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Network Plus 2005

Network Plus 2005

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The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations, despite the presence
of hardware or software failures, is called fault tolerance. This usually involves some
degree of redundancy, and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this
level.

Chapter 10 – Network Security

Specialized Solutions, Inc. 235

s)

NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of

a

Disk Mirroring (RAID 1)

Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk. The

nt

a
Ware,

opy of the data

is spread across all of the disks based on a mathematical formula such that any one disk
that it

The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disk
specifications:

RAID 0 - Non-redundant striped array (disk striping)

RAID 1 - Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring)

RAID 2 - Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC)

RAID 3 - Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity)

RAID 4 - Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks)

RAID 5 - Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity)

Inexpensive Disks.”

Disk Striping (RAID 0)

The segmentation of logically sequential data, such as a single file, so that segments can
be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is
called disk striping. If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than
single disk can keep up, this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful.
However, if anything happens to one of the drives, the data in the stripe set is lost and
cannot be retrieved. (Provides no fault tolerance.)

same data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the eve
of a device failure. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware, and is
standard feature of RAID systems. Several operating systems, including Novell Net
support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing.

Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5)

The most common of RAID strategies, this one uses the parity method of ensuring that
the data stored is really the same data that was sent. With this method, a c

in the set can be lost and the other disks will have a copy of all of the information
contained. If more than one disk is lost, then the data in the entire array is also lost.
Typically, administrators are alerted when one disk fails so that they can “regenerate” the
RAID set before another disk has a chance to fail.

RAID 6 and Beyond

RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme, which provides for even
more fault tolerance. This, however, is not being used commercially at the moment to an

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

Specialized Solutions, Inc.

236

-
ID-

-3

mmonly used and are not as likely to be on the test.

(generally by using SCSI). A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. A
ts together into one storage system. A RAID

N traditionally have been used for

Network-Attached Storage

ted
ject to all the positives and negatives of that
hed to a LAN. It functions faster, since
ter. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for

processing I/O requests.

otect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. There
are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. In
more expensive ones. The equipment described

able:

ent of
s,

to

large degree. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a stand
alone computer. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RA
1 array), which allows for better performance. Cost, as you might guess, is an issue.
RAID-53. is like RAID-10, but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID
array of disks. Like RAID-10, it offers better performance, but at a greater cost. These
types of RAID are not as co

Storage Area Network (SAN)

A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices

centralized SAN generally ties many hos
system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. A decentralized SAN
connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. SA
the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. SANs are channel
attached whereas NASs are network attached.

Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN, but it is trea
just like any node on the network and is sub
identity. It is assigned an IP address and it is attac
it is not dependent on another compu

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