the ~ h an~s" of current soci .Jr.1 Inund in every culturc.!!lUrec of socictalten~inn :llld co nllict... tJ. Some lorm of d HfI~re ntjau{)n is ::a. Cospr...:ISseS o n the hasis of (fiteri....stc or estate !o1's te lllll of slnllilicatioll .....ln say liulI the posi tion of presid e nt o f the Unit ed 510llCS has high presdge.tccompanies Slrm ifical.... The rcfore..L<.. the samc cannot lx.U1 cL' 10 need y men :1nd \'oU1Uen ...md institutions nQt o n Iv ("omro l \\cahh a nd p ro~ .. in a seriL'S of national StHYc}"s from 1972 lO 1991. ~ tlch a ~ occupatio n.. .. .lrial change (R.. The objective method of' measlIring soc ial das~ d~ws class largely as a st.ialogisLS argue Iha t matilicauan will incvitably lead to instability and 1..... min imum \\-dgC laws ... e duca tio n.... ....'IS function .. The allocation of thesl' 11Irplus goods and scrvicc!>--co nl l"Oll cd by rh use ~Hjl wealth... ( 1966.. From :1 conllict per. .. . Sociologist Cerhard I J· n~k i. Yet it is not "'l e:L 10 localt' :tn individua l \\'ilhin o ur social hiernrchics as it would bc ill c. Measurilllr Social Class I'Jn580-58\). snciologisLS gcnerally rely on lIw ohiect.lit thrall 1 re 1 '0 11 .U0I' ..tnd in come by :1ss(·ssing the cars pcopk drive.)...." Pre stige is indepe nden l of" Ihe paruclJlar in d ividual who occupies ajoh. " capiwli. Table 8-2 on page 220 illustralc~ Ih e results 0 1 a n clTon to a~sign prestige to a number of well-known occupa6ons.L~ proved t...on. whelher WC(lllh..tlcgor)'.... 1990. or nccupation ." ..)(u response. II ll' M physicisl has a very diffcrcnt con nat<lIion front hmy daug hter......ss positi on.<.mcc...e clothing they 'Iy wcar. "M y d(lughl c r.... a nd sa forlh .. physid.'W whu 1"'l(ht otherwise become disgnllll lcd a nd rebel11'1Il~ Of course. conflict 'iOC.. a char:ICleristic whie-h djstingu ishcs it fro m estee m...o be a use ful indicalor in dClenniuing a pcrson·s c1a... ).his reward syste m llIay o nce h:1ve III'I)"('d Lhe overall purposes of sneil'IY. While I.. o ne C. ' 11 ort:tnt.. R.hf' most hig h I)' l"Cbrardecl oc· !'. l. Il1dividua l'! a re assigned 10 saci.. income... 1975:62: L...and co nside l.IKllitical iIllCreM.S..sLS d mwing o n earlier sun'ey responses a.nent com lX! nsatiol1 Itnq ucslio nably 11'\'(' some vrll llable assist. Conflict IhCOrislS 'iCe 51ratification ~ s a 1Il.. Col\ins.sible prcstigt score "~..oo O 219 . The powe d itl.-comes capable of producing a conside rable SUt'pill' of goods-more Ihan e nough lu attrac l mCIIIkl"§ to \'alu(:d occupa tio ns.tt(.h e waitress.... ~t.. such as leaders of go\'ellll1lcrH .. cducation ... SWi llS. \\t now relllrn 10 lhe qllc~ tjo n pOs<:d ea rlier-" is 11r:llificalion 1II1ivcrsa l ?~. Lcnski t·tul. prn'ICd and reducc Ihe danger of c hallenges to Ihdrdomin. the lowc:o. (Ontend. the ' COl1trol\ll': IlI Cil fl~ '0011 " ' Hefs abollt n':...... ud l rnaneuvcrs can n('vcr c limi mnc crmlli cl.." In c\"cl)'day life. t llcauo the medi. In Kill' ] Marx 's vit-w.signed preslige ranking'! ID about occupalions..·e(. in come. since Milkers will cOl11inue lO dC lIliln d cq uality and the fIO\\'C:rful will nOI give up Iheir control of sucielY. the ~x:ial sign ificance of th e dominanl idttllogy is lI\ilt a sociel) 's most powclful b'1'o llps . T he first SLCP in using Ihis method is to decide what indicators 01" G!."l ti ~tica l (..the socioIt. make'! a cle le rmin:1lio n aboul an individual's clas!i posilion ..'t \(lCiety has a dom inant ideoloK) which ~c.'S of eSleelll. mtller than the pe rson being c1:L\sifi ed .lIsa l faClo rs \\'il1 be Illeasured objecl ively. in the view o f conniCl theorists.9 . For example... . In OI'dcl' to d ClC nnine someonc's class position. it t. people in the Uniled Sl.. ~o n has within an occupation.1 c\.. The highest pos.t was O.nns of tec ilno loh..·cs the HllcrcsLS of the ntling r 1... Robert..... it<uher. 199 1) Imssuggested Ih:u as a society advances in te.... and rl'side llce.... whcrL' plflc('ment is determined by religious dogma Ill' It'gal docume nts.. including Ihe advanced indu"rial sncicucs of OU t' time.

• .~. .. Sociologists have used such d ata to assign prestige rankings to vinua lly aJljobs :md have fo und a srability in rankings fro m 1925 1 199 1. II 29 23 Waiter and woilren Garbagll collector Janitor {" 11 20 17 16 ifl /l aliO/ml M l nlry (Otuliutl!l. officer Insurance agent 48 41 46 Secretory Pfekindergorten teacher Registered nUfM Pharmacist 65 64 6' 61 60 Book tellflf Farmer Auto mechanic 43 40 40 Elementary school teocher Ado.sligr. 1988.. theft has been a noticeable c ha nge in how married wome n deline the ir class positio ns. Since wo m e n le nd 10 do mina te the relatively lowpaying occupatio ns..l1 /}()jsibil! scorr lL'fU lOO. Sim0 ila r studies in othe r cQunuies have a lso dc\'eJo(>ed usdul prestige ran kings or occupations (H odge and Rossi. l!l9Ob: IW:" 58 57 54 53 53 "l.uy Powers and J oan Holmberg ( 1978) examined the imp'let o f wo me n's participation in the paid labor fo rce o n occupatio nal SlaLUS. Th.werage.1I1Mo of Im'. h o\~ is class o r sta LUs 10 be judged ill dual-career fa milies-by the occllJxttio n {989.0 a ttach mOR' weig ht to the ir husbands' occu pnlio ns tha n lO their OWII in definin g the ir class pos itio ns. Accountant Ubtorion Firefighter POWnoQr "')l'l<U: Naka<> and T r" . /j\'t""QUMfn .s L~ in Creal Briwn-arc d .\ is jll ~ t beginning. Sociologists-and.". fe min ist sociolobri. such as bookkeepers and secrct31 'ics.. by th e 198(lJ th ey began to a ttach equill weig ht to thei r own occu pati ons and th ose of th eir husbands (N. results m' prl!$"lud reg"dI"dcd as having greate r p restige. By comrast..~ ImlJOt 0../ cupatio ns. IJ. 1964. gorizing a wom an 's class positio n .:tS the bas is of C'd tf. NORC. The o bjective meth od o f measurin g social class h . Furthenno re. T hus.. O:\\U: and Robinson . OCQJPATlON SOlI< Physician College professor Oe1'!lht 86 78 74 72 Poinler and :IC1. Whereas in lhf 1970s married wome n tended 1. because until recen tly few socio~ ogists had ra ised sllch methodological q uc stioll~ O nc study ro und lha t ove r ul e last 20 yea rs married me n havc typi cally used iJH! il' own occupations Ut ddine the ir class positions-whe the r 01' not thell WiV(!ll wo rked o Ulsidc the ho me .. their participatio n ill the wo rk force leads to a ge ne ral upgra ding o f th e St:lIllS of m ost maledo minated occupations. IIIgllI'. NO ItC. SQ/I/(' of till (IOOI¥'. 80kM 8IJs driver Soles clerk Hunter and TrOpper 3.. the . Socio logislS havc become inc re asingly a W-MC that studies o f social class te nd to neglect the occupatio ns and incomes of women as determinants of socia l ra nk.-awing 0 11 ne'" a~ proac hes in asscssingwomc n's socia l class standing O nc approach is to focus o n the individual (ralhcr tha n the family or ho useho ld ) . of OCCUPATION se. With mo re than half of all married wo me n 11 0\~ wo rking o utside the ho me (sce Chapte r 11 ). or some o the r combinatio n of the two occupations? Research in the area of wo me n and social cb$.L~ traditio nally focused o n the occupation and educa tio n of th e husband in measuring the class positio n of t\\'o-income famili es. a womaD 220 PANT TlIRF~. sociologists M.• SOClAJ. Lin and Xie. 1977). this re presents a serious o missio n. In an e xhaustive s tudy of 589 occupations. 1!1'J~:927-94..Ilptor Electrician Funeral director " 49 49 49 lowye< Airline pilot Clergy High school teacher Athlete Mililory per$Ofl 70 69 66 Polic.. Qffll/}{III()/U 'U1f"f/' nll/knl .. 1988). 1993: T rciman . in particular. I!l'JoOa.

I992:124-126).ak \. 5.~ r/rlU /N).LS..u. As Figure S. Consequences of Social Class in the United States WeaJ th and Income By all measu res.~-I'IIA"I'II'IC.Hi. 221 C JI. ndgh borhoods. Afh'allces in statistical methods a nd compute r Ift:hnology have also muhiplied the factors used 10 dtfine class under the ol~ ec th'c method .s. T hese a p p ro ac hes have been helpful in examin ing ule arca o r wome n and KlCial cb.'he re is this more e\'ide m tha n in the distributio n o f wealth and income.a mor~ complex and m ul tidime nsional way.. sources of income.ano thc r .e-win ni ng «ono mist Pa ul S... drawing on bOlh pannef'li' occupa· UQIU (rathe r tha n tha t o f the "head of the ho usehold.. TlO"" A.. Lhe bOllom fifth of the population-caming 5 17. l."III1I11'g tll~ ioanl mll/r or 1/v(1\lm.hc natio n-canlin g 562.'tl StalC5 is distributed ' 1IlC\'e ll ~r. [n 199 1..1P'/"Hf 11 • ."'l. The ~ tu d yorstr.99 1 or rn nrcacco llnted for mort· tJlan 44 pe rcent o f lo ml W'Iges l and . \\'I. privi lege.-'i positio n. the lOp fi fth (o r' 20 . the pc. While th e addition of the~ v..A.j 11" A/ID fl I U'l.f.llluclson's a nalogy is certainly supported b)' rt'' ccnt d'll.'iCIS.'Quld be far highe r tJ1:I0 M oum Everest.yI call IlL )' .m 5 percent of income (Bureau o f the Census.ions regal'c1ing dual ca reers.. 1993a:463) .u n id out of a ch ild 's blocks. Nohel pri7.1!t 0/ fMtll (lasJ' lmd IQ 'gnoyl' (J{m/HI'lolU IlIId l/lfQ/ft6 of um~ IlIId .fi cati on is a study of inequality. ulcrc has been modcst rt"- S/wi.u'iOlbles wil1 not necesslIrily lead to <l difrerem picture of class di fl'crclHialion in Lhe United SWC'\. but a! yet the re is not wide agreeme nt among ~ch en about which approach 10 use (O ·Do n· nrU..C\'er the techn ique uS(.el'.. with each layer po r·trd). M JUSI why d.ing 500 o r income... No longer art MlCiologisUl limited to .! 0/ husoo".JIIIOII of hw-i/lrolfll /"...l..\1J 51K:JM MOB/Un' . VlfT. Still .I s h ow~.. Ibt KICIologlsl is ime reslcd in real and o ft e n d l7lmtic dilTerences in po. studies are published which use as cri lt~ ri a the 1 11ur of homes.· often the ma n)...s-accountcd fo r leS! Ih.IIf11mf Ihl' sUu/ld IllfOml' ~" focus UII Ill" 1Ii(0tN'. it does allow sociologists to measure class in ..·OI·ds: M wc made lr an income pyr. T " da\ ..1I...ulIlual income and edu· unoo in evaluating a pcl~ n 's cla.1'\ ." mebon h .\ItOuld be classificd based 0 11 her own occupational \bIUli r. nd opponu· nily in a socie ty. bU I m o~t people .ould be within a few fee l of the ground ~ (S. classificatio n o f a cOllplc's d:us standing. By COlllrdS t . NO\.1.1 percent ) of't. incolllC' in th e Uni u.000 or Ics. )'ca rs in ~ot occupat ions.uhc r tha n that of he r spouse... 1992:gSS) .1 III ritt.I.'<i 10 measure class.approach i! to use ajoj". a nd cons id· tt'.. on inco mes.unuc1soll a nd Norrlhaus. .LS described the situation in the followin g .da rics.

bul a larger proponion Im\'c falle n fmm the middle' cla.."\~. 1!l7!>• • .6 mi llioll housc holds were in debt (had a negative net worth). /lri. Th e average before-tax in· come or these fami lies rose from S3 15.. As 11 result. wjlh 11U' (fi)lribll/ioll oJ j rl('OlJIe l /J/j1iIlK itJ jflvor o flh l' ItUMI affIrm" .'lH.d. As figure 8-2 sho .ebolds had :lSSelS mer ' S500.... lhe income IPIl> between I. From 1929 to 1970. observer.\s into po\'c ny. Ih~.l ....'" "" . A stud)' by the Bu reau of the Census ( 1986:10) fo und thal more than 1. III the pe riod 1977 to 1989.... No single factor cxpl:tim thi .'orkcrs iD heaV)' industries achieved mid- 222 . yet it must be understood in tennsd brood historical c ha nges in the na tion's econolll'i 300r TI'. the richest fifth of the populalioll held almost 80 pe rcent of the wealth.'. .."" c. 19'1 . In the 19805. shrinking or thr middle c1as. wealth is muc h more ulle\'enly di ~ t ri blllC d .. Br" f!I)I':f lhe /flSI 20 }~(m. distributio n ofi ncom c in the United S t.t lIfj1mmt.t d:.000--:..5/1jlllllw" oJ ill((>m~ in lhe United Slales 10 lite le. the wages of lcs. ill this same period the houom 40 percent of fami lies experienced aClllal declines in incomr (Nasa r. ' rot' d.'S overtht past 60 years. IQlJ~ aUlh..000 10 $560...e bOllo.. while 9. th rough the e lTorl~ of strong 1 unio ns . tht wea lthiest I percent of fa milies in the United SUltet WC I'C the main beneficiaries orthc pros)lCrity ortht la tc 1970s and 198Qs..6 million h o u".ued as income is in Ihe Uni led Slatt§. the gmern mc nt'$ economic and tax policies seemed to s hift income somewhat to the poor.. sUlggcl'ing 77 percent increase.. \ fifth 4 . OC""~I" Iw tlI(' 1 97~::5tIl .md Frdllkc l..\ fmrd has TI'lI(!l"Std. 1992) . However.he richest and pooresl groups in the United States has increased O\'er lhe l:titt two decades.he ~disappcarance of the middle class: 50fTI(' ho useho lds have moved out of the middle class Iu uppe r-class positions in the st ra tification system...e rs hav(' (ierretISf:(l when cOlllrollcd for inflation....0 00.'S..'iS (Knlgman . while the salaries o f highl)' skilled .. 1991)... ..000. From 192tJ thro ug h 1970.> have spoktn of I.n-fiflh.s ski lled woi'l.. for every 7 falllilie<l in U1 C United Stales that rose li'om the middle to the upper class. &: conU-dSl.o rkers and profeflS io nals have contin1led to rise.ulI (rom B".Buruu 0( the vnm• • 40. 1992: sce also Mishcl .wa.. in thelast 20 years-especially dU I'ing the 1980s..fedeJ'il budge tary policies f<l\'orecl the affiuenL Morcover..e rlllS of weal th and income. :It. in 1983 (lhe lalesl year 101' which such data arc a""i lable). 1929 and 1991 1929 1991 p~. As one conseq ue nce of this growing inequality In l.W& ~ ul] d.. HI. As cOllcelllr. . 10 families decli ne d fro m the middle 1 IJle 1 .:.000 fllmilies..... 110:.e ....lditio na lly.. a. According to data com piled by the Congressional Budget Office.f S/l"..'er cla.nGURE 8· 1 Distribution 0/ In come in the Uni l(!d Strllel. about 60 percent of the g rowth in a[tcl'-IaX incornt al1l011g alllamilies in the nado ll wellt 10 the wealthiest 660.

11JIIo1 Ai 'MY dnlll rllrutra~. to a total of 36.HI of the C.. Ilo . .1'1 19':1....( from ""rb". the number of people living in po\'eny rose by 1. ." I'M ri. Yet... in discoullt stores or fast·food restaural1t.'l and members of mi· nority groups an opportunity to rise out of poverty.."IIItrbt. upward mobility into I.I'nJlII ...."·HllHHr.<Ih RIIh 1. 1993<) . payi ng... 1990b:65).2 million . 10\. j" dtbt '01111 ""'QlUlt I'flllllJll/t1It 10 .. 1\19140.. were mainlaining a homc. .he middle clas... children Ihing in ..l do~ 10 SO JH'T'U'I1I 11/1l1 wt'(I/lh..-".ork as low·.ice sector. In recent decades..~ For example.M ern" ... Indeed... _.lles believe that the vast majority of the pOOl' arc able '0 work bUI wil l not.9 million. nOllunioniled positions without hcncfiLS such as health insurnnce. E\'en in ncwer. In (I WOfll!.inglc-parent fami- 223 UM.age asscmblers..t!IlSIlS.IrtiUltE 8-2 CAmpari.. howe\'er the lIlanuf-aCI uring scc· tor of the economy has suffered.1 fifth fill. he n Presidclll Lyndol1 Johnson dechucd a national ~wa r 011 poverlY" (Bure.cc jobs (for eXlunple. ill 1992. I . M high_ u_ "Ch" industries such as microelectronics..se. bill a majorilY live olll~ide these poverty areas..a bled. many peuplc in the Uniled SI. fJy rlmlmJI. Irv'" 1W\3 11."ch ~ nJt1Ily lluHl mm". primarily because they were ill or dis... lhe impact of gO\cnllu ellml tax policies... or \\'e rc retired . ~hn) of th~ .ht-Sl 20 I~rt"f of Ihr poprdalioll holl..~ has become much more difTicuh tban ill earlier periods of the nation 's history..ou ~'" Third ~ . In· cluded among tllC poor of lhe Uni ted S.hIJ Ullited Statu I""""" \ . .0.h in . Oll1cl· f:lctors which conuibUlc 10 the shrink.>.on (If DiSlriblltion of In come ."C1S of extended periods of unemployment..mcs since 19&1.. o llly about 60 percen t of poor adnlLS did not work.o Ut' roo ..111) simple definition-and co ulllcr~ common Slcret>types about ~poor pet)ple.ever. RIIh ... Consequently... This rcprescllled the highesl Ilmnbcr of poor JlCople in the United St.. and the lisc in single-mot ll er hl)uscholds.... the category of the ~poor" defies . A sizable number orthe poor live in urhan slullIs. ~nd ~I" hnm Bmuu of.ealth and income? Approximately one out of every nine people in the Uniled States Ii\'es below tile poverty line elll<iblishcd by the federal govenunelH. bh ~rr "."S(" in· dustries ofJered inunibrranl.!l) arc pan·time. AAh ~lll. dtt-"S arc elderly pt:ople.1 11...ing of thc middle class include the cflc. as of 1989. Wro/. Fully 40 perccnt of the poor did work oULSidc the: home.. 11lt.. Poverty What arc the cOII~qlle n ces of this une\·cn dislribution of .. dle-class incomes alld linaucial security. wrolfh '" flu Un/1nl Slalt. although o nly a slllaJl portion (9 perctOnl of alllO\\'-income adults) worked lull lime throughotll the year ( Bureau of Ihe Census.4 fJt't'ml1 of W 111111011 S /fIta llh.. while thcre has been a significalll boom in the scr. Ihr fJi}(Jffl.. becausc of Lhe nature of the sc" 'ice jobs Ihat are av:ailable.J 1. many employces ...\' ANI) SOCJA/.1 tfulnbtdm ".TlO.uOIlJU/")' .........

Currenuy. lhe plight of (he urban poor is growing worse.aListical infonmllion regarding these lo. This alarm ing trend. ill developing countries. the higher rates of povcrty among women can be traced to three distinct factors: thf dilncullY in fimli ng affordable child care (see Chapter 4). disability.er 65 years old Whites 23 65 37 52 11 12 Slach Hisponics People in fami lies with mole heeds of households People in families with female heods of households Percentage.QUtll In . 'IOT1~ 84 12 8 84 16 ~x". is evident not.471. and o\'e r 10. '" the . Table 8-3 provides additional st. The situaLion of t.. A key factor in the feminization of poveny has been the increase in families with women as single heads of the household (see Chapter 13).~d ~74. this distressing phenomenon has becOT1l( evident aJ'Ound the world. and Russia. Rodgers. '>OL "':>': Sllreall of the Ce'UlllS. n\'O out of three adults classified as ~poor~ by the federal govetlllllent arc women. In 1991. The other half tend to be economically dependent either on the wclfare system or on friends and relatives living nearby.. lhi pcrvtlt) ~l for a firm" offour was a combined ilZCOlnt of $12. While policyrnakers in the United States altempl to address the pJ'Oblcm of lhe feminization It poveny. and5e1 disc.. cial aud ethnic <dU:!!"')' h.rimination on the job (sce Chapter 11). natiollit healul care programs.Who Are &be Poor in the United Stasn? PERCENT OF THE POPUiATION OF THE UNITED STATES PERCENT OF Tl1E POOR: OF THE UNlreD STATES GROOP Under 16 yeors old 16 to 65 years old o.E ' SOCIA L L\'f.. female-headed households accounted for 26 percent of U1C nation's poor. 100 . Dltrin g the lastl5yean. 1987:95-111. an increasing proportion of the nation's poor have been women-many of whom are divorced or never-married moulers. 1993a: 471 ).'-income people in the United States. Scon. ellh" . 198&. These urban residents have the greatest visibility among low-income people and are the focus 01 most governmental eflorts 10 alleviate poverty.000 men in military service who cannot adequately support their large families. by 1991.ince lti!p"njc p<:opl e co" lies Wilh their mothers. that figure had risen LO 52 percent (Bureau of lhe Census. Ac· cording to many obselvers. The UlIderclass In 1990. 19<J3a: 16. on ly in th e Uniled Stales but also around the world. About half of all women in the United States living in poveny are in "transition. owing to UU~ deVAStating in- 224 PAIl'!" TJ/lIJ. Sin ce World War 11 . In the view of COI1£1ict theorists. remale-headcd families have become an in creasins proportion of Canada's low-income population This trend is also noticeable throughout Europe. H. or death of a husband... and even in three widely differing nations whose legislation on behalf 01 women is U1C most advanced in lhe world: Isra. In ulese coutHries.~ coping WiUl an economic crisis caused by the departure..812 (ff Im.5).~l Sweden. and other forms of government assista nce cltshion the impan of poveny somewhat. 67 29 18 48 52 p"rc~nt. housing subsidies.43 percent ofpoorpeuplc in the United States were Ih'ing in ce ntral cities. 470.he nation's homeless people will be examined in the social policy section of Chapter 18. In 1959.. 198. known as the ftminhalio"ll ~r /)overt)'. SI"ck or White . sexual harassment (see Chapter 6). yct the feminizalion or poveny advances nevertheless (Abowitz.

and 5 percem :Ire '"Other~ (W..tsS compriS4. who are beyond the reach of all )' safcly nel pr0\1ded by existing social programs. membership in the underclass i!) 110 1 an illlermiuellt condition bUl a long-lcl'm at· tribute. \\llilc estimates vary depending o n the definition .her social scicmislS (0 !)cueI' undcrs tand poverty arc compli cated by the difficulty of del'e1oping a Tilt l. Wright. In the vie\\' of many scholars concemed about the pro blems of the undcrclass.!.IA1.W)('.1 l1ce to address the lack III ('conomic opportunities fo. whelll!!r elllplo)'cd or uncmployed. 1989. alllong others. Ofte n poomil.lcturai fac lors (such fL'1 lhe loss of manufacturing jobs in cities) which have had a (\c!'I'l. Schacrc:.i more than 3 rnil· hCIIl adults in the United States. formi ng (Ko rnblum .:Uld ot. 225 CJ lltI'IHI8 • srNA " lflrA "f10. Connict theorists. 1993). have expressed J. Traditional employment 0lr poltlLOities in the indusU'ial seCtOI' arc largely dosed to the unskilled poor.. these illegal acts hardly cncOlll"age socicty to gell uinely address the long-te rm problems of the underdass.'Scribe long'lenn poor people \\'110 lack trainin g and skills. S. about 49 percen t of the undt"fc1ass are Aflican American. of course. 1989.hc.V AMJ .~s.Od at society's reiuct. is nOI a new pll(~ nolllenon . The unde rclass is undel'Standabl)' alie nated fro m Ihe larger society and engages spo radiCl.1ml al the ponion o fl. they lack conmct and sustained interacti on with individuals and institutions that arc pan of the lebtiti matc and pl'Olit-making econo my. Moreo\'t:r. these problem h. /IUry. O' Harc and Curry-Whitc. bUI nit her sUl. 5110ulll .s a mtJIher brggi"K Dn Ihr . S tudyi"g Poverty 111e cfforlS of sociologisL'i .:ll be ha\~or.llly in illcg.l. Poverty. Yet Wioon and ot her scholars insisl that the core orlhe prohlem is nOI the atlti~ocial behaviOI" of some llI em bcl"~ of the undcrcla. Yet the concepl o f the undcrclass describes a chilling del'elopmelll: illdividul.'ling impact o n lowincome ncighoorhood s. it is the economy.. 29 percent arc Ihspanic. thal needs rt. 1993:72-75. M OH/Un· .'(.· lheM! people..: r.lSL. 1992).'l of the undcrclass scem to "blame the vie· 1l111J8 ror their 01l'l1 plight (this phenomenon will he: ocplored in Box 8-2 later in the cha pte r). not including the dlll'rly. members of the undcrclass experience social isolation . in 1990 th e undercl:. crimit1ation.tetplay of inadequate education and lim ited cm· p1U)111eOl pro!'lpccts.robIrm DJ Iht jtmmlUlliDn Df /JDtN'rI)' is t!lJ/dml 1101 ollly in IM Uni/td 516tr.' nation 's populatio n li\'· IIIg on this lower rung o f the strali fication hicra rChl . Sociologist Willial1l Julius Wilson ( 1980.. Not sllrpdsi ngly. 987h. 1987:1. 199 1. 17 percent arc White. 1101 the poor. In addition..$ flllt th mughoul EllfTJ/~ (lnd ill m""J dtvtloflll'f( anHl/ri'-f. 1988:15.we been heighte ned by past and present dig-. Morris. IU9 1) alld other social sei1 (!nWl~ h3\"1:: used the term u"der-claS$ 10 d(.1/1'«1 in /!(Jmr.. In ccnlral cities. Fo r low-income urban l'Mide:lllS who are Black and Hispanic.Ils and fa milies.

they are 1101 a stalie soc ial c1a.\'!. a signific'UlI ~gmen l of the people of th~ U niled Sla tes are " Ix' r~is t e llll y poor... Pollard .' poor f("\e ...1 1 1 '1IIuc:. Among these are Iht rollmving: • The pre~ n ce 01 poor l:k'ople mean . econumic • .. • The idemil"icatio n :ll1d punishmt. By tOllt . ..ha. III 1991 ...cn~ up to sume prc rle t('l1 nined level o f t'xisti'nct". pervasi \'t.t:I wi lJ undcrestimate the eXlCllI ofpm'eny in Iht· Unitcd Stalcs.'Y g U<lJ-.m Alm' riea n!> a l.lIc Ihe !lumber 0 1 low-income peopll' because it f"i1 ~ to consider nOllca.....md profosion. nu~ bc l'S "rtUUlcr. There fore.4OUellt may jll~ti l y inequ..: )'l'ars. 11li. Absolute poverty rdcrs HI a minimulll le\'eI of !SubsisICIlCt" bt'low \<0 hich (. Why dot·s 'iucl..'1iI o f the poor .s p rovid t. nitions.h.·clfan: C"dSt. tht.. a mOlley ill('Ol1lt' ligllre adiu ..1I11ong lhe penistt'lIt poor (Burcau of the Census. hatt:\·cr their Iifc~ tylc~.definit... the poverty \t-vcl after a }car 01 n\" .d im.Olherobscr.as growing debatc mer the \~"Iidily of the I)()\crt} line .md gain a m ca~urr of lk1 tillf•• ctioll) by "bla ming the victims" uf 1 >O'o'em lor their dis.ion of poveny.. tit(' composilion ofllle pool clmn gcs conutluall) . peetcd to remain in a stall. thcn gm'Crnment d:. • PO\ c rt}' creates jobs fOI occul)''ltions .11'81: lha l Iht.L'! ide ntified \"'31'a ious <. d. 1 I... for exam plc . \\'ith "OlIIe illclhicluab and fami1ie~ nJU\ing al)O\(.l1 considered l !l c\illcre!l t d('finilions of 1 )Q\'cny: lhCl" aIJ showed Ihal b('I\\'('('1I 1979 and 1991 median hOlllte h u lcl in come ill Ill<' United State.lmilie. l'ven il the Ilt)or of thl' 1990s art· be ller olT in ab"Ohllc u'rms tlllln the pOOl of lilt' Hl30s o. tUII ." At any gi\'~n lime.. nolC that llle fedcral go\'crnrne-m cOllli nues 10 use. im.OCial.d Hispanic!> . 0 SO!U(' critics Ch.'0 1k"-ph)"iit". that SOC'ie ty'~ "ditlY. will be eligible 10 1 certain gO\~nllnent .II)'SC5 of Iht.'I'. hile others slip lx'low it... hole..ociety. d evia nts upllold the legi timacy of ("Oll\'en tionaJ.. h ich incli"ichmls .. In fes pulI ~c...ting for illl1:lIioll) ..'aItJI care a nd mher flinge bcncli t. they 01 ' 1.. nO:lting sta l1dard o f d e p rivation by whic h people al tht: 1>0110111 of a r. Incieed.-.s..~ too low: tht.. mi is d csc ri bed in Box S-2.~ c\'ic\enl t'VCII in govcl"IlInt'nl pm/{ .\1Q!.llily (...uuili(:s should not be expccted to exist.: of 1 }O\'crl) for :It least eight t"OIISCCUUVI.ut n /ot. This ~ I :l ndard theo re tica lly rcmaills unchanged frO Il1 reM ..1 norms rcg<trding h:II'd " 'urk.11 10.n ing gmrcnulle nt hcncJits. Me dicaid. . nd h. an official definiliol1 of \vhich peupl(' are poor.<lgI·d condi tions.'ilJIJ"'I. hile the numher of 1 X. or " 5<'1100\ lunc h program~ fOl the poor imply •• Ileed to bring citi7.'II} din)' or d:lIIgCrou5..). H1"'(JII/J'~ · . 5V.ui\"cly hier...md poliliral lunCl.:l nlce the higher 'mllllS o f mo re ~tmueUl people..$.20-). and honesty (SI... are judged to be disadv:uuaged 111 cOll1pa rlSOIl wi lh Iht' natio n as a .tjobs (drug dealel"!. aud 1 u.lS a measure of po\'ert} and a slalldan. If the pOVCrty lin e is too 10.ion5lhal the poor perform 101' ~ociL-lY .. Ihrift .I th(' poverly line may actually (1\'(·rc . "c"lth ? Sociolog" Il erbcl't Gam isl ( 199 1:263-270) has applied fml Clinnali'lt ana\)'Si~ 10 lhe existencc of ptwt'I"IY . 'vhile lI1:1n> deserving poor (' i1i~ c n ~ will fai l In I'ece. ve poverty is .OIr. lhe. YeI. I here .. Mosl 0 1 our COtllll ry'S c urrent social proK'-aJll ~ vil'w ptwel'ty in relative terms... • Bcc'a use of their lack (If po liliCll1 power.t) . III the I ~.!I'e morc likely than WhilCS 10 bc fouud .mnplillll rt'quirl'lllcn ts ul familie~ bas<... I 960s.• cost.'workcl's) .'d .1 stand< mls in as~css in g peop!("s Icvc\ o f povcny.-d o n lheir size and composi tiun_ The pOVcr1) 111'1{' SCl"es a.... 1 benefits. ms \<o'hidl lOllCl'iV(' of povcny i" eit her otbsohll(' 1)1' rel...11 ('mploymc lIl ( p"bl i~ health expe rL~. Ihe po!"~ 226 1'·.~h benefits (such :l'l Medica l'c.:C Chapter 7) .'ld\'allt. food SIO\l111>" publk hllllsillg.. had decl'('as('d (after :llcolU. 1992. definiliOIl delermines .: slill SCC II as clcsl'... ~1I1 ) lam ily of four wllh a combined income of 5 12. It c rc:alt'S both le-g.vin g ~pecial assistan ce lrom Kcwc rlllllc llI ..st. deadcnrl and IIndt'I'P:Jid.Ili\'e It''nllS.\lid 1.ear-old lIuuition."Oplc living in I>o\'crty I".uu\ illcg. lIndignilit'd and mental join-will be IlCr\ o nnt.... " hieh "scni ce" tilt' poor. AId r. • The pOOl' ~{' IV(' all a m ca~ lIrin g rod 101' status 001nparisons. This problt-III ... 1991) .0 )(..8 12 or I ~ fell below lhe pove rty lillC..-. Withiu a rcl. Depending un dtfto.. l)Qve l'l YCOlltinuc withlIl a nat ion of \..: bl'lu:fit!l. 1990(\ : Rugglc. Ihe Uurca u of thc Census ~ "lIisfdCIOI) opt: I~ ltio n. 19(2). In ~ l ead..'d by some Ctnplo){·I"lI) .re"sed (Clowa rd :me! Ph'e ll ...lrchical socicl\'. ..\n. )O\'cn y O nc commo nly used IIIcasurl' 0 1 relative 1 IS tht' IL"(lcrd l govl'nulll'n t's potN'11V 1/11 ('.'S di!>pU lt' lll is vicw and Ol fg ue I.' (>Ovcrtv line i.lle"0 to 60 P£'I"(Cllt 01 Ih£' poor c m be tt. I'o liek'$ conCl'rn ing minimulIl "'""gt-· homing standards. ted annually 10 rc n eel Ihe con .

1I11' 1"tR If .· which. ..J and magazines. origin."./CA7ION ..lc rcadeTh.I. ralher tllOUl ge n etic.'r 7lI~ IU)Ilal f!robIems.lCring.llifJ m~uallty by fimling dljfrts il'! tAr lIIdilll.o rheril In 1971 wh. OlTI..'llhin himself th~ causes of lIi ~ in· ibilily 1 read and wri lC well. he is ~d isad\'a n"1gcd ~ :utd -"'lI':iall)' dcprh'Cd. .~ Ihe victim a lld accou nt. .lill 0 I.I/II. lhe six . This is Ula rn ing the ViCLim . '·Ie i5 said 1 cont. in1>Cllsilhc leacheD.~ poeJr moti\~lIion and ladu health illfo nnation.$<lyifhe talks al all ••.s of "blummg lilt lIidilll· mul MIf. .ued~ I() life in Ihe hig city. 111 tilt jollnlJlll1g sike/kill..ud: lhe insulting hiSlut) ho<)k. . .l pJ'lJU. and lhi~. Ihml tXllInillillg Ihi' 1IK'i41 and tcf)Jlomir /ae/Ot'J "Illf COIIraci.. mul ullJ/. IT is a bri lliant idcolDg)' fo]' justif}ing a pcn'cl'st" form of social action desigmued 10 change. of illldleclual baggage as he elllers ~hool.ries of Ihe '1l1rd World.tl·ristics of tenants who :lrc bbeled le. but rath er soci· ety's victim.o.uion. Lhe in-d~\~ITIL cuniculum.. llu.lJ is 1II!1/((/ 1101 (ml)' fll dl16tioollfagtti propIP ill II!(~ Unittd rnllult IQ puunty. [I would he po_silllt.nld iljollal dc~b ill Ihc 1'00111 .. he: cerw nl)' docslI't 1:1 C 11.h thc 1.. . •. they say) 10 learn mudl in school.lck of pro~pcrir)" and technological progre~ is attri buled lO SOIlle: aspect of lhe nalional char· acter of Ihe people. BlaminA Ihe Victim is. ill \\'h il...'! 101' his \'ictimil. .ra. know about hllol. ..llg in Lhe school? What is wmug with the \.~ ." hi' tdlnea llu phrrw "hLaming Ill#' lIictim" 16 rmcribf IIOW Will#' J~/!lr t~i~lI/ialf)' P. The rllisernlllc lrcal th cal'~ oflhe poor is explained :Iway Oil thc grounds tll. ~hllll lift. Comidcr some \1ccirns. But thc stib'ma. . p. .1 k nOI"l'11 as the illlll'r-<:ily school. £II' the sclf-6CT\ing facuJty of Ihe 1000~u teachers' college. lhe frigh le ned . Cnitw'al dcpri\~Hjon Ix'I':OIlICS all omnibus ("" plallation 101' Ihe eduCl\lional di~lSler :lre. Ihe [:!lIolls adm inillu'alOr. In • IO.\Inull a wlntmlJl.hool.scan ty pack. amI racial dilTiculti($.1I lhe \'inim h a. Ont: child in the slum ".S th(ll lh i. no onc remem bers 1 ask 0 q uestions . . The new ideology allliblltc~ defect and inade qu acy lO the iI1 Hli gnulH namre o f poverty. Th e 0 Ytorthand ph rase is ~c:uhural d e· pm.\bo:llll lhe culla psing buildings alld torn lexlhooks. Ihi~ logic.\'/)\OClAL \j(JHIIJ Il' . such as lack of "achil'vclll~m moti\~ltillll . . the der~l.s a pplied lO almost e\el) American problem.l mln". of COU/1k'.~ Ihey say.. Thc problems 01 ~ hlln hQ\. ~Soulhc::nl rura l mi· gra nL' · nOI re I -aCC:IIItUl".'C tly•• .. IS still localed 1I'llhi'l the vic· tim .".'"C1(lr cO"'~dr(UV mcmbers of lhe school ho. HccounlS fo r his failure (hU failure.ttim? In pursuing l~ Ihe miseduC"dtcd Willmm Ifpm .ation is : /11 aCIIUirl'd slignl. \\11al is Ihe culturall y deprived lhi!d dOl.. lhe fairy-l..mlt ..sing arc Il"llced to the chanrt.. lhe ~ti ll g)' I:"'pilyel'!\. 227 (. c"ptcl. 10 those in Ihe ~now..· bigOl.. RyaPl (1976:3-8) a/J{ui.~ but also at usidnilS Qjthf UJOrlt/i /m dn~ /lnlions: . Ihe rou.l defects.vrd. th ey sa)'.1 sti gma of social.for me 10 "cnlure i1l1O o thel' arcao.-onc finds-a pcrfeClexample in litcmlure aboul Ihe u1ldc:: rd c\'t"Io ped COltnl. illslde h is skin .l..I.~ui\'t· i d t~ologiC!l.BLAM ING THE VICTIM l'rJdIoWgJ51 lYillllllll RJw. lhe blw. injuslice. \\'1: "]"t' ('ncour· aged 10 con IIne 0111' allen lion 10 lht· ch ild a nd t(l (lwdl on all his allege. . He is b lamed for h is own nllsctlucatio n. frighlcned printi. or cam'\('.al diner· ellce ... TIll" stigma tlMI marl. ' The gel/cric pmc::~~ of Blami n g the Victim i. :l~ Ollt' might. 11ley. nOI weiel)'. He do<'-1In' .. quite dillcrcnt fnllll uld-fashiol1cd conse . conveys whal Ihey allege to hI' inside l/1fonnation: that the poor r hild carries a .ls: Ihe r'clcIltJes~ scgrcg:ttjon.u lilt pr.

oftcn absorh the cos~ of social c hange..7 percent in· crea. But even thili lallCI' ngur'c m ay di sgui~e the se. Max Wcbe r saw c1ai\.cd o nly those people IIrllTll!l) seeking employm e nt.uioll 's ullemplo)'cd pcopk h ave pn. a groa. and rawr a ble life l'x perit"l1ccs (Cerlh :l1Id Mill". Abrain .\ '''t.~ the mlliOIl \\ ere un e mployed a t anyon e lime.lIe. I' lle o f the Ull ited Sl. Lh e I-::Hl' or lInl!t:nplo}'I11CllI alld UJtderc mplo)'melll fO I Black lecnagcl'S ill celll.raI<11) areas c1imlh to 90 pcrcent ((. il was a bout 7 lM.us.. in Gans'" view. Sales by rctail n1"lllS ami Olll cr bll sinesse~ arc affected ad wOICiy. U) the laIC I 980s. and health . 1992) .7 percent increa.. Bol h mari"'ll h appiness .. Under the policy of d c institu ti u nali/. 1987).'i 41 c1osel)' rcJah'rl 10 p coplc 'ii life chan ces-Ihal I" their opporlll llitic~ In pl'Ovidc Ih e mselves \\. a nd lhis can lead 10 furth c r lay.>.iltl : arc 110 1 at sch ool. a profcs§Or of Illanllgelllcllt. illg I>onio n of the n.Cw unemplo)'m CIIl as a kind of IX'I'Sollal (. 1983). Wage e:ll1lers must contriblHe to ullcmployment illsur:uu. Stratification and Ufe Chances Povert}' <ll1d 1IIf" employme nt lUull1csl icmabl) hale :1 ma rked illnu. f. led .d govcn lln cn t' ~ Bu· reau of Labor Slall!llics regalds as 1IllClllplo). un e mployment ' leads to a reduced d emand fol' good~ and se rvices. positivc living conditions.. The ullcmplo)1UI'1lI rate for Black teenagers in \II'oon arC. Womell a rc abo ut 20 peToeul more likely than IIICII to be. Life c hancC"l .c 'a nd II'clfat'c programs 1. :lIId IIHI~t Ix seeking ajoh. unemploymelll alTectS the entire society and has far-reaching conscqlll'nccs o n bOlh the macro a mi the mic l"O le\." Conscquentl).md Yamak.11.}..H I.uul othe rs \. level.ttioll 's b oor force.1 percelHage: for exa11l1 )[e. thc prublem.'ICll. • \OC/.llt'5 228 i".O percelll increase in homicides (Tipps and Cordon.. In addition. The burden (If une mployme nt in the Unitt([ St:lt~ is IlIlt'\'cn ly distributed thro ughoul the n.e in su icide. 1958:UI11.' of sccuritv III L'}' once had (A..ociet) wi ll improve OIlC'S lire Ch3J. rdeased mental p<ltiCI1IS have been M dumped" primarily in to lo wincome commlln il.ation.. c. 0 1 macro.Kk those who han! dr'o ppl-d 0 111 of Ule syslem--. According 10 onc csli malc.. c nce on pcopll:'s Jives.c o f lhe United SUlles i~ assoc:iated with a 5. sllch st:lli\tics d o 1101 inclt..:l Kr 1I11U-.unc o f Mprogre~. Ol'er 8 million people aCI os..~ in the unemplo)'1nent r. Urban renewal projec ls 10 rcslOre cCllLral cities h:t\ c typ" icall)' push ed o ul Ihe poor in the n:.erity 0 1 unemploymen t. Thus. and nOI looking ftll a job.Ih It. a person musl nOI ho ld a filII-time job. re n:i1ccted in such IllcasUI'l. IUIISI be regisl.~~ 198$.. The lIr1employmellt. not at work..\. 90 percent of laid-ofT whitc"""CollllI \\'orkcI'S soon found similar jobs.l5 is ahoUl 43 percen l. the unemployed 1 1 )C 'SQ1l and IIis 01' h er family must :uljust 10 a loss ofspcllding power. As sociologic:tl research poin t3 OUI.md fami ly cohesion may suffer as :I result.. Unemploynlcnl As we havc seen in o ur disc.ics and neigh bod lOods.ordlls . d uring lhe 19705. The fcder.ou!1."'! in admissio ns to stale menta l hospital. a substantial portion of poor people expcricllcc in tc rmittc rlt ur lon g-Ierm unemploym elll. offs.~ J whole duling lhe Dc pl'~ i on o f u1e 19305.lilul'e. E"clI if they C\'etlfUo a ll)' regain the typc.societv . Such StatisL ca ll m.e rcd with :l gm'crnmcnt unemploY lllenl :Igc nc)'. only 50 pcrc~nt cl sHch individlmls did ~(I.. well abov(' till' raIl' fO I' the nalion a.!! MIll .11 assist those with ollt jobs.sion o f poverty. R.o. there is a n accompanying l u~! uf self-i mage alld social status. 1 goods.u nemployed and "'It' less like ly to be re hired fo llr)I\ lIlg la)'off~.'S as ho~ ing.~ .(. Quilt' simply. If we add ciiscollr-ased j ob seekers 10 Lite orfi ciil] s ta ti ~tics..~ is trmlitionall y rcpre'IC lltl~d a. While the chronically lIllClIlplo)ed understandably rccehe the alien iion of polit:)'lllakcl'S.rcenl in 1992. in ord('1 lO be ('ounu:cI as unemployed .:1 '1.. From the micro Icvel .. a nd 1 1992 the figure had 1) decreased 10 only 25 percc lIl .I)' e njoyed lo ng carecn as rc1ath'e!\' > wel1-I). a l A perce nt in c rea.. thtR whil(Xolla l' workers arc unlikelv to view the futlU'f with the senS<.. since Ollr ..ICwerty a nd the poor acwally satisfy posilh'C functions for man)' n o n poor grou ps in the Un ited St. Occup)illg a high~rflO' sition in a -. On the sodc ml.lI.'! of pollitions thC". Swi m o ll.c[s.l1imi/. \\'hkb was 25 percent.:lci:ll altno ritics and teenage rs have IIlle mplo)'IllCII I ralC') twice that o faduh While male. iI is mo rc revealing icll to poilll OUI lilat in 1992. eduGltion.v I~t.. and an S. According 10 Warrell Boetn. Ihe o ffi cialllnclllplur me lll !<lIC leaves out millions o f people who are ri· fL'Cti\'d)' un c mplo)'ed hlll have l4'i"ell lip and are Ill" seeking work.lid execu th'c\.""1 and Barro n.

thus. :Imong people ". tween Blacks . By con trast. th ey a lso benefit IDmanynonntll\erial ' . the compar-ab le de'lth rates were Blac k me n . IHJPiU lilt' mJlmrt DJ fill/wan/ aui /Irogmms 1 ILUISI tllJ' rlJl~ge-blllmd 0 from lmllt'T-j. a person 's IwIIh is affected in importanl W'.5.m. Eve n wbm they survive infarlcy. 3. who can hardly afford to lose ~lIly o f their limited funds . 1993: 103. R. A study ... bierel aI. Like disease. well as gender and 1 lce) on .mmll' badrgrou IIdl. the comparable fi gure wa. fl poor 161lllg pr:r.tm '" flit Uniktl :.'i 4-1 percent. (Qll /l/lIlts to iJI' murh ltss hlvty 10 go 10 mll.ll h l'atc. 16. and brarl disease. A.. In 1990. The)' lII ay be e mployed in ~ in which health in!>u ra nce i ~ n U L a fringe belldit may not be e mplo)'cd full lime and . BI:lck women.." DilU::d significant and fairl y constant over the last Ihtan (Mol'tellson .6..ad bring greate r acces!t to social rL"wards.. 1992).lI'ld Whites is widening ( Pappal> e t al.. 1983: '11-314) . 2. the poor <Ire more likely dwl lhe aOlu em to Slllrer frolll scr i o ll. may lit ineligible for e mployee hea llh benefitS: or may limpl)' be unable to a lTord the p remiums. Black women.Iys.5. PlIllcth. This hig he r infal11 lll o rlaJilY lair' results ill part fro m lhe inadeq uate 111111..I.nl' .6. Fur'lhennor~. In addition. a per- or 229 CJIAP'Il-. Wh ite men.. 6.to 24-yir. 1.. More_r. TbiJ gap in educational oppo rtunities h as H ..--tHd high lrllOoI gTlu/uato _ 'hi' Imt 20 )'1'f11l. brollc h itis. . $20..~ .. . if acc used a crime.. 79 percent o f all unmarried high dIooI gradua tcs ages 18 to 24 rro m fa milies earllin« $60. While women.the occupations of the llotlion 's lower classes 1tnd to be more dan ge ro us th.oIi!i LrucofcducaLiollal opportunities.. chl'Onic ill1IrUI.. Lower-income peopl(~.'l:. ujjl uf'll/ ymwg 19.(iol1 mel'oo by low-incomc eXpeCt::ln l m Olhers.. All these facLors conLribute 1.. 1970101990 . By con· 1raM.J'(' /iulII (/ IIWIl' pm.: Mon'"" . documents Ihr impact of class (m.d' rates in lht! United States in 1986.anality.. 7.Y:S by his or her _ position (sce Chapte r 17). 2. dt·\'Otc a larger pl'ol>onion of Lheir limited re1IIW1.>s... al'e mo rt' likely to be assauh ed 0 1' rrlped than are more a muent c iu/.~. Ihe d e.970 50 '0 30 1970 ''''-'ltn:. 1982: Szyrnanski.43610 $36.~ ~uch as arthritis./f'!.hose family incomes \\'ere $25..lIbhched in mid-1993.:a: 1 the necessities of lire..3.n. 1993) . I>cople in Lhe lower socia l classes a re forced FIGURE 8·) Collf!gf! Parlif::ipntifJII Ralf!s by fami/. as is sh own • Figure 8-3. childre ll fro m high e r-income ramilies intbt United Stales a rc much nlore likely 10 a llend coIk-g(' than arc children [1'0111 less aOlucnt fami· iD. Th e ch<lll ces of a dJild'~ dting during lhe first yea r o f life are appn))(imately 70 percent hig he r in p(XIr lamilies than for Ihe middle class.436 1975 rlJ9'l 1980 1985 1990 Tlu's figUTt shun~ IIu! collegr pmtirijJlItion rat.6: While women.A 'I1o.4 .. S pet' 1000 IkQ" pIr~:'l to 64 years old were as follow~: B1nck men . The researchers add tlml the gup in the d eath rate bc. 1982.cns (LanbraJ1 and illllc... the pOOl' a re less likely .0. c rime can be particularly devast'lIing wh e ll it a ITects the poor.388 :tnd over were enrolled in or had alImdt-d college. 1989.v ANlJ SOCIAL MOIIII . 90 80 70 60 ~ S. which drew on data on . For example.. For families earning less than $JJ.th rates of the poor and Ihe amllenl.000 or more. Whit e me n . Among people whose f:uni ly incomes wrt' less than $9000.-l36. 0 Tht' amucnt and powerrul no t only have mOI'e IIIllrria! possessions tha n others.109: sce also Curalnik el aI. diabetes. /'I CQmf!.0 differences iJl lhe . 1985).be protected from lhc high cO~ 1S o f illness by pd· • health insurance. .R 11 • S1RA'IIM(..o... Below $20..m lh ose of more afhilt ciUlcns U.. tl{IHlI/I(IrrVt} 1tJ. Erickson and Bjerkedal..

sisla llcc checks arrivc..':1111 Ihe rewards and pl. .istrut.wi th low in come and sta tus is like ly to be rCI>resented by an ovemorked public: defender. Fo r lhis re. • .Ul be crucial to dctennining a person 's fortunes. E..." /. SOCIAL MOBfLITY It is d ear Lhat stratilicalion mauers.. who tended to be ollicers (F. Appare ntly. A lom:ry partic. Smothers.. A1thollgh ntacks and Hispanics togeth er consdtute unly 20 pcrct!1lI or all )'oung adullS in the Ullited St:Hes.how frequent. the o pportuni ty 1 1' advancelllent 0 is of specia l sih'llifica nce 10 those who are o n the hottom of socie ty looking lip. lnldng members ora culture. \VheLlter innocctll 0 1 g uilly.\'ilegcs that arc grl.. PelCrson. Bill how sign ifi cant. Differe nces in life c hances based on race and ethnicir)' were evident in 199 1 du ring lhe . such a person may "it ' in jail for l11 0mhs because of an inability to mise the money for bail. freq ucnt at lh e begi nning of each mo mh../fllfJ.-. I'm' lhe vcry unlikely c:hall CC or bccomiuK a n instant m illionaire (Mllng"lmurti and Cook. state 10.'iS.. social class sr.. 1992a)..and moderate-income backgrounds arc mo re likely Iu die in combat. alxHtt 36 percent of the nation 's mililary persOlIIl(:1 in the Culrwerc Black or Hispan ic.tion.e. It can bt import:tnl th ~tl people havt' the fccling that the'< can ho ld on to o r evcn improve upon their cia!:.a nding in c hilian lifc C. In SQnu. 199 1.·er classes were more likely to be drafted when the rniliwry draft was in open.'c n the adm iniSll-ation 01 state lotteries undcr- ~on scores differen ces in Ijfe c ha nces. these data no'l1eet the irony tha l lIu: a ll-volunteer armed fo rce!> offer Ino re career o ptio ns for mallY minority ci tizens than arc available to Lhe m in c ivi lian life (1 -lowlcll a nd Keen .ltC IJlall the morc am uc nt. Even in the armed force s. Willis.. 230 I'AH'. Once in Ille sClvice.lI1ted 10 high· I. Only IWU memhers ufCongrcss (onc of whom \\'as l-li"panic) had c hildren serving in Operation Desert Storm. 1973: 328). " lighbor11llOlb wtflflhy rom". posiuon . Research indicates that during Lill: W"tlrs in Korea and Vicl. Wea lth ."m (I n uJ 5/{j~ Iot/Mro liff rAmllt!.nam .. pant is six times m orc likely to be struck by lighr· ning than la win the jackpo t. 1975.~ II· in Ihe Persian Gu lf. but Iller cenainly provide additional . IWtU:nrofO Iliff~u~ 111 UJlfrry ImnillfJi5 WII UII/f(lll'lf IhlH! III 11/ /IlI'lft hmtfl~ poo.1.lson..unilt~. 1991)..'. yCI Slales target lowin com e residents in their louc ry promotions. Louery te rminals a rc mo rc heavily conccntl7ltcd in poor neighborhoods tha n in wcalthy cOllu llunitia L o ttcry advertiscmen~ are most.' respects.OCJAI ISI-:QI:Mfll' .. whe n Social Security and public a. Zcitlin e l a l.. a nd power may nut ellSlII'C h~p· pine. 1987. tha l class potittion quie tly influences o nc's lire c halices. Me mbers of lo . Thcst: pcopll' . people from low. sta lllS.tcry eXCcuu\'es beli eve tha t th e poo r are more Iikch tha n the affluent to spe nd :t hig h portion or their earnin g'!. soldje r~ rl'om Ijlc lowe r social classes ~lIffered a highe r casuallY r..01)'501 coping wi Lil onc's problems and disa ppointments. hOll' Everl (ill! oomil.

!»!~~.~!~. de..\\€:s. ~..sales derk (prestige mnking of 29) .aMer md lkagall.~~.I ?~. or occupation relath'c to others in the str:uilicatiun system.dr:unatic-is mob ility ill a d. competition bt.. a plumocr whose ra thcr was:t ph)'!oidan provides an ex..: \'crtital mobility. Does lhis mean thal the United Staid is a gcnIIIn~l) open socie lY in which any pareut'l> c hild can brtome prc...:uy sociolobrlslS distinguish belwcen h onLoulal and vel'ti(' l mobility.o. I"'ragen~r(ltiona l mobili ty im'oh cs changes in a person's social posiliulI \\ilhin h is or her adult life.$C lhe presligc r. . A wom.?~. call1{' from a f...'ll Ih.lckg:ro u nd . A man who becomcs a L'lxi cab driv{' r aflcr his accounl. ufjrv. . :10 c1cctri ci:m \\hu Ix .l'\ I]slml lo dislinguish be t\\'cc ll t\\'u ideall.Ii social mobililY is lO conlrast inte rgcnel'alionai and inu"agcflcr<ltional mobility... (('ache r's aidt and t. comes a fUll e l':"l l director wou ld be cx pe: ric uc ing hoti7. \{)CiaJ place mc nt is ba. rhus.trd Ih i~ idcal type as it altcmpt:..~~.niOIl !l)'StCIII In another. ''. wf.s a barber.sis.rh cannQt be changed.ont al tUobi lil ).I..ltific-...'s pile Ihe examples o f C.~~. An Olh er Iype of. H ispanic... utiginal edition l Y27) . A~ian Amcrican . IU reduce twriCrll to mohility bred by \I'o me n . thc paid I"bor force as a .atusc~ .'lI11ily lhat belonged to llit'tornllllllli ty's richest 15 percent of tax paying properl)' OWTlel'li by the time young Abraham rl"al'llcd rlw <I.I.. If \\ C U .u.Q(:ial mo bililY All OptW sys. A lihn SI:II' whose p..I :'.ish... too. Thus..OOAf \10/111 r n . m each man c\'clHlIall)' achie\'cd t.ing finn gnc-'_~ h.~~. ~. II lhl: 2JI ( J/IYlUf 11 • nlM11" WA TlO....tel o r I'ilirint Sorokiu ( 1959. or linandal re\\~ ml-i5 all example .!iorRV of the nation 's presidelltS (82 perccnl) were Ik... itnd J illllllY Carter began as a peanu t farmer.u'lier ill Table 1). M ost sociolOgical anal). nor has all)' mall who IoIOD African American...ypes o f ~ system in tenus of !. are (.idcnt? T hus far .«..i:..tween mClllbc~ .. I:unou!o for hi~ day!> in . For example. (Baltn."~"... historicoll drclllmmnccs or changes IOIlil). \'t:rtical mobility can ill\'ol\'c movin g upw. i!o mo\'lIlR lOW'..... In an "Iltn class 5)..~.2.... .1tIg'in g from a 10\\' of 0 10 a high of J 00. power..si> remains a critical faclor in o n e'~ hkrlihood of Ix''<:oming president. and pt~o p[ e born ill lower social dJ.u ion S)'lIlCln ..llobi iity is "rlle. .. o r simtum..'se nted e.aljo"al mobility ill\'ol\'t's change!! in !lIC soci:11 position or c hildre n ri'l"livl' tu their »<'lren ts....Ull Lincoln. .....·cnie-. Thc'!C t t' nn ~ refer 10 the \'cn ical I\lm'cmCflI of a specific brrou P.lI the position of each individllal is tnnllenced b) lhe person's achieved SUUII5. l"ia!l...~ l"'IlalC s)'~ t e ln .. So.0lIIa l mobility.'W) ..... Thc \'. and le) a Icsst'r cXle nt uu.'!"...l1('r o r :t dilTere nt milk.. Mort'ovcr.)f socia l mobility closed systelll .cd on asmbtd st. rOCUM!S o n verdcal mthcr than horil:Ollml mubi lity. co nte mpo r. mllificlllion. In qldt societies. howc"c r. da. nle rise or a ch ild from a poor backgrullnd to lhe presidc l1C)-or to some o the r p osiutlll o f g reat ptntigc.IS the LlUteO ta les? Rt..U1 wh o beco mes a lawyer (prestige I':tnking of 72) would l·xpericn ct..~.socicl y's "tratilic. 'clll ually becomes 5upcrimendellluf tht' schoul dist rict ha~ cx peric nced upward illtr. If. impli(. TIU' United SWIC....11 parlar in Ncw YO"k .of 'oOCitty is t'l loolll'aged.. The slavclY and Cbtr S)'!itCIIlS 01 ... Qnt! way or examining \'t!rtiC'. At the other cXI1'('lUe ill lenm .ulIple of downward inte rgc lI~ crationa l 1I10bililY.ll position to another of the same ra nk.u I)'\/t'm a nd c(OfNi d.!r.'.tnd e thnil lIlillon t. J utical ' mobility refers lo lilt' 1I1 0\'C Il1 C fll ofa pe rson fro~ onc social p osi tio n 10 ano l.." -t.. \\'ould :111 electrician wh o becomc!! a ..~~~~~..lIla ld Reagan 's 11tlhcr wr. d H o.:..krupl has 1I1lf1t'1'g:o ne downward int r::Ig'(' n c r'. he or "hc would o nce "brain experience h Oli7.. lelll... ill whic h th e n ' is lill lc Ot· 110 p'IM'lbility o f individual mo bil ilY.....lmpl e~ of c1oM!d S}'Sle ms.'c of:.m into upper-rniddk "-Class or uppc N: I :~ fami110 [\'en Abr. If the funcr:li dileClor later lea\'cs a Los Angeles establishmcnt for a similar job a t a funer.ISI m..tge ncr:ttio nal mobilit )'.u ..m killgs prt..·x. Following tht' Ic...'o lll onc soci. no woman has served In Ihe natio n 's hig h esl onicc..."Ircnls wel'(! both factory workers iIlllstlOltcs upward illtNgcncrational mobility..s.. An eicClri ci.' iI and Schneidcnn:m.Ida l . mubility..')oxiologists use Ihe terms fJ/lf'1I r/fJ.1II who cnle .1f{1 o r downward ill 11 . f':'lch occupatio n has thc same ' presligc mnking: -49 on a 'iCale r.:ltio nai mobili ty.. 'n le term socia' mobility refers tomO\emenl ori ndi\iduals or group~ from OIlC po'll00h ofa socicty'5 5tr..iI.he m ost powerful iUld p~dgiotls position in our COllntry.'. sllch as rdCC or famil y b..~ societ y stlc h . ~~~'. l"tlt"8fm~.I log cabin .If !IOCial mobi lit)..on tal mob ility refers to Ihe IIlmcmcnl of a person f..lh...

.hat of their pa re nts lIsually advan ce or fall bad o llly o ne or two Ollt o fa possible e ig ht occupation. Fca thCrrnan and H a llscr olrer evidenct' thal l... . researchers mean t hat pe0ple who reach an occupation.~. As our infommtioll retlicval systems rely increasing ly 0 11 mac hines. INEQUMJI"I .~... :\-te mbers orlhe caste became vegeta rians-a practice associated with hig her castes. Efforts at slnlClUral mobility may be consciously underta k. the c hild of a laborc r Illily become all .d: IN a life time or climbin g.h of it covers a \"(:1") '·sho n distance. Even in the rigid caste systems of India. since they did no t consider hOllsehokb with n o adult male prese nt or individuals . Milita.h ccnuu). Two sociological studi es co nducte d a decadl' apart o ffe r insight imo the d egree of mo bility ht th(" nati o n 's occupational struct ure.. the subcaste of "toddy ta ppe rs. later study by Feathe rman and Hauser ( 1978:38 1-384) docume n ts.~~.~~~.'C!s of Blacks we re less lhaq th ose o f \Vhites. Does this mean tha t lh e Unite d Sta tes is indeed th t: hUld o f o pporluni ry? NO! iflhr phrase "land of o pportuni ty" implies th a t.. during lh e 1700s.lrLisan or a te chnician .~. kno wn as lodd). but those ill citi es a rc mo re prospe rous and a rc viewed i\lj hig he r in rank.. Gradually. parc lllal backg round . these investigations le d to several notewol' lhyconclusio llll .. a nd some began to learn me rc"lntiie skills. occupa tio nal mobili ty (whirll can be i.~~.. TIle [nl' 232 I'/tHTTIIIIFJo.?~. compUl.'ho were no t counted in t. as th e. th t:n .'Il as Nadars.~. in an effort to gene rate mo re dignifie d a nd prestigio us images of their work. TIIUS. occ llpationnl mobility a mo ng Aflica n Americans rem ains sharph limited by racial discliminatio n (sce Chapter 10) Eve n whe n the researc he rs compare d Black allol White ma les who had similar levels of schooliug.)' officers and stl1Hegists are likely lO be reb 'TIrded hig hly in tim es of war o r forei g n policy c rises.1 level diffe re nt front t.h a n thci l" fa th ers. Whilc lh e Nada rs havc not full y Sll Cceeded in ac hieving upwa rd structural mo bility. Toddy tappe rs..~. Today.ne rgcncnlli o na l or inLragenc ra tional) hn\ been commo n among males..t nized a move ment to r'a ise their collecuve slams wiLhin th e cas te system. 1980: 161 . However. but he or she ill less likt'? to become a manager o r pro fessiona l.. lllUs. o nc lowst:ltus g ro up..~~.~. Nadars in rural areall still work as toddy tappers. some even fe ll LO lh e ir d eaths.()("JItJ.·y and McCurdy..e n by the groups th cIIlsdves...h e re is :t modest declin e in the: sign ificance ofrnrt· yel. Spra dlt. Ofwn tbese people wo uld become defo rmed or physically disabled .I.~. ~. they have gaine d a dee pe r sense of se lf-respect and have wide ned lhe ir options within a gene r1llly reSLrictivc caste system (Hardg r:wc .. T he beli ef in upwa rd mo bility is an important aspect of our socie ty. Taken tn· ge tiler. also knoy·. who re plicated th e earlie r sludy..1 g reat de al of m obi~ ity in Lhe United Sta tes.... a nd farn il)' background have ceased 10 be signHi calll in deter· mining o ne's fUlllre p rospects.y'~.. 1969. g un to call lh e mselves "sanilati(1Il e ngineers" and maids have selected th e label ~ house hold technicians.' aite mpted to improve itself through structural mobility.:as followed by th e research o f David FeatJlcrman ·lause r ( 1978).ill me labor marke l may lead lO the ri se or decline of a n occupational group within the social hi e ra rchy..er technicians a rc rece iving respect previously reserved fo r lawye rs and scie ntists." By tJlis. {he Nada rs became dissalisfi ed wilh lheir oppressive work ami low status and org-..... garbage collectors have b(..tl leve ls. An inOux of immig ran ts may also a lte r da~s a lig nme n ts-especially if the new arrivals are disproportio nately hig hly skille d or unskilled . and ear ly career expericuct.. · <. gende r.hc la bor fo rcc. Appr oxima tely 00 t(l 70 percenl of so ns are employed in dillc renl and high er-ra nked occupatio ns t.166). Third.?. A final conclusio n of bo th studies is tJt<u edu~a­ tion pl ays a c li tica l ro le ill socia l mo bility.. T he resea rche rs have a lso noted tha t Blac ks are more likely than White~ lO be dow n· wa rdl y mobile a nd less likely to be llpwardly mobile.. more and more Nadars refused to lap the palms. including rio ts protesting tll eir actions at the end of the nine(e(:lll. althoug h th ere is .. T he u<kh against reac hing the lOp.~~. Th e high ly n~ garded wo rk of Pe te r Bla u a nd OIlS Dllnca n (1967) .i. Second... tJl e ac hieveTll e nt 1e. muc. a rc ex tremely high unl ess o ne begi ns from a relative l}' privileged poailio n.~. such ~ cripliv[! characte ristics as race. There was stro ng resistance to the Nadars' elfort 10 impro ve their social standing. Firs t.. had the hislOric lask o f c:limbing palmyra palm trees 10 co lle ct the sap .~ . Lheir conclusions must be regarde d with ~ollk' cauti o n .. two of Dun can 's SIlla nd Robe rt 1 den ts.

' ·D VK:II/ \WRIIJ/1 . huwc. hil t some rcsearch find i n g~ arc no. for :l(j\'3I1(. sclf-cmplovlIlc nt as ~hopke('pc .tS dimini'Iwd IOUlllc\\h:l\ in •lIt' ~t d ccldc.1/1 tilt l. ft should bt· nOlt'cI .m those of class.. given serious con .~j u ll v se llt th e ir rbilcl.tiono.' Ih.\ collegl' stude nts . [11 I Oll t r:l~t to IIIcn..o . tod a). -se1"\cs less .. e nlplOV1llCllt o pponUl tilics .'vcr.1(~O"I(J. 1!!.. Ih. compare d with o n l) I ~ pe rcent 01 rn.e have deah pl. :\loreQ\'t:r. . Studir..1I"t: i.H 6 • -"/'R.. itu k'pc nelc nt pl"OfessiOll3ls..rt. of Illobi li" .. education represents a n imporl:tnt \\'a) u! dfecling illl ergcncralio nal mobility..l\e gh'clI -. FUI"' ' ~"Jlorc.ontC con"idc r~)fltO the imp.-. · \\'ho rccch'cd no schooli ng (M'e .iclI1s havc Ttwdc.t1l'd pa re nLS dlout. 1-. Whilt:. Iluwt:\'l'r..l'I. rtlllfllll(1n (ontlrlllt.Ire mllc h IIIOrt' limited than men ·s.gcn· fl:lllons.lIll~ into thl'job market flnw hold slle h a de/{rt·e..lt't o f race 0 11 Illobilit} ..-:.1 ()( cup:ttinns OP('" tn them .uiullallllobi lit y i ~ dccli ni"g . ("\'en mon. pAf! of formal sc hooling on ad\llt s t .eare h. Dm'i)o. Thus far. or B.. sidcrauOI llo the occul".d lIIubilily and see k to I'Il.ltm~ is e'cn '(\'Cillcl"lhan that or family b. Morc. women arc morc likely than men lO with.hAIICes..and incolllc.1I Ihe impact of cdllGlotion on mohil it~ h. is an impor· tanl f"ctor in O ll l"~ mo bility.'rgener. 1 college celuca· (11111 remai ns l'.uguaralllet' ufup\\~1f"(1 mohilit) than it did ill the JIoIst-simply became murc and ma rc CnLr.lc kg l'o und IIlJiucnces the m.. This withdrawal \'io latcli an assu mplion COIlllnnn lO lI'. ha"e tnlditionally ig. TIlt impart (Jlfo""w/ IdlOIJ/ing IJtr m/lilt ~/fI/u' H nJf11 A. the reh} se\'l~ rc" rcStricting the po'Sibi lil\ o f IIp\\~1f(1 mobilit\'. a lthoug h wc 11. like l'ace. WltcreOls in cadier de c"dc.n 10 college.lck)(rmmd (a lth ough .' \\'ilI rccci\'t.' a\~l i l . Earlier wc noted litat stmlil"S of cla./ltal roll' "I sarial mt.. YCl man) o f lhl'!>C [>osi t..ubst:mtial g-dp bctween thcir employment skilb and the jobs bein g o nc l'cd the lll .~e ntiill fa" occlIp:l\ iOlml o.ffl/it). II ncl the 233 (JI V'1f. m gt' o ! cleric.. According to recent re<.' ~ lIlall V high Ithool-cduca tcd p:tren ts succc .Ike th e (II O~ t o f their u ppo lulllilics.-toutthsof col1cg(·. wo me n have :t I<I lhl"I' I:trgl' I.I988).cducatcd me n acl lic\cd some lip\\"Jrd mobilit)...'>S ha\c only recenll. fa mily l>. 1 o.f 10 /J/ay a n.\/flln. ~inc(' III ere \) 110 IOIl j{cr slIc h a stark dit1crcn cc between . As " 'e will eli-.l11ellt ..(... elmw entirely fm lll the paid labor force when r.uificmion and life . nored Ihe sig nificance of gende r...lditional llIobility studies: Ihall1t~N pC ~lplc wi ll aspire la upw~l ..""""/I'I' /l1fI1I I/ml/lf fllmily IHJ(itglVlmd. a mo no lithic phe· nomeno n.' comple ting ..O\t'r. \\'omt:n 'o.l· rrnsingly likely IU have collt'gc-t'dtlc.lbl e which ('xplo re Ihe relation"hip het\\cen gender a nc\ mo bilil )'.'I2). ililt.marilv with social mobi lity a..t IIJ.~..'rult'll .tduatc degree-a B. Threr. t: illrC'prenel ll"S.1 sala!)' ranges a nd limited prospcClo.1\ '" 'kI\\ ill our di'loCIISSioll o f 'tr. gender. o fl'·o lncn as deu:rminants o f loOcial rank..J.. " higlll'r e duciuio ll ). .eijhood that ont.lIC('(''S. a n undcrgr.ccd Wilh elown\\~lrd mobility becau~ of .cms in morc detail ill Cha plc l' 11..A.

caJculalt. The average state in Ih United Stales spt'ndlo ollly 3.S.ies. ccnt of the nation (Goodgamc .'l."1tes has suc h a comparatjvely high le\'eI of military spe nding.he ir fathe rs. Nevertllc less. •"0 1' example.:\S eVcn whe n their f.u: fluent indhiduals and r. 01' arc retired .1'1 ) on weWu!' cx perience upW". 't.Ish against welfare ['('c ipi e nL~ renert! deep rears a nd hostility toward the natio n 's urluu and predominantly Blac k and Hispa nic." as il has bee n lab<:led by Gol'cntor Mario Cuomo or New York .'l. in France. 7 pe rcent.. Despite suc h {lat . Ihto Un i ted S tates cOllld save Illorc than $60 billillll each year by redl1cing th e~ and othe r programs and t. undercla~ (Bureau of the Census. wh ile federal housing a id 10 the poon-. Consequently. lhr most af11uenr 4 percen t of thc na tion 's familio (with earnings of more than $100. In good part. In I9tJO.s fC)l mO['(brage inte rt:sl and property taxes morc lhaH doubled. in Spaill .o wome n . thers held suc h positions.000 a year) col.'\'idlC'nt around the world.h iest 10 per. are taking ca re of young c hildren .4 perce nt of its budg 0 11 welfare programs.".lslically. live ... the United 5 t:lle<. RETI-IINKlNC WELFARE • I-Iow docs the le"cI o f spe nding fOI' social services in tJ1C Uni te d Stales compare with that of Europca n c:oullIries? • Haw do conflict theorists view Lilt: hacldash . and ollly!) percent in Spain . "Welfare scapegoating" also cOllveniemly over· lQ<Jks the lucrative federal hando uts that go 10 . Mo rc m'e r.lS. 1992:24). According to estimates.lrd mo bility? Do they fmdjobs thill :\Ilo\\' tJ1 CIII to leave Lilt: welfare syste m. in 1992. as comp.~ Such Mwelrarr sC'd pegoatin g. o r do tht'! rt: main tra pped in persiste nt poverty year iller year? Th ese (Iut'stions wi ll be examined in the» cial polic)' .-s? • !-I ow do welfare mothers draw on social netwo l'ks to su ppl ement tlll'it' incomes? ca. 46 pe n :ent.l l budget on defensc. ' To . 1993). As no ted earlier in . bcncJit the wClI lt. 35 pel'cenlof cell lJ'a l-gove nunelll spending \I'en t to these social SClvice are. I'caching $·17 billion a year.l subsidies to! retire llltnt--or about S30 billion annually. 1990b:65. bill no European natio n had a proportion tha t low. this is beca use th e United St.ndidatts re fl ected the public mood by a lTering ~ to ll g h ta lk" commercials concerning welfare. 'pclU 23 pe rce lll or iLS centl':.~ whi le Covemor Bill Climon 'l\ COInme rdals showed him insisting th'I' "those on we~ 1 :ll'e move into th e workpla ce. 50 percent of poor adults who do nOl work o utside th e home include many who arc ill or dis. 38 perccnt. idcllt Gcorge: Bush used advertise me nts pledgill& that he wo uld ~c hall ge welrare a. Viewe d from a conflict J'X'1'Spt(:. wome n are unlikely to m ove inlO tJl cse ~H'e. this backl.Ig"dinst welfare recipients ill the United St:ltt.0 hOLlsing.milies .Q(!AIJIl \ .lI·ed with 12 pe rcent in Bri tain . Tht.he chapt c r. man} political 234 PAJ{T 7'1f1rJ. th e amounr of dtduction..u be ing c ut d r. During the 19805..:d the proportio n o f cemral-govcmment expenditu \·cs in val'ious cOlln tl'ies Ihat a rc devoted 1. co untries diner substantially in th e ir C Olllrllitmcllt to socia l SCI""ice programs that will assist tile needy. It is difficult to dC"e!op crosli-nalional co mpaTiso n ~ o f welfare programs. These dl" duc tions generally be ne HI affluent taxpayers to'hu own their 0\\'Tl homes. Sack.IX breaks that pri maril). fully 40 percent 0 1 poor adults in the United States work oUl!Jide the home .t • SOCIAl 1. Stereotypes aboll! lavish welfare spe nding mOl\k wcll-docurnc nted re alit. in .sectio n on \'cthinking welfare t. welfare. unfairly blames the 1\11:< lion 's serious economic problems o n welr:U'espending and Lh e poor. and une mplO)lllenl compensation _ III 1Y90.nd make the ablebodied wo rk. Pr". in France.lhi(b follows. suc h spe nding W hile straliiiCl tio n is l.abled .. Ihe figure for Ilu' United States stood at 28 percent . ge llcier remains all important fac lor in sha ping social mobility wi thin thc United Stalt. In Great Bril. Although sons cOl11monly follow ill the footste ps of t.like-an importan t road to upl\~lrd mobi lil)' fo r lIlen-ha~ often bee n duscd t. lect morc than 8 percent o r all f(:de ra... the Wol'ld Bank ( 1992:238-239) ha. since there is suc h \'l:lriance !i'OIU na lion to nat ion.. Social Security. h:1I dcgree do wo men (and 01(.

lhe number of AFDC rccipienu..sclltaid LO hllndreds .Irm plOposals a.'lnce.Il(:'d goal of rr:lIling dowlI " on . III dlt'lJllil~d Slates increased by more tJtan 20 perI{'m In the early 1990s-a sharp in crcase und.l! those already homeless (De Parle. SociologiSl.. tillY impacC (Conniff. :£3). \\. concl udes: "There's absoltll. maj(mty of /JfflP1.) leanlfare program ha. about 13. while 58 percent arc Whit.""'"1'..:\. Under tJlis lal'l.ilt.. wa.\nJl~ or honuscs of $50 or $100 pCl' molltll . alld local governments.f bt!1(!uJ .. "bo.md Fr. Clnward and Ph'en add that well·m..!I who continue in school.l will! DtpnIdlml eMU/m. 12 Slatl'S cut emergency aid lO prc-1'1'111 homelessness.1~C parcllI.0 I 0 }'ear~ JlId Ilnly i percent remain for ll10re t.er.d 9 rniUwlI fON'f/" chill/r't". and VillI 10 percent OfSllcb families have three or more ~hlld l (II. I9'J2. 1992<1.. DeP"I'I~.I\C welfare. gil'cn the stale of the nation 's eCOTlom)'. Sli tl e~ must require some welfare recipic lllS 1 look .' 'Kelf<lI'C system is Aid to Families willl Dcpt·IIIII.m~ Black..ll SUII. \uClrding [Q 3 report by the Cen[el' on Budget and PObfY rriorilics. sllldies 5hol\' thal onc in e very seven yearl'OIIUd .1t'lrolyJJd.0 for jobs or clller eduGuional al1d tmining prog'l':tltls. lIuhc. th. will 1r. How4. a professor of public policy. lI. 1994).. and 9 states decreased funding f.rn . SWte. 101' less than fOllr ycars and do nOI return on('e lhr\ 1c. pas$cd by Collgress in 1988. their AFDC benefits if the)' f<:lil 10 <oec: a dOCIOl' regularly or fail to pay the rem 011 time. Yet. 1991 ). tJlt· Family SUI)ptm Act. Indeed. oflcn Wilh tJle sl.) Ovcrall. Currently.11 and the rise ill famil ies headed by single ITlnth!'t (Dc l'arie. 0111)' 15 pcrcent of \\'CI. 10 llliUCS froze or cm fun(l~ for falll.. nil' .md mOlll comrov('-t'Si. h (1lhis minOlity of rc("ipicllts lha l mOSt closely fits thr picture of a permanent undcrcJass tnlppcd ill 1""lItem poverty (Welch.han 10 years.)uhtl!dlr fuded by the nalion 's cconOll1k re(es. 19<j~b:All ).n.sSIlIllC tJ1iIt Stn<lll incentivcs.\7RA TlHCA TlON . On the federal ICI'cI . II 00vCI'CI". a public assistance pm\:BIll whicb provide.LW) ~IlL MOIJu.c wrh benefits.wd" 18 Y'flfS of af!. of "h"m about 9 million art' cbildren.bring rul by federal .ht 8owrmnn" s povnry I".ely no C\<ide llce that small changes h.t a" .II'(' rcfonn pl'oIJII\lI ill r«elll ).. such . rull-time jobs I)ay!> less than is requi red 10 kcep a fami ly of fuur above Ihe pm'{'ny line. A 'IIIne. tlecreascd Sllbstalltially ill the last ~O years. Man)' reIi.'S hailed as lhe most sweeping welfare reform in 50 ye:lI's." They emphasize that. DJ I~ mo" /JW1/ I ) 'mUlion JMo/!/(' receiVIng Alft 10 f"mnilil'. D"vid Ellwood. In 1991 .. 27 of tbe ~O states \'I 'ilh wdfiU'C fill ~Ilgle aduhs and childless couples cui or fro:r. the size of lhe a\'c.wc more tJllIn a tiny. I\·cll-adminislcn::d training. nit! besl·publiciLt:'"d . about half Ihl' women on welrare 235 UIttPf£H 8 . j.11 pari III Ihl..UlY states havc inslitmed wcll. 1992a.lbllSCS of Ihe system. 40 PCI'· frill .s Richard Cloward .·1\1 Child ren (AFDC) . In Maryland ... slates slasbed welfare programs IOOrt' utcnsively in 1991 I1lall at any lime since IiMI!. ramilies can In~t' 1 j 1 711.lb children.2 milliOl1 people In Ihe UniLCd States receive AFDC bcndits. aid to low-income fami lic .I:tte of Ohio ofTcrs a S62-pcr-month hOllus LO I l'lI. ing sllch welfare reform experiments. participanlS in \\'orkfarc experiments will find il highly dillkuh IQ find full-time jobs thal pay marc than welfare.~.~ remain on the rolls for 5 1. f41l' r('('ipienL. ntncn who tiller Ihe Ivcllare S)'stt'm ~ta}' On the roll.e. while \Vis.· I~ tge wcllare famil y I. a nd 16 11C'l(cmart ofl-lispanic descenL More titan haJflhc .C:II'S.. (In contrast to . aftel'stlldy. ("FDC) btTll'fit$ m 1992.J I'tcipicnts to makc major hchavioral c hanges. 01 familieS' that receive AFDC assist.A t~milies "hen their tecnage c hildrell miss luO nUll) '!Chool days.programs wi ll COS I mor~ than polic)'lIIi1kers arc likely to approprialc. J992 .lIlces Fox Piven (1993) Imvejoincd man) I'csearchers in cnliciLing "workliu'e programs. VI/it.hildren.

IY92a) .ations.~ we lfare reform had IlOt bee n in itiated d uring the administration's first ). il)'. friends. they d id conceal it be- ca use the). SU MMARY Stra tific ation is SlfllrHlred '~mkil1g of' entire groups of Ix".I\ific:uion. do IlOt want to work.'ith 50 welfa re mothers in the Chicago are:\ and questioned them intensively about Iheir famil). should surpfltf no OIlC . Although these welfare recipiellts gencrally feh guilt)' about concealing tJlis additional income fro m Clscworkers.lge depclldcnc}" simpl)' because welfarc benefi ts arc 100 lnw to live on (Dl'I)arie. the cXpl.ll jobs. Ideall). and I'o'hell! 0:1)' ('. il)' fur 236 I'AR" .md ~ocia l mohililY· All c ulture. a nd hold va lues d ifferent from those of mainsu'cam society.of c hild care./1111:/'. As of 1992.I'.IS' 10 o lhcr S}'lltC Il U of SIr<HifiCluion.!iCS are k-ss preci5t1y dt> lined. where women are economt.'d ucr the number of people on tJ1C AFDC rolls b)t 2& per· cen t.. T hese com bined paymen ts will allow lhe t}'pical welt:uc family 10 buy 27 pe rcen t less (in te rms of valuc of goods) tha n the ave rage gran t did ill 1972. rtr . cconomic.:lnh . :lIld polilic:l] illellil.e parmems. needed the iucome toO su ./. the monthly a\'erage rose to only $623. Uy 199<1 . boyfriends.ll.. Indecd .. a nd transportation werf considered . Clinton had envisioned sclling a tl\Qo rear lim it on AFDC be nefits-wh ile al tJle samr ti m e uOeting welrare recipiell ts job training... child care. • 'i/)(:JAI. many of her interyiewsubjccLS w"dn ted t. health c. Edin c hallengc! tht stc l'eolYp cs tha t welfare mo the rs do n o t work. the average monthly paylIlelll for a family of three \'-JS onl). In this chaptrr.. 4 Kart Marx yiewed class dilTercmiation as Ihe crurial dClcllninant of soci. 3 In COrlU'...o wor k outside the home but could not find jobs that wou ld pay them mort tita n welfare did-espedally whcn th e added C~15 . Whi le a 1993 report showed that the law had raised the ealllings of people on welfare in Cali fo rnia a nd had reduced the am ount they received in public assislance..'d social ineq!t» iHdivi d u:l l~ nr groups is d ove. 1993). wc exalllin(: fmll' gCIIer.hat half till' 11101111'1''' supporting children Oil their OWII chuose welfare over rc ported I'o'ork. About half of the remaining 42 percent came from unreponed ".\1 ccollol1lic n'w..al'e cxempt Irom Ihe pf()\'isiol1~ of this IlIC:I. churches. fin'Ulces. analysIS dis.~gree on whether the Califomia data suggest that the program has made a significant contribution in reducing welfare dependency (De Parle . bill it is far from becQming fedcml poli<1 (Welch and Nicho ls.. and the rcl:uiollship betwecn ~t 1~l\ifiC:HioTl .d ~'Slems of stf<llifiCllion. It is imponam to emphasize that in na tion has substantially eroded the purchasing power of welr.llhc rs.'.lIld I>ower in a soci('IY..'c1fare does not cncour..wc." wc kl1<J'<1 it . Despite a tinging campaign p led~e hy Bill Clil1wn ' 0 Mend wdfan' :t. IIIr boundaries bt:11'o'CCII . a nd comm unity 01 lr-Uli7. even adding in tile value of food stamps.II1:1l iolls olTercd hy fu n c liona l i~1 :lIId cunflic t sociologist! fllr the eXi~ll'IlCe of soda I inc'1l1alit)'. \.ple that perpetuates uHequ. here single mothers must prO\ide finall' da ll y ror Iheir children. education.SIII'C beca use they lack lra nsporwlion a nd child care. re char-dCterizt"d by wme degree . As a presidelltw candi(bltc. Edin (199 ] :472) concludes: In a society \. \\'hilc the othe r half (<Ilso unreported ) came fro m 'IDCial networks cOlHisli ng of family members... cally marginali'"ed into unreliable jobs thal pay liuk more than thc miuimum wage.. K>tthryn Edin ( 199 1) of the Russell Sage Foundation conducte d in-depth inten'icws ". clotJ1ing.wcial clas. :m d other formsul suppo rt.I. lhis amiJiti(lUs plan would rc. i. or whi ch 58 perCent (S52 1) came from AFDC benefits and food sta mps.eM.ll... \'. .OI IS CUIIl]loOllcnl$ of SII.'rQl!lI.ire cosu :md health iU$IIr:mcc (lI$ual1)' not p rmi d cd by MlI' ploycr<i) arc umlfTordablc for most.I Jocia/ in'lfu o/ity. where child Sllpport k il1:ldcquate or noncxistcnt. ~\'e and would lose their benefits if they l'eponcd lhe exlJ-'l income On the basis of her research. Thus. She reports that the total income of the women in her sample :lvt:ragcd $R97 pcr month. absclll f. ..'ork in regular or illcg. ~402. 1993). . 2 The mosl extreme form of lcgalizt. the Cli l)ton administration had certainI\' recognized 'he challenges of reforming Ihe nalion's welfare syste m.

..tkn ts or charac t ('ri~lics.tClerisucs cm illnllenre rnobilil) . in • I..IWI1 o lh cn. economic. ps)c hologb r William R)'al1 exam ill es ttll' .UC h..... a public .cs ach i~ved slotU$ Ihal1 ill a c:fuud .5('d primarily 011 ('cvuOllli( postlioJl in which ac hiew·(l rlur."I·d ofwc..tnd pr.'..'uple. :lI1d Ix)lilic::al illlcrNU. 9 Sod al mobility. Yl·t s ludit:~ Sl!g"gl'st Ihal . our sodety p lo lces "j{nificanl re"uiction.\ .5) C/fl SS cO IIH!iollS'If~SS In Karl M:u'X's \i('w. and IlOwer..ljol }Ourct': uf o........ 1-10'" migh t wci· ~ use the ilHemctio nist perspccthe to ex..(e 101' milila l) pmlcctioll a nd Othel' l>t.. suggest why nll'ntlx'rs of the uppe r chs. that are Il'l..nion is IIt'Ct-ss. 8 The afTlu('n l allll tlOwe lfu l nul only hal'(' morc 1lI:l.('111 Ilflhe \I n!l('d S l~t es has rocused IJ1l Ai{1 to F"ll1i lie~ "ith ]) i......ork lalld leased to them hy !lohles in eXd l:..I'm Thc repu tat ion Ihat a part ic ular indh...'-Cld. (23 1) D Om.e\\'...:s h.. (page 226) Ach i f'vcd slatus A .d~ aid lor 1 0"'-income fallu lif"s...l\ hel p HI Ill.llth .'1) Cla ss syslem A social rAn king ba..1St. .I}()() r~ dclit'~ a ny si mpl e dcfiulIion alld COUnlt' rs co mmon ~tt"rcoI)']X''' about low· IOcume pt.zo Jlt(f1 mobility The 1II01'C-III I'1I1 0 1 <In individlllll frOIll one social IXHilion to another of Ihe . dOllleslic 1~"lell('t.UWIC Ihat sU<lIific.{l\ml has Ililhill a n occup.. they a lso benefit 11) tt'lms fir eduralion. (2 1:1) Ho. SI. III IVJ1T.::oluloO' o r hbmilll{ n1cim. an d Ule main incc~IIIi1'e 101' ('(ollOmic activily is tlw accuTl1ulation ot pmfil.. :tHd even col5ualt} amin ill g Ihe probll-ms r.. health.I1"t:neS5 hel(1 by m(.....duals a nri wmlps.i oll <lu. 11 ~Iuch of the dehale over the welfare ~yS\..S .d on a mill' 11lIUlll kId orslll)$istc llc~ bdo'" which ta milics shtlulcl nOI be expcc.S 011 flscribrd ~' I atlls. I ~)L'i()logist D.. re lig ioll dy dit-lated. .~ .IIM'fHII! • \rflA 01 '/(:11 I/()\' t .thin a collegl' cU lnl nunilY.~t"Cellt DJ lite nation's popula lioll.ls conce pl ua liled Ihe fi\t.u ll(lRossidcs.. (2 12) Ascribed slallcs A social position "assiglU'd" 10 iI per· son by society W ilho ul regard for un: p<'r1jOn's unique t..U1ds.ial cha n~c'... Auonling (0 1IIoell..s.mbers or a class n'brardi llg Ihei r ("011l1110 n \'~sled lute-rests and r1('eel for (ollective l}llIjuGII action IU brillg abvut "0(.. All Ihest: ~i Hl .tintain I>owerful ~()cia l .. (41 1. omen " ha clCl>c rie nce rape ...md W. .'Iem Ih'll fOCUSt. .5 Max Weber idel1tillt....lIld im m obi le.tlisl and con ni("l pt: 1~pc.. .(I~'" that cmphasil.. com p rising tht· OWllCrs o r the meam of prouuClil)ll.. (2 19) False C{mSciOIlS llf!U A term med by Kat"! ~hrx 10 de~eril)t' an attitudc hcltlll\ meHlbers 01 a class tlwl docs nOI .tcclto cxi_t..." I SlIriological stud> of slratilical1tll1 KI'ncra tl y is COIL' "'u-d all. a subjective . (2:i 1) /II cu lll e Salaries ... (2 1.. 10 Despi te prel~\iling beliefs aboul tlw poo.. Abso lllll' poverty A slandard of 1 X)I'eny 1>. I.~ f A.O\OPH MOB/fIn .schouls. of Ihe Third World . (212) Esl.. lhe Uppc.sibilitiu ot upward mobility in Ihl' l ' ni ll:d Sta tt'S.1II1.:!lM$.ng in slum h ousing.met Ill('" Iowr>rmiddle cialoS together aCCOUIl! Itu' abollt ·10 pc.ivlHcd tu fi ll ~uc::icty's illllx lrtlltll prn.lIld den·loplll).LII(lll .. conflict Iheori ~l~ SI'(' slr:'Llitk.Kl·c1 by .lIi ull.n..'"ke~.'d lhrl'c anal) tically dis linc t eIUlIIKllle llUl of slratification: dass. lllclt w'asallts were rcC[uirt'd 10 .. lK"ople li\..lmine _IIdIIliaM inequalities "..I ~I"I proportion or l('SPOlldCIl1:.lllj.lIil"ely lixed .\ ..itjol1~.)f "blaming Ihe I'ictirn. (cmald) rent'CI i l ~ o l~cct il"(' po~ition..-.Iry s}'~lelt1s of r..Y.o. (om1ll0nly !t:ad La tIlt' id.l ill ed bva Ilt'rsnn largely through IllS or her own dTorl......I~\I"S. How mighl R)"H1's model be applied ill ex- 237 r..'1> Ih.....o. 7 The 1:.nHI Ih ~ minK elMS migh l pref('I' to idelllify themseh'es ..lSIi is tallc~ prugnlln U1..rgcoisie Karl I\'b rx's lerm fO I till' capita list class. (214) Casl u Il ercui L:.II) ' !I(J th'll people will be mm." ". o n the mohili" lIfimli \.. 8-2.Li tension 'lIld conflict.lit'gOry of Iht' .. lerial pm~ssiol1s 1 .:tllll' rank . IIsllall).u opportunities....ll" 1In.L1 pfOl..d 11) c hild rCll ill illller-cil)..~ rt..l ti(I1l~ .. 6 runetinnali~l.~od al posit. I('vel ami draws m ' iS t hcavil ) OH Chc "'1ItlJ\.IW.he lllaCh...llId incomc.'(: tl\·es..ociel..T)..s... (2 1<1) Capilalisr" An ('collomic system in whic h the 1I1t'an s o f productioll are lill'gel y in pril'..--pt'lldcnt Childrcn (AFDC)."...LbS.... Also known asjnulalum.. (209) I"1Itts " hilt in Ihe allncd ro rces.' more li kely to be lound in an (Jpc . (2 12) Closed system A ~Od'll ~ysl ern in which Ihere is litl ll")I no possibility of indi\'idual mobilil). '1I"lot('h1 of the Un ited Sta irs using . i{iL'nlify Ih~lIlsclles:l.s "idclle class: DrJwillg on Ihe ml>dcl pres~ ntcd b) Ros-ttIn.II1I5..Lllict R~ieh. (210) Class r\ teml used by ~1ax We be r to refer to people who 11ll\'e a similar \t.t~ a rn. (212) BUI.~ R)~1i1 focuses on the ."l.1IfIJlI ideology A li-Ct of Clll1ll t~11 be l ic[~ .. m idd le cllI~S . (II' selCllal h :l ra""m(:n t ~ Ig. (218) Es/ale system A sy~ICtn of sl ratitiC:ltinn under ..

hc rll and in whic h e nslaved SlalWi is tr. (if power. tn exercise onc's will O\'cr othcr:s.d Lh. da.~.dual is ill ll uenced by his or her OlchiC\..'\d\'3.n nlcutred rnnkillg ofelllirc grollpsol peoplc 1h. (208) Sodal mobility Movcment of i n dividtlal~ or groufM' from olle position of a society'~ slratilication system to anmher.Hid skill~.rociet)\ whate\'cr th eir lifcslyle~....c.l!J to dasses o n the I"L~i~ of criteria such as occupation. I>osiLive living cond i tion.s tha t asIIigns indh.s len n for the wo rking elMS in a . (2 15) Stratifi cation A . (231) Strlfctural mobility The ven icOII 11Iovcme l1l of a specific group.t:d stams. and favorable life expericnces.IlUtgcd in compariSOIl wi th the nation as a whole .bltergtn f!ra ti onal mobility Ch:lI1gt..~ 10 children. (23 1) IlItragf!lIfrOliollai mobility Chan){cs iu . lificaLion system.tenn poor people who lad training .. (2 19) Pro/dariat K. (23 1) Power The abili t).~i c t }' ha\'c d im'rent amoun ts of WC. ed uC'.. (2 19) OPell system A social ~)'Stcm ill whic h the position of each indh. illd ud ing la nd a nd other typesuf p ropcrty.ith material goods.ILion.'@JAIJI1· . (210) Social j" equality } coud ition in which me m bers oh \ ....~. (209) Stratum mobility Another nanu' for stnutural mtlbflitJ. (2 15) Prestige The respect and admirntion with which :111 occupation is regarded hy society. .'l1n encompassing a ll of a pe. or occupaLio n rclati\'c to othen in Ihc str. (2~ I ) Life r:hclllces Max Weber's (COli for pct:Iplc's oppol'tunitie~ to provid e thcmselves v. (228) Objet:live mdhod A tcChlli(llIe for measuri n g sod al cla. inco me. (209) 238 Iw~r ruHH.1 pt:rson's s0cial posiLio n withi n his or her adul t life.uufelTcd from pafellt.. • !'Qc/AI 1:-''f. and place of re!idcncc./au w ng. (:l3 1) Status group A tcml UM:d by M:tx Webe r to refer to people who have the ~m(' pre5tigc o r lifeslyle. SOil'S m. (225) Yertical mobility The moveme n t of a pel"SQ1l from one social I>osition 10 anolhcr of a differt'nt rank. (214) Rt'lati ve IJlJverty A fI lXlling st:llld ard uf depri\~"ion by which people :11 the bouom (If:. arc judgt. prestige.. capitalist sockly. indtpendent of their dass positions. (231) Wealth An incJush't" 1(.'S in thc sucial position I)f childre n rclati\'c to thdr pan:n LS. (23 1) Undr:". (2:l6) Slav ery A s)'$tem of cnforced N-Clvi tude in wh ich peo-- pie are owned by o l." pcrvelllale~ unequal economic rewards and power in a society..du.lIerial a!ISCIS.-d 10 be dis. r1 Marx '.

Ar(~ of /Pltf{uality. Sharpe.lir... An o\'Crview of the societal lreaunenl ofwomc lI and childrcn ill Ihe United States.... Among the journals focllsing un issues of SlrAlific:nioll.. Rl.lrlc('s Fox..R 8 • StRA TfI. Chicago: Uni versity of Chicago Press..w of /lIl!lJualily.. and Europea n peoples living on th e No rl. gender.ithin Native American.. and Ri chard A..l quieL lodgeD.. 239 C/1AYf}. . Rando m House. a nd Rroil!w of 8/arA PoIiJiml t... C... 1993..\iicheJe. and the impact of govc nllncnt p()1icies. and Marcel Fournie r. An archaeologist draws 0 11 primary sources to examine racial. MORI/flY ..h Amcrican continent... See also Ule eU'""t PopuloJitm 1UfHn1.... . Rtguklti'lg tJv!'oar: TM Fun ctionJ of Public WelJm'f.......... Pat.1f.. \\mn.a tiOIl of poverty.1 seri es publish cd by th e Bureau of the (. I!)(J3. Ruth .. Newbury Park.'lSCd inequality both .). '\l"Io' Y ork. ..e nn IIndc'c/as. l'oorFamilks.... but merely keep the underdass and tltht. I'C\'. l.ensus..' Symbolic /jqrmdarir. ElIg... Kandall M .Maki. .). Newbul'y Park.. New Yo rk: Pe ngui n .Y.. . Cultivating Di} /rrt'll(tJ.cti ces vary according LO social class.. and Unda c' Majka (eels. child care.s by social scie ntists and th c applicability of this con cepl.)... tllis volume documents th e effects of unc mplO}lIIcnl an d economic disl ocation 011 the fllmily..1IJlont. \. Published in coo pc ra. Fr. and Robert Paym e r (eds.. to the poor of the Uni ted Stales.lInong and .. ( 1970)..Jr.. Clowotrd..: Sage. 1988.. Calif.. Tht GMtto Undm:iaJs: SMia! Sde?l(i! P~fJtdiws..\tes and IWJ....uni lies over th e last 30 yeal'S and pro\idL~ a clear view of poverty among women.rion witll the Natio nal Council 011 Family Rela ti o ns. 1987.. A sociological analys is of h ow cultuml ta.. HllllUwity fwd SocidJ (1977). but warns that the continuing challe nge will be to sustain economic growth. O xfo rd. New York: PanIh. This book examines th e use of the I.w'lIIm. African American.. 1989. ed. This book analyzes da la on Ihe chJoging profile of low·i ncome f... J~Il:':~<tls.ili& and EaTllomic Dist. and social mobility are Ammamjouffi..m alld Childrro. A. 1991.. WilJialllJuJius (cd .....Oilir(' ndo rf. A critical look at how lhe welfare 1>oIicies "fthe Uniterl St:ltes fail to seriously address the pro blenlS of lhe poor. Harrcll R....: Silge. social class. Poor Women.uire...~~il I\lackwell. Sidcl .'t'll.. A nOlCd sociologist Vlt'W5 rece nt C\'Cnts in this region as a vo te fo r an open ~ty oloer a closed society.. with consideration of tile femini1. 1990.. ti le situatio n of older womc n..us....'JCIt TION AA'/) SOCIIII. Lost: TIlt PlIght of l'oor Womm in Afflunlt Ammca....s (md Ill'.. 1992. l'r.. Th. Wi1son ..licia. and c1ass-b. Fa".-on.nllon k. Voydanoff. M[(..(ii of ErotIomics and Sociology (fo unded in 1941 ).: B. &jl«tiqru on the fVwlutf()1I i" Eumlx..


uion fOl' )c\"c\oping t'\'alions STRATn ' ICATlON IN BRAZIL: A CASE STUDY Ra ce RcJations in Brazil: The Legal) of Slavel)' The Slams o f Ur:lzilian Women Ur.!... . . .illion Multinational Corporations Consequences of Su-. . . ... .~~~.. Neocolonialism. .. .I...il's Eco no my a nd ElwironmcnI SOCIAL POLICY AND WORLDWlDE INEQUALITY: UNIVERSAL H UMAN RIm-ITS STRATIFICATION WlTffiN NATIONS: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECI'IVE Distribution of Wealth and Income Prestige Social Mobilily BOXES 9-1 Around Ihe World: The Infollll<ll Economy 9-2 Around the World: Ine qua lity in Japan ..~::::I . ...lilic..x.. ~~. . . . and World S)'Stcms Theory Modc rni l. .. SOCIAL ..v... .\~rr.... . WORLDWIDE STRATlFICATlON IN THE WORLD SYSTEM: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Colonialism..Qy.

fTotllld of this village's cemetery lie the remains of 13 babies born 10 one mother. points oUllhat while the world has 157 billionaires and perhap. these are at war with one another. has been edged with Ulirst and hunger.. named Celli Seqlliera Games. says without regrelthat she does not mourn her dead children and cannot even recall their faces. some 100 million people live on city streets. village tradition lIlandat~ that m01hers stay home during funerals of tin\" offspring. she has seen only five of her 18 children grow-a record that might seem abysmal in the developed world but by standards here is nothing less than SUCCfS.ing women'~ lives and their relationships \\ith thcir children in \\'ays that arc mirrored Ulroughout Latin America. Africa.G.. and the little wooden crosses that marked their graves have long since fallen do". in natlands seared by chronic drought. Th~ Pinto lUpublic. I n this arid back-coullu)' lillage of Brazil's NorUle(Ul. a global environmental researcher. a farm woman whose life. Despite the changes Ulat have swept the glob!' in the past two decades. the miseries endured b\. the other of the rich." As DUI"riing reminds LIS. The poverty of rural families in Brazil must br undcrstood in broader perspective. and Asia. however smal~ is in fact divided into two.. since they di ed as infants ofamictions she summarized as '"weak blood. in Bosnia and other pans of the former Yugoslavia? an article published in 1993 in the WasMugPOs[." • •\00. worldwide su·atification is e\ident in the gap betwcen those enjoying la\'i~h Somewhere under the sun-hardened !.. in garbage dumps.'01. and under bridges.. Sequiera. now 42. Brazil. The woman. to illustrate lhe struggles of life in poor villages in the Third World: 1011 In where they are buried. one the stale of the poor. ske. More than half U1C world's popula· tion lacks sanitary toilets.). L OO KING AHEAD • How are former colonies kept dependent on their past colonial masters through lhe process of neocolonialism? • ''''hat impact do multinational corporations have on the world's developing nations? • Which nations have the highest and lowest levels of income inequality? • How are women and racial minorities treated in Japan? • How does immigration affect social mobility? • How has the legacy of slavcl)' shaped race relations in Brazil? • What has the tenn e/hnir ckansing meant. poverty is the great oppressor..journalislJulia Preston (1993:8) used the stol")' ofa woman in Santa Rita.~ She does not know precisely 242 PART "I"ImEI..ISEQUAlJ I Y . countless millions of rural women in the del'Cloping world remain unarneliorated.F f)r any slate. Durning (1990:22) add~ that "in 1988 lile world's nations devotcd SI lIi~ lion-$200 for each person on the planet-to the means of warfare. has given birth 18 tinH:snot an unusual nllmber for the Brazilian intcrior. w. 290 H. Playing the steep odds of n1ral survival. but failed to scrape together the $5 per child it would have cost to eradicate thedi!leases that kilted 14 million that year.~ as Illany as 2 million millionaires. Alan Durning.

.~9. Whilt the world markctplace is gradually being uni6('d in tenm of space a nd tastes. Finall~" in the social policy section.. . 1993) ..l1 ion in Bra.r. To better undt'rstand inequality in anothe r country....een ric h a nd poor countries... and other parIS of north Africa. as .itzerla nd.<ill world systems theory and the im mense power of multinational corporations. most of the world' s nations that were colonies before World War [ had achieved politic.. 1/11/1 a grmldell/lit. . wc wi ll address the i..f".~.. part'! of Africa. J apan..ho controls the . we will focus on Slrati fl(:'ation within the lIalions of the world through discussions or the distribu tion o f l\'e3hh and income. S. coloni alism had largely become a phenomenon of thc past. .»ut' of international human righL~ and the violatH1I15 of human righL~ evide nt around the world . for exam ple.nzi S~'1ui. tronomic..orld...ltJons: the legacy of colonialism a nd Ih e adlient of multination al corporations.. ~Q. INEQUAliTY IIlJRIJ)\I"II)Jo ...oom wilh ht:r luubmlll.~.::rrYll.... By COlllraSI.~~~!:~e?rL m Colnialism is lhe maintenance of political. a nd Norway "'as mort' than S22.·orkl marketplace by a rn. 1981b). foreign power for an extcnded period of time (W... for man)' of these countries.. and comparative social mobility. and cultural domination over a people 11'1' . The same ca n be said of French rule over Alge ria.. By the 1980s. com parative perspectives on prestige.~!. The long reign of lhe Hritish Empire over much of North America.lIue of goods and services produced per citiItn (per capita gross national product) in the lniu.M. Thct·e remains a sublIQotial disparity between Lhe world's ~ h a\'e~ and °l!a\e onC nations...1 independence and established their own governments. . The impact 01 colon ialism a nd neocolonialism on social inrquality will be studied.. Neocolonialism. These CO nU"3SL~ are mldly ilhLStrdted in Figu re 9-1 (page 244). the transition to genuine self-rule was no t yet complete..".n. Two Im:es discussed below arc particularly responsible k1r the domination of the .-d States.lil.ilitm jllnn WO/Mill who luu bn1. wc will present a case study of slratifiC... the figure . Relations between the colo nial nation and the colonized people are si milar to th ose belween tJ. After this macro-level examination of the clliparity bet .m Cornu.~c.. social.. Colonial domination had eSlablishcd patterns or economic eXI)loitation that con- 243 ClIA/'INl 9 • S()(iAL. However.e dominalll capil<llist class and the proletariat as described by Kart Marx.l\'(!allh and those sufTering from overwhelming poverty..Il.!>~!~S~t.I. jJ p.ealth IH. beginni ng wit h all examination r.. llinr Jivr Jllroivmg thl utrt1l.OOO. Bell . C.orld marketplace ... the profits of busin~~ are nOl equally shared . u 42-year-old 8ra:. In simple lenllS.&ub and Y anagish ila.I!A. Tunisia .."lfllll t8Ii.. in 1993 Lhe avcriIJile \. Colonialism. This chapler wi ll rocu~ o n slratification around the . The 140 de\'cloping nalIooS accounted for 78 perccllI of Ihe "'orld's popIIbtioll but possessed only 16 percent of all . and India is an exam ple of colo nial domination..is $200 U1~"eral poorer coun tries. prq. ~TRATIFICATION IN THE WORLD ~m:. it is rule byoutsiders.

'11.""1''''' JP0S> .... .""iQ".. .::..1 ."\..f{kuf. -0' K.-h.. ""'" '6335 0 .I . . 1Ja .. 1 pn ...0 L .-~...r-~ ~iL-.5-$2970 D '297S-$6J30 D -. ~ " '" 8 :t • ~ " • ~ ~~ 'L oo ill 8 .'If " .. . . ~ I OfNi6/lCA a.U: t. . m""IIIV/II-l/OOS f/(dian. /I...ot. .a.:.. 'owt'!'1 s/o"da rd of . ]'JIj3:1 4.. H~"b :""cI "all~gi'hh... \$ 1111' map sh01"<.'I. .. "/711 rotor frrr Mdl (QU1ItT)' shows Ihe g"I"OSS nalio nal produ c t (the /O/U/lJ{l/UI! of goods ami M"virl'S /lmdur'.'.•.a. TIIis It)'liud mall rfj/Dll lilt difftrl'1ll sius ..430 ond below Scole: D $.-.. /"'/...1 million inhabitonh Qo .u'. "' . 19'J.E ~ ..li It)' Ill#' I/(I(ion in a given )'I'm ) I'" m/Illfl.. wmt of the wmvl'.. ""'''''g I/U' (olmtne.a.' flU' Peopkj Rl'jmMic 0lehin.11 pupula/jollS (If thl W(IThI'l Iwli(J/I$.".43. rh fJ. GNP pet copilo $.... ". 1991 UNITED STATES -[? ~~""i~.. ..jsU".d l'alr. "" . .. ."" 1. 1-. /r"n"..row ~"d TI""".FIGURE 9· 1 Worldwide Gross National Produ ct Per Cap ita ..

. nOtes L a t mode rn !KlC ic t. no t all o b- 1. J a pan .. W aHentei n has advan ced it world systems I/ltor.or BfI/WIt>!!)r Ikverly /-litls 90210 may be \·iewed as <I threat .h e introductio n . 199 1: 495-498).om such tradi tional s.ources . o r tele· "cmn progr:Ull rlesig ned b).' QI OII.:ltUS. \Vendc ll Bell ( 198 Ia).. Even th e po pularity .. Fo und ~Itb(' ~mjpniplu:. the U nited Sta tes.elevision into the ir cultures i ~ but onc sym hol o r a revolutio nal")' transition in day-tod a). incl udi n g Iheir rormer colonial masters...cI.ltll cultural componen t.. 'ifJ(""J. Sembtnr Ousmanc.of t. Mc l'ha il.~ Ht~ old colo nial e m pires ruled th e il' colonies (Ki'r bo.tr)tinal economic SI. il1the vie .. fi lm . . 198 1. 1979) vit'ws the global ttllllomic system as divided betwce ll natio ns who Itltltrol wea lth and those from who m ca pita l is I"ken. CotHem pomry sociologists use the term mod erlli.'Y use.0111/1J- . rr.ons). lit e rate.ople. I'I!Jo:{l. m e mbers of societies which have un dergone modcllliza tion shift a llegiance rr. neocolonia lism . ro r m. rents a nd priests to newe r a utho rities sllch as go\'emmc nt offi cia ls.loniJ.i es te nd tu be urhan . degree o f urb:lniz:Itjo n.4).. AJricd •• md La tin -\mcrica are 011 the pnil)JII~'Y of 1.1 addition to their politica l a nd ecollo mic illlw lonialism and lleocolo nialisUl have a n impotI.. such as isr-Id. in\. Wallerst. Schram m e t a I. Families Le nd to be nrg.. 198 1:244-245. alized na ti .ons l.ml cont:lin a n e thn ocemric bias." (Indeed . and ma nuj.( 'u nl' II"OW. Such cOlllinuing de pe ndence an d Ivrcigll dominalio n is known as lIeQI. such use of mooemiUltion a nd development perpe tua tes the domina nt ideology .lIl ized wi thin tJle lIuclear fa mily IIn it rather tha n the exte nded-ra mily model (sec Cha pter 13). and induSU'ial .:.otioll to descri be the rar-reaching l)fOCeSS by whic h a society moves from trad itio na l o r less de\'e loped instituti. h c m iZ:II. Many sociologists :lre quick to no te that terllls such as lIIode/'IliUl /ioll and even deflr/Q/". political democracy. Emcrson.llism is one mea ns by which induttrializcd socie ties accum ulate even more c:lpiut. The naLivc la n~(' oflhe coulltr)' is discarded an d e. n ld r depen.lcy.trtmt ci g()()(L~ kcpl rnrme r colonies in a subscrllem 1 >05itio n. .ors: c"c n in induslrialized na tions.on thl! dangers posed by televisi. soc iologist Immanud Wallcrstcin ( 1974. whose dc linirj. of lhe syste m a re countries ".or ca pi t:. 1968: T..estmc nt ca pital. liter. lire.onialism. Ire/and .:magerial a nd It"fhnictl expertise. t.) Currc rlt researche rs arc increasin gly viewing modernizatio n as movem ent alo ng a series of social indicators-amo ng lhe m . ~1 e mm i. of o ppo ne n ts orcon lCmpOra r)' Ileo(. every consumer product. developing countries are inextricably linked lO th e econo mies of core tH!tio ns thl'Dl lg h col. Their econo mics are controlled and cxplOlll'<l. a colonial nation h an Itlvk 1)11 the traditions a nd cul tural auto no my of Ih< (IC IX'T1dcllt pe.witers and filnnn a kc rs..or nrilli om of peopl e aro ulld th e world . The colon i7ed people IMc their native values a nd begin to ide ntify with Ibr culture of the colo nia l power. 1 967: I O~ I 08.on of m()( I.. They have soph isticated lra nspo l"la tio n a nd me dia systems.' t('m.ers. and me or bil'l h control. enerf.lism :1Ilt! neocolollia lisllI arc quitc cvident. ~Hld Gc rmMl\"j and thei r m uhinat io na l co rpo r-. Neocoloni..)r 'UItho rity as ..list socie ties..tti oll s a r'e ill l dominant POSitiOl l althe core o r the s)'stem ..o11 we a rc using.orie5" (R..1.Ieltf"e: On 11101"(' industriali zed natio ns.on . The unstatcd assumpti o ns behind these term s are th at "tJleyM (pe opl e living in de velo ping coulltries) arc slruggling lO become mo re like MU SM (in the core inciusu. rhe econo mic a nd pOli lical conseque nces or ".. The n -lore.'en h idden uprople allempt to emulate the colo ni7. l)rdl\ingon tltc conflic t pe rspec tive. In reDn:ting . Modernization F.md po lit ical relatio n!hips in wh ich certain ind ust riali i'cd natio ns (among the m.ith m.tiDttt'd t!\'C1I after nationhood was achicved-in pari I!rt<luse fo rme r colonies wc:re unable 10 develop I. of uneq ual et:Ollo rui c . \Vorld Oevelopmclll FOt'um . By contrdst. 1990. o nt' .l l i~e cu!! ures wht'll such prngra ms dnm ina te dlrir media :\1 the expense. O n the iudividual k . eontt!m pora ly socio l ogisl~ e mphaOUIlsize tha t bolh ind l1strialized and develo ping C tries arc "mode m ..rnd&ruth Ko rea.~on ialism. Clearl)" these :Irc often subject ive indic:lt.hl'ir own ind ustry Cl nd tec hn ol o~.or local an forms.he world ccull o rn ic . noted : "[T oday) we arc more fam iliar with European fairy tales tha n with our own tr:ldilional SI.}'.e in suggcsts that thc poor dc1doping countries o f Asi<l..o dlOsc characteristic of mo re developed societies. Viewed rrom a conflict perspective.aliSIll . and the activities o f Illultina tiona l corpora tions. by cOl'e na tions a nd corpo ratio ns much a..of AJdca 's mnst prom ine nt ~" 245 ClMYI'M .t/.

fNI'.nlra l a nd urban . Black a nd Whi le. the illlrod uc tio n o f imp roved he.let us all pull togclh er. Ke n Yd re ma ins a t Ihe pe riphc l)' of the glo ba l economy. For Kenya a nd most othe r dc\-eloping na tio ns. for po li tica l leade rship. tllis co nverge nce pe rspect ive increasingly includes lhe d~ vcloping COllnlries o f the Third World . and a n ovcrdll incremic in popul:. Initially. tion g roh.~ This mOlto symbol ized his e Oort to bring together Kell)'<In .KnI)'IIIJ ali'~. at fi rst.. 0 dons' swdics.L well as h " the continuing e xplo ilatio n o r the latte r countries by the rorme .. p ri\. preside n Lial successio n occ urrerl pe a cerully rollowing his death .'l ts illis. a n African na lio n o f 28 million people. As o nc indiC:llor or Kenyaua's c ITectiveness. 1992: 472-473).uta ma intai ned a model of }wrllllliJ«. i ate wealth and power .e ho lds di.( 'lIlJI'UmizallOn ~ (kart)' IIIu/enOO)' in Nairobt ami ulhn. about 30 percelll o r the natio n's POP' ulatioll is ma lno urished ( Barne t.th . POJr ularly elected a nd in o nice u nlit his dea th in 1978.lIiOI1 studies emphasized the convergence between th e United Sla les a nd the (form e r) Sovie t Unio n or be twee n cflpita list Nortll Ame rica and th e sociali st de mocracies o f weste rn Eu rope. Researchers recognize the inte rde pe nde nce or core industrialized na lio ns and L e developing world-.' (c. Or vat· io us tribes a nd g roups. 1992. Pe rlez. 246 I'ART HIREE • SOQAJ. lo ngtim e organizer against co lon ial rule. Ke n ya rema ine d a Bri tis h colo ny until 1962. Wc can a pply the mode rnizatio n a ppro:.leged African el it. a nd i L~ people exercised liu.ic'll and instill\> (ional cha nges can be q uite unsettlitlg. COIlLCI1IPOr.:ch nolot. Upon indepe nde nce in 1962. J 992). I-icdlcy. the im pact of tt. Accordin g to lhe Unitcd rhti ons' Hum a n Dcvelo pmen t Index for 1993.:U)' 11I0 de mizaoOll swd ies gene ra lly take a convergence perspective_ Using the indicators noted a bove. there we re n ot adeq uate food su pplies o r school faci lities 10 cope with the la rger popula tion. however. such modcrn iz. Kenya ranked 127 o ut o f 173 natio ns ~ tlld ied . researc hers foclls o n how socie ties arc moving closer togelJler despite traditional d ifl·crc llccs. as European se ttle rs clung to Lheir privileges and powe r.Q(1A1fl1 . Yet. Ke nyans turned tu the charism atic J o mo Kenyana.lc a uthOli lY. but i( also delayed the developmen t of new leaders.AUhtmglr Krn)'fl is Qf!fT 78 pcrren/lUm. SC IVCrs In il ially. For example. would agree tha t wide r Ll SC of binh cOlllroi rc prcscllIs a n example o r " prog ress~ (Anner and K. O' Do n nell .h mcasureo. Wh ile a sma ll . According 1 United Na. Ke rr. However.~ p ro po rtion. in Ken)'a led to a rise in tht. Now.ch (as it has been refin ed ) to a case stu dy of Ke nya . Ke ny. colo nia lism sLim ulated the use 0 1 modern techno logy. a Swahili te rm wh ich means . the World Bank has estimated per capi ta income a t $370.ll . 1990. 1960. a decline ill the death rate.: binh rale..

-clpicnt of United States assistance in sub-Sahar. 1993).. (. 1989).?.\·d by world.i. unprecedented price incrcases for b. Kenya held multipany deCIIons for lhe firsl tillle in 26 years. today'S multin. Umsequently. ~ Multinationals based in corc countries arc beginning to establish rcscJVations services. and o ther goods. a high pe rcentage or multinationals have bce n based in the United Stat. . a fact . privileged el ite he nefi ts from such IU ll'ign investment-while most Kc nyans gain littl e !run\ economic dC\'clopme nt.. However.~.~ service industrics become a more importa m parI of the in ternational marketplace. For example.. they do no t completely dominate the nal~m'.9 billion-a figurc which cxceeded the fina l \'. Acconling to a 1991 repon by the Uurc:1lI of the Cell- 247 r...1991.1Il \Jrirn.. The economy of the United St:lles is heavily depclldcnt on roreign commc rce. These co rporali o n ~ are heavily 1l~1'C 1 aud are required by law to form joint \'CIItUft".. 1974).. Foreign sales represent a n important source or profit for 1llultin:Hlonal cO'1>Orations. on I)' the Iwcmielh-Iargesl multi· national ... u nilc\'er. including infl:Hion rates as high ..~ .. ga fln enL~..l le gian ts..?~~~.nnnict theotists view suc h a continuing dcpentlcnce on roreign powers as an example o f conlempor:u)' neocolo nia lism.cs access to its airpons and seaports.llltc of goods and services o f Nigeria and Sri L'1nka combined for the ). and Yanagishita. and data processing centers in the peti phery nat. tile developing nadons). owing in good pan to Kc nya's amicommulIl\1 posture (more or a fac tor during the cold war) .i. In genc ml.. (enters 10 process insura nce claims. Howcver. In 1991 . suspended hUIldmh of millio ns of do lla rs in aid 10 Kenya as a means of forcing econo mic and political chan ges. in laic 1992. Nevertheless. I'oith local business people. Even more striking is the f.'s "global factory" (the factorics th roughout the developing world run by mul t... toda).... to Kenya.'hich e ncourages them to expand into a lher countries (in man)' cases.uld 10 a 1980 defense agrccment that gives the t n. as noted f'~lli('r...Ibsid ialies throughou t the world . trading gems.. econom)..R so • SOCIAl. many companies S have concluded thal the low COS1 of overseas opcrntions more than onSet the expense of transmittjng infonnation around the world (J..oHs.tal since 1963....Ij -is pcreent pe r mo nth .Sic goods."l.' QljAlJ/l' 11'01UJ)11'lt»: . and Iledines in food production (Lorc h..es. they arc also producing goods aJI over the world (I. in re-(mt d«. United Nations Developme nt Ilrogr:unrne.?T.. MuI~.. '1J ormid-1993. merchants have conducted business abroad for hundreds of years. Burgess. much of which is cond ucted by 1Il\lllina tionals....lcd Slat. 1993). The political situation in Ken)"l had been charJc:terized inlhe early IWOs as a retreat from de moerdC)'.tion bI' marc industriali zed nations..muel WaJlersl.. own or co ntrol other cOIllorations and sl.. Such private trad e and le nding relationships are not new.o.~~~.. ~.. Kenya was experie ncing severe ecer nomic: problems. wh ile headqu.ear.1I111'l'~. 1993). For example. For ex· ample.ldes Kenya has been the second-Iargesl rt. After examining changes in the tfOn'Jmyand the role of fo reign clll).. Moreo\'cr. A. but this pattern has changed signilicantly in rccent decades (sc~ Table 9-1 on page 248). weste rn COlllllfic. modernization in de. foreign ~al cs havc grown ma rc rapidly than domestic !l:lics for such corpor<llions..blping countri es such as Kenya one n perpetua1es dleir depende nce o n and contin ued cxploilrl... had 1992 sales of $43. mllltirw lio" ai corpora tions refers 10 commercial org<l l1izalions wh ich. 1993. foreign subsid iaries account ror ahoul 40 percent or all sales of larger multi na tiona ls headquanerecl in the Un ited Slates.".ein's world system a nalysis as it I'tblo.nional giants are nOl merely buyi ng and sell ing overseas. \'t'. hUII'I'\'Cr. spices. From a conll ict perspec tive.U"tered in one COLlIl t1)'. re pealed fuel sho rlages. Wai ler· sleill . 8ra(l~haw concluded that while multinational corpcmHiolls obviousl)' find it pro lilable to invest in Iit'l1rd.. SOUOlogiSl York Uradshaw (1988) has modified Imm.lct that thc sales of thc top 500 multinationals account for almost onc-rourul o r the gross world product ( l'ladjian and Tduo. The size oflhesc global corpo ra tions should 110 1be unde restimated. In the casc of Ke nya.(\e (orpor. \ ~t'Y role in the neocolonialiSIll or the 1990s is plr. Haul. a small. The term Trad itionally. IN/:..naliol1al corporations) now has alongside it the "global o m ce. the dissolution of ul e Soviet Union a nd tht rcsulling reduc tio n in cold war tc nsions led la Hignificalll decline in foreign aid rro11llhe United :t\JiC1.

A cou ntry 171 1993. South Koreo Turin.4 57. thc combi nation of skilled technology and management provided by multina tionals and the reJativc1)' cheap labor avai l· able in dcvcloping nations is ideal for a global cn· terprise..otor vehicles Electronics Electronics Petroleum re'iniog Electroob Petroleum reliniog N. Wolbburg.7 51.1 .v. . r bdl"''' Trillo..orris Somsung Fiar Unilever ~"tI Detroit Irving.2 57. • . Vo. a stlldy in South Ko rea found thal most electronics 248 I'AH1' l ·UR££.inalional corporatio ns ca n have a posilive impact on th e developin g nations of th e world .nO 67..Y. o ne OUI of SC\'c n manufacllIringjobs in thc Unitcd States had to do with tJ1 C export of goods to foreign countries.5 65.8 98.939 ". "ad cannot alTord to scvcr diplomatic relations.. tobacco Electronics Motor vehicles 132 . Midi. 1 0 h O lll'S a day.9 79..Y. food 2.otor vehicles Electronics Motor vehicles Food. T hc imcrnlltional ties o f mullinalional corporatio ns also fa cilitatc the exchange o f ideas and tech· nology around the world...2 50.-skillcd assembly jobs in tJl CSC plants are he ld b y women . for as liu1e as 62 CC lIts an hour. 1 63.ith a nalion that is tJ1C headqu.2 49.v. N. I)ainstaking work under stressful and hazardo us working condilio ns.5 59.. RANK roMP_ 0lll0NS HEADQUARTERS NOUSTRY Of DOllARS !" I Genefol Motors Eu~ Of """'" """" " MllOO 2 • 5 6 7 B 3 9 10 11 12 13 16 17 IB 19 IS " 20 Ford Motor Royol Dutch/Shell Grovp Toyolo Motor lRI Internotional Busil'\eu Mochil'\es Doimler·6enz Generol Electric Hitochi British Petroleum Motsushilo Electric t!'ldustriat .nion of the impact of multin ational corporatiom and cmphasizc that multinatio nals exploit local workers to maximize profits.385 5. Muh inat ionals can thus take maximum ad· "'Ullagc of tec hnology whilc reducing costs and boosting profits..cd fro m a fUll ctional ist perspectivc.... Germany Foimeld. Jopon Rome Armonk.2 61..408 1. Mulr.. For examplc. Muhinationals promotc nlpid de· velopme nt through diffusion of invcn tions and in· nOV'dlions from industrial nations.725 619 . Conn . Stuttgort. WCIAJ..Iopon Foirfox.2 50 1. . residents (including those as young as 13 yca rs o lel ) may work scven days a wee k. Conflict theorists challcngc this fa"omble ('''\'3...279 ..8 103.6 47.BOO 30B .3.9 .3 62.7.498 4.IadaeWodd SAlES . which may prevcnt ce rtain disputes fro m reaching thc point of serious conflict.4 56. 1993: 1 91.otor Philip . Thcsc womcn pcrfonn m ~ noto no us. .lr!crs for its main business suppliers or is a kt1 o uuc t fo r cxpo rts. Th eir worldwide influe nce conuibulcS 10 interdependence among nalions. many of whom earn o nly $5 IJt'I' day. 136 449 4. sus ( 199la). Deorbofn.obil VoIkswogen Siemens Nissen oV.811 . . IN"Q!JAtJl1· .. Italy london/Rotterdam . Thcy bring jobs and industl)' to arcas whe rc subsistence agricuhure previously scrvcd as the only mcans ofsUfvival.965 929 4..otor vehicles Petroleum refining Motor vehicles Melols Computers . 14 ojlhl l/JOrldS 50 InrgtSl irldustrial firms rallktll by w its Iht!r huulqum1t:rl 11/ fill Uni/tti SlIJl4 8)' am lrml..v.. or ell'" gagc in warfarc. Mort' than 80 pcrcent of the lo .v. sllfh firms ilad uCct)1lrllftl Jor 42 DJ/M 50 /nlllt:rl ill thl ynr 1960. .B12 . T8)(.. Germany Munich Tokyo New York Seoul.hr .otor vehicles Petroleum refining .9 43 .4 50. Vie. Th ey po int o ut lhac whcn busincss finn s build plants in places such as South Ko rea.23.5 100. 1o!'ldon/The Hogue Toyoto City. Tokyo '~don Osako.4.

whe rc o rgan il. Moreover. Shown In'. Wallerstein. the re b}' increasing economic and cultural dependence (I~orn sc hieret aI. 1)1 249 CII. )ouch as hotels and expensive reS1aunt nts. llIultimuionals arc able to mm"e factOries Olll of coun tries sllc h as the L'nitcd !nates.'Or/m'" (If (I UI'I'I1CIt jucUn)' ill /IJdrm"-. 198 1. 1978. As a result. The cvcr-p reselll. it ('\·entually increases ccono mic ineqllalit).wnu. Tlw IIppe r and middle classes of sllch COllntries be nefit most from economic expansion. 1982: Harrison Jnd BluCSto Il C. Recent slUdies suggest lhat multinationals te nd to generate income for a developing nation 's elite. :\1ultinalion als in\'t!St in limiu. multinational corponttions often bur OUt o r force OUt local e llu·c prc ncurs and companies. 1988). this very expansion appears to rcmrd growth ill agric uhurc ami othe r economic sectors. the best data c urrentl} available poim direc Lly to the conclusion that Mlllly llll1lfilll/l/Ol/(lI rm1)()mliol/\ bilII'II ill IJUl U rl. P. thereby in(reasing unemployment in core IIiHio ns. foreign corporations opposc increases in minimum wage levels and issLle grants 10 suppOrt legislation that would restriCI labO!· IInion ac ti\·il). Moreover. • 'OOCJAI INtQCl lI n IIVHl.. :\1oreover. 1979. 1987). tht: !tnn will limply move its plant c. d are as of ..lIIl/fif . demands become threatc ning..mM 10 IlIkl' of I/IU IH'I<lI /If rl1I'1I1' /floor.ms af· ler one rear of employment (Ehrenreich and Fuentes. This is u·uc in terms o f both . while Ihe lOwer chlSses are less likely to benefit. tnultinalIona] corporations havc a negative social impact Oil workers in both industrhllizcd and developing IMlions (Blueslone and Harrison.n- come and own ership of land. Such disparities result from Lh e peculiarly une\'e ll economic d evelopme nt which results from fo rl'ign ilH"CStlne llt. AJlhollg h cC I·tllin sectors of the host nation's econo my expa nd. Sc\'eral sociologists have sun·e)'ed the e ffects of f"reign il1\"esun cllt and concluded that although it ma. . 1979). initially contribU1C 1.unple .ht: whole. While lhe relation ship between forl'ign ill\"e~ImCIH and economic inequalit}' nee ds further research .l/fl.!scwherc. on t.ll'If SIII/I'. within dewloping nations. d:mge r cxists that if tabor'.cd labar illsists 011 decelll lIage5 and humane working conditio ns. in the developing world it is difficult to build strong trade unions in facLOdes 1"1111 by multinational corporations. Confl ict thcorisL~ thcrdorc conclude that. while at the sallle 1ime undermining the market for goods produced by the poor.Ill economy <tnd ill restric te d regions of a nation. Ciuc!sohn.I IlfilH' IJjJnIl'</ fn</ol'il'-s fldlJ(mlllW Ihl' (In "'lofiill~ ".0 a host ""lion's wealth ..a§'lCmbly workers developed seven' eye problt. governments see king to allnlCt 01· keep Illultinationals W ma)' del·dop a Wclimate for inveslll1 cnt which indudes repressive antitaoor laws rcstriCling union acu\ity and collective bargaining. multinationOlls consciously a CL to preve nt redu ctions in ineq ualily in h osl COllntries.. Because there is a pool of cheap labor available in the de\·e1oping world . For cx. E\'ans.

the 8razilian woman profi1c. life expectancy declined in nint African count.. El Salvador......han 100 million Mricans are believed to lack sufficient food 10 sustain themse lves in good health ( Durning. ""'ce n the world's rich and poor nations continucd 10 b'TOW. Vernon . ~WomC Il are the most exploited among the opprc!>Sed... Like Ceni Sequiera Gomes.. M!e also Barnetand Miiller.:cI al the beginning of the chapter. In addition to the debililating poverty experienced by mal11 men in these countries... lIT and the Centrallnlclligence Agency (CIA ) participated in t. and Peru.... Jamaica.. k· cording to Peru's government....tgic.. 1990:26-27).. 1977). the Gambia.It the end of the chapLer. Nicaragua.1). Bolivia. With these trends in mind... primarily because the ric h nations goI C\'e n richer. The elected regime was then re placed by a milit<ny dictatorship which was widely denounced for its violatio ns of human rights (A.... NiClrnguil. _... all torn by war..1led govern menL In 1973....wt· ing ullemploymellt and desperate poven)'... Socioiogisl Dale WimberJcy ( 1990) sludied the impact of foreign in\... Consequences of Stratification for Develoninv Nations . neocolon ialism... and foreign invesunent by multinationals have of· ten had unfortunate consequcnces for residents of developing nations. from coming 10 power-e\'en though he was running for the Chilean presidency in a free and democratic election. The per capita 1!l' come of the average Lati n American--onlyabout S3500 in I 980-rleclined by 9 percent over dle l1ell eight years (Duming. went into economic tailspins.ries over the period 1979 to 1983. India. Ol1l' of the most flagrant illustrations of the power of muh. ao anthropologist from India who has studied the JKlII" tion of women in de veloping naLions. the rise of multinational corpormions has become a threat to national sovereignty. in turn.. World Bank.. How cou ld OllL~ide invcstmenl be detrimental to a society'S level of health? \4.L ..~hdr in Africa . Nigel'. Today. 1987. As for the decade of the I 980s. mam res ident..ralion by multinational corpol1ltions into the 10c... women face sex discri~ nation beginning at birth .... Malnutlition rose in Burma. El Salvador. AJlcnde a nd many of his supporters died during a bloody mi1i ~ tary coup...lJ economy.. retards advances in health care (Bornschier and Chase-DUllIl....u-is widely regarded as an effective measllre of genera l health care in a sodely. arc com monly fed 250 PIoH"/' THHF.W:'QfJIofJIY . In 1970.. ... Intemational Telephone and Tclegrnph (ITI') allempled to stOp a Marxist politician.. J? . Nigeria. and Nigeria-sa'lll pCI' ca pit.. The 1980s were a particularly crue l decade for Latin America.UllCI'. onc-third of lht country's dlildrcn are malnourished to the extent that they have slUllfed growth. colonialism . Paraguay.~sall. (The infant mortality rate-the number of deaths of infants unde r I year of age per 1000 Jive births in a brivc n ye. and lhe Philippin es. tcn exploited within .. Burundi .(S pcncl.1imberIcy concluded that foreign investmc nt promotes low-wage labor and therefore income inequality within developing countries-wh ich . The). among them 8nlzil . 1978).... Faced with . From 1950 to 1980.) WimberIcy found Ihal a reduction in the infant mortality raLC was mosl likely to occllr when there w:1.. Latin America. R. . The day-to-day impact of lhe economic hac k.. 1974. women in developing coulltries find life especia lly clifficuk. The world 's 14 most-devdSuned nations-inclllding Zambia.... After AUende was victorious. 1990). mMC t.~ \\'crc forced to participate...M notes Karuna Chan a na Ahmed. 1990:26...esunelll on lhe infant mortality rates of 63 developing nations.. researcher Alan Duming ( 1990:26) observed that the tenn"drM \'cloping nation has become a cl1 lc1 misnofOO': many of the world's less affiucnl nations are dlO' integrating mthcr than developing. Guinea-Bi.f: • SOCJIoL f..multinational corpor-dtiom inte nsify inequality in the developing world (Moran . 1985.... their countries' underground economies (l>Ce Box 9. In man y respecLS.he gap IJt.. it is tstimated that morc than 40 Third World COllnlm fini shed lhe decade poorer in per capita terms tlua they started il. and parts of A~ia duritJK the 1980s was tr.he ove rth row of !lIe legally cOllstitl. and wertof.. and Peru..... Salvador Alle nde. in... We will examine the issue of universal human righlS in more delail in the social policy section <.. 1973.. Egypt. Accurding to the World Bank. 1988)......inationals took place in Chile.1 income plummet as dr-dmati cally as it did in the United Slates during thl! Great DepreSSion of the 1930s... Bradshaw. Sampson . Michalowski and Kr.. t. the Philippines..~ ie. As discussed above..

canllot easil)' expand ~\'en whe n lhey become profitable.O. Alt hough 111(.. arc denied educational opp"nunilics. as \. 'loUI. functional to over. - h.5 and services do not h:l\'c nl<lde. but only rCCI'lltly h. Both the SI>anish government and lht. ... rcgu\OI· lIo~ and minimum "'~lgC prO\.'cll as certain eXI)(:II.Ut. 19")3.1.. gO\'crnmen t bll' reallcmcie5 are onell unable to respollcl to increased rC(jllcslS for licenses 01' services. galOlb'C sales.mri the unreported income of tr.. since .. Participants in [hi.. and arc often hospitlllized on I)' when rmirally ill.it y in the United States. to accounl for about olle·third of the gl'Oss domcstic produCl of l'e!1l-renects the abse nce of an C('onomic sysle m a (. 1990. World Bank.of an e!licient informal crono01Y in cert:lin cnUlltrics. {cnd 10 be labo r· in tensive.trcly enforced.rt uall) all :«>cieties-bo th l':lpil.lle in (t" mote locations to . such as tcxti le (aClo l'ie5 and rClxli r shops.1 /inn '5 MSCts can IX' confisc:tted for failure 10 opel'ate within the open economy. Viewed fro m a functiou:liis t perspt._ in forll1a l economic tra nSlc tions Ltkc place in \'. some"'hat from tI lt: infomml economy of industri:tlil. ist ami ~(>cialbt-the pattern in devdoping coulIlries differ!'.pfilplc. p:u·tic i p.· ml' lioll'..<.. 1992. Underground elllr'epre· 11('III'S call1lOt rcly on a{I\~lI1ced machinery. NcvertJleless./I 9 ' \()(:JtII '''''''·QUAff ll' II'(J/{I. Given lhe limiteci protection for t.. 1987:74-75) .. trade unions seemed 10 ig.ties (Fcrm:m ct at. sociologist Louis I.IIHi comrachlal righl$.{.I\'oid taxes.42) . Ihest' regulator).lIld hr.11I political lllld economic well-being.cessible loall rC5idcms (Fiola. In 1993. street vendors.O X 9· 1 • AROUND THE WORLD B..lll. One m.<:onOIn)' elll.. nore tile ex plo itatio n of pa rt ici. and lra{\l-d h)· members mfommi social Ilctl•. .tlll~ in the informal econo m y art' less likely to save a ud invest their income .hcit· pmpeny .._ _~_. Only one-lhird of Pakistan 's 251 UIJtJ71Jo.'!oCS I1IrufTed in bookkeeping and nnandoll reporting. Sonlag. by girls) in China and nU'al areas of India.. According 10 eSlim:ltcs. Infonllal econom ies haw' a lso lX'en criticized for p(01ll0tinll highl)' unfltir and dangerous workin)o\ conditions. \doping \~orld . goods. ~ IlIfonllal iudus trial e ntcrpr'iscs. ~)'SteIllS a. In h is study of the 1111(lerground economy o( Spo. for example.. .lIubling. panl" in the info nna l econom y. the b urdensome bureau· Crdlil' regulations of developing socielies have contributed to the ns. the illfOnllal economy may accoun t for as much as 10 IQ 20 perCel11 Of llU economic ..J)II1IJf.(1 na tions._ _ . ofcollrsc.'d tlll\Illt'5se5. Since informal finns l)'pically o per.n male c hildren.( illegal dmgs. arid sa(et)' ami hC:llth standards were r. "limen's work is devalued.emkow (1987) found that wO I'ken' incolllCli were low. Anthropologists studying del'e1oping rldllons and preindusuial sociclics h~\'(' long acknowledged such net- I\HrkoJ.'(l..in.al. it W-dS estimated that New Vork Citv's underground cconum)' had increased to S54 billion per rear. economy . and hnhcry-teading SOme obscrvers to drscribe il as . SUI'\'cys show it significant degree ofJell/ale illJantiddl! (th e killing of b.: THE I NFORMAL ECONOMY 1<) be p«KIuced and consumed in officially recognized and rcgislcfI.'S transactiOIl~ employees "'ho receive subsl<llltial tips. nlt're arc d isturbing reports of sex discrimination all through the de\'clopingworld (and also. In industrial sorI('ll~ the informal (.\Void dt' leClion. Ihey can be ut Good.. Vc\. from core industrialized nations such as the UnilCrI Stales and Japan ). the). !<lIe 1.. tha. there was litde job secur'ity.. 1989.-orks..n: d). especially in rhe d e\'elo ping world. that are mdn'idually qu ite small but which DI1 he qlliu~ sig nifican t when take n 11JKClhcr.8 Vet lhe informal ecoll' "ntV also includes unreg\llated dllkl care senlCCS. the cxi~tence of a substantial IInderground ecorlorny--estinlatl.¥lions-5uch as prostitution. or about 20 I>crccnl of Ihe ci ty's ecollolny (Iler.yor segmen t of Ill" l'conomy in\'ol\'c~ illegal tram. PnrtCli I't ai. Instead .Ictl\. 19Ki).cts Ul<l1 arc not reported If) the SO\'crnmenl.hc)" 1988. Weigard.l of money. Whether inside or outs idc the hOllle. III the ck. thereby forcing legilim'He entrepreneu r"! to go ·undergrollnd .. g:. Tht u:nn i"formal economy rt/crr 10 u'ansfcr..l\"c Lhese nrtll"orks heen identified iI~ C::OIII mOll to all socic. or '\el'\. sold.'Clil·c .m Mundcrground ttnnomy..

<>e primtil.c ri t).\0 : wO/M. 1990:25-26. h a~ the acccienlling em. 19X8:8 1-I(). In tt-rtI)lional Financial institutions arc pre51.ions.uer. measures in order 10 l1Iorc easily mect tJlcir interest payments. ij·eeze workers ' W. AndcT50TI and Moore.lio . C. 1993:6-7. ill .mb/it". Third World cou ntries have witnessed more than 85 protests d~ 252 I'Mlr fJlla:f: • .lifnl mn w 1. 100. the a nnual oUlfl ow of fun ds may reach 5100 billion (Durn ing. 1988:77-85.. these prices increased dramatically. " 'hat factors have contributed 10 the recent d ifficulties of developing nations? Certain ly runaway population growth has hurt the ".. Once tlt e Mfree markc.ania.11 /lTf I. "'omen arc proh ibited from driving. poor na tions are I>aying ric h coulllries $50 billion each )'ear in debt and imerest payments bcyond \\'hat thc). thf African nation of Zambia ended go\'cmlllelltalsubsidies which had reduced citizens' costs in buying food. quicUl leading to inte nse anligovcl'11rnelll riots. reduced purcha~ing power. receive in new loans.\'eloping nations may be forced 10 devalue their CUlTtlldes. hare of the hUlllan and natural resources of developing counu·il.tlion. Roddick.:lIIdart! of li\'..I/fII. 1993:10-11). 1991:498). In Saudi Arabia. substantial layo/fl of government workers. sillce 1976. Such an explosi\'e response 10 austerin measures is 1I0t unusual .lch . mionnI indtl'illl'. Dt.3 trillion. a growing . :"Uld other natural resources. These policies often lead to high inA.1th men out~ide their families (J. Conse(lllclltly. WQIllf.l) World systcms thcorists add that th e policies dic· tated by intcl'11ational iinancial inslillltions are dfstructivc to the quality of life in developing countries.uI/ jJ n. as part of an au.ng of many Third World peoples.>'S. /11 SlHllii Ambitl. and socializing \.runmelllal dedin(' evidellt ill the quality of air.fIl' . So. Ke rbo. Viewed from a world systems appro. For example. We will explore women's second-class stal.u . :'\l ld mul tina tional im'esllllCtll. 1991: George. m:ocoh nialislll.&x disrrim. Today. If wc add to this ligure the estimates of capital night involving weahhy cit izens of poor nations.:t~ dete rmined food l)l"ices.'i is being redistrihuted to the core industrial ized nat. and oncth ird of these schools havc no bui ldin!-.'. and reduce government selvices and cmployment. loolking. the global debt crisis has intensiFied the Third World dcpelu\ellC)' begun under colonialism . incrca. it is illegal fora woman to own a hOllS(' . sexually segregated schools arc for women. (Wc will exa mine pOJllllalion growth ami CllvironlllcnL"l1 decline ill marc dctail in Chapter 19..\ls throughout the world morc fully in Cha pter I I. w:. in 1990. I n K(' n }~1 and Tam·. At least 23 people died during lhe unrest .OrJAI IMQ". which included an ullsuccessful attempt to O\'erthrow Zambia's go'>erumen!.sterin program designed to case debt repayment.rohibllfll/rom driving. and hig her l1ncmp~ ment-all of which arc harmful to a nation's O\(:r· llll economic developme nt ( Bmdshaw ll11d J-luang. lIring indebted coulltries 10 "dopt :lust. walking alone in public. Murphy.lgCS. IHul :woalizing Wllh IIItII ulfbilit! /Ill'" /alll.) Still llllother faclO l' has heen the developing nations' collectivc debt o f 1.

po pu lation-earning P'rmn (j affluf!nt .~ll). Gua w mala. The re arc 10 counu. we noted that in 1991 . and fi sheries T)l lwder to mee t their debt obligations whil e offerlllg ~lLbsiste n ce labo r to loca l worke rs. varies markedl y aro und the world. Consequemly.trketplac(' is highly stratified. IQCal elites work hand in hand with ml.e ex ploitation of industrial and ~W((Uhllral workers is created and pel"pct ualcd by th"rnmomic syste m and preva il ing d evc lopme nta l lalUt"i.in tropical fo res ts.She/-ies ill ord.es face desperate pro b11 UH.~~r~g!y¥' TIlt 11'01'10 m.ll $62. 1991: Wahon and Rag in . Sd L'ln ka.w. (md Jl. where small c1itl!s cont rol a large portion of the nalion 's inco m e.() u~/lIin nations in Ihe substantial gap berich .'1J/f)il/heir mi""ml dtposits.illJantrli.seven nations studied that a re conu. while Il. Waring. IIlll.000 or less-accounted fo r less than S pC I" cent of income (Bureau of th e Cen sus.ltinational corporations and prosper from such .. Tanzania. 253 .dlt'Ntcin's Icnns. l'nhmunatcly. Kcn>'<I.ll the periphery of the world economic system) but ~II.99 1 0 1' mon:-acco ll nted 1 1' more than 44 per0 cem of lo tal wages and salaries in the nation. 1978: Kerbo. Brazil had the greatest gap hem'ce n its most aHlue nt and least aHlueill reside nts.st 40 percent of income.Illd poor citizens. industr ialized natio ns well in COJllrol whil e (lIMIH'l developing Cou nll. between cou ntries a t the core ~ncl.') affluent nations arc being forced to 1'\pIOlttht!ir mineral deposits.S.cs a round the globe in which the most affiu e nt 10 pe rcent receive at Ica. a nd oYC rgrale grasstu)11~-often knowing that their actions are d e'Imnirt to the e nvironmcllt. Distribution of Wealth and Income In Ch. burn pInt..· 10 r7W!f flle. while the bottom fifth account ed for nn ly 2 perce nt of income. 1991 : '~17-. Thc poor lurn 10 the only means of survival . TIley plow mountain slopes. f()r. th(' massive exodus of money lrum poorer regions of the world only intensifi es Ihcir oesU1. .lctioll of natural resources.lplcr 8.. the degree of in come ine qualil ). From <\ COI1flirl view. As Figure 9-2 on page 254 shows. see no altl'rnalh't' in their agonizing fi ght for simple SllI'viml IOnming. Btll the). les. 1988. with affluent.llill«(I. New amjlict pel'St)ecliVf'. Chi le. \Vol'km aloe shown clIlIing dOl/m 11 (. Botswana.f~::f.. 1993a:463). a nd Lesotho.· lli\parity between rich <lnd poor nations (in W. Of the . \989).sL~. Ihe bottom fi lUl of the populalion-earning $ 17.rcc:tro toward austerity programs imended LO (:tci liult intcrnational de bt paym e nts (Braclshaw and Huang.r debf obligll(iOI1S whil" offi-ril1g suhis/nICf: IflOOr (0 loml wOl'kers. developing countries. forei gn investme nt in dcvel- I!pHlg fOUIl!!ics tends to increase economi c in· Cllualil\' (Bornschic r e l "I .wliollS fir' beingforml 10 t. Strtltification in d eveloping nations is closely rclawd to their relative ly weak and depe ndent position in tlteworld economic syste m. forests. 1990:26.{. and they arc all developing countries: Brazil (the leader atSI pe rce nt).. As discllssed car· hrr. HonduraS.lStcd in the fi gure. l}ana m a. /e51 fortSt in Pnpl/(I . STRATIFICATION WITHIN NATIONS: ~ C\t¥.lilablc to them: otlrgin:1llands. Th e tOP fifth in Brdzil receivt:d 68 perce nt of total wages and salaries. Worldwide strat ification is eviden I nol on I)' in lh. Similar disparities a re fou nd in man>. Ihe top firth 1111211 percent) of the U. I~y contras t.lTIr.. 1988).

But. T he richest fifth of lhe popula tion holds aJlllost8D perce nt of the nation's wealth (refer back to Figure 8-2 on page 223). We have seen that socie ties as diffe re nt as Brazi l.(Jwtqunlll)'..ifj. for exam plc . and Australia.wed. The highest income inequality is evide nt in the United States.IlI. By ranking the prestige of mrious occupation~ sociologists can gain a dceper unde rs tanding of an· other aspect of incqual ity. This extreme concentration of wealth is evident in most industrial societies. 1992:262-263. weahh in the United States is much more unevenly distributed than income. we saw in Chaptcl' 8.riblllion of income (refer back to Fib'u re 9-2).1j 20 j!el·r ellt of tlll~ file ] IKJfJUill1i1J1I is highest ill Brazil (1i8 jJelumlJ alll/jalll(lim (48 p. BJ cf)l1lpari"g lhe /xmfor Iht pooresl mu! rirhest qUjllti/e.. A. defined largel) in econom ic tenns and refl ecting his or her level of wcalth and income.mced industrial economies.c research is essential in determining whether observed pauerns of stratilication are unique to a si ngle nation. C(111 sn 111(11 Iht gap beltUl'ell Ihe Idghtsr (lI1fl /cnotsl quilltlles is slIIallest ill Ballgkulesh. see aJso P..i\·c. the lowest Brazil Jamaica USA Grool Baoglodesh Japan . the factors which contribute ID Japan's comparatively low level of income inequality are explored in Box 9-2 on page 256 (World Bank.' residems or Great BriL.W:QUAUI1' . 1992 ). a person's class position. In good part.. the disu·ibuti on of wealth is even more lopsided than in the United Stales. Switzerland. researchers have found tbe [Past income inequality in Sweden. Bangladesh . Japan . Britain . People were asked 10 254 pA/lr TfIIlJ£ ' SO<JAL f.: Odta arc ( omid . is but one componcnt of stratiii cation. In Great Britain . and Belgium.strial o r developing nillions).-t"W II) and lml'tJIIII Swttinl (371ICrUl1t). SociologisL~ have recognized that companul\. Nolan. ('.11 seven U!Il. 1993:296-297."Oll.. How do perceptions in the United States regarding the prestige of ocellpatjons compare with those held in other societies: [n an elfon to study stralilicatioll from a cros. the United States. figure sluJWS.in (Samuc1son :111<1 Nordhaus..fjlw/if)'. or arr applicable to a wide range of socie ties (Kalleberg. prvpm1ivIl IIlOSt (if/lllelll rif il1WI1l' "cM /. arc restricted to " particular lype of society (such as ind u. compardhle although <ot. ~d 1ew. Redistributive tax policies have reduced incomc inequality in many European nations. sociologist Donald Trciman (1977) exami ned the reputation that cenain joll had ill 53 different nations.. this is because in the United StaLes many people with rather modest incomes own automobiles or homes.1<U : Wodd Ha"k. 1992:355-358). and Swedf"1!. In examiuing the world's adV". 11N!. tI~lf."l. 11If!. whereas owners hip of automobiles or homes is less com mon among poore. }fJpall.t cultural perspect. As Ih.2 Dis tributiO/1 of I"come ill Sevtm NatiollS Thi~ figure shows Ihe dislribtlliO'1 of Ilt)useha/(f illWllle by po/mUJ110l1 fifths . .FIGURE 9. /JaW were (()lIutu1 bJ (he iV(nid Ikmk anti by Ullilld Nations agrllcies. 1988).. of IIIe Sewl/ col/nlries /J1·clllml.1 of illt"Ome on !lati'lic> cov~ri"K 1979 to:) illf.1 (a (/lIillfliR is 20 lH'fTffll O/Ihf lW/mliJ/irlll). and Japan all share a marked inequality in th e diSl. 19')1). lit/fialls hllllP. as we saw in Chaple r 8.

Panly as a resul t.. illdudillg both indusuialized and 11()l1indwtrializcd nati ons. 1\l77:. .J'I1' 11'O/IUJII'IIJE . Trciman's pioneering research inspired subsequCnt efforts 10 gather and compare data from many §OCieties using the objccli\'e method of mca\Ul. NeverIhrlcss. movements alld decad es of Comm unist parry rule 255 ClIAl'/ER 9 • SOCiM INEQUM.drikwg simllariLJ oJ mlings in thl SIX nalioru.l. occupational segregatio n by gcnder has not becn com pl e tely el iminated. abcw prts~lIb 11 $(1lr1plwg DJ dlllll roilecttri by sociologiJI 1 )Q/wUl Trrinulll rry.. III explaini ng this finding.nd OIll sample o f rcsidc n ts o f Bcij ing.'1mlillg Ihe mnking o/vflTimu ocrupatiom t}U'OUghQllt lhe lVQf'/d. lhi! 70 49 44 i. or ~d!11ioislralOl's-whcreas this was true of only 23 JIl'f(enl of reside n ts of othcr urban areas.'>. Treiman 's c roS5-ClIhul<Il research reminds us lhat prc. Treiman found a hig h d~brr('e o f correlation 01' si mi larity in a ll contemporary societics.' .han females to suc h o cc upations as natural scie nlisl. lte marc hi ghly those occup:llio ns most open tu it..1S-4(l.riman .I'. sociologists Nan Lin a nd Wen Xie ( 1988) intt'nleo." ..ilablr. the researchers compared the prestige ran kings of ma lc and fe male re. and mecha nic-all of which are more like ly to be held by males. Th~ jimiillgs lrutGl a .JulIg a scale mnging from 0 to lOO... Although C hina has officially maintained a national policy of gender equality since 1949. 70 66 """"'" 81 44 TlWW<> SOVIET UNION " " lwl1r". the capital of the Peoplc's Republic of C hina. driver. given the constrdi n ts o n acquiring social scif1l!ific data. the prestige rd. They found that 47 percem of the 1774 respondenu..!s tige dist. •. Males..Ulk 83 67 63 67 31 banke~. this study o lTers unique .pIe in Ih~ SoMel Union '\~' (""la om a. questioned were professio nals. to study occupa ti o nal p restige. rell ccting the compar dtively limitcd economic rewards they rcceive relative to o ther occupatio ns.'ed a rd.nkings of C hinese me n a nd women seemed to reflecl the Slruc ture of occupational oppOrLllllity. Interestingly..F 9·2 •. however. 011 l'". In one important '4udv. a lhlete.-. Evcn a socie lY th at has expcrienced revolutiona l). ' . The tau.. ur. The researchers recQgnized the putential bias of sampling those who Il\t to onc of C hina 's most cosmopo litan c ilkos. A'I one part of their analysis. lcache rs a nd professors It'ce1\'t:d mllch lower prestige ratings in China.ue occupations..J \lU . Each gender showed a tendency to 1'. gave highcr ratings t.nsighL~ re~m1ingslratin ca t ion in the world 's 1110S1 populolls noltion. for exa mple .". NATKlN OCClFATION USA CANADA NIGERIA PIlyslCion or medical officer Coptoin HIgh school teoc::her W manager Tnd: dri. \!larked 73 69 70 n 60 57 NA 49 " 29 45 (~ l ell"ry r. . and the results were tabulated .. The C hinese resjXlndents g<lve a much higher prestige rating to textile workers tha n did respondents in the United States.ke<110 .ng strntificatio n dinCI·c nccs. ~llIed in Table 9-2 illllstrd. tin and Xic fOllnd tha l physicians were near Ihe inp of the occupational hierarch y in tCllllS of presrigr.inc tions are IInl\'ersal: the study o f C hina by Lin and Xic underscores lhis finding.'i:ilc police office rs were near the middle. ' wen' 78 63 63 53 32 1101 a. .te. As th e data pr' . and ~]'hage collectors we rc close to the bouom-a lindtnll ~imi la r to the results of surveys in the Un ited Xltes (refer back to Table 8-2 on page 220). .. managc rs.).. Un a nd Xie point out thal lexti le worke rs in C hina fare much better relative to olher workers than they do ill the United States or Europe. with hig he r '!((lr~ !king more prestigious.'spondents.

it dates back to post-World W. Moreover.IClio ns :\I'C shaped by r.l('lu.unst male h ead~ of huuseholds. an edllca· liollal S)~lem that treats slUd e n ts a like reg. KCl'bo..uions. rclath'cI)' linl. 19iO ::~O). 1£5/11'(/1'{/ /0 w/)(}f"rJiIIllM l~ltll cr IlolllogenCOIJ5-<cnailllt whe n com pared wilh the United Slales-in teflllS of mce. lllCS<: rankillh'S are widely reported and accepted.~ the pay golp between J apan's top CUI'poratt: t:)(ec utjve~ and Ihe nalinn '~ 10WCM. In addition.. . been growing controversy conccl"I. tilt') arr gel1errlll)" jJOsilimu.ings: Japauese find it di ffic ult [0 si!.:: discr1tllinatioll ag-.linst incfjuality i~ thal.. Amon g the factot"!! contributin g 10 a lower ICH:I of ine(lllalit) itt J :tpan ha\'e been an cxp:tttding CO/tWill}' combi ned with a ]abol' shol1age. em ha\'c been e. Still anot h er (...lI1l:. elitnicil! lIatiuuality..stablished.1n (Alx:gglen and Stalk. Japan'l POPUhHiotl. including cx- A \'i~itiI1K lI'hilt' 1001111'11 mllslllldt mo.'ould t>c 37 10 I .. 1991:421-423. 19!:r!] The re h. racially and ethniaJ]I..ingJapan ' $ treatment 256 . IhMt 40 tcnsivc land reform and the breakup of !Xlwctful holding COIllpanics. 192. universit.-delice of Inn$11I (tile exchange of busi nc'iS cards). bIll thell' I d i'l(.o.lrdless of fami l). Wherea.lctO r that works ag-. restmitlLs on eXI-e~si\'d y high incomes.. Tlli! apparent preoccupation \\11h ranking and ronmllit)' suggcst.. 1985: IM7.. is 98 pcrcentJ:lpancse. 454-457).Hld the Burakll cuns titute 11 IOW-Itatlis mbculture who encounter t~­ tensh'c prejudice ( H inlsa"~l .P<lid .] years.lI her I'ccelll. b. is aInOllK the lowe~ 1 of nl<~j(Jr illdusu"ial societies (refer hack 10 Figure 9-2) .rilllinalio n against lite nation" Chinese and Korc.. or eat together unless the relative ran kings of those Pl'cs.lIl lIlinoritit\ .\'clythin g inJapancsc life is ranked: corpor.llIy pn>-h ibilcd b) law in Jap. Ih(. Nak:l1le. talk.' comparable figure for Ill(" United States . 199 1:431 -"i:i2. and certai n governmcntill p()lieics Utat se rve to rcdi~lribUlC income ( Kt'rlx ). coqJOrations are .ics. o rk e l's is about 8 10 I.\I' 11 cconomic chan~es.JapHu is pn-Cflll 0/Jafmll ~ loom fm'cf. even educational progmms.".hrough their' ju-nior high seho. This rclath'e Ic\'cJ of equality in Japanese society is r. often through the p.S.1ck-~rolll1d at least t. and language. Yel researc hers have d c te rmilled lhatJapan' s Ic\d ofinCOlllC iucqualil). an exceptio nal dcgn' l' of slralifica· tioll. Ihc hU__ I ~ lli\'e stock up-lions received by top c)(ecllth'I'~ of U. day-to-da y s0cial in lcr.BOX • AROUND INEQUALITY IN J APAN lowis! J apan may at first c:tpcricnce a hit of culture 5hock an Cl" noticing Ihe degree \0 which (.

.'r-lllany 11 ". or to Icam :loom . ~O(f. women occupy a secondary po~itioll ill Jap an'~ p. without ~r. sta tus.. 1991: Weisman. MilSUbishi h ired 4 ..\11rc.lIion ill hiling. whethe r in tenlls of illcomc./apanese d isniet court issued an irnpol'I:ulI ruling ag"dinsl sexual ha· rassment ill the workpJacc.. 1990.iI the time.. Nrw York Ti11U'J. Blit feminist Orbraniz:ttions remain dis· s:ttislicd l)Ccatlsc the law lack~ Stro ng sanctions to prCl'ent con tinued discrimination 3g".tncse wOlllen ill Ule wo rk force hold llll\n:lgcmCI1\ posilions.UH:SC a liases to l"fIOft'al their herirage in sc h ool~. !toh hired 5 \\'omen and 198 men. towns. Ilnt .ullatic victory for Japan's femilli~1 mOl"enu. of hilt Cl' dehate.. Whe reas 80 perceJlt of t. of 1Ihom more than 85 percent were bn there. eCOI1OI11ic~. Korcam in Japan disproportionIItII work for low "'~ges.o gi\'e it power 10 punish comI)a lli es.. assign. and villages than ever before.1I1 40 perce nt ofJap. twolh irds of fe male smdenlS arc in women '5 junior colleges which promote tr. la 199'1.lfIdards.. or litcr..\w... a nd must any alien registration cards at a ll IiaIC'I (a practice that has been ~I to the South African requirement that Blacks carry pa. a law}"l'r who has argued many discrimination cases. they cannOt .lllS U3C J:tP. IiIbout citizenship.: work is t. 1\. . the y oftel1 l1l~or in hOIl1(.cl its Korean minority. Korean I'csidel1t.he na tio n's male college studellts :arc in four·year unh'ersities. 1991.11.~s­ """). nt · (Watanabe. Michiko Nakajim:l. In 1985. OVC I~\ll.~ Employme nt data co n~ ceming J apa n 's largest and most prestigious trading companil.3 percent of men's wages (Watanabc.'S underscore the law's inem. {.~ was nOLCd in the social 1)Olicy section in Chapter 6. 1992)..Ill· .I. nuCllllrt held that a small publishing company and onc of its male em· p lO)'ecs had . pPut's p.t City bee-.·x discrimill.o'·co\'er. and Nissho Iwai hired 3 \\'01l1en ami 127 nH!n (Sa nger. many )'ouug inn. st. Ke\'· t\'th(oless. cannot ""ork as teachers or ptmment officials.\1.ender discriminalion :uul in· equality arc deep-rooled.. alld promotion policies.. less than 5 percent of Komm U~ their own names in busi· tIr!II circles: simila rl y... It is not easy for Kore· 810 obtain Japanese citizenship.lid labor force. 1992)..·er. About &75..J)II1/JP . arter )'e:u1.1.tinn women. More· 0Ift...lnd 70 percent of marril. to local government pOSl~ in cities.>d that y(':\!.ll'liamCTlI agreed to end IM mandlltory fingerprinting of . a. I-Iame Kitamura of A~hir.1I fS"QUU"I1' "VR/.lorc women were e lcctl. notes: ~The only way 10 make the equal opportunity la . - --- 257 QlAfTll:Jl <i .illllC morc th. nl is ruling "'~dS a dr. There has.~ work force. J apan's parliament-.I992:A10) .>iolated u le rig hts of a female employee becau. Women COIlM. o r po. bttause diSCliminatiun is so I1IntmOn.. Stemgold.mployment bill which e ncn U t~lgcs em plo)'et"S to e nd st. hO\\"Cl'e r.001) Koreans li \"t~ in Japan . t Koreans and o ther foreign I'l:llcicnt5 requircd under the na· WIll'. tions--sti ll have lIP right to l'Ote. .-h(M ramilies hal'e li"cd in jlpait for gene . to \\'ork in govMMt'nt jobs.une the uation·s IiI"St female mayor. J apanese girls do not receive the same en· coumgemcnt to achieve in education thal boyll do (refer back lO Box ~I 011 page 70).uliliOllal domcstic ro1c~ for womcn. Ihcrefore . and witho ut any real hope or ad\mlCemem.. ~ot surprisillgl~'. Alien Registration !. C.'<i women with teenage c hild rcn work outside [he hom(~. IlWritiOIl. In 1992. becn progress Oil UlC political front for J :tpaJlese \"I'omen.«*. in 1992 a . heritage ill public schools (\klihara.'lC of cOlde remarks th<ltled her 10 qui I her job.. In 19!. EVell when J"P"IWSl~ WCl lncn e nter fOUl·~}'ear ulli\'ersities. 1991 :18-22). 1992: scc a lso Brinton.. mellt.. Less tban 10 pcrcent of'/. Japanc~e women occupy a subordinate position in hig he r education. women earn o llly 50.'·("ti\"cl1es~.omen and 2 13 men.Ip. 97 perce nt male-passed an EClua l f..

. a nd 19 pcrcc nt we re poor in all nine yea rs (World Bank. gc neratio nai mobi lity.!ha".'ml/Q1/ fUl/lntn. 44 pel'cent o f houst. and eSL'ltc systcms o f stratifica tio n. sllch as Jabor marke t c hanges which lead to tJle rise o r d ecline o f a n occupational gro up within the wcial hie rarc hy. • ".lff W 0'11 npal/s/QI/ of)flb OPIKJrtlUlltlO f.gT'tlrlt. holds had been poor fo r six or morc yea rs.\5 a com mon p<l\Iem of tllIMme n I a\\~tl.\'fQtlllI. mobility opponunities in o th e r na tions ha\'e been innucnced by stntct ur. (3) inllu igratio n continues to be a significalll factor shaping a society's level o f in te rge nc rationa] mo- hility (Ca llzeboom e t ai... a study of agricult ur'al ho useho lds in ce ntral In dia between 1975 a nd 1983 fo und tbat. 84 percent o f th ose who were poor in a ny year had been poor in the previo us year. tJtcre 1. Yel the urban 111dustrial seCtors o f developing countries ~e n erall\ cannot provide slIflicient employmen t for all thI.l.R seeking work.. 1989.tble.. Cro"S<ultural studies suggest tha t intcrgtnthLio nal 1II0bility has bee n i n c rca~ in g in n'(tIII decades.i ng some occupatio ns as most prcstibrious a nd o thers as less desir. For cxamplt. micro-level movemc nt fro m o nc occupilion to It ' tOIJler is o ft e n overshadowed by macrolc\'cI social and economic challges.... (2) a'i ill the United Slatcs. rater of jmm. th ey fo und thal almost allthr coutluics st ud ied had witnessed increased intcrgt'l~ enllional mobility between the 1950s a nd 1980s. for exa m ple. Over the nine-year period of study. thc re is I)'pically a substantial wage d iITe re ntial br· tWCC Il rllra l a nd urban areas. with in de\'e lopil\~ natio ns. 1990: 135). Mobi lity patte rns in ind ustrializcd countries an: usually associated with intcrgeneratio nal or imr. C.n N~i/J )'0'* Slim.onseqllemly.1 rlrt .. . such in temai mip lion cOlltri bmcs to a n expansion o f the informal econo mies dcscribed ea rlier in Box 9-1 (Thirll'l'3ll. 103).11 (l potato fidd .OCiAl l.i cuhurc-bast. u.. More rCCC I1l studies of imc rgene ratio nal mobility in induSlrialized nat io ns have fuund th at ( I ) the re arc substantial simila rities in Ih c ways that pare n LS ' posit ions in stratification syStcms a rc tr. RCC(' nt researc h o n social mobility has pers~ Ilait. 1991 lI ausc.writ/I mobility..all rmm. "'C saw tha t the a mount of social Illo\'eme nl in a socie ty-both upward :md downward.st ill e xhibi ts not iceable stratification ill r.y fro m ag. Dutc h sociologKo Ha rry Ganzeboom and Ruml Luijkx joined by $m olOb I)onald Tre iman of the United States (198'J1 rlst exa mined surveys of mobility in 35 industrial and developing natio ns.' and Cntsky. In Chapter 8. 258 I'ART IIIHH:. I-I OI\'CVCI".ffl .t1 factol's. il t least among me n.1IlSmitll:d to thei r ch ildre n .:d occupations.is ra the r limited in societies c haracterized by slavcl)'. le particular. 1991: Haile r ct al . Sociologim/ r~rlrrh SlIggrsb thol "".l/ld Illrftfor't farililnlr . on average.. casle.. 1988). whi ch leads to high levels o f migration to th e cities.

.ton). Bl"azi l has been the focus 0 1 considerable intcrnational <11temioll. ".00'" of l. o ur discussion of stratifi· c. T he effects o n . anLieipoI«j (1.ing both the ir aulIIOmy .lrialized socielies and developing CU UllIrit.a)d progr.t_ dncri~d alx)\'c-may rcsuh in the modifica.lditional cullum] prankt'S . of coml)arativc of prestige. The moveMlI of f. Data from the World Bank indicate that in the 1980s about 4 1 percentofall Brazilians sUlvived on less tha n $2 per day (Brooke. STRATIFICATION IN BRAZIL: A CASE STUDY Thus far in the chaple r.unilit:s to the cities wea ke ns wome n 's tics to II'WIl\t'S who can provide fOod. Many aspects III tht de\'eJopmclll process-especially modemlImOn in nu. face rela tions in Bfa/j l re nect th t! legacy of European colonizatio n and the slave trade . Boserup.-alil seems <In ideal c hoice for suc h a case study. The upper middle class.-cuuntcrparts.".J)WII)f. Q\'e. B. thereby jeopardiz. a worldwide view o f stratification must involve not o nly the sharp contrast between wealthy and impoverished nations but also the sU-J. ReHecl ing the continuing im pact of colonialism and neocoio nialisrn . lx uh because of the destruc tio n of the Amazon rain lo rt'st a nd the natio n 's se riOl!) debt probl e ms. a nd othe r fac tors is eviden t 259 CflM'7JJl 9" SOC .. womc n in Brazil <Ire spcaking Ollt against their tl~t(lition. rallu. in lIidtwomf"1l ram almost 40 percent less than their .. Mo reover. and rural c lcctrili cal100-011 the local population .I t -..-all.m d poorcst citizens is o ne o f the widest in the world-and it has grown since 1960 (refer back to Figure 9-2). Re5earcllt:rs examined the impact uf fOI'"" . 1993b).. cOlllplising about 2 percent o f the population . In ill uslrdti ng the dynamics of stratifica tion o u tside the UnitL-d Stales. or abandonment of tr.nion . M7. iITig.aid-in the form of plans to improvc agliculIInl production.. it " 'as usua lly in IXrupalions as rubber and tea c ultivation .wl\. As in lhe Un ited Stat es. By cont rast. In COllllOlS t to the u pper class in the United States. Brazi l is an economic gia m . ru ill lIlany developin g countries. Onc n:Cl'nt efl on to investigate gender a nd mo• took.n ·~ social standing and mobility arc nOl nct:~I) po~iti"c. Om""III on Wallerstcin's world syste ms them). the Brazilia n upper cla. Thc gap bel\\'cen 8rdzil's richest .. 19920187). kIl0"'I1 as o.. place in Sri Lanka (foI111cd). incl udes professio nals. finan cial assis_". 1987) .'S. it has the world 's te nth-largest economy.11 second-class status. inequality. foreign aid in Sri Lanka W w unintended consequence of increasing in_ inl'quality between male and fe male wo rkers: conclusions were reachcd in studies COliin Indi'l a nd Malaysia (Stoeckcl and • 1988). . th e richest 10 pcrcem of the population held 49 percenl of the nation 's wealth ."".d -lo-urban migr.h ~ distri bUlio ll o f wealth a nd widlill various COll ntri es. civil SCIV<lI1 ts. Th rough devclopmcru and mod mUltion."her studies examining lhis thesis can ix. retf'II'CMrs argue that the re is like ly to be g reate r illfCI'UIiry and less mobili ty in the developing coumries than in the core ind ustrialized nations. For these reasons. wili1in a wide range of societies. '''' class.. Clearly.tification hiel'archies within indlL<..'. gende r. Brazi l's 150 million people constitute a m'ti0l'ity o r all South Ame ricans. 1985. less than one in five of Brazil's leading industrialists is a child or even grandchi ld of Brazilians. womeu's vital role in food p rod uct io n _norate!.:ni on.tions of countries to the world economy.pursued a (O nn iC l view th a t cross-nat io nal dit: Irmlcn in mobility are innucnced by lhe differing Rb. and mobility has examined mall Y diverse socie ties. Virtua lly a ll the :.. in recem years .s (t he lOp I percen t in t~ rm s of income) is com posed primal'ily o f la rge L andown ers and successful immigrant industrialists. dlld social suppon (Abm .lOd even marital systems.!lid their matc rial well-be ing. a nd of cross-<:uhural research mobility consiste ntly reveals tllat stra tification "". it will be helprul to study ont: Country in somewhat rnol'c detail. the poorest 10 percent of the popula tio n held less tha n I pe rcent of a ll wealth.uns were more successful in inthe incomes of me n lilan or women . while IIor ". lUld mil italy olTicers. IIIttt ~Olllell ' s incomes did rise. Ac· cording to Bra1il's 1991 census. On~ recen tly have researc hers begun to investiPI' Ihe impact of gendCl' dint:re nccs o n the 1110IiIirt pallenl$ of developing nalions...u areas a nd the nll-.::~g.JM_ fNEQlJAlflY 1IU1U.

5 mi lion s].1I typical Br. Conseque nLly. wherc 20. 47-:12). "but we all It. fou ght o IT Po rtug ucse assaults un 1698. T oday. suc h as the impl ..ll and eth nic lations in the L"nited Sw tes..l a ne..rziliJlI sla\'es had closer tics to Afr ica Iha n did their cou l e rparL~ in th e United Slales. excluding natio ns 0 11 th e Afdcan ro linc n!...'lmiliar i a number of re~pec LS . 38 pr cent Mulano.il relucta ntly became the ]... as we ha... Br::tl.::</. Brazil imported Blx Afdcans as slaves to meet the d e Ula lld fo r labort' Even loday.._ 0ft~II TJ".. t. IV <lms o f an o utbrt:ak o f le proS)'. f3ptrillfly wlll'lI Ihry Ilff' C ()n/r(JI! IM lI. Finall)'. al the bo UOIll of Ilrazil's slI':uification hie rarc hy al'e the nll.. ('\'(.. Revolts and e5Capc: we re m ore commo n amo ng sl. n most d l<t ma tic exam plc was the slave qUllombo t hideaway) o f Pallllores. whic h focuses o n slavery in the 1990s).f.. In 1888. ll a nd urban poor.cX .~ I a\el)' re m:lins a hi ter rea li t). govc rnm e nt e mplo).il 's re lia nce o n a cOlllinual inn of slaves rrom Africa mean t Ih. poor people are confrOllled \villl lhe 1. 1975: 15-17). Race Relations in Brazil: !.LSt tio n in the western he misphe re to abolish sla c ry-tho ug h ..'e oft e n bl eak.. Accol'd ing to the 1980 ce nsus... in cOlllc ll1p0r. '" Everybody's suffering h e rc. the p ropol"I· of Mulat tos IllIS grown.'n tho ug h a t the height .. Brazil seems f.~ o ri t )' (i3 pt'rc cllt ) of the na tion 's pe ople ( Fiechte r.. the re were more than 16. ro .we views.. and I ccn t o the r.~ pcopl e..t ry BI<'1. the largest slullI ne ig hborhood i11 Rio de .. l/IIoish mM"II of /Iif' /wlio/l's . while the proportio n of 260 .~. MIII"lloS (people m ixed racial ancestry) arc \'iclI'crl ' L~ an idcntifia social g rOllp..u:iI" po pulatio n was 5& pe rce nt 11f(l ll fO (White ). I 993b. 'e '\CCIl .. In deed . /i/.ea rs.000 inhabitan I'c pcatcdl). Over the last 50 ). Da browski et al . 1971:7-8. in 1992.. ~..t\'es.. Like the Uni ted Suites. Iavel)' e:lch nalion had approxima tely 4 la 4. Ura7.. Like the United Slales. the Jives of poo r people in Ikazil a... 'o\'ood and de Ca l.l\'e tmele thall thc L'n ited Sta les did . To som eone knowledgeable in raei.h e middle class (a bout 24 p CrC('l1l of the populatio n ) is com posed of cra fl.~ ex plains a nurse.. 6 pe rccnt Pu lo (Black).. We sce thei r m ansions.. whi te-collar worke rs.A poste r 0 11 the wailing room in the o nly IllL '!Iical Sl.. 1988).o.000 docume nte d cases of people falli ng vic tim to slavc ry pl~ l ctices.I\"ish wealth of the na tio n 's eli te.sonmcnt of inde bt ed rUI-a 1 workers by employcrs (refer back to Box 8. th POl1llguesc) who o\'clw helmcd the naljvc popu tio n.uil dcpende d much mo re o n ~ I... BI-a£il is second an i}' to the Uni!.il (lkookc. In the ci ties.1 on page 211 .alho. .I ~~e. rathe r than Ix:ing classified simply ~ Bl ac k ~ or M 'Vh i l ('~ (as is typical in the Unit Sla tes) Bm fi l's racial gmupings constitute a typt calo r grMlic nt on a co ntinuum rrom li ght to dar skin color. 1993 Dcgle r.~ ..wcs in Brazil.h.llio n in Rocinha. a nd wOl'kcl"s in scn'icc occupat io ns...ed State!! ill Ilumber o r people 0 1 African descent.ccs.ry. 1989:64 . but t.lilt. Brazi WilS coloni zed by Europe ans (in Brazil's case.illl Ill. Br. . Br. who togethc r" constitute a n o verwhelming 11l .hey do n ' t sce liS" (Brooke.j ()f poor IJrofIk ill 8m:Ji (Ill' birok.. As we saw a t the begi nning of lhe chapte r in o ur discussio n o f lhe I"lu-al woman who had 1 13 chil0sI dre n ....

Factory ""ork is gener. Whil e Brali l mnrt' induslriillilcd than most developing co untnr·t. . 1988:174-175).llilian government had formally recognized the exislencc of sexual inequality in the counll"}' and had taken slC pS 10 guarantee full equality for women. More striking is Ihe finding Ih3t Whitcs cam 98 perce nt mo re income than Mulluos.. Wood and de C. 1992. 1988. .~~ . in working for social c hange. cities. . . DOIUt. women have takcn the lead in de monsU'llting against human rights violations.-Int womell . traditional vicv.lIly wome n ill Bwil'.Q~. This WdS the firs!. Wood anti de C:uvalho.ltJS has declined (Brazil . or 4 1 pe rce nlthat o f k" \\1\ite male countc rpart ( Brookc. In 1985. .<lnt disLincwIn appeal'"§ to be that betwee n Wh ites aucl Al Brazilian "people o f color. 1989:76) . According \11 ccnsus rI"t.~ a Mchildren 's issue.! as a Mworkers ' is. ork forcc. ." mth e r than that bt""~en the counlly's Blacks and ~'Iul allos !OlJ(llicll)"O. must seek d\(mne within thc informal economy (which acIflUfll.1 tch:ascd in 1993.'ICt of this escape hatch has been exaggcr:lled. lezc Molta . Consequently. 1985). 198 1. male-<lom inated BrA". fev. the average Black lTlan in &rollrl t'arns $ 163 pcr" month. Among the council's goals are Ule elimination of sex is III within tllC c riminal justice system and the reduction o f violence ag-dinst womclI (Sarti . [988). !'he position of women in Bralil is typical of that vhl'4)lnen in many developing nations. . Bralilj a n women won th e right to vote and became tht: first women ill Latill Amclica lO gain sum·age.'SLic service is soli thc leading fonn o f e mployme nt fo r Brazilian wome n.I us lice. actress a nd a longtime campaigner fo r BI.1 show Ihat Mulattos CilnI 42 pcrcclll I/lClll' income than Blac ks.~:~ of ~~.mc ... BUL while ligluer skin minT doe~ apl>car to enhance Sli. In many of these protests. women have emphasized their identities as mothers and homemake rs in pro testing shortages in food and o ther necessities. time that the Br:.il's '\lubuo escape hatch .uvalho." As o f bit 1992... .ltus in Brar il .. factory owocr'S are rcluc ta!!t to hirct married women because of dle malernity benefit s to which perma· nently e mployed pregnant women are e ntiUed · ( Patai . "'biu:s ar~ still mallY times more likely to gradualc Irom college than Blacks.nber CoIl81" CSS considered themseJvt!s Black. mu rdce product) in such j obs as domestic scrvant1l a nd street ve ndo rs. . In recent decades.e broad public support.~ national I. 1988: 1). 261 ClII\I>Jl-.. 1983:96..ili:. wome n's gro ups musl presenl iss ucs ill a way that will be less threatening to Ule largc r.m lS from rural areas (Fiol. hill for 40 to 50 pe rcel1l of Brazil 's people of color lbrrc was little rejoicing. l'h~lOrian Carl Dcgle r (197 1) has suggcsted that lhr kev diffe rence be tween rAce relations in Brazil relations in the United States is Bnl"l. Fe minist initiatives are evide nt in conte mpol<ll)' Brazil. Widl many children working.llil"'I . Income dat." unde r which Mu lallos arc hut classified with Blacks. These factors cO lluibulC to the exdrl\t{)l1oflarge numbcrsofwome n fro m thc Br.m society. but this differc nce is not hpefill11) rema rkable. a large fami ly means more wage earners-but having a large fa mily reduces women 's e mployment options. As a result.lIly resen 'cd for lhose women who have grown up in cities and have more educm io n than migr. 1993a: "'mon~. Silva. Although women's participation in Brazil'~ in.lCl chil rights. It stiiJ has a labor sll'l}lus and high rales of IJIII'mplo). 1990. .." rather than as a ~wo m e n ' s issue~ (Alvare7. Sa rti . [989) . but havc I>cc n me t widl n :sistan ce. women have attacked the viole nce of thdr nation 's male leaders ( Pawi.ilian w.R 9 • SOCIAL IS£QUAUll' I\VRlJ) " 'IlN-: .. In 1988.. Ioihile job advcrtjselllenlS lunllllUC to seek individua ls of" "good appearan ce" (~euph emi s m for light skin ). 1989:88) . 1987. J'he_~~. given that Mula ttos have IIVlrt' fonnal schooling. Often.·e r than 10 me mbers o f BrAzil 's 584m.'"S of women's ro le in society discourage married wome n's e mploymcllt in full-time jobs out1lidc th e family. of. .. th e N:nionaJ Council for Wo me n's Rights wa.me nt. Safa. m. the ilt!II. in order to recei.!. Snuil 's lead~ng Bbck. In 1932. Mo reove r." or a M heahh issue. Ikalil marked as a national holiday the hundredth anniversary of the abolition of slavel)'."onnal economy is accepted. .&11II(t)) and P".~ for 40 percent of Brazil's gl"Os. the most signific. especiaJly migr. for example. finall y.~ establish cd within the MillistT). 1988: 135-153). Ob'it!lVed : '""We have gone fro m Lhe bnld oflhe ship to the baseme n ts o f society.. including the M disappcardllCes" of loved o nes. feminists defend the need for child ca re center.

cxaggcrated self-importance. The preside nt's program provoked con~ versy as soon as iT.?~. ~. a nd streamlining lhe government burcallcracy. meaning thal workt"~ could gel a raise cvery week and sti ll nOI stay ahead Otiflo nation.e publicly revealed his bisexuality.~~. It i!i J.~.QUIoUIl' . This marked the first time that an openly gay person had won asylum in the United States on the ground that homosexuals wcre a persecuted social group in the. Bmzi!'s severe economic u-oubles have COTr uibuted lO e nvi ronmental destruction in Lhe mifteral-rich areas surrounding the Amazon River. \'erstein. If they arc injured. establishing a llf:'l'CIttrency. the nation's inflation rale was 360 perctllll'" yC<lr.zilian economy and to "li~\II' date" inflation . Just as violence against heterosexual women is common in Brazil ..~..lI achieving success. In an cffortN modernize Ule BrJ. I990b. as a TtW!! Lh e United States Export-Imparl Bank demlJl~ Brazil to its riskiest loan category.gin (Brooke.~~. thc women's police stations are hampered by inadequate government funding. Tit.10 Paolo. Brazil's busiua cap ital . (lIing. This defense had been used by aHorners to win acquitll1ls for thousands of husbands on trial for killing their wives. unemployment in 5. One gay rights organization in Brazil has listed 1200 killings of gays since 1980 and estimates that the actual number of killings is twice as high. in mid-IH93 an immigrationjudge in California granted politi cal asylum to a 30-year-old Brazilian housepailller who himse lf had been badly beaten outside a gay bar in Rio de Janei ro. Coln de Mello was forced to resign in the face of 111> peachment charges of bribery and influenc~ pm. and the pride of a lord who sees a woman as his personal propeny" (Bmoke.~.. bUI vanity. His successor. The rate of inflation had risen as high as 2700 percent in 1989.199 1a:816). he was kidnapped. Uti ye<lr. was introduced. and batteling. By the 1990s. tllere was liLtk t"!ldence that the prcsidelll's bold economic planlt. lieved that the elimination of the rain foresl~l1t'(1( worldwide weather patterns and heighTcm df gradual warming of The earth in a process kUlIWiI as U1C gl'/Pllholtse eJJecl. s\.000 public employees and lIIall priv<lte-sector workers (Brooke. At the same time.h only $10 (Brookc. using the slogan ~Lovcrs Don' t Kill. Vice Presicientlrall1ar haUl: appeared to have little popular suppOrt.~tl\f­ nomination bill. incest. the president proposed dedarill~i rnor<l. In early 1993. By mill1993.w.!~. In addition.. Unfortunately.. Br<l..tirro IIDle.~. 1000nm.nd Brazil 's large. This deslJ'llction is additklll' ally unfonumHc in that the Amazon region I'(~P' se llls a potential source uf imponan! phanll~(t'\ll 262 PART 'IHRt:J..OOO-cru. Evenlllally.torium on intemal debt. ~. 199Oc:$iI. With such events in mind. 1993d)..~ . in late 1992.~~?.~ .~ . Brazilian feminists won an important vicwry in 199 1. cipa1 or intcrest on its debt since 1989.. 1990).As one response to fcminiSl prOlesl'> regarding violencc against womcn . Throughout 1991 and 1992. six weeks later. These stations are intended to provide a "sccure and sympathetic aunosphere" in which \\'omcn can report crimcs such as rapc. individual 's COUl\lI)' or OI. 1993c).000 square miles of 1I1e Amazon rail! forest are cleared for crop~ and livcstock thruuv buming-all area larger thall Belgillm. tonured.r. President Fern:lm~ Collor de Mello-the collnu)"s r~l dircctlyelwN civilian preside nt in 29 years-announced a s/lI tling economic plan in early 1990. destruction has become a global concern. By late I\!IN unions had Called hundreds of strikes 10 prOLes! lbt dismissals of 250. imposing new taxes.~~?~.ood al L6 percent. ami killed. some 12. Brazil's foreign debu' $ 130 billion was The largest of any dcvelopinl\" lit tion. a. Brazil 's economy had reached a state of crisis.." The Supreme Coun majority declared IJlatsuch killings defend ~not honor. thcy can receive immcdiate medical treauncnt at thcse stations. a town cou ncil man in Alagoas Stat. 1993). wort. Brazilian women had rallied againsl it throughout the 1980. foreign exc hange controls.zil has found itself unable LO pay the pro. when lhe nation's Supreme Court ruled U1al a husband who kills his wife can no longer be acquitted on the grounds of "legitimate defense of h onor~ because of her alleged adultery. Brazil has crea tcd more than J85 women's police staLions run by all-female staffs at which policewomen take all statements and make arrests. 50 LOO are attacks against lesbians and gay me n. privatizing Statl'11H) trolled companies.. lhe 500. ~. ' SOCIAl INI. there are only three shelters for baltered women in all ofSrazil (Corr-al.. In response to this crisis.

\ibilit( (Brooke. As a result o f tlleir contac! ~.('S inctuding drugs that miglll cure (Linde n .000 iflRgal go/tl /noVIf('lml IJm~ ~n milll1lg i n 1111' trrull/i(lllflf IlIIlds of /Jra.. 1991 b:A3). in t:ontrast to the mille rs ill the Ya nornani territories..md polluting rh'cl'S \. (If the . but d!<.gold . 263 f:/fil/"n. By 1990..dl miners. anthropolo gist Napole on Chagnoll of tht. pi. Rahben.rainst Ind ian tribes and e llvirOlllne nlali51S.A t)lol.llional supporters of the Yanomani cause ~frI'CC'Lltic.uuund the mines. The rese rve will be linked to a "'ighdy smaller park across the border itl Ve nezl le la .' the last m~or isolated Indi a n tribe in rhr \mericas.. 1990b).jl for the Yanomani.ith c he mica ls used ill pu rifyU1g gold..1I '" • • \'(Jc/AI. They leave th e rivers useless" IRmok 1990a:3.". Tilt· miners' presence in the Amazon lands has llttfl a disaster 1101 only for the environment. morc than half th e 9000 YanOlllani 1!l(It.sll"eatnk'nt 01 the Yanomani by tile mining companies . hJtc·m. Presidclll (.zili ans wh o move from gold Hl\h to gold Il. In lhe view o f Fernando Ccsar Mesquita .x.. wllose concern fo r thdr tradition al lands is d isparaged by land specu laLOrs and d evelopers.m/J Ilsl!ll ill ? 1 /mdf)'illg gold. M (>1"( Ihlln 40. Till' milll'll dfMIVy f(}rf:~IS (lIul /JOI/lllt> '.lol lIrazil's enviro nme ntal !.roubles. 111e con llict over t.1101' de Mel10 signed a d ecree resclving a stre tch . Yet the Ya no mani have l)rtn largely without me dical care since Funai IBrazil's national agency for In dian a fll irs) dosed 1\\1I1lt'ahh pOSts in their ICITiwry in 1988. cOllsid mrl hl 1. The miners JU' primarily poor Bnt.33l squa re mi les of th e Amazon I·a in foreSl as ~ lM)nu:land for lhe nation's 9000 members of the hnuOlalli tribe.lIf'rS wilh rIU IJ.illg the environment ( Ra b bcn.all the whil e dcs lroy in~ fo rcsts .ash.t.ifS l'ulltmumi "!l/ium. ~'I ore lImn 40. 1990a. U nderlyi ng t. Worldwide protests cOIlcerni ng the Yano mani in"'tenew govemment policy. '1lU' buming oflhe rain foreslS is not thc only ~Ly.UlS in northern Brazil have contraCled malaria Jud uther dead ly diseases. ~fl\itnnlllenlal activillts around the world were expre.h ese disP lllCS is overt racism again st Indians. Schmink and Wood . They level nature . However. I990a : ad\~lll(eS. ~thc 1lLin e r~ leave a traj1 ul dt\'astation wherever they go. In 1990 .000 illeg. 1989).md the Bra7jlian governme nt (Urooke. Coiten States said that "this will go a long way IfllJlaliug cultu ral SUlv ival of the Ya no mani a re al p!1\. In 1991 . thousands of Indians and other forest reside nts have learned to conduc t extcnsive activities \·:i thOut d cvdstat.'C.d pnl'opcrrors have bee n mining in the traditional LllLd. INI::QIJlIlfll' It"OIlIJ)ltWI- .11 rli"l. 1989).he Yanomani lands is bill onc of tllany in Brazil in whic:h Illultination al mining companies and the government arc pilted al:. 1990a).'anomani in recent years.. Indian rights organ izations as far away as London launched demonSU<Hions to p rotest th e mi.\Sillg wnCCI"n about the conlt ict between minin)!: cmnpanics and the Yanomani Indians. pl"~iclcnt of the Brazi lian In stitute of Environme nt dllll Renewable Resou rces.

~evo in eo. The issue ofH aitiall refu gees will be examined . lhe United Natio ns conde mned Serbia fo r driving non-Scrbs fro m its tcrri to ries as pan 01 ilS policy o f' ethn ic cl eansing. a nd prohibi ts arbi lf<uy illlerferc!lC~ with onc's privacy a nd a rbitrary ta king o f' a person's prope rt y.SOCIAL POLICY AND WORLDWIDE INE IJALITY UNIVERSAL H UMAN Rl GHTS • Why d id violence in the fonne r Yugoslavia become a concern of the world communi ty d uri ng th e early 1990s? • Is the re an inhe ren t conflict bch. th(:re have been reports of substa ntial num ben of rapes of Muslin 1 and Croa tia n wom c n byStr bia n soldiers.000 people had becn ki lled in fighting in the fO lllle r Yugoslavia. we re n. 1993) . This decla ration prohibits ~ I avery. and fo rced to become refugees. ethnic Sc rbs instituted a po licy inte nded to wdea llsl''' Muslims from pa rts of Bosnia-Hc rzegovina. 1993).w:.. as if they were in a movie t. aHi rrns fretdom of religion and the riglu 10 VOle.. 1 care and assi. T he end of Sovie t domina nce of eastern Europe sel o ff bitter a nd some timcs violent clashes between rdcial.cw is. a United Nations Mlr c rimes commission suggested tha t th e re we re indi cations th:l1thl' Serbs had used rape :LS a wea pon of tCl1'or in thrit campaign to drive Muslims Ollt o f nosnia and J-Ie rLegovina (Binder a nd Crossc1te. To ma ny observers. as many as 670. It also e mph asizes tha t mothe rhood anrl c hildhood are e ntitled to speci.he fo rmer Yugoslavia.onllic1. 1993: MacKinnon . Thc l c nll h u ma n righ l$ refers to univers. i rn. l.QUMJIl .m gs revived Nau-style rhetoric <l nd launched ugly aU<lcks o n Turkish reside nts a nd fo reign im migrants.'Spo nsib lc for abuSt. CIf ch~ l ians and caplured or wo und ed combatants wc r'e dt'li bcra tcly a nd <lrbill'Olrily killed in tilt' course or armed (..29: O IlRway.~ were Muslims a nd the main perp<"I'OlIOf:S were local Ser- bian armcd foro!'s (Amn csty Imc1'I1ational. a Serbia n soldier testified tha t the mpe'i h committed had been o rdered for ~Serbia n morale: A :'$-year-old Croatia n and Muslim wo man rccal L~ th a t soldiers would invi te their fricnds lO come an~ "~ .io rl wi. As of August 1993. Serbia's po licy of ethnic cleansing is a blal<tn t violation of people's human rights. The United Nat io ns also suGGC$tr6 th at the United Statcs might be violati ng the hI}> Ill a ll rights of Hailia n refugees by rCLUl1ling them 1 Haiti \\'i tho ut allowing th e m to appeal for pm. ElIch rear.:cC II a colllmitme nllO intc m :u ional huma n righ ts a nd a res pect for the distinctivc traditions an d practices of each culture? • How have fe min ist groups broadened the debme over univers. t. a nd religious groups in the forllle r Czechoslova kia.Hch tlle m pes.d moral righ ts belonging 10 all people bccaui>C thl') a rc huma n.hcatt'f. ado pted by tlle Un ited Nations w 1948. Acco rding to onc re port: Hu ndred'!. sornctinws as h o~. l. After the reunilicat ion of Ge rrna ny was j oyously celebrated in the fo rme r EaSI and West Cen nanys.utl 1993. W. 1987. especially Iran and Cuba.000 and 30. In a 'KM crime trial ill S:1r.ortUTl:. probably thuusands.11 mo re detail ill the ~oc i a l po licy section ill Chap tcr 10. The mOSl gripping of tllese u<lgedies brought tlle tenn et/mic ckansing into the world 's vOGlbu lary.58). Twcnty-twu co un tri('\. grants everyone the right lO a na tio nality and its c ulture. Al though all sides in the connic. The most import:l m elabo ration o. T o rture or other ill-. . M Q over. street g-. T{'ns of thuusa nds of people were dc.a illed in corr rl<-'C .'S. 1993. were cited 1 1' h Um:ltI 0 righ ts a buses. P. a nd the former Sovie t Union itself (Auc hindoss. a nd degr<lc1 ing puni ~ h me nt . 1993:27. 1993b:70). 19(3). Within the f0 n11e rYugoslavia. lhe m:~ori lv of .000 comp!:lims " bout human I'igh L~ viola tio ns (Sclby. in mOSl cases .lS COlllmon. In late 1993. the United Natio ns receives between 20.ages for cxeJmnge. ethnic. In 1992.eir eth nic origin. inc hrdi ngra pe. T he linal decade orlhe twentietb ce ntury began wilh grea t prom ise. 0 tection and asylum (S\\~ ft.wlcly because of tJ.! Ihe!>C righlS a ppea rs in the Universal Declaration ut Huma n Rights.1I • MJUAI. 1. wh ile a n equal numbe r had beCIl uprooted !i'om 264 I'AHT 1JIIIJ.8.~J huma n rights? the ir ho me. but in a short time the world was remin ded of how quickly peopl es and their righ ts can be lrarnpl eci..ic .h lh(' fighti ng. proclaims th~ ligh t to seek asylum in othe r countries to escapt' pcrsecutio n. rc allne n t of dClaill('CS. t" nce.

the United Slates worked to limit the budget for Ihe Un ited Nat io n:.1 In itially. Con)('(Iucmly.l'aditions? As wc saw in Chapte r 3.ltt$ . By its vcr)' tj lle. conflicts arise bctWCf'll iIHerna tional human ri~hL<i standards and local social practic(:s Iha t rest 011 alternative views or hulIlan dig nit)....md the u n ited Natio ns d e teriorated.ri a n~ CO Illmunist adversaries. In some ~ itll at ions. tine !.i\{' nonns..s. S. yet it dcrerred action . c ultura l relativism encourages unde rstanding a nd respccting the cli . nilcd )t.t lc ~ briclly began 1 usc th e Universal D ec\::U~ l lioll of J-IUIIl'1Il 0 Rig hl~ to prom o te d emocracy abroad.. At the lime that [his ded:uation . the luiled Sta tes feared imcrnaL. commonly invoked when criticizi ng ~LQl<lliL.. 1993)..' Human Ri ghl~ d~ St. Cmllmissiol1 .ollal scrutiny of the 1I3tion's dome~li c civi l righL~ controvcrsies (since r. ration of Human Righ ts emphasizes that such righ ts sho llld be 1W.:L1l li ghts? What aOOm the man y cultures o f the world that view the subordina te SIM IIS of womc n as :m essentia l e le meu t ill their 1 . " 265 C/IAI'J}/f ~ • •~OCJAI.. Alkr \ielnam . J. l\\C~e ll the l.e abuses aga inst women.W:QI'!IU1'Y \t'OlIInlt1DJo. the t:nileri In 1993.. the United StaLes was opposed to a preand binding obliga tion to tbe Universal Declal'ation of Human Rights. skeptics wonde r it this .Lg3inst friends like the Shah or Iran who were gui lty oherious human l'ig hlS abu. while "all th oriHuian" a llies of the Uniled States were not held to a simi lar SULIlclard (Fursythe. dmini ~trnl i O Il (like its predecessors) \"..oner fo r I-Iuman Rights as well as a special envoy to investigat.$CS.Jatiolls fo r the appointmen t of a High Cunllnio. Prcsidclll nil! Clin to ll began his <ldmillistration by takin g a more aggressive stance on inte rnational human right.u:i:11 scgrcg-. tJle Cl.cs o f tJ1 C Uni ted States (5.. \'a lm. (But h Ronald Rt'agan and Gcorgc Bush had o pposed having such a commissione r. I ~ India's castc system (refer back 10 C hapte r 8) an inhcrent \'iol:uion of hUIIl . Holtn es. .:d an {'1llbargo or SOllth f\rrica. I-It: has p ressed the Un ited :-..lliull by 13\\' was sti ll common ). During the Rea~r-lIl ­ Bush rears.' o f ~ hulllan rights~ wa . but during the Vietnam Vlar era l'e1ations b(. the Universal Decl .s. the CaneI' administl':ltion e mph asized inlrmatiollal hum.~dS ad opted by the United :'\IaLions.1.ill ignore human lights vio latio ns committed by :11I. ho\\c\'er.llf!rSal . In the early 1960s. 19(0).) Wh ile many o bsenc r" welcomc these changes. and clIstoms of eac h cultu re.m rights concern s and initiatt.

kimo) or North Ameri ca. /. drought. Amnesty International opposes all rorms or torture and capital punishmcllt a nd ado vocates prompt trials for all political prisoners.TABLE ·t_:~ Azl!:fboijanis aoo Armenians in the Caucasus {former Soviet Union1 Muslims in Bosnlo-Hl!:fzegoYina (former YugosloYio1 besieged by Serbion and Crootion forces Kurds oppressed in Turkey.992. The mOSt rar-reaching denial or universal human riglus is evidc nt whe n an cntin: grou p races a nnihilation.most Jl'(1f'I'r ly Ihrlal£llm b)' "Vlrfa" mu! Of'Pmsioll.lement precedes immigration rrom othet societies a nd colonialism . Ro ny Brauman. 2) . Jnterestingly. Spielmann. As one result of this activism. the tr. 1992. Iraq.1\ or lire. Warren Chtistopher. the Unitt'd Nations has established a working group to draft a Uni\'ersal Declat-ation on the Rights or Indigenou\ Jleoples (Duming . and Burkino FoWl !'O!! KCt. 1989. their elTorts arc being assisted by voluntal\ associatio ns of suppo rters in the core i ndltStriali1~ nations.<.. !. Sciolino. It \vorks ror thc rclease of men and wome n detaint-rl anywhere ror their conscient.e 1977 Nobcl Ptize ror Peace. or State. Algeria. 0 nomadic group of the Sahara Desert.t severely threate ned b)' warrare :lIld oppression (sce Table9-3). has identified 10 minorities and nationalities wh o are the mo. Christopher concluded that -we cannot let c ultural relativism bccome the last reruge ofn:prcssio n ~ (Dollnclly. org-<tni1.000 members in the United States alone. Am nesty Intcmationa l. the Inuit (u. scx. and cion worfore Sri lonkans cought beiwtJen Tomil rebels and goY1lfnment forces South Sudanese victims of 0 government attempt to crush 0 revolt by storving the entire oreo Tuoregs. the Ai nu of Japan.tditional view o r universal human rights-long accepted by the United Nations. in a major speech at the first World Conrerctl ce on Human Rights in 25 years. and Brazil 's Yanomani Indian! (discussed earlier in the chapte r). The winner of tl. t\lll2. 1993A I). 1 warned tl. .hout Borden). who are endangered by clashes in Moli.'orkin~ in 80 cOllntries. rejected sllch a \~ew. and o thers-is being reexamincd in light of cOlltcmpor. thf. the Aborigines or Australia.~) Does this mean that human rights should be interpreted dilTel'en tly in d ilTerelll parts or the world ? In mid. the United States' Secretal). their color. Amon g the endangcred peoples of the world art many indige nous (or native or tribal) peoplM whose se u. e thn ic origin. 0 MUllim group 11'1 Burma Somalis threotened by slorvotion. 1993) .at the Ull itcd States wou ld 0lr ·le pose any attempt to cite rcligious or cu ltllral traditions as a rationale for weake ning the standard of un iversal human rights..he president d Medecins Sans frontierer Uean . Founded in \ 971 a nd based in Paris. In its 1993 annual re port . ChrisLOpher insisted that tlle Uni\'ersal Dedar. ~Our intcntion is to highlight CUI· rent upheavals . Amnesty Itr IcrnaLional has c hapters in many COllntries and 400. Founded in 1966. Indigenous pe0ples are organ izing the mselves to dere nd their "'". LO bear witness to foreign tragediM a nd reflect o n th e principles or humanitarian aid: explains Dr. Amnesty Inte rnational ( 1993a) docu me nts human rights violations in 163 counlries-nmging alphabetically rrom Afghanistan (where a new governmCIH infli cted cruel and inhuman p unishme nt on thousands of politicotl prisoners) to Zimbabwe (where mass graves were uncovered or prisoners c xecuted witho ut trial by the amlY during the I 980s) .EQUAlJ7Y . or lailb'1Jage-providcd !. 1Jorr. sets a single standard fo r acceptable beha\~or around the world..: Je~" . Iron. Niger. Like Mcdedns Sans Frontiercr.oho are lhi.I993. tJl~ Sami (or Lapp) d northern Scandi navia.try feminist activism. and the former Soviet Union Mozombiconl suHering from a IS-year ciyiI war Peruvians caught belween Mooist Shining Path rebels and the government Rohingyos. Amnesty Intellllltional is cOllcel"l1t:d with human lights violatiom around thc world.hat thcy have neither llsed nOt advocated violc nce. They incl ude nomadir Bc:douins of the Ardbic peninsula. the world 's largest ind ependent e mergen cy medical aid organ ization. 266 l'AIl)' THREE · SOCIAl..ttion or Huma n Right'. religion.k. Mithcirn St1/U Frrmtihn" (Dotwn !\'illumt Juu idDlhfiM 10 /NOPkl around Ihl' WtJrlJ u. Mcdecins Sans frontiCrc r (DoClors Wi !.iously held beliefs.ation has 5000 doctors a nd nurses ". .

pl c r ~x:lIlI inc:.11'0 1'c ig n power lor a n extcnded periorl o rli ll1~ .lpall hmt' the lowest deK rc:~ or income illMhO'. 5uI~cCI 10 foreign domination ..' I )'~a r o r age pe r 1000 live births in :0 give n re'lr. I While the .. national armies...llil? I Social mObility is t'. .ol/al c:orp osocial imp. some lOO IllilIinn pC'ople il re homdd. lIIoc:lcl1liL:l. \\Mkh.. (2&1) "10...1Il Gulf..\m(' ric:•..'lItill dC§lI'union in Ihe mineral-rich areas ... boyfriends... 7 Of thc wndd 's a{h~mced industrial ecotlomics.1 dominan ce ovcr a IX:'ople b)' .Ill tragic.lcl o n wOI·k('I'S ill bo th IIdlKtrI. All all-day tribunal on violcncl' ag<linsl wo m en was held at the fe ring pcrw lla i lesti mo u)' a bout abusc they h ad s ui: fered from hus balld~.ltIC-I <loculIlcnt Slr"tilicatio n in Br.. I993.·hat \\~I)'S is Ihe in ronml! economy C\ idcl1t in )'0111' coll ege COlllr1lUll ity and in the city or town when' r(m . the New York Timn nOled lhat \\'O Ulm\ grou ps had c merged as ~eas il )' th e st rongest md Ulost cfTcclj\'e lobby" at the World Confen:ncc 011 iluman Ri g hts in Vic n na. \ou'\t I... neocolonialism.. ami c uh Ul~....j1iI~ .....')' (S\lI'\'C).Irouud tht' I.....tgi llc Ihat )'011 hlld Ihe opportunity to ~ pend" )'("al' in Br'dlil studyillg ine(l'mlit) in Ihal natio n.1111pill(l1 tor Women 's Human Ri g hts. as well as frolll gOl'ennne n LS... bllil! ..w n Rive r..lpi ta l is mkcn l".. :md ~u t:cctiSflll immigrant indu~tria lists.\ tiol1..l P be· ~n deh and poor l1\u.st 10 thc uPI)('r class o r Ihe United SlateS. and guelTiI\a g ro ups.In mid.~t h­ Jlufrnulc bias.. ~~'!.... as ).'lyie m poqtion.l) t1llJJ W ..S..om and in tht: inequlIlit)..lYle the "~ Ir in Ih~ Pe rs i..~ o f A~ia durin g Iho:: 1980s " . Colonialism (250) 267 f:JMI'IJ:.' quick to no tc Ihat tCllllS Ml('h • • tdrNlhation :lIId r\'~1l (/noeiO(llnt'lIt contain . a mi pa r1."pIt"' na/wIIl). o rld h adjoiucd in Hoalition to bae k \\'hal they called the Global (:.. ami 1II1I1I... Ilrnwing on th ~ (o unkl p~rspcct i\ c.. w(lrld systems IhcOl)'. and fathers..o nal corpm--dtio ns).. sod.·orld. 3 IIIl. C harlotte Bunc h .. alld the d istriLmciorl of wcalt h 1 11111 wum t' in l'.. S O)nJlict Iheofisb arguc lhat Inllllinal......O<lI...O ll haw' '>t:~ n it in these co mmunities.."S is composed plimaril )' of large bndowllCr..I SlIbil.lIiO IlS nalions.. existing t..~.. high in naIWIIllwhich share a r(. with more than 20 women of- man righL~~ (Fl anders. o~I'\'..Ourc~) to be tter 1111 dCl'lIt..illl( tu all people becau'oC Ihey... . 1993: 175: Riding....art': humall ..... drdlO'ing on the cuncepts .diled llllt! de\ c loping natio ns . Ilow wOI\I<I )'011 draw on tht' re5c:arch ci<. Serbia's po lk)' or -cthni c elt'allsin~( is a b l ~lI:lI1t violatioll of lX:'oplr's hI/man rig hl$.ioll . concluded: ~ Wo m c lI arc tearing down the wall of s ile nce that has prevented the wo rld from recogn izin g OttI' hu- VIenna conference. grew up? Dnlwil1g Oil ttw funClionalist.. 11 To many obsel'\'crs.Ct'1I1 histol) . S"'cdt11 ~nd j . signs of sociolO$.tLlQn wit hin lIl ~ wo rld ct:Orl ornic ~ys t~lI1.l~ di\'id~d bl'lw~~ 1\ lIat io n s \" h o (0111 1'0 1 wl'alt h ((om ~fltio 'lJ) and those fro m whom t:.lI1d i .. ri<1II. moderni/':l- the Brazilian uppe r c1:t.~ lI rnmnd i n g the Ama.. con!1iCI...ide 5tr:uific. through the p!'OCC!<' of I. the impact of multinational corporatioll~ un dt'vdOPLlljt coullIncs..l~Y. • nlC day-to«llI YimpacI Ill' Ihe cconom ic uadtslidc in Nrira. (page 243) Ullm atl rightt U ll it'~ I'5<I1 mo ral rig h l5 bdoll!..·mld has 157 bill ionai res.lIId .. ud intC I~ ctiC)ll ist pCI'~ pccth'C5. within {lJllOtries ..m(. 111 .r"cotor/in/ism..(:ci na tioll~ art' kepi in . ~()dologi s l ImmJl1Uci Wallt-fs tti ll \·iews Ihe g-Ioblll " C(l n lUllic s)'strUl . 2 In . t 'tin)' wciologis c~ arc. ! runner culonif.'fi in the c:hapte r (esIX'Ciall y colon ia lism.. The maintenance of politi cal.'! sevcn : economic tronbles h:tI'c cOlllri\)lIIed to Cl1l'irOIl IlJf.. 11111'C 11 Ilegal il-c ftJU..~ S ll~l\­ IfK. Am. allalp...IL eCl}< nomic....lrIHI\'iIlK n :c:ci\'ecl large fllllnbeu or immigranl"'. :QfjJtU/l 1I0Ul. Some 950 women 's Of'RlIoizatiol1s from around the .. This c h. . l1Is un d c .'!lxxiall)' tikd) 10 lx...llio u cau be seen both in th(' g.. 1993).~ the infO l1l1al ccunom). CXpelilllt:llt~... director o f the Cc lller fO l' Women's Global leadership (bast'd at Rutgers University in New Jerscy).R \I .nl morlQlily rQ/1l The number or dc"lh~ of illf.. In (omrJ.. 10 Bra/i)'..

1 1 :Ind dt... Lolt i~ A .. Illle~'C I1 developmen t.... A collection .~ . DJ! th~ Hooks: tI 'l'limry ml(l Cntiqllt of W Umlngwlln d Emlll"'ly.. . wi th a special fOUlS un rh l' '. (245) MltltillntiD/1Q1 corpora tifln' CouHllcrciat o rga nilalions wh ich. : GaramOlld. The World Ban k.il ians.1 QIIUrlI'ffy ( 197R) .... Los t\l1gdc~: l1CLA Centcr lor Afru-Amcrican Sludies. IVm-/(! f)/'Iw/rf/immt /(1'j1ln1. e\1dence ut d iscdlllination. (2...: Sage.. a nd ~ hchele Hopnan (cds. Dix J-1i l1~. f C5S:I}'S br .: Gt:ne ral·Hal1.. 1987.. Ti nl....u ions... An csa mi mlliol1 uf th e social consequence.... f-I. (245) World syste ms th eory Imnmnucl Wallentein 's \.llC~.. S/rldrl'S (founded in 1987).. IH86.er..M. Thr lilch Get Hicher. l'OIJIIl(lfitJl1 IIlld f)". IlIlU.IIIformn l I:'CO/lOlIIy Tmllsfcn. a~ well as th roughout the world .'l>UI"\ Park..lI ... are IloIlXmu/ lIIld ('>f/lqrid.uus (~ women.u'3ctcriSlic of more developed so dt' ti c~..h . cO!rsiuers h{JII WOll1Cll'S labol' is overlooked in the glob.... DII.... Simon..dQPIlfl'tI/. Swan I-Icm).). arrd World D~1!dOf!mtt11 ( 1973). or service!! rhar :tlT lint reported tll the govenllrlCl l t. 268 I'AH'I' TlI/ItA • SO(..11 g-rowing inequali ty "'il hi n t he United St.. Call.O'.rr Poor COI/II1171'1.·n:lopi llg na· Lions..llu. l\'ewYork: Ox· fo rd U ni \'ersity Press. Ire llc (ed.: Priu CCWII 1. N.. nunl Il'tJfld Gllld.INlrrJr nl:l'i('w ( 1956).ew o f the global ec()n()lIIic I. 1990. lhe Wo.QnLn) .Y. Calif.! 01 peoplc's parlidpat in ll in aCtivi ties Ol lLSidc the mainstream ccollomy.. Toromo. Volkcr. Wcigard. this \..IIIUIII Rigfll. 199 1.'calr. W'll'ing..1 lcs reg<lrd ing the ro le of wo men in world d evelopmc nt a nd Ihe impact of dc. TmllSlwfifJl!(l1 r. a social sdentisl from l\'ew Zealanu. goods. A detailed aual}'sis of the impact 01 multinational cuq>Onlt iolls 011 dc\ elo ping natiolls. Pie rre-Mi c.. 199:!.... indu{ling both theoretical lreatments and empiriCllI 5l\ldies... the s\.. J.ntioll The 1 :lr-rcachillg rroce'l. my of. Fennan.-ld ltll1k) . 93/ 9'1.. 1992.~.U. d :ll> the Seplem lw r 1987 issue o f lhe AllllfIls of lilt Ammrtlll .~~~~.· o f past and cu rren t deh.millut EM/lom.. and uniwrllal human righl'.md developing cou n\l. dcvdupcd instillltiolls to thme c h. Ilennr.)..~l~ o f lIlultinational (orpor. while heac1qllanered in olle cou nU)'.. al rd Christophe r Chase-Dun n.. Rn. 1985. Oxford Unil'crsity Prm..... JlltmllJ liMlrI1 Lt/oor RPrllt'W ( I 'J21) .hd (cd ..[/ln/mf J~(o"ornJ' ~l·.. own or control ot hel corporations and subsidi:uies th rollg holl t the wo dd. thb \'o lume pl'o\'idc~ an "''el"\'iew of the informal economy ill both il\{hl~U'i .I wd l-kllll\\'n economist.17) Nl'ocoloniali' In C'.... tries.'!1 econolUl.('S "'ho are controlled and exploited .'cIopment on wome n .lwl'l> rega rd ing ""orid d ew\o pme lll.. _.. Chicago: Nelson-Hall..ocioll alul cconOllli.. Lf/lill Amnl((/II UI'.. i'('nulml Illfl/'l(IlltuJ: 1I'0mm alld World iJewllIjJJl/nIL New York.)StCIII:\5 dh-ided between certain il1duSlriali/cd II.tIle HI'cs uf Bhlrk 1~1~I7. IlIlcflfltiOfUll Jormllll of UrlHIII 111111 UegiQ/1lI1 HI'_lW rdl ( 1')76).. Johl1 L. Pu blished annu:ulr by the Inter· na tional Bank for Reconstntrtion and Devclopmenl (t he Uni ted Na tions agency mo re common ly rcfclTed lu a. l' ubl i~lu.iOIlS ".. wi th a nation-br-nation exami na liun of prOle\l grOIlP('i.O lllllll' \HOl idcs a lolSI....~ by wh ich a sodet} mo\'c~ from 1I~\ditiun:ll UI" ks.1I11'"I'Sily rn~~s.e. a lld the ~inHllion of indigenous peoples. 1988.IAl 1~"f. '171t f.indiC'. Sociologist Il mu lI look~ . I3n u:e. Third \ Vorld InstitUle (Instituto del Tercc r :\Iundo)... Fontaine. (251) Mfldenri::.. A Thinl \\'ul ld pel's peclh'e o n dc\doping coUJt.mptJ/'/I/wlu (11111 UIII/I'7'1la'l'/rtj!/nNlI. Amu ng thOSt...I md('/IIJ flf l~flli/u(rl (111(1 &)('j(jf ~ri(. If U fI/lU'1I CIJIIII/M: A New f. jormwl of Df'IH'/&pirrg Amll ( 1%5). i ourn:tl~ !lra t consi(lc r iS~ llCS of worldwidestratificalion .H..ho con trol . (24:1) Bornschier.. of money.o11linuin g d e pe ndence of fonnel' colo nies on fo reign countr ies... Bmull.). San Frall ci!ICo: Ha rper and Row. 1993.~·tIf Ii/ l llmml' (l1If1 IVeallh (1954). (HId P fIllIff' ill Hf(t:l/... Tinkc I"5 antholog) orrel's 3n v\ef\.. I' rl llLc lon. New York: I' raeger.. A COlleCl io n o t essa)" ex'Ulli ni llg. :\1aril\.... Waring.. NJ .

.............. ........ .......... ......... ........ 269 ... .... ................ ............... .............. ...Qy..... RACIAL AND ETHNIC .............. t::::::::::::~ ~ .. . ........ .~~~.......... ................y.........................................A:1rr.................


. ..... as an In\.~ibl e Minority 10-2 f:ufrCIiI Research: Asian Alllt'riCIJI~ and lhe ~Modd Minori t y~ Slereol)1>C Srgregation J'lu ralism 271 ... RACIAl. .. ~........... .iHN ICI1Y Functionalist Pcrspecth'c Conflict Perspccti\'C hucrnctionist "crspecti\'C PREJUDICE AND DlSC RJMI NATION The SU ·UCt\lr'. MLNORJTI'..A~....... ......uualifl n Assimi latiOlI RA CE AND ETHN ICITY IN THE UN ITED STATES Rltcial Groups Blac k Americans N:llivc Americans Chi nese Ame ri cans Japan ese Americam Ko rean Americalts Ethnic G t'H Up~ I li51'..........lIIio: ~1 cxica n Americans and I'ucno Ricans Jewish Americans White I~lhnics SOCIAL POLI CY AN D RACE ANI) ETHN l c rlY: REGUlATI NG LMM1 GRATION BOXES 1(}"1 SI)Cakin~ 0111: I-iispank........... · 1:====::jI~:jI~:j~===:::I··· ·· ·· · · · ····· ··· ··· RACIAL AND ETHNIC .. ....uory Ik havior Instiunional Discrimin:ltion PAlTERNS or INTERGROUP RELATIONS Alna\g-.... ... AND ETHNIC GROUPS Minorily Groups Race Biological Significancc of R......... ..~QY....~IX. ... .......... ce Social Significancc or R......~............t1 Component l)i'ICrimin.ace Ethnicity STUDYING RACE AND t.........

Hispa nic.pc.1 b ""·tiru. 272 PAl(/' 'H1RE.. renecting cOlllinuing anger about a l' sentence given in 1991 10 a Korean grocer who . Of all the things that happened there That's all that I remember. but were fou nd nOt guilty by a jury of 10 Whites.cars Soulh-Ccntral was shattered by fires a nd Small blJ s ine ~ses owncd by Korea ns were a lar targe t. I saw a Baltimorean Keep looking straight at me.. captu red the police administering 56 blows to King in 8 1 seconds as he la}' on In thc ground . The j ury's w:: rdic t touched o n. 13. a Black construction worker.E • SQUill. and about I billion property damage. the area where had occurred in 1965. the South-Centnl neighbol'hood where the most serious dislllrbanres took place borde rs WatlS. A year I. the acquitta l of t11cse offi cers was all geous reminder o f the historic persecution African Americans.O nce riding in old Baltimore. 2283 . j uries. leading to 58 deaths. E"en though \"'hite been shown on videoLape repeatcdly beating a fenseless Black ma n.rioti ng in geles and other cities across the United $taU. Ironically. Native Americans. A nd so I smiled. King. Hearl-jill£d. why a re Blacks. And he was no whit bigger. 1925 LOOKING AHEAD • In sociological tenns. although they were found guilty o f vio lating King's civil rights.'S.clevision in subsequent months. "Niwr. W"dS beaten by Los Angeles Po lice Departme nt officers after a high--speed car c hase. Now I was eight and very small..Her. they were not initially victed of a Clime . head-jilled wilh glee. and one Asian Amcrican. Los Angeles riOls became the nation's worst i twentieth centul)'.ul scq'. " I saw the whole oJ Baltimore Fmm May until December. but he poked out His ttmgue. As in Watts 27 ). and J ews co nsidcrcd minority groups? • Why are stereotypes harmful to members of Idcial a nd e thnic mino rities? • How does the Marxist perspective view Idce relations? • What types of interldcial contact can foster tolenmce between dominant and subordina te groups? • Is it harmful to Asian Ameri cans to view the m a ~modcl minority"? • What challcnges does the Un ited States face from contemporary immigration? ~ 1991 .. A shoc king videoL1. shown repeatcdly on t.. IXEQL'AUIl' . Rodnc). '-or Blacks. and call£d me. CmmlN Cu llen Incidenl.505 arrcsts. . four White officcrs ' c harged in connection with the beatings.

~hl)t and killed a 15-year-old Black woman in a dispUle uver a boule of orange juice (M. green-eyed people. a nd desce ndants or the Pilg rims who a n. Morcove r.. Nr:ws mtd World fUp0l1 e ntiLled ~ Black \"'I Wll1tr. . is a group that makes lip less Ij1an half or some larger popula tion . PrOlesTs against misU'eatmen t by dominam g ro ups cam e from na tional. ll c)::'<l tive _niNions of Hispanics o utllumbered positive dtlcripliorn. by a five 10 olle ratio (]\'ALEO. The next sections or Ihl' c ha pter will exa mine the drnamics of prejudice and discrimination and Ulci r impact 011 intergroup l'clations. .. Korean r\Wbli. n:... eq uality.:lhl! riOtll revealed that on I}' II percent of these rtlfT~llte~ ".ClAL ..\blr"..~hll1elll S su l1cred $347 million in property d. Moreover.lI1d Ro mani (be lle r kn own as C}'psies) were be in g ex pressed mo re openl}' in mall}' orthese nations. Folcial .Jili~s of poverty. !lIOn' thim one-third of thosc killed were Hispanic. 1992. Hispanic Amc::ricalls. The Soviet l:nion ordl\. ]lueTlo Ricans. the social policy St'ctjon will explo re th e i mmigr. in V. As ror the victims or the riots.. a nd the .. Minor ity Grouos A Il umerical minorit).1n ics cOllstiwte abom ha lf th e populatio n 0( tomh Los Angeles-altho ugh the re are no Hispanic elected officials rrom this area..ttnagt"-fllOre than one-th ird or all S"uc h losses Inlffi the riots. TIle. J ews."-ere lO Hispanics. and Po lish Americans a rc a ll calegorized as c thn ic groups... as o ne result or the sllccessful re_lpinsl communist rule in th e Sovie t Union N tcm Europe.llizalion SClvice I'or illllll edutt' drportation.\'IQI ~/J'n .. . Togethe r. biueT COntrast between Ihe -Arne riGlIl ~.~ Asjournalist Peter Kwong ( 1992:29-32) PI)lIIh out. mostly Mnilolll \IllCricaIlS and Cubans.. MINORITY.... The term racial grOIlP is used 10 describe a group which is sel apart rro m ut h er~ Ix:cause of obvious physicaL differences.ved on Lhe AlayjlolVPr. RACIAL. tCC and e thn ici t).. .. 1992 ).<. long-standing prejudices againslJ ews . AND ETHNIC GROUPS Sociologists frequentl}' distinguish between mcial and ethnic g roups. In the United StaICS.. 1992. the n it will consider the ru nctiona list.• of rlOOO rcrertnces to racial and e thnic g roups • VII majol newspapers in the IWO weeks fo llow-.. Oavis.i nguish ing between racial and eth nic g ro ups. ..'1 tuS in a JllllikatlOll s)'lilem.. a nd succes.mClin many areas. .... while Yugoslavia's re- publics entered into a lo ng ilnd bloody civi l war.' !!(Xial definitions or race :md e thnicIt-tiu cl:us-afTect people 's place and st. Hunga ria ns living in Rumania and Turks living in Bulgaria. prejudice.. Kwoog. tr the 19905.·ues. conl1icl. Yet conte nt anal)...es-man}' or them groce ries and liquor l>Iort"-were looted or b urn ed..md e l111lic minorities thro ughout the region-among the m. hilt lhrougholH the world . and Asian Am ericans are all consid e red racial grotlps in the United States. .{c1es.tlries had once again erupted into . including te levisio n ac tors.. Whites.. Czechoslovakia divided (much more peacerully) along e th nic lines into the Czech and Slovak re publics....'Hjoll policy of 111C United St.... At leas t t 000 01 Ihosl! arrested during the disturbances (pdUDnw for violating curfew) were und(Jclllllenlerl lIislMni( i!11ll1igrnnts who were LUrned over lu th e lmnli~T"ljon and NalUr.md intel'actio n isL perspectives nn l.. . Fina lly.. Unlikc racial groups. T he popula· tion o r the Ulli lCfi States includes Ihousands or numerical minorities. T his is trlle not o lll)' ill this 0Itma.s.. How- 273 UfAY/1:R If} ' I/A.. this oyerl}' sill] plis(ic view ignores the ill]port.. Los """gei£s Times.. It \vil1 begin b}' idcntjryi ng the basic c haracteristic'i o r a m inori ry group ami dist. This chapter \vil1 roclls primarily un the meaning or race and e thn icit}' in IJ1e United Stale.. an ethnic group is set apart rrom ot hers prima rily because of ilS na tional o rigin o r distincthe cultural patterns. lIi\ll.. \ltdia cm'erage of the riolS \'/as rypified b}' a cover \fO\".... and discrimi· ~.. . and TlIany o the r racial and e thnic miaribn ill the United States have expclienccd the . 01 freedom. traditional and lo ng-suprthnic ri\'. ro'.""\1) ".UI Americans. BtI'llT'l'll 3Q OInd 40 percent o f businesses wiped out _ng the riots were owned by Hispanic!!.. More than 1800 Korea n busiI)Ni.... tax la\'I'yers... In 1992. I 99!'\) ..olvrd in 1991 along boundaries reflectib many nationali ties..OIrll role of Koreans and His panics in the cvcnts III Los An!.~..}lSle I. Part icu lar attention wi ll th e n be brive n to Ih e experien ces of racia I and e thn ic min o rities in lh e Uniled Slates. Bl acks..... Asian AlamcatIS.

4 Minority group members ha\'e a strong sense group solidarity. In-grollp~ allll out-f. A minority group is a subordinate group whose members have significamly less control or power over their own lives than the members of a dominant or rmuority group have over theirs. Each society has it~ own arbilI-ary standard for determining which characteristics are most important in defining dominant and minority groups. discrimination. in fact. and ingroup marriage (Wagley and Harris. solidarity. people are born into the b>TOUr Thus. \\~len a group is the object of 10ng-terTn prejudice and ribcri mination.tl traiL~.. 1958:4-11): Members ofa minority group share phrsical or cultura l charJ. tlle feeling of '"us versus them can and often does become extremely intense.!. A member of a dominant group is often unwilling to join a supposedly inffrior minority by marrying onc of its membc!1.of f/ minurity groutl hmJ( (I Mmng smst of grouJI solidfln'/)\ !1'/UtA drlll'lops /larlly as /I resuli (If Iht pTl'}udiCf and dilcnmilwlion 1111:) eXllI'rienre. race and ethniciry are considert:d IlSm/lf. orJe.\'/:. /V. Social inequality mar be created or maintained by prejudice .md ing dominanl groups) set apan from others by ohvious physical differences. For example.t. 3 Membership in a minority (or' dominant ) grollp is not voluntary. writjt!~ in 1906. ascribed status. In the United St. 5 Members of a minority generalry many othtn from tlle same group. these numerical m inorities are nol. H Race As already suggested... In addition. the number of people in a group does not necessarily determine its status as a social minority (or dominant brrouP).m>an AmerimllS (/" shown dnnOlulmting flfler IIv 1992 riots in Lo~ Allgl'lis.d~ta­ tuses (sce Chapter 5). or even extermination. Sociologists have identified five basic properties of a minority group-physical or cultur.liALn'1' . /. unequal treatment.'S.nce? Each society determines which differences are imponant while ignoring othtt characteristics that could servc as a ha~is for social differentiation. noted that individuals make distincti(!n' between members of their own group (the ill·grmipi and evcl)'one else (the uu/·gmufJ). I-lispanics. But what is an "obviotll' physical difTerc.Cteristics that distinguish them from the dominant group. Illey are primarily concerned with the economic and politjcal power. iH~ ever. of that group. William Grahatn Sumncr. the term ranlJI group is reselved for lhosc minorities (and the correspc. differcnce~irt 274 PART 'I Ill/FE • SQ('JAI. I. tbe management of an apartment complex may refuse to rent to African Americans. 2 Members of a minority experience unequal treatment and have less power ove r their lives than members ofa dominant group have over theirs. considered to be minorities in the sociological sense. When sociologisL~ define a minority group. scgreg-J. lhe minority group's sense of solidari~ encourages marriages within the group and di~ courages marriages to outsiders.tion.>TOUpS were discussed in Chapter 6. or powerlessness.'lIes.

3 0 . Ame ricans lend lO lump people rather casually into suc h ge ne ral cateROncs as ~ Black .9 '. 1!l93a: IS.we.uell' Cubans OthM rolol (011 '101'1. .3 15 .. It is impossible to scie ntifically dcfme nr identify such a gmup.t1natic social and p0litical meaning.959 1.odd m~jor h..740 32. EskilTlO$. SOO.an Pamunanians.3 0 . Given the absence of pure racial groups. the re can be no salisfac tory biological answers for sllch social and political questions.. and inva. M7) CIU NIC J.0 5.' 1. 1930: 15. this is not the ca-.6 0 .~ Nor arc tbtrr physical traits-whethe r skin colo r or baldnrss-that Can be lIsed to desc ribe o nc group to thr txdllsion of all others.s 75 perce nt.8 2..e in o ther societies.366 5.7 0 . exploratio n. 57. ious. Information about the popul. Afli.panese Ame ricans. 10 V:lrying degrees. these people inlCmlarried . the te rm mu would refe r to ~ genetically isolate d g mup with diSlincli\'e ge ne Il"ttJuencies. Ikazil has approximate ly 40 raci<tl groupings.656 14.ts.raJ Ame rica and South Ame rica have color gradie nt" distinguishing peo ple o n a continuum from lig ht to dark skin colo r. Many nations of Cent. ilwestigations suggest that the pe rcentage of Sorth American Blacks with White an cestry ranges from 20 perce nt to as much a. . 1975).496 2." or ~Afri c.tion and di.407 8'8 815 799 615 149 147 80. cd ~H CCl1ry. h A"'criOln Jc"~ or people of .3 0.cans .0 0. Poli. with each other or witl.1 5 .645 1. l1Ic . while in o the r CQ umries people may])e described as ~M cstizo I-Io ndllrans.aUlOt tell whe ther it came fmm a Chin ese or a Smjo. The largest racial mino riti es in the United States ~H' Blacks (or Mri can Ame ricans).2 grOllps) I'e rccnt:ogn d o 1>01." More subtle rliffrrences in skin calo r ofte n go unnoticed ..Ja.. they ('..8 0. Native Am e riGms. and other Asian peoples.044 5.986 1.321 9.710 23 . uell ~I Im h and It:olian) .1 ! White OnCe!1!'y (single or mixed) Germons Eth/lic gfOUpJ Irish English Itclions Frll'lCh Poles low> Hispan ic! (or tatioos) Mexican AmericQ/ls Poerto Rican.2 0.sion have further compromised the mainte nan ce of pure races and led 10 in creased racial intermingling. lap bet" ''''"'' group> null (e. IU-\ .715 10.g .ltiol1. D..~ "White.986 38. residents of the United States must recogrme that what wc sce as ··obvio us" dilTeren ces arc .1 3. n".. Such Gll.stribution of n lcial g ro ups in this COUIl uyis presented in Table 10-1.u u ofth" Cc". Robe rts. corumry to popular belief.~ and ~As i a n .ni.can slaves ".ul~ect LO each society's social definitions. !> 1 categorize individuals as "Black" o r ~White" (Herskm. 1 Filipim» Japanese Asio/l Indion! Koreons Vietnomese Laotians Combodion! 0. and P"'( CIII~gtll hollkl be con. While! Bloclu/African Americans Native Ameficons..s.686 29. Aleuts Chinese 199..CQUIlUIY . " 'hen o bserving skin calo r. 1 0. \ligr-. IN PfRCENTOf TOTAL I'ClfULAllON CtASSlf1CAllON ltiOUSANOS Racial group.i.oximation" D. Yet people learn informally that differtnca in skin color have a d r.JIIC£: B". .cd li p to figuro in app . NUM8ER. Scientifir. as noted in Chapter 9.both skin color and hair color are generally quite ub.idc..be .728 1. How~'H. a Hawaiian or an African Am e rican." ··Mulatto t:olombians. ubhearu d o not . Som e people wo uld like lO find biological explanations which could help us to understand why cenain peo ples of the "'orld have come to dominate othe rs (refe r back 10 the discussion of sociobiology in Chapt e r 4) . . c forc . 10\. there a re no ~ pUrt: races. ~lId .6 13 .3 12.4 2.6 9.086 248.. 1 9'J2: ~N -~$. while differences ill hair calor are not nearly so socially significant." Vie wed in lIu~ light. indigenous I ndians.011 100 P"'(CIII. Conseque ntly.err brought to almost all these coulltries. Chin ese Ame l. Consequently.ua on JC'A'S arc for 198\1.~d •.354 13. • lOfe . T\lII . IioJogicaI Significance of Race Viewe d from a biological perspec tive.935 22.nics undennine a fundam e ntal assumpti o n ~Iif{' in the United StMes: tllal we can accur. 275 C/'1I1"I1i1l IQ • WlClIII. If scie ntists e xamine a iIIltar of human blood under a m icroscope.

.himself or M' 4. ry(U has ~I mllid illlo qU#'.ihf Ihl11 Kfls {/ 1000v-jm.. in mid1993 Asian Amel.he ability of the dom imUll Or majority groups to define a society's values. TIle uif-validaling effert..01> opportunity MGI ha ~ """"" ~ ~ MGl 1.·".I/l1 rn .. As onc result .. Thomas. Sclf-fu lfillin g prophecies can he especially de\'ay la tin g for minority gr ou ps (sce Figure HI-I). MGl perlo<m. ndilS.d< fur -m"lU"" "m·cl.... ht tff sht IIUI1 bt!gill tu 1nl { 5ofIJ-(foubt (/lid MlfholT'l'd... Th ey ('harged that tJl e film re inrorce d traditional ~rcl1ow perW stereOl)... which emphasiLcs how a person ClHncs 10 be labcled as devian t and e\'Cn to accept a self-image of d<:viance. ..L"scssing the impact orself-rulfi lli ng prophecies.or poorly ~ MGI pvshed out linanCed .<1""/. or Khool ....r modt IfI/ 1111' dmnmunl gnmf! f/fI' s/wQ. r..judice and thereby assist the sllbordination ofminoritygroLlps (Kaplan.... I W.. . (kKlged by .. the re has been growing awareness nr th e power of th e mass media to introduce stereotypes imo everyday lire..~: 1 9... 1991 :6~: Schaefcr. wc can refer back to labelillg theory (see Chapter 7).!au.While the use or stereotyping can promote in·group solidarilY. hi . Hos poor houling by cultural ... or hnmorous buffoon.'pan and would lead to increasing attacks un Asi:lI1 Amen- cans. / . dir""uoll "r "~Ir~"'" Sd. and in Broadway shows has cOll1e under increasi ng fire. with the result that false definitions become aCCllmte. '"'1I~'''' ' gmu!..can g roups in seve rn I cities picketed olllSide movie theaters shOWing Rismg SI/n. writing frolll the illleraclioniSl perspective .. Thomas ( 1923:41-44). bers to illustrate a 1991 article entitled ~ The Banl Robbery Boom~ ----even though the article stated that the modem hank robber is "' lIsually White. Shops 01 less attroctive stores witn higher prices J. A minorifJ'I. A person or g r