Exam Task

CN II & MMMCN
Omer Rajput

........................................................................................................3 3..................................................................2 3........................................... 4 Bottlenecks ...........................2 2......1........................ 11 Simulation Scenarios: ..........................2 3..........................................................1.............................. 6 With 1Mbps Link: ................................. 5 At Wireless medium: ....2.................................2 2.................................1 3............................. 5 At Access Point: ...................................... Applications ............................................................................................................1 3...................................................1 2................................................... 2..................................................................................2..............................Contents 1....................................... 6 With 5 Mbps link.................4 3................................................................................ 5 Conclusion ........................... 5 At the Router’s queue: ... 4 File transfer ... 3 Network Description:..................................................................................................................................................................1................................................. 4 Wireless Stations ................................................ 4 Internet ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................1....... 4 Components .......2 2.................................1 2............ 3 2......................................................1 2.................................. 5 At the ISP Router’s queue:.......................1.........................2.......2.............................................................................................................1 3.......2 4................2.......... 3 Web browsing ........................................ 5 Proposed network ....1.........3 2....................................... Introduction: .... 3 VoIP .3 2..................................... 4 Router ......... 4 Access Point ....................................... 3.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 ...........2.................................................................1............4 3..........................................................

we try to describe the applications and components used in the network. . • Maximum acceptable end-to-end delay is 250ms. • On average only one user is doing a VoIP call at any given time and the user who is using VoIP service will not use the web application at the same time. 2. The task is to estimate the number of users which the network can handle. Introduction: Figure 1 Network Topology In the company.1. • Acceptable loss rate is 10%.The report evaluates the performance of a company’s wireless network. which in turn is connected to the Internet using an ISP connection of 1Mbps or 5Mbps. file transfer (FTP) and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). there is variable number of wireless stations connected to the wireless access point through 11Mbps WLAN link. The applications used by the employees include Web browsing (HTTP). • VoIP codec uses a data rate of 50 packets per second. The access point is connected to a router via Fast Ethernet (100Mbps) link.1 Applications In this section. 1. 2. while supporting given quality of service (QoS) requirements of VoIP traffic. which is based on IEEE802.11b as shown in the Figure 1. Network Description: 2.1 VoIP Details of the VoIP application and the QoS requirements are as follows: • VoIP application uses Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP) over Internet Protocol (IPv4).

but in our network this is not a performance defining task.2 Web browsing Details of the expected web traffic: • There are varying number users browsing the web.11b (11Mbps). These two actions in the queue will really have an influence on the performance of our network. which drops the new incoming packets whenever the queue is full and also introduces some delay to process and forward the packet.2 Access Point 2.3 File transfer On average only one user is uploading a very large file using FTP. • HTTP Server is node providing the responses to the requests sent by variable number of users.3 Router Since. But. It provides the functionality for acquiring channel based on CSMA/CA. • FTP Server is node to which FTP client (employee) is uploading a very large file. To decrease the number of packets dropped at the queue. it provides the functionality for acquiring channel using CSMA/CA to the incoming packets from the router. The user who is uploading the file will not use the web application at the same time. then it will cause higher queuing delays. as there is only route possible each in uplink and downlink direction. This will have a major impact whenever there is a significant difference in data rates of incoming and outgoing links. the queue buffer size should be increased.2. The link between ISP Router and these nodes is assigned the data rate of 45Mbps. users waits an exponentially distributed time (reading time). 2. 2. to which one of th company’s employee is involved in a VoIP call.2. which is based on IEEE802. is to queue the packets. 2. that really will determine the performance of our network especially the QoS requirements of the VoIP. 2.2. In case of downlink. which is a realistic value corresponding to data rate of T3 lines. it is a 3rd layer device.1 Wireless Stations 2.1. which is based on TCP. Therefore.2 Components Wireless Stations represent the users in the company’s network using the above described applications. .4 Internet The Internet cloud is replaced by: • VoIP Client representing a node sitting across the Internet. • Each user requests a webpage (HTTP Response) of an exponentially distributed size.2. all the devices with PPP interfaces will use DropTailQueue. The Wireless Access Point is the 2nd layer device.2. before sending another request.1. if it is increased too much. it forwards the IP packets to appropriate routes. In our OMNET++ implementation. • After the reception of the requested page. Another task of router. it will be important to choose an appropriate buffer size in the queue.

The 11Mbps link results in a net rate of about only 5. In uplink.1. in uplink direction the router forwards the packets from the Ethernet (100Mbps) to 1/5Mbps.1 Bottlenecks In case of Uplink. This is important since the data rate also decides whether a given link becomes a bottleneck. . 3.4 At Wireless medium: The mechanisms and overhead involved in the CSMA/CA reduce the effective data rate coming out of that section. Simulation Scenarios: This section describes the impact of different network parameters on the performance of the network. the uplink and downlink transfers have to arbitrate for data transfer across the channel. which can be a cause of bottleneck whenever there is a difference in incoming and outgoing data rates.1. In downlink. so the queue in this direction doesn’t behave as a bottleneck. so the queue here behaves as a bottleneck.1 At Access Point: 3. There will be no bottleneck since Fast Ethernet is a Full-Duplex link and AP can forward the packets at 100Mbps. But. multiple users are trying to communicate to a single access point over the common channel.2 At the Router’s queue: As noted earlier. owing to collisions and subsequent delays. we would like to notify potential bottlenecks in our network.9Mbps for TCP. as only one user will be transmitting at a time. Some of the network parameters in this regard are as follows: • • Number of wireless users Size of the Queues at the router Before we describe the simulation results of the scenarios. the router forwards the packets from 1/5Mbps Link to the Ethernet (100Mbps). 3.3 At the ISP Router’s queue: In uplink direction the router forwards the packets from the 1/5Mbps link to 45Mbps (T1 3rd level link) so the queue in this direction doesn’t behave as a bottleneck. since the access point has to wait to obtain access to the same channel to forward packets back to the hosts. Hence. There is delay involved along the downlink as well. But in the downlink. the access point just forwards packets to the Router whenever it receives them.1.1. there will be some losses when the AP is not able to acquire the channel.9Mbps (degraded from 11Mbps due to CSMA). each interface of the router will have queue. the ISP router forwards the packets from 45Mbps (T3 link) to the Ethernet 1/5Mbps causing a bottleneck. all users do not get access simultaneously and this leads to delays and sometimes losses. In case of downlink. while it receives packets at a lower rate of 5. Also.3. 3. 3.

3.2. 3.2 Proposed network We ran the simulations for increasing number of HTTP users and tried to arrive at the maximum number of HTTP users that can be supported by the network while supporting to the QoS for VoIP application and having a parallel upload using FTP. So. Following four graphs display the Percentage Packet Loss and Average Delay of the VoIP packets for various queue sizes in the Uplink and Downlink direction.1 With 1Mbps Link: . we started to evaluate the network by changing the queue sizes at router. It was noted that using the default queue size of 100 packets in the router caused a very large packet loss rate even for small number of users.

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Actually. while the load at uplink includes one VoIP connection. causing FTP to go into congestion avoidance mode. we should consider the fact that the load at downlink only includes one VoIP connection. FTP ACK’s in downlink are suffered by the increased load in the downlink. HTTP connections and ACK’s for FTP. . As we increase the number of HTTP users. but in the uplink FTP tries to acquire most of the resources being a greedy protocol. For very low number HTTP users. To understand the different behavior of VoIP in uplink and downlink. there is increase VoIP losses due to increased load on the downlink. FTP connection and ACK’s for HTTP. The detailed analysis to estimate the number of users with 95% Confidence Interval is carried out with ‘Router’ queue size of 20.It is evident from the above four figures that for queue size greater than 30. but it also improves the situation in the uplink. therefore affecting the VoIP performance in uplink. thereby corresponding to a very small packet loss rate. there is virtually no load in the downlink. therefore providing better performance for VoIP in the uplink. the VoIP call is not possible for any number of HTTP users.

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The response time of the HTTP segment is also plotted for increasing number of users. 95% Confidence Interval Users VoIP Client 1 (wireless) VoIP Client 2 (across the Internet) Percentage Loss with CI 9. .032%) Average Delay with CI 98. which provides the reliablitiy of the obtained results.96% (CI: 0.89 ms) 102.2.3%) 0.14 ms) 3.1 ms (1. It is noted in this case that Queue sizes do not have much of an impact in the simulation results for this scenario. Following figures summarize the simulation results for 5Mbps case.9 ms (1.2 With 5 Mbps link We followed a similar approach for the 5 Mbps link and first tried to narrow down on the number of HTTP users that the network could support while still adhering to the QoS for VoIP application and having a parallel upload using FTP.39% (CI: 0. The figures also include the 95% confidence interval. the default queue size of 100 is used for the router.Above results show that we can use 12 HTTP users with given QoS requirements of VoIP and one FTP upload. So.

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2.5 ms) 40.omnetpp.6 ms) 4.com . The reliability of the results can be shown by the confidence intervals. Analysis of Bottle necks o In section 3.1 ms (0. But.wikipedia. Confidence level 95% Users VoIP Client 1 (wireless) VoIP Client 2 (across the Internet) Percentage Loss with CI 7. Conclusion • Number of HTTP users while a parallel FTP is taking place and QoS of VoIP are still met o 12 HTTP users for the case of 1Mbps data rate o 35 HTTP users for the case of 5Mbps data rate The average delays and loss rates for VoIP users depending on the number of users o As the number of HTTP users increase. for higher number of users up to 35 users. which included the wireless medium access and the queue buffers at the link between router and ISPRouter.2. Suggestions to improve the performance o As discussed in section 2.org/documentation [3] INET Framework Documentation http://inet.04%) Average Delay with CI 49. • • • • Bibliography [1] http://en.The above results show that 35 HTTP users can be supported by the network with given QoS requirements of VoIP and one FTP upload. the VoIP user at the client side will experience increasing delay and loss rates. It is recommended to choose a lower router’s buffer size for 1Mbps connection.1.mathworks. it will advisable to go for 5Mbps connection.3% (CI: 0.HomePage [4] MATLAB http://www.23%) 1.72% (CI: 0. we provided the details of the potential bottlenecks present in the network.org/wiki/T-carrier [2] Omnet++ User Manual http://www.2 ms (0. the appropriate buffer plays a vital role in the performance. The detailed results have been presented in the simulation results section above.3 and 3. Analysis and suggestions regarding the nature of internet connection required o Our proposed network with appropriate queue size will provide good QoS with 1Mbps connection up to 12 HTTP users.org/index.omnetpp.php?n=Main.

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