By Lokesh Patil 11th October, 2011 Human Physiology

Increase or decrease in perception of pain Various factors responsible: -Age -Gender -Extent of injury -Emotional state -Mental state

Contact with stimulus

Reception

Transmission

Pain Center reception
Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig. "How Pain Works" 09 November 2007. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/humanbiology/pain.htm> 11 October 2011.

-Originate in somatosensory cortex and hypothalamus
-These pathways synapse on ascending pathways in medulla and inhibit ascending signals

Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig. "How Pain Works" 09 November 2007. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/humanbiology/pain.htm> 11 October 2011.

Limitation -Cannot explain several chronic pain problems

Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig. "How Pain Works" 09 November 2007. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/humanbiology/pain.htm> 11 October 2011.

Opioids - Strong pain relieving effect - act centrally - efficient against malignant pain Mechanism - bind with opiate receptors Limitations:-drug tolerancce -diversion -addiction -interfere with mental activity -ineffective for nerve injury pain

Non-opioids -for mild to moderate pain -act peripherally -e.g. NSAIDS like aspirin, ibuprofen Mechanism -Works by adhering to cyclooxygenase(COX) Limitations - have a ceiling - gastric ulcers

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Acupuncture Radiofrequency nerve ablation Intrathecal pump Spinal cord stimulator Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TENS)

Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig. "How Pain Works" 09 November 2007. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/hum an-biology/pain.htm> 11 October 2011. http://www.pnas.org/content/98/21/11845.full

http://www.arachnoiditis.info/website_captures/chronicpainh andbook/Pain%20Medications.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pain_management

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